Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Ch, H||WB, PIA||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-dimethyl-Histone H3 (Arg2) Antibody|
|Presentation||rabbit antiserum containing 0.05% sodium azide, before the addition of glycerol to 30%|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||200 µL|
|Anti-dimethyl-Histone H3 (Arg2) - 2441927||2441927|
|Anti-dimethyl-Histone H3 (Arg2) - 2278513||2278513|
|Anti-dimethyl-Histone H3 (Arg2) - 26955||26955|
|Anti-dimethyl-Histone H3 (Arg2) - DAM1531013||DAM1531013|
|Anti-dimethyl-Histone H3 (Arg2) - DAM1731499||DAM1731499|
|Anti-dimethyl-Histone H3 (Arg2) - DAM1776469||DAM1776469|
|Anti-dimethyl-Histone H3 (Arg2) -2694482||2694482|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|PADI4 acts as a coactivator of Tal1 by counteracting repressive histone arginine methylation. |
Kolodziej, S; Kuvardina, ON; Oellerich, T; Herglotz, J; Backert, I; Kohrs, N; Buscató, El; Wittmann, SK; Salinas-Riester, G; Bonig, H; Karas, M; Serve, H; Proschak, E; Lausen, J
Nature communications 5 3995 2014
The transcription factor Tal1 is a critical activator or repressor of gene expression in hematopoiesis and leukaemia. The mechanism by which Tal1 differentially influences transcription of distinct genes is not fully understood. Here we show that Tal1 interacts with the peptidylarginine deiminase IV (PADI4). We demonstrate that PADI4 can act as an epigenetic coactivator through influencing H3R2me2a. At the Tal1/PADI4 target gene IL6ST the repressive H3R2me2a mark triggered by PRMT6 is counteracted by PADI4, which augments the active H3K4me3 mark and thus increases IL6ST expression. In contrast, at the CTCF promoter PADI4 acts as a repressor. We propose that the influence of PADI4 on IL6ST transcription plays a role in the control of IL6ST expression during lineage differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. These results open the possibility to pharmacologically influence Tal1 in leukaemia.
|PELP1 oncogenic functions involve alternative splicing via PRMT6. |
Mann, M; Zou, Y; Chen, Y; Brann, D; Vadlamudi, R
Molecular oncology 8 389-400 2014
Proline-, glutamic acid-, and leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1) is a proto-oncogene that functions as coactivator of the estrogen receptor and is an independent prognostic predictor of shorter survival of breast cancer patients. The dysregulation of PELP1 in breast cancer has been implicated in oncogenesis, metastasis, and therapy resistance. Although several aspects of PELP1 have been studied, a complete list of PELP1 target genes remains unknown, and the molecular mechanisms of PELP1 mediated oncogenesis remain elusive. In this study, we have performed a whole genome analysis to profile the PELP1 transcriptome by RNA-sequencing and identified 318 genes as PELP1 regulated genes. Pathway analysis revealed that PELP1 modulates several pathways including the molecular mechanisms of cancer, estrogen signaling, and breast cancer progression. Interestingly, RNA-seq analysis also revealed that PELP1 regulates the expression of several genes involved in alternative splicing. Accordingly, the PELP1 regulated genome includes several uniquely spliced isoforms. Mechanistic studies show that PELP1 binds RNA with a preference to poly-C, co-localizes with the splicing factor SC35 at nuclear speckles, and participates in alternative splicing. Further, PELP1 interacts with the arginine methyltransferase PRMT6 and modifies PRMT6 functions. Inhibition of PRMT6 reduced PELP1-mediated estrogen receptor activation, cellular proliferation, and colony formation. PELP1 and PRMT6 are co-recruited to estrogen receptor target genes, PELP1 knockdown affects the enrichment of histone H3R2 di-methylation, and PELP1 and PRMT6 coordinate to regulate the alternative splicing of genes involved in cancer. Collectively, our data suggest that PELP1 oncogenic functions involve alternative splicing leading to the activation of unique pathways that support tumor progression and that the PELP1-PRMT6 axis may be a potential target for breast cancer therapy.
|The arginine methyltransferase PRMT6 regulates cell proliferation and senescence through transcriptional repression of tumor suppressor genes. |
Stein, C; Riedl, S; Rüthnick, D; Nötzold, RR; Bauer, UM
Nucleic acids research 40 9522-33 2012
The protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) is a coregulator of gene expression and executes its repressing as well as activating function by asymmetric dimethylation of histone H3 at R2 (H3 R2me2a). Given that elevated expression levels of PRMT6 have been reported in various cancer types, we explore here its role in cell proliferation and senescence. We find that knockdown of PRMT6 results in proliferation defects of transformed as well as non-transformed cells, causes G1-phase arrest and induces senescence. This phenotype is accompanied by transcriptional upregulation of important cell cycle regulators, most prominently the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor gene p21 (p21(CIP1/WAF1), CDKN1A) and p16 (p16(INK4A), CDKN2A). Chromatin immuno-precipitation analysis reveals that the p21 gene is a direct target of PRMT6 and the corresponding histone mark H3 R2me2a. Using a cell model of oncogene-induced senescence (OIS), in which p21 is an essential activator of the senescent phenotype, we show that PRMT6 expression declines upon induction of senescence and conversely p21 gene expression increases. Moreover, overexpression of PRMT6 leads to reduced levels of OIS. These findings indicate that the transcriptional repressor activity of PRMT6 facilitates cell proliferation and blocks senescence by regulation of tumor suppressor genes and that this might contribute to the oncogenic capacity of PRMT6.
|Systematic dissection of roles for chromatin regulators in a yeast stress response. |
Weiner, A; Chen, HV; Liu, CL; Rahat, A; Klien, A; Soares, L; Gudipati, M; Pfeffner, J; Regev, A; Buratowski, S; Pleiss, JA; Friedman, N; Rando, OJ
PLoS biology 10 e1001369 2012
Packaging of eukaryotic genomes into chromatin has wide-ranging effects on gene transcription. Curiously, it is commonly observed that deletion of a global chromatin regulator affects expression of only a limited subset of genes bound to or modified by the regulator in question. However, in many single-gene studies it has become clear that chromatin regulators often do not affect steady-state transcription, but instead are required for normal transcriptional reprogramming by environmental cues. We therefore have systematically investigated the effects of 83 histone mutants, and 119 gene deletion mutants, on induction/repression dynamics of 170 transcripts in response to diamide stress in yeast. Importantly, we find that chromatin regulators play far more pronounced roles during gene induction/repression than they do in steady-state expression. Furthermore, by jointly analyzing the substrates (histone mutants) and enzymes (chromatin modifier deletions) we identify specific interactions between histone modifications and their regulators. Combining these functional results with genome-wide mapping of several histone marks in the same time course, we systematically investigated the correspondence between histone modification occurrence and function. We followed up on one pathway, finding that Set1-dependent H3K4 methylation primarily acts as a gene repressor during multiple stresses, specifically at genes involved in ribosome biosynthesis. Set1-dependent repression of ribosomal genes occurs via distinct pathways for ribosomal protein genes and ribosomal biogenesis genes, which can be separated based on genetic requirements for repression and based on chromatin changes during gene repression. Together, our dynamic studies provide a rich resource for investigating chromatin regulation, and identify a significant role for the "activating" mark H3K4me3 in gene repression.
|Cell cycle regulation by the PRMT6 arginine methyltransferase through repression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. |
Kleinschmidt, MA; de Graaf, P; van Teeffelen, HA; Timmers, HT
PloS one 7 e41446 2012
PRMT6 belongs to the family of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase (PRMT) enzymes that catalyze the methylation of guanidino nitrogens of arginine residues. PRMT6 has been shown to modify the tail of histone H3, but the in vivo function of PRMT6 is largely unknown. Here, we show that PRMT6 regulates cell cycle progression. Knockdown of PRMT6 expression in the human osteosarcoma cell line U2OS results in an accumulation of cells at the G2 checkpoint. Loss of PRMT6 coincides with upregulation of p21 and p27, two members of the CIP/KIP family of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. Gene expression and promoter analysis show that p21 and p27 are direct targets of PRMT6, which involves methylation of arginine-2 of histone H3. Our findings imply arginine methylation of histones by PRMT6 in cell cycle regulation.
|Coordinated regulation of active and repressive histone methylations by a dual-specificity histone demethylase ceKDM7A from Caenorhabditis elegans. |
Lin, H; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Tian, F; Pu, P; Yu, Y; Mao, H; Yang, Y; Wang, P; Hu, L; Lin, Y; Liu, Y; Xu, Y; Chen, CD
Cell research 20 899-907 2010
H3K9me2 and H3K27me2 are important epigenetic marks associated with transcription repression, while H3K4me3 is associated with transcription activation. It has been shown that active and repressive histone methylations distribute in a mutually exclusive manner, but the underlying mechanism was poorly understood. Here we identified ceKDM7A, a PHD (plant homeodomain)- and JmjC domain-containing protein, as a histone demethylase specific for H3K9me2 and H3K27me2. We further demonstrated that the PHD domain of ceKDM7A bound H3K4me3 and H3K4me3 co-localized with ceKDM7A at the genome-wide level. Disruption of the PHD domain binding to H3K4me3 reduced the demethylase activity in vivo, and loss of ceKDM7A reduced the expression of its associated target genes. These results indicate that ceKDM7A is recruited to the promoter to demethylate H3K9me2 and H3K27me2 and activate gene expression through the binding of the PHD domain to H3K4me3. Thus, our study identifies a dual-specificity histone demethylase and provides novel insights into the regulation of histone methylation.
|The solution structure of the first PHD finger of autoimmune regulator in complex with non-modified histone H3 tail reveals the antagonistic role of H3R2 methylation. |
Francesca Chignola, Massimiliano Gaetani, Ana Rebane, Tõnis Org, Luca Mollica, Chiara Zucchelli, Andrea Spitaleri, Valeria Mannella, Pärt Peterson, Giovanna Musco, Francesca Chignola, Massimiliano Gaetani, Ana Rebane, Tõnis Org, Luca Mollica, Chiara Zucchelli, Andrea Spitaleri, Valeria Mannella, Pärt Peterson, Giovanna Musco, Francesca Chignola, Massimiliano Gaetani, Ana Rebane, Tõnis Org, Luca Mollica, Chiara Zucchelli, Andrea Spitaleri, Valeria Mannella, Pärt Peterson, Giovanna Musco
Nucleic acids research 37 2951-61 2009
Plant homeodomain (PHD) fingers are often present in chromatin-binding proteins and have been shown to bind histone H3 N-terminal tails. Mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein, which harbours two PHD fingers, cause a rare monogenic disease, autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). AIRE activates the expression of tissue-specific antigens by directly binding through its first PHD finger (AIRE-PHD1) to histone H3 tails non-methylated at K4 (H3K4me0). Here, we present the solution structure of AIRE-PHD1 in complex with H3K4me0 peptide and show that AIRE-PHD1 is a highly specialized non-modified histone H3 tail reader, as post-translational modifications of the first 10 histone H3 residues reduce binding affinity. In particular, H3R2 dimethylation abrogates AIRE-PHD1 binding in vitro and reduces the in vivo activation of AIRE target genes in HEK293 cells. The observed antagonism by R2 methylation on AIRE-PHD1 binding is unique among the H3K4me0 histone readers and represents the first case of epigenetic negative cross-talk between non-methylated H3K4 and methylated H3R2. Collectively, our results point to a very specific histone code responsible for non-modified H3 tail recognition by AIRE-PHD1 and describe at atomic level one crucial step in the molecular mechanism responsible for antigen expression in the thymus.Full Text Article
|PRMT6-mediated methylation of R2 in histone H3 antagonizes H3 K4 trimethylation. |
Hyllus, D; Stein, C; Schnabel, K; Schiltz, E; Imhof, A; Dou, Y; Hsieh, J; Bauer, UM
Genes & development 21 3369-80 2007
The arginine methyltransferase PRMT6 (protein arginine methyltransferase 6) has been shown recently to regulate DNA repair and gene expression. As arginine methylation of histones is an important mechanism in transcriptional regulation, we asked whether PRMT6 possesses activity toward histones. We show here that PRMT6 methylates histone H3 at R2 and histones H4/H2A at R3 in vitro. Overexpression and knockdown analysis identify PRMT6 as the major H3 R2 methyltransferase in vivo. We find that H3 R2 methylation inhibits H3 K4 trimethylation and recruitment of WDR5, a subunit of the MLL (mixed lineage leukemia) K4 methyltransferase complex, to histone H3 in vitro. Upon PRMT6 overexpression, transcription of Hox genes and Myc-dependent genes, both well-known targets of H3 K4 trimethylation, decreases. This transcriptional repression coincides with enhanced occurrence of H3 R2 methylation and PRMT6 as well as reduced levels of H3 K4 trimethylation and MLL1/WDR5 recruitment at the HoxA2 gene. Upon retinoic acid-induced transcriptional activation of HoxA2 in a cell model of neuronal differentiation, PRMT6 recruitment and H3 R2 methylation are diminished and H3 K4 trimethylation increases at the gene. Our findings identify PRMT6 as the mammalian methyltransferase for H3 R2 and establish the enzyme as a crucial negative regulator of H3 K4 trimethylation and transcriptional activation.Full Text Article