|Mitochondrial ROS Induces Cardiac Inflammation via a Pathway through mtDNA Damage in a Pneumonia-Related Sepsis Model. |
Yao, X; Carlson, D; Sun, Y; Ma, L; Wolf, SE; Minei, JP; Zang, QS
We have previously shown that mitochondria-targeted vitamin E (Mito-Vit-E), a mtROS specific antioxidant, improves cardiac performance and attenuates inflammation in a pneumonia-related sepsis model. In this study, we applied the same approaches to decipher the signaling pathway(s) of mtROS-dependent cardiac inflammation after sepsis. Sepsis was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by intratracheal injection of S. pneumoniae. Mito-Vit-E, vitamin E or vehicle was administered 30 minutes later. In myocardium 24 hours post-inoculation, Mito-Vit-E, but not vitamin E, significantly protected mtDNA integrity and decreased mtDNA damage. Mito-Vit-E alleviated sepsis-induced reduction in mitochondria-localized DNA repair enzymes including DNA polymerase γ, AP endonuclease, 8-oxoguanine glycosylase, and uracil-DNA glycosylase. Mito-Vit-E dramatically improved metabolism and membrane integrity in mitochondria, suppressed leakage of mtDNA into the cytoplasm, inhibited up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) pathway factors MYD88 and RAGE, and limited RAGE interaction with its ligand TFAM in septic hearts. Mito-Vit-E also deactivated NF-κB and caspase 1, reduced expression of the essential inflammasome component ASC, and decreased inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. In vitro, both Mito-Vit-E and TLR9 inhibitor OND-I suppressed LPS-induced up-regulation in MYD88, RAGE, ASC, active caspase 1, and IL-1β in cardiomyocytes. Since free mtDNA escaped from damaged mitochondria function as a type of DAMPs to stimulate inflammation through TLR9, these data together suggest that sepsis-induced cardiac inflammation is mediated, at least partially, through mtDNA-TLR9-RAGE. At last, Mito-Vit-E reduced the circulation of myocardial injury marker troponin-I, diminished apoptosis and amended morphology in septic hearts, suggesting that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants are a potential cardioprotective approach for sepsis.
|The detergent-soluble cytoplasmic pool of survivin suppresses anoikis and its expression is associated with metastatic disease of human colon cancer. |
Hori, M; Miki, T; Okamoto, M; Yazama, F; Konishi, H; Kaneko, H; Shimamoto, F; Ota, T; Temme, A; Tatsuka, M
Survivin is a component of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) that is essential for accurate chromosome segregation. Interfering with the function of Survivin in mitosis leads to chromosome segregation errors and defective cytokinesis. Survivin contains a Baculovirus IAP Repeat (BIR) and therefore was originally classified as inhibitor of apopotosis protein (IAP), yet its role in apoptosis after cellular stress remains largely unknown. We demonstrate here, that Survivin predominantly suppresses anoikis, a form of programmed cell death induced by loss of cellular adhesion to extracellular matrix. Interestingly, cells ectopically overexpressing EGFP-Survivin showed after loss of cell-matrix-interaction a decreased expression of IκB-α. Subsequent subcellular protein fractionation and immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that XIAP interacts with detergent-soluble Survivin which is known to cooperatively activate NF-κB signaling. Examination of the expression levels of detergent soluble Survivin in colorectal cancer cell lines and in colorectal cancerous tissues revealed that detergent soluble cytoplasmic Survivin levels correlated inversely with anoikis susceptibility in colorectal cancer. Therefore, the detergent soluble cytoplasmic Survivin might be a promising predictive biomarker for lymph node and distant metastases of colorectal cancer. We conclude that an anti-apoptotic function of detergent-soluble Survivin in interphase cells experiencing anoikis is mediated at least via XIAP/IκB-α/NF-κB signaling.