Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, T, Eu||WB, ICC, ChIP||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µL|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 (rabbit antiserum) - DAM1427455||DAM1427455|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 -||ANTI-ACETYL-HISTONE|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 - 2384725||2384725|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 - 2459612||2459612|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 - 17428||17428|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 - 18784||18784|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 - 19336||19336|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 - 2019734||2019734|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 - 20667||20667|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 - 2073114||2073114|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Epigenetic synergy between decitabine and platinum derivatives.|
Qin, T; Si, J; Raynal, NJ; Wang, X; Gharibyan, V; Ahmed, S; Hu, X; Jin, C; Lu, Y; Shu, J; Estecio, MR; Jelinek, J; Issa, JP
Clinical epigenetics 7 97 2015
Aberrant epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes has been recognized as a driving force in cancer. Epigenetic drugs such as the DNA methylation inhibitor decitabine reactivate genes and are effective in myeloid leukemia, but resistance often develops and efficacy in solid tumors is limited. To improve their clinical efficacy, we searched among approved anti-cancer drugs for an epigenetic synergistic combination with decitabine.We used the YB5 cell line, a clonal derivative of the SW48 colon cancer cell line that contains a single copy of a hypermethylated cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter driving green fluorescent protein (GFP) to screen for drug-induced gene reactivation and synergy with decitabine. None of the 16 anti-cancer drugs tested had effects on their own. However, in combination with decitabine, platinum compounds showed striking synergy in activating GFP. This was dose dependent, observed both in concurrent and sequential combinations, and also seen with other alkylating agents. Clinically achievable concentrations of carboplatin at (25 μM) and decitabine reactivated GFP in 28 % of the YB5 cells as compared to 15 % with decitabine alone. Epigenetic synergy was also seen at endogenously hypermethylated tumor suppressor genes such as MLH1 and PDLIM4. Genome-wide studies showed that reactivation of hypermethylated genes by the combination was significantly better than that induced by decitabine alone or carboplatin alone. Platinum compounds did not enhance decitabine-induced hypomethylation. Rather, we found significantly inhibited HP1α expression by carboplatin and the combination. This was accompanied by increased histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) trimethylation and histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) acetylation at reactivated genes (P less than 0.0001) and reduced occupancy by methyl-binding proteins including MeCP2 and methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) (P less than 0.0001).Our results suggest that the combination of decitabine with platinum analogs shows epigenetic synergy that might be exploited in the treatment of different cancers.
|A comprehensive epigenome map of Plasmodium falciparum reveals unique mechanisms of transcriptional regulation and identifies H3K36me2 as a global mark of gene suppression.|
Karmodiya, K; Pradhan, SJ; Joshi, B; Jangid, R; Reddy, PC; Galande, S
Epigenetics & chromatin 8 32 2015
Role of epigenetic mechanisms towards regulation of the complex life cycle/pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria, has been poorly understood. To elucidate stage-specific epigenetic regulation, we performed genome-wide mapping of multiple histone modifications of P. falciparum. Further to understand the differences in transcription regulation in P. falciparum and its host, human, we compared their histone modification profiles.Our comprehensive comparative analysis suggests distinct mode of transcriptional regulation in malaria parasite by virtue of poised genes and differential histone modifications. Furthermore, analysis of histone modification profiles predicted 562 genes producing anti-sense RNAs and 335 genes having bidirectional promoter activity, which raises the intriguing possibility of RNA-mediated regulation of transcription in P. falciparum. Interestingly, we found that H3K36me2 acts as a global repressive mark and gene regulation is fine tuned by the ratio of activation marks to H3K36me2 in P. falciparum. This novel mechanism of gene regulation is supported by the fact that knockout of SET genes (responsible for H3K36 methylation) leads to up-regulation of genes with highest occupancy of H3K36me2 in wild-type P. falciparum. Moreover, virulence (var) genes are mostly poised and marked by a unique set of activation (H4ac) and repression (H3K9me3) marks, which are mutually exclusive to other Plasmodium housekeeping genes.Our study reveals unique plasticity in the epigenetic regulation in P. falciparum which can influence parasite virulence and pathogenicity. The observed differences in the histone code and transcriptional regulation in P. falciparum and its host will open new avenues for epigenetic drug development against malaria parasite.
|Nanocurcumin Prevents Hypoxia Induced Stress in Primary Human Ventricular Cardiomyocytes by Maintaining Mitochondrial Homeostasis.|
Nehra, S; Bhardwaj, V; Ganju, L; Saraswat, D
PloS one 10 e0139121 2015
Hypoxia induced oxidative stress incurs pathophysiological changes in hypertrophied cardiomyocytes by promoting translocation of p53 to mitochondria. Here, we investigate the cardio-protective efficacy of nanocurcumin in protecting primary human ventricular cardiomyocytes (HVCM) from hypoxia induced damages. Hypoxia induced hypertrophy was confirmed by FITC-phenylalanine uptake assay, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) levels and cell size measurements. Hypoxia induced translocation of p53 was investigated by using mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore blocker cyclosporin A (blocks entry of p53 to mitochondria) and confirmed by western blot and immunofluorescence. Mitochondrial damage in hypertrophied HVCM cells was evaluated by analysing bio-energetic, anti-oxidant and metabolic function and substrate switching form lipids to glucose. Nanocurcumin prevented translocation of p53 to mitochondria by stabilizing mitochondrial membrane potential and de-stressed hypertrophied HVCM cells by significant restoration in lactate, acetyl-coenzyme A, pyruvate and glucose content along with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPKα) activity. Significant restoration in glucose and modulation of GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 levels confirmed that nanocurcumin mediated prevention of substrate switching. Nanocurcumin prevented of mitochondrial stress as confirmed by c-fos/c-jun/p53 signalling. The data indicates decrease in p-300 histone acetyl transferase (HAT) mediated histone acetylation and GATA-4 activation as pharmacological targets of nanocurcumin in preventing hypoxia induced hypertrophy. The study provides an insight into propitious therapeutic effects of nanocurcumin in cardio-protection and usability in clinical applications.
|miR-142-5p and miR-130a-3p are regulated by IL-4 and IL-13 and control profibrogenic macrophage program.|
Su, S; Zhao, Q; He, C; Huang, D; Liu, J; Chen, F; Chen, J; Liao, JY; Cui, X; Zeng, Y; Yao, H; Su, F; Liu, Q; Jiang, S; Song, E
Nature communications 6 8523 2015
Macrophages play a pivotal role in tissue fibrogenesis, which underlies the pathogenesis of many end-stage chronic inflammatory diseases. MicroRNAs are key regulators of immune cell functions, but their roles in macrophage's fibrogenesis have not been characterized. Here we show that IL-4 and IL-13 induce miR-142-5p and downregulate miR-130a-3p in macrophages; these changes sustain the profibrogenic effect of macrophages. In vitro, miR-142-5p mimic prolongs STAT6 phosphorylation by targeting its negative regulator, SOCS1. Blocking miR-130a relieves its inhibition of PPARγ, which coordinates STAT6 signalling. In vivo, inhibiting miR-142-5p and increasing miR-130a-3p expression with locked nucleic acid-modified oligonucleotides inhibits CCL4-induced liver fibrosis and bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice. Furthermore, macrophages from the tissue samples of patients with liver cirrhosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis display increased miR-142-5p and decreased miR-130a-3p expression. Therefore, miR-142-5p and miR-130a-3p regulate macrophage profibrogenic gene expression in chronic inflammation.
|Mechanistic analysis of the role of bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) in BRD4-NUT oncoprotein-induced transcriptional activation.|
Wang, R; You, J
The Journal of biological chemistry 290 2744-58 2015
NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare but highly aggressive cancer typically caused by the translocation t(15;19), which results in the formation of the BRD4-NUT fusion oncoprotein. Previous studies have demonstrated that fusion of the NUT protein with the double bromodomains of BRD4 may significantly alter the cellular gene expression profile to contribute to NMC tumorigenesis. However, the mechanistic details of this BRD4-NUT function remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined the NUT function in transcriptional regulation by targeting it to a LacO transgene array integrated in U2OS 2-6-3 cells, which allow us to visualize how NUT alters the in situ gene transcription dynamic. Using this system, we demonstrated that the NUT protein tethered to the LacO locus recruits p300/CREB-binding protein (CBP), induces histone hyperacetylation, and enriches BRD4 to the transgene array chromatin foci. We also discovered that, in BRD4-NUT expressed in NMC cells, the NUT moiety of the fusion protein anchored to chromatin by the double bromodomains also stimulates histone hyperacetylation, which causes BRD4 to bind tighter to chromatin. Consequently, multiple BRD4-interacting factors are recruited to the NUT-associated chromatin locus to activate in situ transgene expression. This gene transcription function was repressed by either expression of a dominant negative inhibitor of the p300-NUT interaction or treatment with (+)-JQ1, which dissociates BRD4 from the LacO chromatin locus. Our data support a model in which BRD4-NUT-stimulated histone hyperacetylation recruits additional BRD4 and interacting partners to support transcriptional activation, which underlies the BRD4-NUT oncogenic mechanism in NMC.
|Loss of the Notch effector RBPJ promotes tumorigenesis.|
Kulic, I; Robertson, G; Chang, L; Baker, JH; Lockwood, WW; Mok, W; Fuller, M; Fournier, M; Wong, N; Chou, V; Robinson, MD; Chun, HJ; Gilks, B; Kempkes, B; Thomson, TA; Hirst, M; Minchinton, AI; Lam, WL; Jones, S; Marra, M; Karsan, A
The Journal of experimental medicine 212 37-52 2015
Aberrant Notch activity is oncogenic in several malignancies, but it is unclear how expression or function of downstream elements in the Notch pathway affects tumor growth. Transcriptional regulation by Notch is dependent on interaction with the DNA-binding transcriptional repressor, RBPJ, and consequent derepression or activation of associated gene promoters. We show here that RBPJ is frequently depleted in human tumors. Depletion of RBPJ in human cancer cell lines xenografted into immunodeficient mice resulted in activation of canonical Notch target genes, and accelerated tumor growth secondary to reduced cell death. Global analysis of activated regions of the genome, as defined by differential acetylation of histone H4 (H4ac), revealed that the cell death pathway was significantly dysregulated in RBPJ-depleted tumors. Analysis of transcription factor binding data identified several transcriptional activators that bind promoters with differential H4ac in RBPJ-depleted cells. Functional studies demonstrated that NF-κB and MYC were essential for survival of RBPJ-depleted cells. Thus, loss of RBPJ derepresses target gene promoters, allowing Notch-independent activation by alternate transcription factors that promote tumorigenesis.
|A vlincRNA participates in senescence maintenance by relieving H2AZ-mediated repression at the INK4 locus.|
Lazorthes, S; Vallot, C; Briois, S; Aguirrebengoa, M; Thuret, JY; St Laurent, G; Rougeulle, C; Kapranov, P; Mann, C; Trouche, D; Nicolas, E
Nature communications 6 5971 2015
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play major roles in proper chromatin organization and function. Senescence, a strong anti-proliferative process and a major anticancer barrier, is associated with dramatic chromatin reorganization in heterochromatin foci. Here we analyze strand-specific transcriptome changes during oncogene-induced human senescence. Strikingly, while differentially expressed RNAs are mostly repressed during senescence, ncRNAs belonging to the recently described vlincRNA (very long intergenic ncRNA) class are mainly activated. We show that VAD, a novel antisense vlincRNA strongly induced during senescence, is required for the maintenance of senescence features. VAD modulates chromatin structure in cis and activates gene expression in trans at the INK4 locus, which encodes cell cycle inhibitors important for senescence-associated cell proliferation arrest. Importantly, VAD inhibits the incorporation of the repressive histone variant H2A.Z at INK4 gene promoters in senescent cells. Our data underline the importance of vlincRNAs as sensors of cellular environment changes and as mediators of the correct transcriptional response.
|Characterization of BRD4 during mammalian postmeiotic sperm development.|
Bryant, JM; Donahue, G; Wang, X; Meyer-Ficca, M; Luense, LJ; Weller, AH; Bartolomei, MS; Blobel, GA; Meyer, RG; Garcia, BA; Berger, SL
Molecular and cellular biology 35 1433-48 2015
During spermiogenesis, the postmeiotic phase of mammalian spermatogenesis, transcription is progressively repressed as nuclei of haploid spermatids are compacted through a dramatic chromatin reorganization involving hyperacetylation and replacement of most histones with protamines. Although BRDT functions in transcription and histone removal in spermatids, it is unknown whether other BET family proteins play a role. Immunofluorescence of spermatogenic cells revealed BRD4 in a ring around the nuclei of spermatids containing hyperacetylated histones. The ring lies directly adjacent to the acroplaxome, the cytoskeletal base of the acrosome, previously linked to chromatin reorganization. The BRD4 ring does not form in acrosomal mutant mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing in spermatids revealed enrichment of BRD4 and acetylated histones at the promoters of active genes. BRD4 and BRDT show distinct and synergistic binding patterns, with a pronounced enrichment of BRD4 at spermatogenesis-specific genes. Direct association of BRD4 with acetylated H4 decreases in late spermatids as acetylated histones are removed from the condensing nucleus in a wave following the progressing acrosome. These data provide evidence of a prominent transcriptional role for BRD4 and suggest a possible removal mechanism for chromatin components from the genome via the progressing acrosome as transcription is repressed and chromatin is compacted during spermiogenesis.
|Evaluation of the synuclein-γ (SNCG) gene as a PPARγ target in murine adipocytes, dorsal root ganglia somatosensory neurons, and human adipose tissue.|
Dunn, TN; Akiyama, T; Lee, HW; Kim, JB; Knotts, TA; Smith, SR; Sears, DD; Carstens, E; Adams, SH
PloS one 10 e0115830 2015
Recent evidence in adipocytes points to a role for synuclein-γ in metabolism and lipid droplet dynamics, but interestingly this factor is also robustly expressed in peripheral neurons. Specific regulation of the synuclein-γ gene (Sncg) by PPARγ requires further evaluation, especially in peripheral neurons, prompting us to test if Sncg is a bona fide PPARγ target in murine adipocytes and peripheral somatosensory neurons derived from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Sncg mRNA was decreased in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (~68%) by rosiglitazone, and this effect was diminished by the PPARγ antagonist T0070907. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed PPARγ protein binding at two promoter sequences of Sncg during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. Rosiglitazone did not affect Sncg mRNA expression in murine cultured DRG neurons. In subcutaneous human WAT samples from two cohorts treated with pioglitazone (greater than 11 wks), SNCG mRNA expression was reduced, albeit highly variable and most evident in type 2 diabetes. Leptin (Lep) expression, thought to be coordinately-regulated with Sncg based on correlations in human adipose tissue, was also reduced in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by rosiglitazone. However, Lep was unaffected by PPARγ antagonist, and the LXR agonist T0901317 significantly reduced Lep expression (~64%) while not impacting Sncg. The results support the concept that synuclein-γ shares some, but not all, gene regulators with leptin and is a PPARγ target in adipocytes but not DRG neurons. Regulation of synuclein-γ by cues such as PPARγ agonism in adipocytes is logical based on recent evidence for an important role for synuclein-γ in the maintenance and dynamics of adipocyte lipid droplets.
|Deacetylase inhibitors repress STAT5-mediated transcription by interfering with bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein function.|
Pinz, S; Unser, S; Buob, D; Fischer, P; Jobst, B; Rascle, A
Nucleic acids research 43 3524-45 2015
Signal transducer and activator of transcription STAT5 is essential for the regulation of proliferation and survival genes. Its activity is tightly regulated through cytokine signaling and is often upregulated in cancer. We showed previously that the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) inhibits STAT5-mediated transcription by preventing recruitment of the transcriptional machinery at a step following STAT5 binding to DNA. The mechanism and factors involved in this inhibition remain unknown. We now show that deacetylase inhibitors do not target STAT5 acetylation, as we initially hypothesized. Instead, they induce a rapid increase in global histone acetylation apparently resulting in the delocalization of the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein Brd2 and of the Brd2-associated factor TBP to hyperacetylated chromatin. Treatment with the BET inhibitor (+)-JQ1 inhibited expression of STAT5 target genes, supporting a role of BET proteins in the regulation of STAT5 activity. Accordingly, chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Brd2 is associated with the transcriptionally active STAT5 target gene Cis and is displaced upon TSA treatment. Our data therefore indicate that Brd2 is required for the proper recruitment of the transcriptional machinery at STAT5 target genes and that deacetylase inhibitors suppress STAT5-mediated transcription by interfering with Brd2 function.
|How was this antibody made? What modifications will it recognize?||The Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 was raised against the tetra acetylated H4. This antibody will recognize intermediately acetylated H4, but we are unsure what the reactivity for the antibody is against tetra-acetylated H4. We know it will not recognize acetylation on lysine 16, however it does recognize acetylation on the other three sites. A protein does not require acetylation on all four sites for this antibody to recognize it.|