Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, Vrt||WB, PIA, Mplex, ChIP||Rb||Culture Supernatant||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Cultured supernantant in 0.05% sodium azide|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Deep sequencing reveals new aspects of progesterone receptor signaling in breast cancer cells.|
Kougioumtzi, A; Tsaparas, P; Magklara, A
PloS one 9 e98404 2014
Despite the pleiotropic effects of the progesterone receptor in breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms in play remain largely unknown. To gain a global view of the PR-orchestrated networks, we used next-generation sequencing to determine the progestin-regulated transcriptome in T47D breast cancer cells. We identify a large number of PR target genes involved in critical cellular programs, such as regulation of transcription, apoptosis, cell motion and angiogenesis. Integration of the transcriptomic data with the PR-binding profiling of hormonally treated cells identifies numerous components of the small-GTPases signaling pathways as direct PR targets. Progestin-induced deregulation of the small GTPases may contribute to the PR's role in mammary tumorigenesis. Transcript expression analysis reveals significant expression changes of specific transcript variants in response to the extracellular hormonal stimulus. Using the NET1 gene as an example, we show that the PR can dictate alternative promoter usage leading to the upregulation of an isoform that may play a role in metastatic breast cancer. Future studies should aim to characterize these selectively regulated variants and evaluate their clinical utility in prognosis and targeted therapy of hormonally responsive breast tumors.
|Deletion of a conserved cis-element in the Ifng locus highlights the role of acute histone acetylation in modulating inducible gene transcription.|
Balasubramani, A; Winstead, CJ; Turner, H; Janowski, KM; Harbour, SN; Shibata, Y; Crawford, GE; Hatton, RD; Weaver, CT
PLoS genetics 10 e1003969 2014
Differentiation-dependent regulation of the Ifng cytokine gene locus in T helper (Th) cells has emerged as an excellent model for functional study of distal elements that control lineage-specific gene expression. We previously identified a cis-regulatory element located 22 kb upstream of the Ifng gene (Conserved Non-coding Sequence -22, or CNS-22) that is a site for recruitment of the transcription factors T-bet, Runx3, NF-κB and STAT4, which act to regulate transcription of the Ifng gene in Th1 cells. Here, we report the generation of mice with a conditional deletion of CNS-22 that has enabled us to define the epigenetic and functional consequences of its absence. Deletion of CNS-22 led to a defect in induction of Ifng by the cytokines IL-12 and IL-18, with a more modest effect on induction via T-cell receptor activation. To better understand how CNS-22 and other Ifng CNSs regulated Ifng transcription in response to these distinct stimuli, we examined activation-dependent changes in epigenetic modifications across the extended Ifng locus in CNS-22-deficient T cells. We demonstrate that in response to both cytokine and TCR driven activation signals, CNS-22 and other Ifng CNSs recruit increased activity of histone acetyl transferases (HATs) that transiently enhance levels of histones H3 and H4 acetylation across the extended Ifng locus. We also demonstrate that activation-responsive increases in histone acetylation levels are directly linked to the ability of Ifng CNSs to acutely enhance Pol II recruitment to the Ifng promoter. Finally, we show that impairment in IL-12+IL-18 dependent induction of Ifng stems from the importance of CNS-22 in coordinating locus-wide levels of histone acetylation in response to these cytokines. These findings identify a role for acute histone acetylation in the enhancer function of distal conserved cis-elements that regulate of Ifng gene expression.
|The development of IL-17/IFN-γ-double producing CTLs from Tc17 cells is driven by epigenetic suppression of Socs3 gene promoter.|
Takayuki Satoh,Masaki Tajima,Daiko Wakita,Hidemitsu Kitamura,Takashi Nishimura
European journal of immunology 42 2012
The plasticity of T lymphocytes induced by epigenetic modifications of gene promoters may play a pivotal role in controlling their effector functions, which are sometimes causally associated with immune disorders. IL -17-producing T cells, which induce type 17 immune responses, are newly identified pathogenic effector cells. The type 1 signature cytokine IFN-γ strongly inhibits their differentiation, indicating a mutually exclusive relationship between type 17- and type 1-immune responses. However, many reports indicate the presence of a unique IL-17/IFN-γ-double producing T-cell subset in various inflammatory settings, although the mechanisms responsible for their development and their precise functions remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that IL-12 permits the conversion of mouse IL-17-producing CD8(+) T (Tc17) cells to IL-17/IFN-γ-double producing CD8(+) T (Tc17/IFN-γ) cells, and that this conversion is due to repressive epigenetic modifications of Socs3 gene promoters. Moreover, we show that SOCS3 strongly regulates the capability of Tc17 cells to produce IL-17, in addition to regulating the expression of the type 17-master regulator RORγt. These findings elucidate the mechanisms underlying the conversion of Tc17 cells into Tc17/IFN-γ cells. As these cells are known to have potent antitumor activities, manipulation of these conversion mechanisms for therapeutic tumor immunity may be possible.
|Quantitative analysis of the chromatin proteome in disease reveals remodeling principles and identifies high mobility group protein B2 as a regulator of hypertrophic growth.|
Franklin, S; Chen, H; Mitchell-Jordan, S; Ren, S; Wang, Y; Vondriska, TM
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 11 M111.014258 2012
A fundamental question in biology is how genome-wide changes in gene expression are enacted in response to a finite stimulus. Recent studies have mapped changes in nucleosome localization, determined the binding preferences for individual transcription factors, and shown that the genome adopts a nonrandom structure in vivo. What remains unclear is how global changes in the proteins bound to DNA alter chromatin structure and gene expression. We have addressed this question in the mouse heart, a system in which global gene expression and massive phenotypic changes occur without cardiac cell division, making the mechanisms of chromatin remodeling centrally important. To determine factors controlling genomic plasticity, we used mass spectrometry to measure chromatin-associated proteins. We have characterized the abundance of 305 chromatin-associated proteins in normal cells and measured changes in 108 proteins that accompany the progression of heart disease. These studies were conducted on a high mass accuracy instrument and confirmed in multiple biological replicates, facilitating statistical analysis and allowing us to interrogate the data bioinformatically for modules of proteins involved in similar processes. Our studies reveal general principles for global shifts in chromatin accessibility: altered linker to core histone ratio; differing abundance of chromatin structural proteins; and reprogrammed histone post-translational modifications. Using small interfering RNA-mediated loss-of-function in isolated cells, we demonstrate that the non-histone chromatin structural protein HMGB2 (but not HMGB1) suppresses pathologic cell growth in vivo and controls a gene expression program responsible for hypertrophic cell growth. Our findings reveal the basis for alterations in chromatin structure necessary for genome-wide changes in gene expression. These studies have fundamental implications for understanding how global chromatin remodeling occurs with specificity and accuracy, demonstrating that isoform-specific alterations in chromatin structural proteins can impart these features.
|Progressive histone alterations and proinflammatory gene activation: consequences of heme protein/iron-mediated proximal tubule injury.|
Zager RA, Johnson AC
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 298 F827-37. Epub 2009 Dec 23. 2010
Rhabdomyolysis (Fe)-induced acute renal failure (ARF) causes renal inflammation, and, with repetitive insults, progressive renal failure can result. To gain insights into these phenomena, we assessed the impact of a single episode of glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis on proinflammatory/profibrotic [TNF-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)] gene expression and the time course of these changes. CD-1 mice were studied 1-7 days after glycerol injection. Normal mice served as controls. RNA polymerase II (Pol II) binding to the TNF-alpha, MCP-1, and TGF-beta1 genes, "gene-activating" histone modifications [histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) trimethylation (H3K4m3) and histone 2 variant H2A.Z], and cognate mRNA levels were assessed. Results were contrasted to changes in anti-inflammatory heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Glycerol produced severe ARF (blood urea nitrogen approximately 150-180 mg/dl) followed by marked improvement by day 7 (blood urea nitrogen approximately 40 mg/dl). Early increases in TNF-alpha, MCP-1, and TGF-beta1 mRNAs, Pol II gene binding, and H3K4m3/H2A.Z levels were observed. These progressed with time, despite resolution of azotemia. Comparable early HO-1 changes were observed. However, HO-1 mRNA normalized by day 7, and progressive Pol II binding/histone alterations did not occur. Fe-mediated injury to cultured proximal tubule (HK-2) cells recapitulated these in vivo results. Hence, this in vitro model was used for mechanistic assessments. On the basis of these studies, it was determined that 1) the H3K4m3/H2A.Z increases are early events (i.e., they precede mRNA increases), 2) subsequent mRNA elevations reflect transcription, not mRNA stabilization (actinomycin D assessments), and 3) increased transcription, per se, helps sustain elevated H2A.Z levels. We conclude that 1) Fe/glycerol-induced tubular injury causes sustained proinflammatory gene activation, 2) decreasing HO-1 expression, as reflected by mRNA levels, may facilitate this proinflammatory state, and 3) gene-activating histone modifications are early injury events and progressively increase at selected proinflammatory genes. Thus they may help sustain a proinflammatory state, despite resolving ARF.Full Text Article
|Modular utilization of distal cis-regulatory elements controls Ifng gene expression in T cells activated by distinct stimuli.|
Balasubramani, A; Shibata, Y; Crawford, GE; Baldwin, AS; Hatton, RD; Weaver, CT
Immunity 33 35-47 2010
Distal cis-regulatory elements play essential roles in the T lineage-specific expression of cytokine genes. We have mapped interactions of three trans-acting factors-NF-kappaB, STAT4, and T-bet-with cis elements in the Ifng locus. We find that RelA is critical for optimal Ifng expression and is differentially recruited to multiple elements contingent upon T cell receptor (TCR) or interleukin-12 (IL-12) plus IL-18 signaling. RelA recruitment to at least four elements is dependent on T-bet-dependent remodeling of the Ifng locus and corecruitment of STAT4. STAT4 and NF-kappaB therefore cooperate at multiple cis elements to enable NF-kappaB-dependent enhancement of Ifng expression. RelA recruitment to distal elements was similar in T helper 1 (Th1) and effector CD8(+) T (Tc1) cells, although T-bet was dispensable in CD8 effectors. These results support a model of Ifng regulation in which distal cis-regulatory elements differentially recruit key transcription factors in a modular fashion to initiate gene transcription induced by distinct activation signals.
|Histone H3K4 demethylases are essential in development and differentiation.|
Benevolenskaya, Elizaveta V
Biochem. Cell Biol., 85: 435-43 (2007) 2007
Lysine histone methylation is one of the most robust epigenetic marks and is essential for the regulation of multiple cellular processes. The methylation of Lys4 of histone H3 seems to be of particular significance. It is associated with active regions of the genome, and in Drosophila it is catalyzed by trithorax-group proteins that have become paradigms of developmental regulators at the level of chromatin. Like other histone methylation events, H3K4 methylation was considered irreversible until the identification of a large number of histone demethylases indicated that demethylation events play an important role in histone modification dynamics. However, the described demethylases had no strictly assigned biological functions and the identity of the histone demethylases that would contribute to the epigenetic changes specifying certain biological processes was unknown. Recently, several groups presented evidence that a family of 4 JmjC domain proteins results in the global changes of histone demethylation, and in elegant studies using model organisms, they demonstrated the importance of this family of histone demethylases in cell fate determination. All 4 proteins possess the demethylase activity specific to H3K4 and belong to the poorly described JARID1 protein family.
|Methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 is highly conserved and correlates with transcriptionally active nuclei in Tetrahymena.|
Strahl, B D, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 96: 14967-72 (1999) 1999
Studies into posttranslational modifications of histones, notably acetylation, have yielded important insights into the dynamic nature of chromatin structure and its fundamental role in gene expression. The roles of other covalent histone modifications remain poorly understood. To gain further insight into histone methylation, we investigated its occurrence and pattern of site utilization in Tetrahymena, yeast, and human HeLa cells. In Tetrahymena, transcriptionally active macronuclei, but not transcriptionally inert micronuclei, contain a robust histone methyltransferase activity that is highly selective for H3. Microsequence analyses of H3 from Tetrahymena, yeast, and HeLa cells indicate that lysine 4 is a highly conserved site of methylation, which to date, is the major site detected in Tetrahymena and yeast. These data document a nonrandom pattern of H3 methylation that does not overlap with known acetylation sites in this histone. In as much as H3 methylation at lysine 4 appears to be specific to macronuclei in Tetrahymena, we suggest that this modification pattern plays a facilitatory role in the transcription process in a manner that remains to be determined. Consistent with this possibility, H3 methylation in yeast occurs preferentially in a subpopulation of H3 that is preferentially acetylated.