Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||WB||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Application||Detect dimethyl-Arginine with Anti-dimethyl-Arginine Antibody, asymmetric (ASYM24) (Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody), that has been shown to work in WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µL|
References | 21 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|LXR-Mediated ABCA1 Expression and Function Are Modulated by High Glucose and PRMT2. |
Hussein, MA; Shrestha, E; Ouimet, M; Barrett, TJ; Leone, S; Moore, KJ; Hérault, Y; Fisher, EA; Garabedian, MJ
PloS one 10 e0135218 2015
High cholesterol and diabetes are major risk factors for atherosclerosis. Regression of atherosclerosis is mediated in part by the Liver X Receptor (LXR) through the induction of genes involved in cholesterol transport and efflux. In the context of diabetes, regression of atherosclerosis is impaired. We proposed that changes in glucose levels modulate LXR-dependent gene expression. Using a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and primary bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) cultured in normal or diabetes relevant high glucose conditions we found that high glucose inhibits the LXR-dependent expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), but not ABCG1. To probe for this mechanism, we surveyed the expression of a host of chromatin-modifying enzymes and found that Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 2 (PRMT2) was reduced in high compared to normal glucose conditions. Importantly, ABCA1 expression and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux were reduced in Prmt2-/- compared to wild type BMDMs. Monocytes from diabetic mice also showed decreased expression of Prmt2 compared to non-diabetic counterparts. Thus, PRMT2 represents a glucose-sensitive factor that plays a role in LXR-mediated ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux and lends insight to the presence of increased atherosclerosis in diabetic patients.
|5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Plays a Critical Role in Glioblastomagenesis by Recruiting the CHTOP-Methylosome Complex. |
Takai, H; Masuda, K; Sato, T; Sakaguchi, Y; Suzuki, T; Suzuki, T; Koyama-Nasu, R; Nasu-Nishimura, Y; Katou, Y; Ogawa, H; Morishita, Y; Kozuka-Hata, H; Oyama, M; Todo, T; Ino, Y; Mukasa, A; Saito, N; Toyoshima, C; Shirahige, K; Akiyama, T
Cell reports 9 48-60 2014
The development of cancer is driven not only by genetic mutations but also by epigenetic alterations. Here, we show that TET1-mediated production of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is required for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that chromatin target of PRMT1 (CHTOP) binds to 5hmC. We found that CHTOP is associated with an arginine methyltransferase complex, termed the methylosome, and that this promotes the PRMT1-mediated methylation of arginine 3 of histone H4 (H4R3) in genes involved in glioblastomagenesis, including EGFR, AKT3, CDK6, CCND2, and BRAF. Moreover, we found that CHTOP and PRMT1 are essential for the expression of these genes and that CHTOP is required for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. These results suggest that 5hmC plays a critical role in glioblastomagenesis by recruiting the CHTOP-methylosome complex to selective sites on the chromosome, where it methylates H4R3 and activates the transcription of cancer-related genes.
|JMJD6 regulates ERα methylation on arginine. |
Poulard, C; Rambaud, J; Hussein, N; Corbo, L; Le Romancer, M
PloS one 9 e87982 2014
ERα functions are tightly controlled by numerous post-translational modifications including arginine methylation, which is required to mediate the extranuclear functions of the receptor. We report that upon oestrogenic stimulation, JMJD6, the only arginine demethylase described so far, interacts with and regulates methylated ERα (metERα) function. Moreover, by combining the silencing of JMJD6 with demethylation assays, we show that metERα is a new substrate for JMJD6. We propose that the demethylase activity of JMJD6 is a decisive regulator of the rapid physiological responses to oestrogen.
|Myofibrillar Ca(2+) sensitivity is uncoupled from troponin I phosphorylation in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy due to abnormal troponin T. |
Bayliss, CR; Jacques, AM; Leung, MC; Ward, DG; Redwood, CS; Gallon, CE; Copeland, O; McKenna, WJ; Dos Remedios, C; Marston, SB; Messer, AE
Cardiovascular research 97 500-8 2013
We studied the relationship between myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity and troponin I (TnI) phosphorylation by protein kinase A at serines 22/23 in human heart troponin isolated from donor hearts and from myectomy samples from patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM).We used a quantitative in vitro motility assay. With donor heart troponin, Ca(2+) sensitivity is two- to three-fold higher when TnI is unphosphorylated. In the myectomy samples from patients with HOCM, the mean level of TnI phosphorylation was low: 0.38 ± 0.19 mol Pi/mol TnI compared with 1.60 ± 0.19 mol Pi/mol TnI in donor hearts, but no difference in myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity was observed. Thus, troponin regulation of thin filament Ca(2+) sensitivity is abnormal in HOCM hearts. HOCM troponin (0.29 mol Pi/mol TnI) was treated with protein kinase A to increase the level of phosphorylation to 1.56 mol Pi/mol TnI. No difference in EC(50) was found in thin filaments containing high and low TnI phosphorylation levels. This indicates that Ca(2+) sensitivity is uncoupled from TnI phosphorylation in HOCM heart troponin. Coupling could be restored by replacing endogenous troponin T (TnT) with the recombinant TnT T3 isoform. No difference in Ca(2+) sensitivity was observed if TnI was exchanged into HOCM heart troponin or if TnT was exchanged into the highly phosphorylated donor heart troponin. Comparison of donor and HOCM heart troponin by mass spectrometry and with adduct-specific antibodies did not show any differences in TnT isoform expression, phosphorylation or any post-translational modifications.An abnormality in TnT is responsible for uncoupling myofibrillar Ca(2+) sensitivity from TnI phosphorylation in the septum of HOCM patients.
|Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 and 8 interact with FUS to modify its sub-cellular distribution and toxicity in vitro and in vivo. |
Scaramuzzino, C; Monaghan, J; Milioto, C; Lanson, NA; Maltare, A; Aggarwal, T; Casci, I; Fackelmayer, FO; Pennuto, M; Pandey, UB
PloS one 8 e61576 2013
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late onset and progressive motor neuron disease. Mutations in the gene coding for fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma (FUS) are responsible for some cases of both familial and sporadic forms of ALS. The mechanism through which mutations of FUS result in motor neuron degeneration and loss is not known. FUS belongs to the family of TET proteins, which are regulated at the post-translational level by arginine methylation. Here, we investigated the impact of arginine methylation in the pathogenesis of FUS-related ALS. We found that wild type FUS (FUS-WT) specifically interacts with protein arginine methyltransferases 1 and 8 (PRMT1 and PRMT8) and undergoes asymmetric dimethylation in cultured cells. ALS-causing FUS mutants retained the ability to interact with both PRMT1 and PRMT8 and undergo asymmetric dimethylation similar to FUS-WT. Importantly, PRMT1 and PRMT8 localized to mutant FUS-positive inclusion bodies. Pharmacologic inhibition of PRMT1 and PRMT8 activity reduced both the nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of FUS-WT and ALS-associated FUS mutants in motor neuron-derived cells and in cells obtained from an ALS patient carrying the R518G mutation. Genetic ablation of the fly homologue of human PRMT1 (DART1) exacerbated the neurodegeneration induced by overexpression of FUS-WT and R521H FUS mutant in a Drosophila model of FUS-related ALS. These results support a role for arginine methylation in the pathogenesis of FUS-related ALS.
|FUS/TLS assembles into stress granules and is a prosurvival factor during hyperosmolar stress. |
Sama, RR; Ward, CL; Kaushansky, LJ; Lemay, N; Ishigaki, S; Urano, F; Bosco, DA
Journal of cellular physiology 228 2222-31 2013
FUsed in Sarcoma/Translocated in LipoSarcoma (FUS/TLS or FUS) has been linked to several biological processes involving DNA and RNA processing, and has been associated with multiple diseases, including myxoid liposarcoma and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS-associated mutations cause FUS to associate with stalled translational complexes called stress granules under conditions of stress. However, little is known regarding the normal role of endogenous (non-disease linked) FUS in cellular stress response. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous FUS exerts a robust response to hyperosmolar stress induced by sorbitol. Hyperosmolar stress causes an immediate re-distribution of nuclear FUS to the cytoplasm, where it incorporates into stress granules. The redistribution of FUS to the cytoplasm is modulated by methyltransferase activity, whereas the inhibition of methyltransferase activity does not affect the incorporation of FUS into stress granules. The response to hyperosmolar stress is specific, since endogenous FUS does not redistribute to the cytoplasm in response to sodium arsenite, hydrogen peroxide, thapsigargin, or heat shock, all of which induce stress granule assembly. Intriguingly, cells with reduced expression of FUS exhibit a loss of cell viability in response to sorbitol, indicating a prosurvival role for endogenous FUS in the cellular response to hyperosmolar stress.
|Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked FUS/TLS alters stress granule assembly and dynamics. |
Baron, DM; Kaushansky, LJ; Ward, CL; Sama, RR; Chian, RJ; Boggio, KJ; Quaresma, AJ; Nickerson, JA; Bosco, DA
Molecular neurodegeneration 8 30 2013
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS or FUS) is concentrated within cytoplasmic stress granules under conditions of induced stress. Since only the mutants, but not the endogenous wild-type FUS, are associated with stress granules under most of the stress conditions reported to date, the relationship between FUS and stress granules represents a mutant-specific phenotype and thus may be of significance in mutant-induced pathogenesis. While the association of mutant-FUS with stress granules is well established, the effect of the mutant protein on stress granules has not been examined. Here we investigated the effect of mutant-FUS on stress granule formation and dynamics under conditions of oxidative stress.We found that expression of mutant-FUS delays the assembly of stress granules. However, once stress granules containing mutant-FUS are formed, they are more dynamic, larger and more abundant compared to stress granules lacking FUS. Once stress is removed, stress granules disassemble more rapidly in cells expressing mutant-FUS. These effects directly correlate with the degree of mutant-FUS cytoplasmic localization, which is induced by mutations in the nuclear localization signal of the protein. We also determine that the RGG domains within FUS play a key role in its association to stress granules. While there has been speculation that arginine methylation within these RGG domains modulates the incorporation of FUS into stress granules, our results demonstrate that this post-translational modification is not involved.Our results indicate that mutant-FUS alters the dynamic properties of stress granules, which is consistent with a gain-of-toxic mechanism for mutant-FUS in stress granule assembly and cellular stress response.
|Five friends of methylated chromatin target of protein-arginine-methyltransferase[prmt]-1 (chtop), a complex linking arginine methylation to desumoylation. |
Fanis, P; Gillemans, N; Aghajanirefah, A; Pourfarzad, F; Demmers, J; Esteghamat, F; Vadlamudi, RK; Grosveld, F; Philipsen, S; van Dijk, TB
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 11 1263-73 2012
Chromatin target of Prmt1 (Chtop) is a vertebrate-specific chromatin-bound protein that plays an important role in transcriptional regulation. As its mechanism of action remains unclear, we identified Chtop-interacting proteins using a biotinylation-proteomics approach. Here we describe the identification and initial characterization of Five Friends of Methylated Chtop (5FMC). 5FMC is a nuclear complex that can only be recruited by Chtop when the latter is arginine-methylated by Prmt1. It consists of the co-activator Pelp1, the Sumo-specific protease Senp3, Wdr18, Tex10, and Las1L. Pelp1 functions as the core of 5FMC, as the other components become unstable in the absence of Pelp1. We show that recruitment of 5FMC to Zbp-89, a zinc-finger transcription factor, affects its sumoylation status and transactivation potential. Collectively, our data provide a mechanistic link between arginine methylation and (de)sumoylation in the control of transcriptional activity.
|The effect of PRMT1-mediated arginine methylation on the subcellular localization, stress granules, and detergent-insoluble aggregates of FUS/TLS. |
Yamaguchi, A; Kitajo, K
PloS one 7 e49267 2012
Fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS) is one of causative genes for familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In order to identify binding partners for FUS/TLS, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening and found that protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is one of binding partners primarily in the nucleus. In vitro and in vivo methylation assays showed that FUS/TLS could be methylated by PRMT1. The modulation of arginine methylation levels by a general methyltransferase inhibitor or conditional over-expression of PRMT1 altered slightly the nucleus-cytoplasmic ratio of FUS/TLS in cell fractionation assays. Although co-localized primarily in the nucleus in normal condition, FUS/TLS and PRMT1 were partially recruited to the cytoplasmic granules under oxidative stress, which were merged with stress granules (SGs) markers in SH-SY5Y cell. C-terminal truncated form of FUS/TLS (FUS-dC), which lacks C-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS), formed cytoplasmic inclusions like ALS-linked FUS mutants and was partially co-localized with PRMT1. Furthermore, conditional over-expression of PRMT1 reduced the FUS-dC-mediated SGs formation and the detergent-insoluble aggregates in HEK293 cells. These findings indicate that PRMT1-mediated arginine methylation could be implicated in the nucleus-cytoplasmic shuttling of FUS/TLS and in the SGs formation and the detergent-insoluble inclusions of ALS-linked FUS/TLS mutants.
|Suppression of PRMT6-mediated arginine methylation of p16 protein potentiates its ability to arrest A549 cell proliferation. |
Xiuli Wang,Ying Huang,Jing Zhao,Yu Zhang,Jun Lu,Baiqu Huang
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 44 2012
The tumor suppressor p16(INK4A) (p16) blocks the cell cycle progression by inhibiting phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein. We describe here a novel aspect of the posttranslational control that has an important functional consequence on p16 protein. We first discovered that the p16 protein was methylated in various cell lineages. We then determined that the arginine 22, 131 and 138 of p16 were the main methylation sites. Western blotting and TUNEL analyses revealed that the p16 protein bearing these point mutations induced a higher apoptosis ratio than wild-type p16 in A549 cells. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation assays suggested that decrease of p16 arginine methylation level promoted the association of p16 with CDK4. Additionally, we determined that the protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) was responsible for the p16 arginine methylation. Results from flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that PRMT6 overexpression counteracted the cell cycle arrest at G1 phase induced by wild-type p16 in A549 cells. We also provided evidence that PRMT6 was able to interact with p16, and that the intensity of p16-CDK4 association was reduced upon PRMT6 overexpression. Together, data presented in this report establish that methylation at specific arginine residues of p16 protein by PRMT6 may be critical for the activity of p16.
|PRMT1 interacts with AML1-ETO to promote its transcriptional activation and progenitor cell proliferative potential. |
Shia, WJ; Okumura, AJ; Yan, M; Sarkeshik, A; Lo, MC; Matsuura, S; Komeno, Y; Zhao, X; Nimer, SD; Yates, JR; Zhang, DE
Blood 119 4953-62 2012
Fusion protein AML1-ETO, resulting from t(8;21) translocation, is highly related to leukemia development. It has been reported that full-length AML1-ETO blocks AML1 function and requires additional mutagenic events to promote leukemia. We have previously shown that the expression of AE9a, a splice isoform of AML1-ETO, can rapidly cause leukemia in mice. To understand how AML1-ETO is involved in leukemia development, we took advantage of our AE9a leukemia model and sought to identify its interacting proteins from primary leukemic cells. Here, we report the discovery of a novel AE9a binding partner PRMT1 (protein arginine methyltransferase 1). PRMT1 not only interacts with but also weakly methylates arginine 142 of AE9a. Knockdown of PRMT1 affects expression of a specific group of AE9a-activated genes. We also show that AE9a recruits PRMT1 to promoters of AE9a-activated genes, resulting in enrichment of H4 arginine 3 methylation, H3 Lys9/14 acetylation, and transcription activation. More importantly, knockdown of PRMT1 suppresses the self-renewal capability of AE9a, suggesting a potential role of PRMT1 in regulating leukemia development.
|Characterization of the PRMT gene family in rice reveals conservation of arginine methylation. |
Ahmad, A; Dong, Y; Cao, X
PloS one 6 e22664 2011
Post-translational methylation of arginine residues profoundly affects the structure and functions of protein and, hence, implicated in a myriad of essential cellular processes such as signal transduction, mRNA splicing and transcriptional regulation. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), the enzymes catalyzing arginine methylation have been extensively studied in animals, yeast and, to some extent, in model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Eight genes coding for the PRMTs were identified in Oryza sativa, previously. Here, we report that these genes show distinct expression patterns in various parts of the plant. In vivo targeting experiment demonstrated that GFP-tagged OsPRMT1, OsPRMT5 and OsPRMT10 were localized to both the cytoplasm and nucleus, whereas OsPRMT6a and OsPRMT6b were predominantly localized to the nucleus. OsPRMT1, OsPRMT4, OsPRMT5, OsPRMT6a, OsPRMT6b and OsPRMT10 exhibited in vitro arginine methyltransferase activity against myelin basic protein, glycine-arginine-rich domain of fibrillarin and calf thymus core histones. Furthermore, they depicted specificities for the arginine residues in histones H3 and H4 and were classified into type I and Type II PRMTs, based on the formation of type of dimethylarginine in the substrate proteins. The two homologs of OsPRMT6 showed direct interaction in vitro and further titrating different amounts of these proteins in the methyltransferase assay revealed that OsPRMT6a inhibits the methyltransferase activity of OsPRMT6b, probably, by the formation of heterodimer. The identification and characterization of PRMTs in rice suggests the conservation of arginine methylation in monocots and hold promise for gaining further insight into regulation of plant development.Full Text Article
|Carbon monoxide stimulates global protein methylation via its inhibitory action on cystathionine β-synthase. |
Yamamoto T, Takano N, Ishiwata K, Suematsu M
J Clin Biochem Nutr 48 96-100. Epub 2010 Dec 28. 2011
Although carbon monoxide derived from heme oxygenase has been reported to exert diverse biological actions in mammals, macromolecules responsible for its direct reception and functional outcomes of the gas binding remain largely unknown. Based on our previous results in vivo suggesting carbon monoxide serves as an inhibitor of cystathionine β-synthase that rate-limits transsulfuration pathway for generation of hydrogen sulfide, we have herein hypothesized that the gas might serve as a regulator of protein methylation through accelerating turnover of remethylation cycle residing at the upstream of the enzyme. Metabolomic analysis in human monoblastic leukemia U937 cells in culture revealed that application of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules caused increases in methionine and S-adenosylmethionine and a decrease in cystathionine in the cells, suggesting the cystathionine β-synthase inhibition by carbon monoxide. Under these circumstances, the cells exhibited global protein arginine methylation: this event was also reproduced by the cell treatment with hemin, a heme oxygenase-1 inducer. The protein arginine methylation elicited by carbon monoxide was attenuated by knocking down cystathionine β-synthase with its small interfering RNA or by blocking S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase with adenosine dialdehyde, suggesting remethylation cycling is necessary to trigger the methylation processing. Furthermore, proteins undergoing the carbon monoxide-induced arginine methylation involved histone H3 proteins, suggesting chromatin modification by the gas. Collectively with our studies in vivo showing its inhibitory action on endogenous hydrogen sulfide production, the current results suggest that not only inhibition of transsulfuration pathway for H(2)S generation but also activation of protein methylation accounts for notable biological actions of carbon monoxide via the cystathionine β-synthase inhibition.Full Text Article
|Arginine methylation of ribosomal protein S3 affects ribosome assembly. |
Hyun-Seock Shin,Chang-Young Jang,Hag Dong Kim,Tae-Sung Kim,Sangduk Kim,Joon Kim
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 385 2009
The human ribosomal protein S3 (rpS3), a component of the 40S small subunit in the ribosome, is a known multi-functional protein with roles in DNA repair and apoptosis. We recently found that the arginine residue(s) of rpS3 are methylated by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1). In this paper, we confirmed the arginine methylation of rpS3 protein both in vitro and in vivo. The sites of arginine methylation are located at amino acids 64, 65 and 67. However, mutant rpS3 (3RA), which cannot be methylated at these sites, cannot be transported into the nucleolus and subsequently incorporated into the ribosome. Our results clearly show that arginine methylation of rpS3 plays a critical role in its import into the nucleolus, as well as in small subunit assembly of the ribosome.
|Critical role for arginine methylation in adenovirus-infected cells. |
Iacovides, DC; O'Shea, CC; Oses-Prieto, J; Burlingame, A; McCormick, F
Journal of virology 81 13209-17 2007
During the late stages of adenovirus infection, the 100K protein (100K) inhibits the translation of cellular messages in the cytoplasm and regulates hexon trimerization and assembly in the nucleus. However, it is not known how it switches between these two functions. Here we show that 100K is methylated on arginine residues at its C terminus during infection and that this region is necessary for binding PRMT1 methylase. Methylated 100K is exclusively nuclear. Mutation of the third RGG motif (amino acids 741 to 743) prevents localization to the nucleus during infection, suggesting that methylation of that sequence is important for 100K shuttling. Treatment of infected cells with methylation inhibitors inhibits expression of late structural proteins. These data suggest that arginine methylation of 100K is necessary for its localization to the nucleus and is a critical cellular function necessary for productive adenovirus infection.
|hCAF1, a new regulator of PRMT1-dependent arginine methylation. |
Robin-Lespinasse, Y; Sentis, S; Kolytcheff, C; Rostan, MC; Corbo, L; Le Romancer, M
Journal of cell science 120 638-47 2007
Protein arginine methylation is an emergent post-translational modification involved in a growing number of cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation, cell signaling, RNA processing and DNA repair. Although protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is the major arginine methyltransferase in mammals, little is known about the regulation of its activity, except for the regulation induced by interaction with the antiproliferative protein BTG1 (B-cell translocation gene 1). Since the protein hCAF1 (CCR4-associated factor 1) was described to interact with BTG1, we investigated a functional link between hCAF1 and PRMT1. By co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence experiments we demonstrated that endogenous hCAF1 and PRMT1 interact in vivo and colocalize in nuclear speckles, a sub-nuclear compartment enriched in small nuclear ribonucleoproteins and splicing factors. In vitro methylation assays indicated that hCAF1 is not a substrate for PRMT1-mediated methylation, but it regulates PRMT1 activity in a substrate-dependent manner. Moreover, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of hCAF1 in MCF-7 cells significantly modulates the methylation of endogenous PRMT1 substrates. Finally, we demonstrated that in vitro and in the cellular context, hCAF1 regulates the methylation of Sam68 and histone H4, two PRMT1 substrates. Since hCAF1 and PRMT1 have been involved in the regulation of transcription and RNA metabolism, we speculate that hCAF1 and PRMT1 could contribute to the crosstalk between transcription and RNA processing.
|The nuclear PP1 interacting protein ZAP3 (ZAP) is a putative nucleoside kinase that complexes with SAM68, CIA, NF110/45, and HNRNP-G. |
Annegret Ulke-Lemée, Laura Trinkle-Mulcahy, Steve Chaulk, Nina K Bernstein, Nick Morrice, Mark Glover, Angus I Lamond, Greg B G Moorhead
Biochimica et biophysica acta 1774 1339-50 2007
The targeting of protein kinases and phosphatases is fundamental to their roles as cellular regulators. The type one serine/threonine protein phosphatase (PP1) is enriched in the nucleus, yet few nuclear PP1 targeting subunits have been described and characterized. Here we show that the human protein, ZAP3 (also known as ZAP), is localized to the nucleus, that it is expressed in all mammalian tissues examined, and docks to PP1 through an RVRW motif located in its highly conserved carboxy-terminus. Proteomic analysis of a ZAP3 complex revealed that in addition to binding PP1, ZAP3 complexes with CIA (or nuclear receptor co-activator 5) and the RNA binding proteins hnRNP-G, SAM68 and NF110/45, but loses affinity for SAM68 and hnRNP-G upon digestion of endogenous nucleic acid. Bioinformatics has revealed that the conserved carboxy-terminus is orthologous to T4- and mammalian polynucleotide kinases with residues necessary for kinase activity maintained throughout evolution. Furthermore, the substrate binding pocket of uridine-cytidine kinase (or uridine kinase) has localized sequence similarity with ZAP3, suggesting uridine or cytidine as possible ZAP3 substrates. Most polynucleotide kinases have a phosphohydrolase domain in conjunction with their kinase domain. In ZAP3, although this domain is present, it now appears degenerate and functions to bind PP1 through an RVRW docking site located within the domain.
|Arginine methylation regulates IL-2 gene expression: a role for protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) |
Richard, S., et al
Biochem J, 388:379-86 (2005) 2005
|FoxO3a regulates erythroid differentiation and induces BTG1, an activator of protein arginine methyl transferase 1 |
Bakker, W. J., et al
J Cell Biol, 164:175-84 (2004) 2004
|Sam68 RNA binding protein is an in vivo substrate for protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1. |
Côté, Jocelyn, et al.
Mol. Biol. Cell, 14: 274-87 (2003) 2003
RNA binding proteins often contain multiple arginine glycine repeats, a sequence that is frequently methylated by protein arginine methyltransferases. The role of this posttranslational modification in the life cycle of RNA binding proteins is not well understood. Herein, we report that Sam68, a heteronuclear ribonucleoprotein K homology domain containing RNA binding protein, associates with and is methylated in vivo by the protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1). Sam68 contains asymmetrical dimethylarginines near its proline motif P3 as assessed by using a novel asymmetrical dimethylarginine-specific antibody and mass spectrometry. Deletion of the methylation sites and the use of methylase inhibitors resulted in Sam68 accumulation in the cytoplasm. Sam68 was also detected in the cytoplasm of PRMT1-deficient embryonic stem cells. Although the cellular function of Sam68 is unknown, it has been shown to export unspliced human immunodeficiency virus RNAs. Cells treated with methylase inhibitors prevented the ability of Sam68 to export unspliced human immunodeficiency virus RNAs. Other K homology domain RNA binding proteins, including SLM-1, SLM-2, QKI-5, GRP33, and heteronuclear ribonucleoprotein K were also methylated in vivo. These findings demonstrate that RNA binding proteins are in vivo substrates for PRMT1, and their methylation is essential for their proper localization and function.
|A proteomic analysis of arginine methylated protein complexes |
Boisvert, F. M., et al
Mol Cell Proteomics, 2:1319-30 (2003) 2003
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