Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, Yeast (S. cerevisiae)||IP, WB, DB, ChIP-seq||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Unpurified rabbit polyclonal in serum with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Anti-acetyl Histone H4 (Lys8) - 2433445||2433445|
|Anti-acetyl Histone H4 (Lys8) - 2019740||2019740|
|Anti-acetyl Histone H4 (Lys8) - 2075956||2075956|
|Anti-acetyl Histone H4 (Lys8) - 2189952||2189952|
|Anti-acetyl Histone H4 (Lys8) - 2301651||2301651|
|Anti-acetyl Histone H4 (Lys8) - 2499698||2499698|
|Anti-acetyl Histone H4 (Lys8) - DAM1676174||DAM1676174|
|Anti-acetyl Histone H4 (Lys8) - DAM1731490||DAM1731490|
|Anti-acetyl Histone H4 (Lys8) -2557641||2557641|
|Anti-acetyl Histone H4 (Lys8) -2582476||2582476|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Ethanol exposure induces neonatal neurodegeneration by enhancing CB1R Exon1 histone H4K8 acetylation and up-regulating CB1R function causing neurobehavioral abnormalities in adult mice.|
Subbanna, S; Nagre, NN; Umapathy, NS; Pace, BS; Basavarajappa, BS
The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP) 18 2015
Ethanol exposure to rodents during postnatal day 7 (P7), which is comparable to the third trimester of human pregnancy, induces long-term potentiation and memory deficits. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits are still poorly understood.In the present study, we explored the potential role of epigenetic changes at cannabinoid type 1 (CB1R) exon1 and additional CB1R functions, which could promote memory deficits in animal models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.We found that ethanol treatment of P7 mice enhances acetylation of H4 on lysine 8 (H4K8ace) at CB1R exon1, CB1R binding as well as the CB1R agonist-stimulated GTPγS binding in the hippocampus and neocortex, two brain regions that are vulnerable to ethanol at P7 and are important for memory formation and storage, respectively. We also found that ethanol inhibits cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) expression in neonatal and adult mice. The blockade or genetic deletion of CB1Rs prior to ethanol treatment at P7 rescued CREB phosphorylation and Arc expression. CB1R knockout mice exhibited neither ethanol-induced neurodegeneration nor inhibition of CREB phosphorylation or Arc expression. However, both neonatal and adult mice did exhibit enhanced CREB phosphorylation and Arc protein expression. P7 ethanol-treated adult mice exhibited impaired spatial and social recognition memory, which were prevented by the pharmacological blockade or deletion of CB1Rs at P7.Together, these findings suggest that P7 ethanol treatment induces CB1R expression through epigenetic modification of the CB1R gene, and that the enhanced CB1R function induces pCREB, Arc, spatial, and social memory deficits in adult mice.
|Characterization of BRD4 during mammalian postmeiotic sperm development.|
Bryant, JM; Donahue, G; Wang, X; Meyer-Ficca, M; Luense, LJ; Weller, AH; Bartolomei, MS; Blobel, GA; Meyer, RG; Garcia, BA; Berger, SL
Molecular and cellular biology 35 1433-48 2015
During spermiogenesis, the postmeiotic phase of mammalian spermatogenesis, transcription is progressively repressed as nuclei of haploid spermatids are compacted through a dramatic chromatin reorganization involving hyperacetylation and replacement of most histones with protamines. Although BRDT functions in transcription and histone removal in spermatids, it is unknown whether other BET family proteins play a role. Immunofluorescence of spermatogenic cells revealed BRD4 in a ring around the nuclei of spermatids containing hyperacetylated histones. The ring lies directly adjacent to the acroplaxome, the cytoskeletal base of the acrosome, previously linked to chromatin reorganization. The BRD4 ring does not form in acrosomal mutant mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing in spermatids revealed enrichment of BRD4 and acetylated histones at the promoters of active genes. BRD4 and BRDT show distinct and synergistic binding patterns, with a pronounced enrichment of BRD4 at spermatogenesis-specific genes. Direct association of BRD4 with acetylated H4 decreases in late spermatids as acetylated histones are removed from the condensing nucleus in a wave following the progressing acrosome. These data provide evidence of a prominent transcriptional role for BRD4 and suggest a possible removal mechanism for chromatin components from the genome via the progressing acrosome as transcription is repressed and chromatin is compacted during spermiogenesis.
|Poised chromatin and bivalent domains facilitate the mitosis-to-meiosis transition in the male germline.|
Sin, HS; Kartashov, AV; Hasegawa, K; Barski, A; Namekawa, SH
BMC biology 13 53 2015
The male germline transcriptome changes dramatically during the mitosis-to-meiosis transition to activate late spermatogenesis genes and to transiently suppress genes commonly expressed in somatic lineages and spermatogenesis progenitor cells, termed somatic/progenitor genes.These changes reflect epigenetic regulation. Induction of late spermatogenesis genes during spermatogenesis is facilitated by poised chromatin established in the stem cell phases of spermatogonia, whereas silencing of somatic/progenitor genes during meiosis and postmeiosis is associated with formation of bivalent domains which also allows the recovery of the somatic/progenitor program after fertilization. Importantly, during spermatogenesis mechanisms of epigenetic regulation on sex chromosomes are different from autosomes: X-linked somatic/progenitor genes are suppressed by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation without deposition of H3K27me3.Our results suggest that bivalent H3K27me3 and H3K4me2/3 domains are not limited to developmental promoters (which maintain bivalent domains that are silent throughout the reproductive cycle), but also underlie reversible silencing of somatic/progenitor genes during the mitosis-to-meiosis transition in late spermatogenesis.
|Long noncoding RNA PANDA and scaffold-attachment-factor SAFA control senescence entry and exit.|
Puvvula, PK; Desetty, RD; Pineau, P; Marchio, A; Moon, A; Dejean, A; Bischof, O
Nature communications 5 5323 2014
Cellular senescence is a stable cell cycle arrest that limits the proliferation of pre-cancerous cells. Here we demonstrate that scaffold-attachment-factor A (SAFA) and the long noncoding RNA PANDA differentially interact with polycomb repressive complexes (PRC1 and PRC2) and the transcription factor NF-YA to either promote or suppress senescence. In proliferating cells, SAFA and PANDA recruit PRC complexes to repress the transcription of senescence-promoting genes. Conversely, the loss of SAFA-PANDA-PRC interactions allows expression of the senescence programme. Accordingly, we find that depleting either SAFA or PANDA in proliferating cells induces senescence. However, in senescent cells where PANDA sequesters transcription factor NF-YA and limits the expression of NF-YA-E2F-coregulated proliferation-promoting genes, PANDA depletion leads to an exit from senescence. Together, our results demonstrate that PANDA confines cells to their existing proliferative state and that modulating its level of expression can cause entry or exit from senescence.
|Lunasin sensitivity in non-small cell lung cancer cells is linked to suppression of integrin signaling and changes in histone acetylation.|
Inaba, J; McConnell, EJ; Davis, KR
International journal of molecular sciences 15 23705-24 2014
Lunasin is a plant derived bioactive peptide with both cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic activity. We recently showed lunasin inhibits non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell proliferation in a cell-line-specific manner. We now compared the effects of lunasin treatment of lunasin-sensitive (H661) and lunasin-insensitive (H1299) NSCLC cells with respect to lunasin uptake, histone acetylation and integrin signaling. Both cell lines exhibited changes in histone acetylation, with H661 cells showing a unique increase in H4K16 acetylation. Proximity ligation assays demonstrated lunasin interacted with integrins containing αv, α5, β1 and β3 subunits to a larger extent in the H661 compared to H1299 cells. Moreover, lunasin specifically disrupted the interaction of β1 and β3 subunits with the downstream signaling components phosphorylated Focal Adhesion Kinase (pFAK), Kindlin and Intergrin Linked Kinase in H661 cells. Immunoblot analyses demonstrated lunasin treatment of H661 resulted in reduced levels of pFAK, phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated ERK1/2 whereas no changes were observed in H1299 cells. Silencing of αv expression in H661 cells confirmed signaling through integrins containing αv is essential for proliferation. Moreover, lunasin was unable to further inhibit proliferation in αv-silenced H661 cells. This indicates antagonism of integrin signaling via αv-containing integrins is an important component of lunasin's mechanism of action.
|Rational design and validation of a Tip60 histone acetyltransferase inhibitor.|
Gao, C; Bourke, E; Scobie, M; Famme, MA; Koolmeister, T; Helleday, T; Eriksson, LA; Lowndes, NF; Brown, JA
Scientific reports 4 5372 2014
Histone acetylation is required for many aspects of gene regulation, genome maintenance and metabolism and dysfunctional acetylation is implicated in numerous diseases, including cancer. Acetylation is regulated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases and currently, few general HAT inhibitors have been described. We identified the HAT Tip60 as an excellent candidate for targeted drug development, as Tip60 is a key mediator of the DNA damage response and transcriptional co-activator. Our modeling of Tip60 indicated that the active binding pocket possesses opposite charges at each end, with the positive charges attributed to two specific side chains. We used structure based drug design to develop a novel Tip60 inhibitor, TH1834, to fit this specific pocket. We demonstrate that TH1834 significantly inhibits Tip60 activity in vitro and treating cells with TH1834 results in apoptosis and increased unrepaired DNA damage (following ionizing radiation treatment) in breast cancer but not control cell lines. Furthermore, TH1834 did not affect the activity of related HAT MOF, as indicated by H4K16Ac, demonstrating specificity. The modeling and validation of the small molecule inhibitor TH1834 represents a first step towards developing additional specific, targeted inhibitors of Tip60 that may lead to further improvements in the treatment of breast cancer.
|Ethanol induced acetylation of histone at G9a exon1 and G9a-mediated histone H3 dimethylation leads to neurodegeneration in neonatal mice.|
Subbanna, S; Nagre, NN; Shivakumar, M; Umapathy, NS; Psychoyos, D; Basavarajappa, BS
Neuroscience 258 422-32 2014
The transient exposure of immature rodents to ethanol during postnatal day 7 (P7), comparable to a time point within the third trimester of human pregnancy, induces neurodegeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the deleterious effects of ethanol on the developing brain are poorly understood. In our previous study, we showed that a high dose administration of ethanol at P7 enhances G9a and leads to caspase-3-mediated degradation of dimethylated H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9me2). In this study, we investigated the potential role of epigenetic changes at G9a exon1, G9a-mediated H3 dimethylation on neurodegeneration and G9a-associated proteins in the P7 brain following exposure to a low dose of ethanol. We found that a low dose of ethanol induces mild neurodegeneration in P7 mice, enhances specific acetylation of H3 on lysine 14 (H3K14ace) at G9a exon1, G9a protein levels, augments the dimethylation of H3K9 and H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me2). However, neither dimethylated H3K9 nor K27 underwent degradation. Pharmacological inhibition of G9a activity prior to ethanol treatment prevented H3 dimethylation and neurodegeneration. Further, our immunoprecipitation data suggest that G9a directly associates with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT3A) and methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). In addition, DNMT3A and MeCP2 protein levels were enhanced by a low dose of ethanol that was shown to induce mild neurodegeneration. Collectively, these epigenetic alterations lead to association of G9a, DNMT3A and MeCP2 to form a larger repressive complex and have a significant role in low-dose ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in the developing brain.
|Histone methylation has dynamics distinct from those of histone acetylation in cell cycle reentry from quiescence.|
Mews, P; Zee, BM; Liu, S; Donahue, G; Garcia, BA; Berger, SL
Molecular and cellular biology 34 3968-80 2014
Cell growth is attuned to nutrient availability to sustain homeostatic biosynthetic processes. In unfavorable environments, cells enter a nonproliferative state termed quiescence but rapidly return to the cell cycle once conditions support energetic needs. Changing cellular metabolite pools are proposed to directly alter the epigenome via histone acetylation. Here we studied the relationship between histone modification dynamics and the dramatic transcriptional changes that occur during nutrient-induced cell cycle reentry from quiescence in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture)-based mass spectrometry showed that histone methylation-in contrast to histone acetylation-is surprisingly static during quiescence exit. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed genome-wide shifts in histone acetylation at growth and stress genes as cells exit quiescence and transcription dramatically changes. Strikingly, however, the patterns of histone methylation remain intact. We conclude that the functions of histone methylation and acetylation are remarkably distinct during quiescence exit: acetylation rapidly responds to metabolic state, while methylation is independent. Thus, the initial burst of growth gene reactivation emerging from quiescence involves dramatic increases of histone acetylation but not of histone methylation.
|Crosstalk between NSL histone acetyltransferase and MLL/SET complexes: NSL complex functions in promoting histone H3K4 di-methylation activity by MLL/SET complexes.|
Zhao, X; Su, J; Wang, F; Liu, D; Ding, J; Yang, Y; Conaway, JW; Conaway, RC; Cao, L; Wu, D; Wu, M; Cai, Y; Jin, J
PLoS genetics 9 e1003940 2013
hMOF (MYST1), a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), forms at least two distinct multiprotein complexes in human cells. The male specific lethal (MSL) HAT complex plays a key role in dosage compensation in Drosophila and is responsible for histone H4K16ac in vivo. We and others previously described a second hMOF-containing HAT complex, the non-specific lethal (NSL) HAT complex. The NSL complex has a broader substrate specificity, can acetylate H4 on K16, K5, and K8. The WD (tryptophan-aspartate) repeat domain 5 (WDR5) and host cell factor 1 (HCF1) are shared among members of the MLL/SET (mixed-lineage leukemia/set-domain containing) family of histone H3K4 methyltransferase complexes. The presence of these shared subunits raises the possibility that there are functional links between these complexes and the histone modifications they catalyze; however, the degree to which NSL and MLL/SET influence one another's activities remains unclear. Here, we present evidence from biochemical assays and knockdown/overexpression approaches arguing that the NSL HAT promotes histone H3K4me2 by MLL/SET complexes by an acetylation-dependent mechanism. In genomic experiments, we identified a set of genes including ANKRD2, that are affected by knockdown of both NSL and MLL/SET subunits, suggested they are co-regulated by NSL and MLL/SET complexes. In ChIP assays, we observe that depletion of the NSL subunits hMOF or NSL1 resulted in a significant reduction of both H4K16ac and H3K4me2 in the vicinity of the ANKRD2 transcriptional start site proximal region. However, depletion of RbBP5 (a core component of MLL/SET complexes) only reduced H3K4me2 marks, but not H4K16ac in the same region of ANKRD2, consistent with the idea that NSL acts upstream of MLL/SET to regulate H3K4me2 at certain promoters, suggesting coordination between NSL and MLL/SET complexes is involved in transcriptional regulation of certain genes. Taken together, our results suggest a crosstalk between the NSL and MLL/SET complexes in cells.
|Brd4 is displaced from HPV replication factories as they expand and amplify viral DNA.|
Sakakibara, N; Chen, D; Jang, MK; Kang, DW; Luecke, HF; Wu, SY; Chiang, CM; McBride, AA
PLoS pathogens 9 e1003777 2013
Replication foci are generated by many viruses to concentrate and localize viral DNA synthesis to specific regions of the cell. Expression of the HPV16 E1 and E2 replication proteins in keratinocytes results in nuclear foci that recruit proteins associated with the host DNA damage response. We show that the Brd4 protein localizes to these foci and is essential for their formation. However, when E1 and E2 begin amplifying viral DNA, Brd4 is displaced from the foci and cellular factors associated with DNA synthesis and homologous recombination are recruited. Differentiated HPV-infected keratinocytes form similar nuclear foci that contain amplifying viral DNA. We compare the different foci and show that, while they have many characteristics in common, there is a switch between early Brd4-dependent foci and mature Brd4-independent replication foci. However, HPV genomes encoding mutated E2 proteins that are unable to bind Brd4 can replicate and amplify the viral genome. We propose that, while E1, E2 and Brd4 might bind host chromatin at early stages of infection, there is a temporal and functional switch at later stages and increased E1 and E2 levels promote viral DNA amplification, displacement of Brd4 and growth of a replication factory. The concomitant DNA damage response recruits proteins required for DNA synthesis and repair, which could then be utilized for viral DNA replication. Hence, while Brd4 can enhance replication by concentrating viral processes in specific regions of the host nucleus, this interaction is not absolutely essential for HPV replication.