Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, Vrt||ICC, IF, PIA, WB, ChIP-seq, DB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit IgG in buffer containing 0.1M Tris-Glycine, 0.15M NaCl, 0.05 Sodium Azide, pH 7.4.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2 to 8°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||200 µg|
Anti-monomethyl-Histone H3 (Lys4) Antibody SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|A comprehensive epigenome map of Plasmodium falciparum reveals unique mechanisms of transcriptional regulation and identifies H3K36me2 as a global mark of gene suppression.|
Karmodiya, K; Pradhan, SJ; Joshi, B; Jangid, R; Reddy, PC; Galande, S
Epigenetics & chromatin 8 32 2015
Role of epigenetic mechanisms towards regulation of the complex life cycle/pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria, has been poorly understood. To elucidate stage-specific epigenetic regulation, we performed genome-wide mapping of multiple histone modifications of P. falciparum. Further to understand the differences in transcription regulation in P. falciparum and its host, human, we compared their histone modification profiles.Our comprehensive comparative analysis suggests distinct mode of transcriptional regulation in malaria parasite by virtue of poised genes and differential histone modifications. Furthermore, analysis of histone modification profiles predicted 562 genes producing anti-sense RNAs and 335 genes having bidirectional promoter activity, which raises the intriguing possibility of RNA-mediated regulation of transcription in P. falciparum. Interestingly, we found that H3K36me2 acts as a global repressive mark and gene regulation is fine tuned by the ratio of activation marks to H3K36me2 in P. falciparum. This novel mechanism of gene regulation is supported by the fact that knockout of SET genes (responsible for H3K36 methylation) leads to up-regulation of genes with highest occupancy of H3K36me2 in wild-type P. falciparum. Moreover, virulence (var) genes are mostly poised and marked by a unique set of activation (H4ac) and repression (H3K9me3) marks, which are mutually exclusive to other Plasmodium housekeeping genes.Our study reveals unique plasticity in the epigenetic regulation in P. falciparum which can influence parasite virulence and pathogenicity. The observed differences in the histone code and transcriptional regulation in P. falciparum and its host will open new avenues for epigenetic drug development against malaria parasite.
|Intracellular α-ketoglutarate maintains the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells.|
Carey, BW; Finley, LW; Cross, JR; Allis, CD; Thompson, CB
Nature 518 413-6 2015
The role of cellular metabolism in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation remains poorly understood. For example, most mammalian cells cannot proliferate without exogenous glutamine supplementation even though glutamine is a non-essential amino acid. Here we show that mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells grown under conditions that maintain naive pluripotency are capable of proliferation in the absence of exogenous glutamine. Despite this, ES cells consume high levels of exogenous glutamine when the metabolite is available. In comparison to more differentiated cells, naive ES cells utilize both glucose and glutamine catabolism to maintain a high level of intracellular α-ketoglutarate (αKG). Consequently, naive ES cells exhibit an elevated αKG to succinate ratio that promotes histone/DNA demethylation and maintains pluripotency. Direct manipulation of the intracellular αKG/succinate ratio is sufficient to regulate multiple chromatin modifications, including H3K27me3 and ten-eleven translocation (Tet)-dependent DNA demethylation, which contribute to the regulation of pluripotency-associated gene expression. In vitro, supplementation with cell-permeable αKG directly supports ES-cell self-renewal while cell-permeable succinate promotes differentiation. This work reveals that intracellular αKG/succinate levels can contribute to the maintenance of cellular identity and have a mechanistic role in the transcriptional and epigenetic state of stem cells.
|ROW1 maintains quiescent centre identity by confining WOX5 expression to specific cells.|
Zhang, Y; Jiao, Y; Liu, Z; Zhu, YX
Nature communications 6 6003 2015
The quiescent centre (QC) in the Arabidopsis root apical meristem is essential for stem cell organization. Here we show that the loss of REPRESSOR OF WUSCHEL1 (ROW1), a PHD domain-containing protein, leads to QC failure, defects in cell differentiation and ectopic expression of WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 5 (WOX5) in cells that normally express ROW1. The wox5-1/row1-3 double mutants show similar phenotypes to wox5-1 indicating that WOX5 is epistatic to ROW1. ROW1 specifically binds trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) in the WOX5 promoter region to repress its transcription. QC expression of ROW1 results in a wox5-1-like phenotype with undetectable WOX5 transcripts. We propose that ROW1 is essential for QC maintenance and for stem cell niche development through the repression of WOX5 in the proximal meristem.
|Integrative genomic analysis reveals widespread enhancer regulation by p53 in response to DNA damage.|
Younger, ST; Kenzelmann-Broz, D; Jung, H; Attardi, LD; Rinn, JL
Nucleic acids research 43 4447-62 2015
The tumor suppressor p53 has been studied extensively as a direct transcriptional activator of protein-coding genes. Recent studies, however, have shed light on novel regulatory functions of p53 within noncoding regions of the genome. Here, we use a systematic approach that integrates transcriptome-wide expression analysis, genome-wide p53 binding profiles and chromatin state maps to characterize the global regulatory roles of p53 in response to DNA damage. Notably, our approach identified conserved features of the p53 network in both human and mouse primary fibroblast models. In addition to known p53 targets, we identify many previously unappreciated mRNAs and long noncoding RNAs that are regulated by p53. Moreover, we find that p53 binding occurs predominantly within enhancers in both human and mouse model systems. The ability to modulate enhancer activity offers an additional layer of complexity to the p53 network and greatly expands the diversity of genomic elements directly regulated by p53.
|Embryonic MicroRNA-369 Controls Metabolic Splicing Factors and Urges Cellular Reprograming.|
Konno, M; Koseki, J; Kawamoto, K; Nishida, N; Matsui, H; Dewi, DL; Ozaki, M; Noguchi, Y; Mimori, K; Gotoh, N; Tanuma, N; Shima, H; Doki, Y; Mori, M; Ishii, H
PloS one 10 e0132789 2015
Noncoding microRNAs inhibit translation and lower the transcript stability of coding mRNA, however miR-369 s, in aberrant silencing genomic regions, stabilizes target proteins under cellular stress. We found that in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells led to chromatin methylation of histone H3K4 at the miR-369 region on chromosome 12qF in mice, which is expressed in embryonic cells and is critical for pluripotency. Proteomic analyses revealed that miR-369 stabilized translation of pyruvate kinase (Pkm2) splicing factors such as HNRNPA2B1. Overexpression of miR-369 stimulated Pkm2 splicing and enhanced induction of cellular reprogramming by induced pluripotent stem cell factors, whereas miR-369 knockdown resulted in suppression. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the Argonaute complex contained the fragile X mental retardation-related protein 1 and HNRNPA2B1 in a miR-369-depedent manner. Our findings demonstrate a unique role of the embryonic miR-369-HNRNPA2B1 axis in controlling metabolic enzyme function, and suggest a novel pathway linking epigenetic, transcriptional, and metabolic control in cell reprogramming.
|Analysis of Histones H3 and H4 Reveals Novel and Conserved Post-Translational Modifications in Sugarcane.|
Moraes, I; Yuan, ZF; Liu, S; Souza, GM; Garcia, BA; Casas-Mollano, JA
PloS one 10 e0134586 2015
Histones are the main structural components of the nucleosome, hence targets of many regulatory proteins that mediate processes involving changes in chromatin. The functional outcome of many pathways is "written" in the histones in the form of post-translational modifications that determine the final gene expression readout. As a result, modifications, alone or in combination, are important determinants of chromatin states. Histone modifications are accomplished by the addition of different chemical groups such as methyl, acetyl and phosphate. Thus, identifying and characterizing these modifications and the proteins related to them is the initial step to understanding the mechanisms of gene regulation and in the future may even provide tools for breeding programs. Several studies over the past years have contributed to increase our knowledge of epigenetic gene regulation in model organisms like Arabidopsis, yet this field remains relatively unexplored in crops. In this study we identified and initially characterized histones H3 and H4 in the monocot crop sugarcane. We discovered a number of histone genes by searching the sugarcane ESTs database. The proteins encoded correspond to canonical histones, and their variants. We also purified bulk histones and used them to map post-translational modifications in the histones H3 and H4 using mass spectrometry. Several modifications conserved in other plants, and also novel modified residues, were identified. In particular, we report O-acetylation of serine, threonine and tyrosine, a recently identified modification conserved in several eukaryotes. Additionally, the sub-nuclear localization of some well-studied modifications (i.e., H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K27me3, H3K9ac, H3T3ph) is described and compared to other plant species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of histones H3 and H4 as well as their post-translational modifications in sugarcane, and will provide a starting point for the study of chromatin regulation in this crop.
|Feedback control of Set1 protein levels is important for proper H3K4 methylation patterns.|
Soares, LM; Radman-Livaja, M; Lin, SG; Rando, OJ; Buratowski, S
Cell reports 6 961-72 2014
Methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 by the Set1 subunit of COMPASS correlates with active transcription. Here, we show that Set1 levels are regulated by protein degradation in response to multiple signals. Set1 levels are greatly reduced when COMPASS recruitment to genes, H3K4 methylation, or transcription is blocked. The degradation sequences map to N-terminal regions that overlap a previously identified autoinhibitory domain, as well as the catalytic domain. Truncation mutants of Set1 that cause under- or overexpression produce abnormal H3K4 methylation patterns on transcribed genes. Surprisingly, SAGA-dependent genes are more strongly affected than TFIID-dependent genes, reflecting differences in their chromatin dynamics. We propose that careful tuning of Set1 levels by regulated degradation is critical for the establishment and maintenance of proper H3K4 methylation patterns.
|Transcriptional repression is epigenetically marked by H3K9 methylation during SV40 replication.|
Kallestad, L; Christensen, K; Woods, E; Milavetz, B
Clinical epigenetics 6 21 2014
We have recently shown that T-antigen binding to Site I results in the replication-dependent introduction of H3K9me1 into SV40 chromatin late in infection. Since H3K9me2 and H3K9me3 are also present late in infection, we determined whether their presence was also related to the status of ongoing transcription and replication. Transcription was either inhibited with 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidizole (DRB) or stimulated with sodium butyrate and the effects on histone modifications early and late in infection determined. The role of DNA replication was determined by concomitant inhibition of replication with aphidicolin.We observed that H3K9me2/me3 was specifically introduced when transcription was inhibited during active replication. The introduction of H3K9me2/me3 that occurred when transcription was inhibited was partially blocked when replication was also inhibited. The introduction of H3K9me2/me3 did not require the presence of H3K9me1 since similar results were obtained with the mutant cs1085 whose chromatin contains very little H3K9me1.Our data suggest that methylation of H3K9 can occur either as a consequence of a specific repressive event such as T-antigen binding to Site I or as a result of a general repression of transcription in the presence of active replication. The results suggest that the nonproductive generation of transcription complexes as occurs following DRB treatment may be recognized by a 'proof reading' mechanism, which leads to the specific introduction of H3K9me2 and H3K9me3.
|The rice enhancer of zeste [E(z)] genes SDG711 and SDG718 are respectively involved in long day and short day signaling to mediate the accurate photoperiod control of flowering time.|
Liu, X; Zhou, C; Zhao, Y; Zhou, S; Wang, W; Zhou, DX
Frontiers in plant science 5 591 2014
Recent advances in rice flowering studies have shown that the accurate control of flowering by photoperiod is regulated by key mechanisms that involve the regulation of flowering genes including Heading date1 (Hd1), Early hd1 (Ehd1), Hd3a, and RFT1. The chromatin mechanism involved in the regulation of rice flowering genes is presently not well known. Here we show that the rice enhancer of zeste [E(z)] genes SDG711 and SDG718, which encode the polycomb repressive complex2 (PRC2) key subunit that is required for trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), are respectively, involved in long day (LD) and short day (SD) regulation of key flowering genes. The expression of SDG711 and SDG718 is induced by LD and SD, respectively. Over-expression and down-regulation of SDG711 respectively, repressed and promoted flowering in LD, but had no effect in SD. By contrast, down-regulation of SDG718 had no effect in LD but delayed flowering in SD. SDG711 and SDG718 repressed OsLF (a repressor of Hd1) respectively in LD and SD, leading to a higher expression of Hd1 thus late flowering in LD and early flowering in SD. SDG711 was also found to be involved in the repression of Ehd1 in LD. SDG711 was shown to directly target to OsLF and Ehd1 loci to mediate H3K27me3 and gene repression. The function of the rice E(z) genes in LD repression and SD promotion of flowering suggests that PRC2-mediated epigenetic repression of gene expression is involved in the accurate photoperiod control of rice flowering.
|Epigenetic modifications are associated with inter-species gene expression variation in primates.|
Zhou, X; Cain, CE; Myrthil, M; Lewellen, N; Michelini, K; Davenport, ER; Stephens, M; Pritchard, JK; Gilad, Y
Genome biology 15 547 2014
Changes in gene regulation have long been thought to play an important role in evolution and speciation, especially in primates. Over the past decade, comparative genomic studies have revealed extensive inter-species differences in gene expression levels, yet we know much less about the extent to which regulatory mechanisms differ between species.To begin addressing this gap, we perform a comparative epigenetic study in primate lymphoblastoid cell lines, to query the contribution of RNA polymerase II and four histone modifications, H3K4me1, H3K4me3, H3K27ac, and H3K27me3, to inter-species variation in gene expression levels. We find that inter-species differences in mark enrichment near transcription start sites are significantly more often associated with inter-species differences in the corresponding gene expression level than expected by chance alone. Interestingly, we also find that first-order interactions among the five marks, as well as chromatin states, do not markedly contribute to the degree of association between the marks and inter-species variation in gene expression levels, suggesting that the marginal effects of the five marks dominate this contribution.Our observations suggest that epigenetic modifications are substantially associated with changes in gene expression levels among primates and may represent important molecular mechanisms in primate evolution.