Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, T, Eu||WB, ICC, ChIP||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µL|
References | 503 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Epigenetic synergy between decitabine and platinum derivatives. |
Qin, T; Si, J; Raynal, NJ; Wang, X; Gharibyan, V; Ahmed, S; Hu, X; Jin, C; Lu, Y; Shu, J; Estecio, MR; Jelinek, J; Issa, JP
Clinical epigenetics 7 97 2015
Aberrant epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes has been recognized as a driving force in cancer. Epigenetic drugs such as the DNA methylation inhibitor decitabine reactivate genes and are effective in myeloid leukemia, but resistance often develops and efficacy in solid tumors is limited. To improve their clinical efficacy, we searched among approved anti-cancer drugs for an epigenetic synergistic combination with decitabine.We used the YB5 cell line, a clonal derivative of the SW48 colon cancer cell line that contains a single copy of a hypermethylated cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter driving green fluorescent protein (GFP) to screen for drug-induced gene reactivation and synergy with decitabine. None of the 16 anti-cancer drugs tested had effects on their own. However, in combination with decitabine, platinum compounds showed striking synergy in activating GFP. This was dose dependent, observed both in concurrent and sequential combinations, and also seen with other alkylating agents. Clinically achievable concentrations of carboplatin at (25 μM) and decitabine reactivated GFP in 28 % of the YB5 cells as compared to 15 % with decitabine alone. Epigenetic synergy was also seen at endogenously hypermethylated tumor suppressor genes such as MLH1 and PDLIM4. Genome-wide studies showed that reactivation of hypermethylated genes by the combination was significantly better than that induced by decitabine alone or carboplatin alone. Platinum compounds did not enhance decitabine-induced hypomethylation. Rather, we found significantly inhibited HP1α expression by carboplatin and the combination. This was accompanied by increased histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) trimethylation and histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) acetylation at reactivated genes (P less than 0.0001) and reduced occupancy by methyl-binding proteins including MeCP2 and methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) (P less than 0.0001).Our results suggest that the combination of decitabine with platinum analogs shows epigenetic synergy that might be exploited in the treatment of different cancers.
|A comprehensive epigenome map of Plasmodium falciparum reveals unique mechanisms of transcriptional regulation and identifies H3K36me2 as a global mark of gene suppression. |
Karmodiya, K; Pradhan, SJ; Joshi, B; Jangid, R; Reddy, PC; Galande, S
Epigenetics & chromatin 8 32 2015
Role of epigenetic mechanisms towards regulation of the complex life cycle/pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria, has been poorly understood. To elucidate stage-specific epigenetic regulation, we performed genome-wide mapping of multiple histone modifications of P. falciparum. Further to understand the differences in transcription regulation in P. falciparum and its host, human, we compared their histone modification profiles.Our comprehensive comparative analysis suggests distinct mode of transcriptional regulation in malaria parasite by virtue of poised genes and differential histone modifications. Furthermore, analysis of histone modification profiles predicted 562 genes producing anti-sense RNAs and 335 genes having bidirectional promoter activity, which raises the intriguing possibility of RNA-mediated regulation of transcription in P. falciparum. Interestingly, we found that H3K36me2 acts as a global repressive mark and gene regulation is fine tuned by the ratio of activation marks to H3K36me2 in P. falciparum. This novel mechanism of gene regulation is supported by the fact that knockout of SET genes (responsible for H3K36 methylation) leads to up-regulation of genes with highest occupancy of H3K36me2 in wild-type P. falciparum. Moreover, virulence (var) genes are mostly poised and marked by a unique set of activation (H4ac) and repression (H3K9me3) marks, which are mutually exclusive to other Plasmodium housekeeping genes.Our study reveals unique plasticity in the epigenetic regulation in P. falciparum which can influence parasite virulence and pathogenicity. The observed differences in the histone code and transcriptional regulation in P. falciparum and its host will open new avenues for epigenetic drug development against malaria parasite.
|Nanocurcumin Prevents Hypoxia Induced Stress in Primary Human Ventricular Cardiomyocytes by Maintaining Mitochondrial Homeostasis. |
Nehra, S; Bhardwaj, V; Ganju, L; Saraswat, D
PloS one 10 e0139121 2015
Hypoxia induced oxidative stress incurs pathophysiological changes in hypertrophied cardiomyocytes by promoting translocation of p53 to mitochondria. Here, we investigate the cardio-protective efficacy of nanocurcumin in protecting primary human ventricular cardiomyocytes (HVCM) from hypoxia induced damages. Hypoxia induced hypertrophy was confirmed by FITC-phenylalanine uptake assay, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) levels and cell size measurements. Hypoxia induced translocation of p53 was investigated by using mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore blocker cyclosporin A (blocks entry of p53 to mitochondria) and confirmed by western blot and immunofluorescence. Mitochondrial damage in hypertrophied HVCM cells was evaluated by analysing bio-energetic, anti-oxidant and metabolic function and substrate switching form lipids to glucose. Nanocurcumin prevented translocation of p53 to mitochondria by stabilizing mitochondrial membrane potential and de-stressed hypertrophied HVCM cells by significant restoration in lactate, acetyl-coenzyme A, pyruvate and glucose content along with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPKα) activity. Significant restoration in glucose and modulation of GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 levels confirmed that nanocurcumin mediated prevention of substrate switching. Nanocurcumin prevented of mitochondrial stress as confirmed by c-fos/c-jun/p53 signalling. The data indicates decrease in p-300 histone acetyl transferase (HAT) mediated histone acetylation and GATA-4 activation as pharmacological targets of nanocurcumin in preventing hypoxia induced hypertrophy. The study provides an insight into propitious therapeutic effects of nanocurcumin in cardio-protection and usability in clinical applications.
|miR-142-5p and miR-130a-3p are regulated by IL-4 and IL-13 and control profibrogenic macrophage program. |
Su, S; Zhao, Q; He, C; Huang, D; Liu, J; Chen, F; Chen, J; Liao, JY; Cui, X; Zeng, Y; Yao, H; Su, F; Liu, Q; Jiang, S; Song, E
Nature communications 6 8523 2015
Macrophages play a pivotal role in tissue fibrogenesis, which underlies the pathogenesis of many end-stage chronic inflammatory diseases. MicroRNAs are key regulators of immune cell functions, but their roles in macrophage's fibrogenesis have not been characterized. Here we show that IL-4 and IL-13 induce miR-142-5p and downregulate miR-130a-3p in macrophages; these changes sustain the profibrogenic effect of macrophages. In vitro, miR-142-5p mimic prolongs STAT6 phosphorylation by targeting its negative regulator, SOCS1. Blocking miR-130a relieves its inhibition of PPARγ, which coordinates STAT6 signalling. In vivo, inhibiting miR-142-5p and increasing miR-130a-3p expression with locked nucleic acid-modified oligonucleotides inhibits CCL4-induced liver fibrosis and bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice. Furthermore, macrophages from the tissue samples of patients with liver cirrhosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis display increased miR-142-5p and decreased miR-130a-3p expression. Therefore, miR-142-5p and miR-130a-3p regulate macrophage profibrogenic gene expression in chronic inflammation.
|Mechanistic analysis of the role of bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) in BRD4-NUT oncoprotein-induced transcriptional activation. |
Wang, R; You, J
The Journal of biological chemistry 290 2744-58 2015
NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare but highly aggressive cancer typically caused by the translocation t(15;19), which results in the formation of the BRD4-NUT fusion oncoprotein. Previous studies have demonstrated that fusion of the NUT protein with the double bromodomains of BRD4 may significantly alter the cellular gene expression profile to contribute to NMC tumorigenesis. However, the mechanistic details of this BRD4-NUT function remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined the NUT function in transcriptional regulation by targeting it to a LacO transgene array integrated in U2OS 2-6-3 cells, which allow us to visualize how NUT alters the in situ gene transcription dynamic. Using this system, we demonstrated that the NUT protein tethered to the LacO locus recruits p300/CREB-binding protein (CBP), induces histone hyperacetylation, and enriches BRD4 to the transgene array chromatin foci. We also discovered that, in BRD4-NUT expressed in NMC cells, the NUT moiety of the fusion protein anchored to chromatin by the double bromodomains also stimulates histone hyperacetylation, which causes BRD4 to bind tighter to chromatin. Consequently, multiple BRD4-interacting factors are recruited to the NUT-associated chromatin locus to activate in situ transgene expression. This gene transcription function was repressed by either expression of a dominant negative inhibitor of the p300-NUT interaction or treatment with (+)-JQ1, which dissociates BRD4 from the LacO chromatin locus. Our data support a model in which BRD4-NUT-stimulated histone hyperacetylation recruits additional BRD4 and interacting partners to support transcriptional activation, which underlies the BRD4-NUT oncogenic mechanism in NMC.
|Loss of the Notch effector RBPJ promotes tumorigenesis. |
Kulic, I; Robertson, G; Chang, L; Baker, JH; Lockwood, WW; Mok, W; Fuller, M; Fournier, M; Wong, N; Chou, V; Robinson, MD; Chun, HJ; Gilks, B; Kempkes, B; Thomson, TA; Hirst, M; Minchinton, AI; Lam, WL; Jones, S; Marra, M; Karsan, A
The Journal of experimental medicine 212 37-52 2015
Aberrant Notch activity is oncogenic in several malignancies, but it is unclear how expression or function of downstream elements in the Notch pathway affects tumor growth. Transcriptional regulation by Notch is dependent on interaction with the DNA-binding transcriptional repressor, RBPJ, and consequent derepression or activation of associated gene promoters. We show here that RBPJ is frequently depleted in human tumors. Depletion of RBPJ in human cancer cell lines xenografted into immunodeficient mice resulted in activation of canonical Notch target genes, and accelerated tumor growth secondary to reduced cell death. Global analysis of activated regions of the genome, as defined by differential acetylation of histone H4 (H4ac), revealed that the cell death pathway was significantly dysregulated in RBPJ-depleted tumors. Analysis of transcription factor binding data identified several transcriptional activators that bind promoters with differential H4ac in RBPJ-depleted cells. Functional studies demonstrated that NF-κB and MYC were essential for survival of RBPJ-depleted cells. Thus, loss of RBPJ derepresses target gene promoters, allowing Notch-independent activation by alternate transcription factors that promote tumorigenesis.
|A vlincRNA participates in senescence maintenance by relieving H2AZ-mediated repression at the INK4 locus. |
Lazorthes, S; Vallot, C; Briois, S; Aguirrebengoa, M; Thuret, JY; St Laurent, G; Rougeulle, C; Kapranov, P; Mann, C; Trouche, D; Nicolas, E
Nature communications 6 5971 2015
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play major roles in proper chromatin organization and function. Senescence, a strong anti-proliferative process and a major anticancer barrier, is associated with dramatic chromatin reorganization in heterochromatin foci. Here we analyze strand-specific transcriptome changes during oncogene-induced human senescence. Strikingly, while differentially expressed RNAs are mostly repressed during senescence, ncRNAs belonging to the recently described vlincRNA (very long intergenic ncRNA) class are mainly activated. We show that VAD, a novel antisense vlincRNA strongly induced during senescence, is required for the maintenance of senescence features. VAD modulates chromatin structure in cis and activates gene expression in trans at the INK4 locus, which encodes cell cycle inhibitors important for senescence-associated cell proliferation arrest. Importantly, VAD inhibits the incorporation of the repressive histone variant H2A.Z at INK4 gene promoters in senescent cells. Our data underline the importance of vlincRNAs as sensors of cellular environment changes and as mediators of the correct transcriptional response.
|Characterization of BRD4 during mammalian postmeiotic sperm development. |
Bryant, JM; Donahue, G; Wang, X; Meyer-Ficca, M; Luense, LJ; Weller, AH; Bartolomei, MS; Blobel, GA; Meyer, RG; Garcia, BA; Berger, SL
Molecular and cellular biology 35 1433-48 2015
During spermiogenesis, the postmeiotic phase of mammalian spermatogenesis, transcription is progressively repressed as nuclei of haploid spermatids are compacted through a dramatic chromatin reorganization involving hyperacetylation and replacement of most histones with protamines. Although BRDT functions in transcription and histone removal in spermatids, it is unknown whether other BET family proteins play a role. Immunofluorescence of spermatogenic cells revealed BRD4 in a ring around the nuclei of spermatids containing hyperacetylated histones. The ring lies directly adjacent to the acroplaxome, the cytoskeletal base of the acrosome, previously linked to chromatin reorganization. The BRD4 ring does not form in acrosomal mutant mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing in spermatids revealed enrichment of BRD4 and acetylated histones at the promoters of active genes. BRD4 and BRDT show distinct and synergistic binding patterns, with a pronounced enrichment of BRD4 at spermatogenesis-specific genes. Direct association of BRD4 with acetylated H4 decreases in late spermatids as acetylated histones are removed from the condensing nucleus in a wave following the progressing acrosome. These data provide evidence of a prominent transcriptional role for BRD4 and suggest a possible removal mechanism for chromatin components from the genome via the progressing acrosome as transcription is repressed and chromatin is compacted during spermiogenesis.
|Evaluation of the synuclein-γ (SNCG) gene as a PPARγ target in murine adipocytes, dorsal root ganglia somatosensory neurons, and human adipose tissue. |
Dunn, TN; Akiyama, T; Lee, HW; Kim, JB; Knotts, TA; Smith, SR; Sears, DD; Carstens, E; Adams, SH
PloS one 10 e0115830 2015
Recent evidence in adipocytes points to a role for synuclein-γ in metabolism and lipid droplet dynamics, but interestingly this factor is also robustly expressed in peripheral neurons. Specific regulation of the synuclein-γ gene (Sncg) by PPARγ requires further evaluation, especially in peripheral neurons, prompting us to test if Sncg is a bona fide PPARγ target in murine adipocytes and peripheral somatosensory neurons derived from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Sncg mRNA was decreased in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (~68%) by rosiglitazone, and this effect was diminished by the PPARγ antagonist T0070907. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed PPARγ protein binding at two promoter sequences of Sncg during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. Rosiglitazone did not affect Sncg mRNA expression in murine cultured DRG neurons. In subcutaneous human WAT samples from two cohorts treated with pioglitazone (greater than 11 wks), SNCG mRNA expression was reduced, albeit highly variable and most evident in type 2 diabetes. Leptin (Lep) expression, thought to be coordinately-regulated with Sncg based on correlations in human adipose tissue, was also reduced in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by rosiglitazone. However, Lep was unaffected by PPARγ antagonist, and the LXR agonist T0901317 significantly reduced Lep expression (~64%) while not impacting Sncg. The results support the concept that synuclein-γ shares some, but not all, gene regulators with leptin and is a PPARγ target in adipocytes but not DRG neurons. Regulation of synuclein-γ by cues such as PPARγ agonism in adipocytes is logical based on recent evidence for an important role for synuclein-γ in the maintenance and dynamics of adipocyte lipid droplets.
|Deacetylase inhibitors repress STAT5-mediated transcription by interfering with bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein function. |
Pinz, S; Unser, S; Buob, D; Fischer, P; Jobst, B; Rascle, A
Nucleic acids research 43 3524-45 2015
Signal transducer and activator of transcription STAT5 is essential for the regulation of proliferation and survival genes. Its activity is tightly regulated through cytokine signaling and is often upregulated in cancer. We showed previously that the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) inhibits STAT5-mediated transcription by preventing recruitment of the transcriptional machinery at a step following STAT5 binding to DNA. The mechanism and factors involved in this inhibition remain unknown. We now show that deacetylase inhibitors do not target STAT5 acetylation, as we initially hypothesized. Instead, they induce a rapid increase in global histone acetylation apparently resulting in the delocalization of the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein Brd2 and of the Brd2-associated factor TBP to hyperacetylated chromatin. Treatment with the BET inhibitor (+)-JQ1 inhibited expression of STAT5 target genes, supporting a role of BET proteins in the regulation of STAT5 activity. Accordingly, chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Brd2 is associated with the transcriptionally active STAT5 target gene Cis and is displaced upon TSA treatment. Our data therefore indicate that Brd2 is required for the proper recruitment of the transcriptional machinery at STAT5 target genes and that deacetylase inhibitors suppress STAT5-mediated transcription by interfering with Brd2 function.
|Conserved Epigenetic Mechanisms Could Play a Key Role in Regulation of Photosynthesis and Development-Related Genes during Needle Development of Pinus radiata. |
Valledor, L; Pascual, J; Meijón, M; Escandón, M; Cañal, MJ
PloS one 10 e0126405 2015
Needle maturation is a complex process that involves cell growth, differentiation and tissue remodelling towards the acquisition of full physiological competence. Leaf induction mechanisms are well known; however, those underlying the acquisition of physiological competence are still poorly understood, especially in conifers. We studied the specific epigenetic regulation of genes defining organ function (PrRBCS and PrRBCA) and competence and stress response (PrCSDP2 and PrSHMT4) during three stages of needle development and one de-differentiated control. Gene-specific changes in DNA methylation and histone were analysed by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). The expression of PrRBCA and PrRBCS increased during needle maturation and was associated with the progressive loss of H3K9me3, H3K27me3 and the increase in AcH4. The maturation-related silencing of PrSHMT4 was correlated with increased H3K9me3 levels, and the repression of PrCSDP2, to the interplay between AcH4, H3K27me3, H3K9me3 and specific DNA methylation. The employ of HAT and HDAC inhibitors led to a further determination of the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of our target genes. The integration of these results with high-throughput analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa suggests that the specific epigenetic mechanisms that regulate photosynthetic genes are conserved between the analysed species.
|Canine spontaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinomas represent their human counterparts at the molecular level. |
Liu, D; Xiong, H; Ellis, AE; Northrup, NC; Dobbin, KK; Shin, DM; Zhao, S
PLoS genetics 11 e1005277 2015
Spontaneous canine head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents an excellent model of human HNSCC but is greatly understudied. To better understand and utilize this valuable resource, we performed a pilot study that represents its first genome-wide characterization by investigating 12 canine HNSCC cases, of which 9 are oral, via high density array comparative genomic hybridization and RNA-seq. The analyses reveal that these canine cancers recapitulate many molecular features of human HNSCC. These include analogous genomic copy number abnormality landscapes and sequence mutation patterns, recurrent alteration of known HNSCC genes and pathways (e.g., cell cycle, PI3K/AKT signaling), and comparably extensive heterogeneity. Amplification or overexpression of protein kinase genes, matrix metalloproteinase genes, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition genes TWIST1 and SNAI1 are also prominent in these canine tumors. This pilot study, along with a rapidly growing body of literature on canine cancer, reemphasizes the potential value of spontaneous canine cancers in HNSCC basic and translational research.
|Class I histone deacetylase inhibitors inhibit the retention of BRCA1 and 53BP1 at the site of DNA damage. |
Fukuda, T; Wu, W; Okada, M; Maeda, I; Kojima, Y; Hayami, R; Miyoshi, Y; Tsugawa, K; Ohta, T
Cancer science 106 1050-6 2015
BRCA1 and 53BP1 antagonistically regulate homology-directed repair (HDR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A directly inhibits the retention of 53BP1 at DSB sites by acetylating histone H4 (H4ac), which interferes with 53BP1 binding to dimethylated histone H4 Lys20 (H4K20me2). Conversely, we recently found that the retention of the BRCA1/BARD1 complex is also affected by another methylated histone residue, H3K9me2, which can be suppressed by the histone lysine methyltransferase (HKMT) inhibitor UNC0638. Here, we investigate the effects of the class I HDAC inhibitors MS-275 and FK228 compared to UNC0638 on histone modifications and the DNA damage response. In addition to H4ac, the HDAC inhibitors induce H3K9ac and inhibit H3K9me2 at doses that do not affect the expression levels of DNA repair genes. By contrast, UNC0638 selectively inhibits H3K9me2 without affecting the levels of H3K9ac, H3K56ac or H4ac. Reflecting their effects on histone modifications, the HDAC inhibitors inhibit ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF) formation of BRCA1 and BARD1 as well as 53BP1 and RIF1, whereas UNC0638 suppresses IRIF formation of BRCA1 and BARD1 but not 53BP1 and RIF1. Although HDAC inhibitors suppressed HDR, they did not cooperate with the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib to block cancer cell growth, possibly due to simultaneous suppression of NHEJ pathway components. Collectively, these results suggest the mechanism by that HDAC inhibitors inhibit both the HDR and NHEJ pathways, whereas HKMT inhibitor inhibits only the HDR pathway; this finding may affect the chemosensitizing effects of the inhibitors.
|Epigenetic memory gained by priming with osteogenic induction medium improves osteogenesis and other properties of mesenchymal stem cells. |
Rui, Y; Xu, L; Chen, R; Zhang, T; Lin, S; Hou, Y; Liu, Y; Meng, F; Liu, Z; Ni, M; Tsang, KS; Yang, F; Wang, C; Chan, HC; Jiang, X; Li, G
Scientific reports 5 11056 2015
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are highly plastic cells that are able to transdifferentiate or dedifferentiate under appropriate conditions. In the present study, we reported here that after in vitro induction of osteogenic differentiation, MSCs could be reverted to a primitive stem cell population (dedifferentiated osteogenic MSCs, De-Os-MSCs) with improved cell survival, colony formation, osteogenic potential, migratory capacity and increased expression of Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2. Most importantly, our results showed great superiority of the De-Os-MSCs over untreated MSCs in ectopic bone formation in vivo. Furthermore, Nanog-knockdown in MSCs could reverse these enhanced properties in De-Os-MSCs in vitro, indicating a central role of Nanog in the transcriptional network. In addition, epigenetic regulations including DNA methylation and histone modifications may play important roles in regulating the de-osteogenic differentiation process. And we found decreased methylation and promoter accrual of activating histone marks, such as H3K4me3 and H4ac on both Nanog and Oct4 gene promoters. Taken together, our study demonstrated that epigenetic memory in De-Os-MSCs gained by priming with osteogenic induction medium favored their differentiation along osteoblastic lineage with improved cell survival and migratory abilities, which may have application potential in enhancing their regenerative capacity in mammals.
|Transcriptional regulation of the human TNFSF11 gene in T cells via a cell type-selective set of distal enhancers. |
Bishop, KA; Wang, X; Coy, HM; Meyer, MB; Gumperz, JE; Pike, JW
Journal of cellular biochemistry 116 320-30 2015
In addition to osteoblast lineage cells, the TNF-like factor receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) is expressed in both B and T cells and may play a role in bone resorption. Rankl gene (Tnfsf11) expression in mouse T cells is mediated through multiple distal elements marked by increased transcription factor occupancy, histone tail acetylation, and RNA polymerase II recruitment. Little is known, however, of the regulation of human TNFSF11 in T cells. Accordingly, we examined the consequence of T cell activation on the expression of this factor both in Jurkat cells and in primary human T cells. We then explored the mechanism of this regulation by scanning over 400 kb of DNA surrounding the TNFSF11 locus for regulatory enhancers using ChIP-chip analysis. Histone H3/H4 acetylation enrichment identified putative regulatory regions located between -170 and -220 kb upstream of the human TNFSF11 TSS that we designated the human T cell control region (hTCCR). This region showed high sequence conservation with the mouse TCCR. Inhibition of MEK1/2 by U0126 resulted in decreased RANKL expression suggesting that stimulation through MEK1/2 was a prerequisite. ChIP-chip analysis also revealed that c-FOS was recruited to the hTCCR as well. Importantly, both the human TNFSF11 D5a/b (RLD5a/b) enhancer and segments of the hTCCR mediated robust inducible reporter activity following TCR activation. Finally, SNPs implicated in diseases characterized by dysregulated BMD co-localized to the hTCCR region. We conclude that the hTCCR region contains a cell-selective set of enhancers that plays an integral role in the transcriptional regulation of the TNFSF11 gene in human T cells.
|SCARECROW-LIKE15 interacts with HISTONE DEACETYLASE19 and is essential for repressing the seed maturation programme. |
Gao, MJ; Li, X; Huang, J; Gropp, GM; Gjetvaj, B; Lindsay, DL; Wei, S; Coutu, C; Chen, Z; Wan, XC; Hannoufa, A; Lydiate, DJ; Gruber, MY; Chen, ZJ; Hegedus, DD
Nature communications 6 7243 2015
Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is critical for controlling embryonic properties during the embryo-to-seedling phase transition. Here we report that a histone deacetylase19 (HDA19)-associated regulator, scarecrow-like15 (SCL15), is essential for repressing the seed maturation programme in vegetative tissues. SCL15 is expressed in and GFP-tagged SCL15 predominantly localizes to, the vascular bundles particularly in the phloem companion cells and neighbouring specialized cells. Mutation of SCL15 leads to a global shift in gene expression in seedlings to a profile resembling late embryogenesis in seeds. In scl15 seedlings, many genes involved in seed maturation are markedly derepressed with concomitant accumulation of seed 12S globulin; this is correlated with elevated levels of histone acetylation at a subset of seed-specific loci. SCL15 physically interacts with HDA19 and direct targets of HDA19-SCL15 association are identified. These studies reveal that SCL15 acts as an HDA19-associated regulator to repress embryonic traits in seedlings.
|HDAC8, A Potential Therapeutic Target for the Treatment of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (MPNST). |
Lopez, G; Bill, KL; Bid, HK; Braggio, D; Constantino, D; Prudner, B; Zewdu, A; Batte, K; Lev, D; Pollock, RE
PloS one 10 e0133302 2015
HDAC isoform-specific inhibitors may improve the therapeutic window while limiting toxicities. Developing inhibitors against class I isoforms poses difficulties as they share high homology among their catalytic sites; however, HDAC8 is structurally unique compared to other class I isoforms. HDAC8 inhibitors are novel compounds and have affinity for class I HDAC isoforms demonstrating anti-cancer effects; little is known about their activity in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). Recently, we demonstrated anti-MPNST efficacy of HDAC8i in human and murine-derived MPNST pre-clinical models; we now seek to consider the potential therapeutic inhibition of HDAC8 in MPNST.Four Human MPNST cell lines, a murine-derived MPNST cell line, and two HDAC8 inhibitors (PCI-34051, PCI-48012; Pharmacyclics, Inc. Sunnyvale, CA) were studied. Proliferation was determined using MTS and clonogenic assays. Effects on cell cycle were determined via PI FACS analysis; effects on apoptosis were determined using Annexin V-PI FACS analysis and cleaved caspase 3 expression. In vivo growth effects of HDAC8i were evaluated using MPNST xenograft models. 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to identify potential HDAC8 deacetylation substrates.HDAC8i induced cell growth inhibition and marked S-phase cell cycle arrest in human and murine-derived MPNST cells. Relative to control, HDAC8i induced apoptosis in both human and murine-derived MPNST cells. HDAC8i exhibited significant effects on MPNST xenograft growth (p=0.001) and tumor weight (p=0.02). Four potential HDAC8 substrate targets were identified using a proteomic approach: PARK7, HMGB1, PGAM1, PRDX6.MPNST is an aggressive sarcoma that is notoriously therapy-resistant, hence the urgent need for improved anti-MPNST therapies. HDAC8 inhibition may be useful for MPNST by improving efficacy while limiting toxicities as compared to pan-HDACis.
|Epigenetic regulatory elements associate with specific histone modifications to prevent silencing of telomeric genes. |
Majocchi, S; Aritonovska, E; Mermod, N
Nucleic acids research 42 193-204 2014
In eukaryotic cells, transgene expression levels may be limited by an unfavourable chromatin structure at the integration site. Epigenetic regulators are DNA sequences which may protect transgenes from such position effect. We evaluated different epigenetic regulators for their ability to protect transgene expression at telomeres, which are commonly associated to low or inconsistent expression because of their repressive chromatin environment. Although to variable extents, matrix attachment regions (MARs), ubiquitous chromatin opening element (UCOE) and the chicken cHS4 insulator acted as barrier elements, protecting a telomeric-distal transgene from silencing. MARs also increased the probability of silent gene reactivation in time-course experiments. Additionally, all MARs improved the level of expression in non-silenced cells, unlike other elements. MARs were associated to histone marks usually linked to actively expressed genes, especially acetylation of histone H3 and H4, suggesting that they may prevent the spread of silencing chromatin by imposing acetylation marks on nearby nucleosomes. Alternatively, an UCOE was found to act by preventing deposition of repressive chromatin marks. We conclude that epigenetic DNA elements used to enhance and stabilize transgene expression all have specific epigenetic signature that might be at the basis of their mode of action.
|Polycomb binding precedes early-life stress responsive DNA methylation at the Avp enhancer. |
Murgatroyd, C; Spengler, D
PloS one 9 e90277 2014
Early-life stress (ELS) in mice causes sustained hypomethylation at the downstream Avp enhancer, subsequent overexpression of hypothalamic Avp and increased stress responsivity. The sequence of events leading to Avp enhancer methylation is presently unknown. Here, we used an embryonic stem cell-derived model of hypothalamic-like differentiation together with in vivo experiments to show that binding of polycomb complexes (PcG) preceded the emergence of ELS-responsive DNA methylation and correlated with gene silencing. At the same time, PcG occupancy associated with the presence of Tet proteins preventing DNA methylation. Early hypothalamic-like differentiation triggered PcG eviction, DNA-methyltransferase recruitment and enhancer methylation. Concurrently, binding of the Methyl-CpG-binding and repressor protein MeCP2 increased at the enhancer although Avp expression during later stages of differentiation and the perinatal period continued to increase. Overall, we provide evidence of a new role of PcG proteins in priming ELS-responsive DNA methylation at the Avp enhancer prior to epigenetic programming consistent with the idea that PcG proteins are part of a flexible silencing system during neuronal development.
|Nutrient-sensing nuclear receptors coordinate autophagy. |
Lee, JM; Wagner, M; Xiao, R; Kim, KH; Feng, D; Lazar, MA; Moore, DD
Nature 516 112-5 2014
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that recycles nutrients upon starvation and maintains cellular energy homeostasis. Its acute regulation by nutrient-sensing signalling pathways is well described, but its longer-term transcriptional regulation is not. The nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) are activated in the fasted and fed liver, respectively. Here we show that both PPARα and FXR regulate hepatic autophagy in mice. Pharmacological activation of PPARα reverses the normal suppression of autophagy in the fed state, inducing autophagic lipid degradation, or lipophagy. This response is lost in PPARα knockout (Ppara(-/-), also known as Nr1c1(-/-)) mice, which are partially defective in the induction of autophagy by fasting. Pharmacological activation of the bile acid receptor FXR strongly suppresses the induction of autophagy in the fasting state, and this response is absent in FXR knockout (Fxr(-/-), also known as Nr1h4(-/-)) mice, which show a partial defect in suppression of hepatic autophagy in the fed state. PPARα and FXR compete for binding to shared sites in autophagic gene promoters, with opposite transcriptional outputs. These results reveal complementary, interlocking mechanisms for regulation of autophagy by nutrient status.
|Epigenetics of hyper-responsiveness to allergen challenge following intrauterine growth retardation rat. |
Xu, XF; Hu, QY; Liang, LF; Wu, L; Gu, WZ; Tang, LL; Fu, LC; Du, LZ
Respiratory research 15 137 2014
Epidemiological studies have revealed that intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) or low birth weight is linked to the later development of asthma. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms play an important role in the fetal origins of adult disease. However, little is known regarding the correlation between epigenetic regulation and the development of asthma following IUGR.An IUGR and ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitization/challenge rat model was used to study whether epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the development of asthma following IUGR.Maternal nutrient restriction increased histone acetylation levels of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene promoter in lung tissue of offspring, but did not cause significant alterations of DNA methylation. The effect was maintained until 10 weeks after birth. Furthermore, these epigenetic changes may have induced IUGR individuals to be highly sensitive to OVA challenge later in life, resulting in more significant changes related to asthma.These findings suggest that epigenetic mechanisms might be closely associated with the development of asthma following IUGR, providing further insight for improved prevention of asthma induced by environmental factors.
|Progesterone receptor activation downregulates GATA3 by transcriptional repression and increased protein turnover promoting breast tumor growth. |
Izzo, F; Mercogliano, F; Venturutti, L; Tkach, M; Inurrigarro, G; Schillaci, R; Cerchietti, L; Elizalde, PV; Proietti, CJ
Breast cancer research : BCR 16 491 2014
The transcription factor GATA3 is involved in mammary gland development and is crucial for the maintenance of the differentiated status of luminal epithelial cells. The role of GATA3 in breast cancer as a tumor suppressor has been established, although insights into the mechanism of GATA3 expression loss are still required.Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were conducted to study progestin modulation of recruitment of transcription factors to GATA3 promoter. We performed western blot and reverse RT-qPCR experiments to explore progestin regulation of GATA3 protein and mRNA expression respectively. Confocal microscopy and in vitro phosphorylation studies were conducted to examine progestin capacity to induce GATA3 serine phosphorylation in its 308 residue. GATA3 participation in progestin-induced breast cancer growth was addressed in in vitro proliferation and in vivo tumor growth experiments.In this study, we demonstrate that progestin-activated progesterone receptor (PR) reduces GATA3 expression through regulation at the transcriptional and post-translational levels in breast cancer cells. In the former mechanism, the histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 is co-recruited with activated PR to a putative progesterone response element in the GATA3 proximal promoter, increasing H3K27me3 levels and inducing chromatin compaction, resulting in decreased GATA3 mRNA levels. This transcriptional regulation is coupled with increased GATA3 protein turnover through progestin-induced GATA3 phosphorylation at serine 308 followed by 26S proteasome-mediated degradation. Both molecular mechanisms converge to accomplish decreased GATA3 expression levels in breast cancer cells upon PR activation. In addition, we demonstrated that decreased GATA3 levels are required for progestin-induced upregulation of cyclin A2, which mediates the G1 to S phase transition of the cell cycle and was reported to be associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. Finally, we showed that downregulation of GATA3 is required for progestin stimulation of both in vitro cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth.In the present study, we reveal that progestin-induced PR activation leads to loss of GATA3 expression in breast cancer cells through transcriptional and post-translational regulation. Importantly, we demonstrate that GATA3 downregulation is required for progestin-induced upregulation of cyclin A2 and for progestin-induced in vitro and in vivo breast cancer cell growth.
|Uncoupling transcription from covalent histone modification. |
Zhang, H; Gao, L; Anandhakumar, J; Gross, DS
PLoS genetics 10 e1004202 2014
It is widely accepted that transcriptional regulation of eukaryotic genes is intimately coupled to covalent modifications of the underlying chromatin template, and in certain cases the functional consequences of these modifications have been characterized. Here we present evidence that gene activation in the silent heterochromatin of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can occur in the context of little, if any, covalent histone modification. Using a SIR-regulated heat shock-inducible transgene, hsp82-2001, and a natural drug-inducible subtelomeric gene, YFR057w, as models we demonstrate that substantial transcriptional induction (greater than 200-fold) can occur in the context of restricted histone loss and negligible levels of H3K4 trimethylation, H3K36 trimethylation and H3K79 dimethylation, modifications commonly linked to transcription initiation and elongation. Heterochromatic gene activation can also occur with minimal H3 and H4 lysine acetylation and without replacement of H2A with the transcription-linked variant H2A.Z. Importantly, absence of histone modification does not stem from reduced transcriptional output, since hsp82-ΔTATA, a euchromatic promoter mutant lacking a TATA box and with threefold lower induced transcription than heterochromatic hsp82-2001, is strongly hyperacetylated in response to heat shock. Consistent with negligible H3K79 dimethylation, dot1Δ cells lacking H3K79 methylase activity show unimpeded occupancy of RNA polymerase II within activated heterochromatic promoter and coding regions. Our results indicate that large increases in transcription can be observed in the virtual absence of histone modifications often thought necessary for gene activation.
|ATM increases activation-induced cytidine deaminase activity at downstream S regions during class-switch recombination. |
Khair, L; Guikema, JE; Linehan, EK; Ucher, AJ; Leus, NG; Ogilvie, C; Lou, Z; Schrader, CE; Stavnezer, J
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 192 4887-96 2014
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates Ab class-switch recombination (CSR) in activated B cells resulting in exchanging the IgH C region and improved Ab effector function. During CSR, AID instigates DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation in switch (S) regions located upstream of C region genes. DSBs are necessary for CSR, but improper regulation of DSBs can lead to chromosomal translocations that can result in B cell lymphoma. The protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is an important proximal regulator of the DNA damage response (DDR), and translocations involving S regions are increased in its absence. ATM phosphorylates H2AX, which recruits other DNA damage response (DDR) proteins, including mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (Mdc1) and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1), to sites of DNA damage. As these DDR proteins all function to promote repair and recombination of DSBs during CSR, we examined whether mouse splenic B cells deficient in these proteins would show alterations in S region DSBs when undergoing CSR. We find that in atm(-/-) cells Sμ DSBs are increased, whereas DSBs in downstream Sγ regions are decreased. We also find that mutations in the unrearranged Sγ3 segment are reduced in atm(-/-) cells. Our data suggest that ATM increases AID targeting and activity at downstream acceptor S regions during CSR and that in atm(-/-) cells Sμ DSBs accumulate as they lack a recombination partner.
|Vascular histone deacetylation by pharmacological HDAC inhibition. |
Rafehi, H; Balcerczyk, A; Lunke, S; Kaspi, A; Ziemann, M; Kn, H; Okabe, J; Khurana, I; Ooi, J; Khan, AW; Du, XJ; Chang, L; Haviv, I; Keating, ST; Karagiannis, TC; El-Osta, A
Genome research 24 1271-84 2014
HDAC inhibitors can regulate gene expression by post-translational modification of histone as well as nonhistone proteins. Often studied at single loci, increased histone acetylation is the paradigmatic mechanism of action. However, little is known of the extent of genome-wide changes in cells stimulated by the hydroxamic acids, TSA and SAHA. In this article, we map vascular chromatin modifications including histone H3 acetylation of lysine 9 and 14 (H3K9/14ac) using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq). Since acetylation-mediated gene expression is often associated with modification of other lysine residues, we also examined H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 as well as changes in CpG methylation (CpG-seq). RNA sequencing indicates the differential expression of ∼30% of genes, with almost equal numbers being up- and down-regulated. We observed broad deacetylation and gene expression changes conferred by TSA and SAHA mediated by the loss of EP300/CREBBP binding at multiple gene promoters. This study provides an important framework for HDAC inhibitor function in vascular biology and a comprehensive description of genome-wide deacetylation by pharmacological HDAC inhibition.
|Simultaneous downregulation of KLF5 and Fli1 is a key feature underlying systemic sclerosis. |
Noda, S; Asano, Y; Nishimura, S; Taniguchi, T; Fujiu, K; Manabe, I; Nakamura, K; Yamashita, T; Saigusa, R; Akamata, K; Takahashi, T; Ichimura, Y; Toyama, T; Tsuruta, D; Trojanowska, M; Nagai, R; Sato, S
Nature communications 5 5797 2014
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is manifested by fibrosis, vasculopathy and immune dysregulation. So far, a unifying hypothesis underpinning these pathological events remains unknown. Given that SSc is a multifactorial disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors, we focus on the two transcription factors, which modulate the fibrotic reaction and are epigenetically suppressed in SSc dermal fibroblasts, Friend leukaemia integration 1 (Fli1) and Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5). In addition to the Fli1 silencing-dependent collagen induction, the simultaneous knockdown of Fli1 and KLF5 synergistically enhances expression of connective tissue growth factor. Notably, mice with double heterozygous deficiency of Klf5 and Fli1 mimicking the epigenetic phenotype of SSc skin spontaneously recapitulate all the three features of SSc, including fibrosis and vasculopathy of the skin and lung, B-cell activation and autoantibody production. These studies implicate the epigenetic downregulation of Fli1 and KLF5 as a central event triggering the pathogenic triad of SSc.
|Histone acetyltransferase Enok regulates oocyte polarization by promoting expression of the actin nucleation factor spire. |
Huang, F; Paulson, A; Dutta, A; Venkatesh, S; Smolle, M; Abmayr, SM; Workman, JL
Genes & development 28 2750-63 2014
KAT6 histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are highly conserved in eukaryotes and have been shown to play important roles in transcriptional regulation. Here, we demonstrate that the Drosophila KAT6 Enok acetylates histone H3 Lys 23 (H3K23) in vitro and in vivo. Mutants lacking functional Enok exhibited defects in the localization of Oskar (Osk) to the posterior end of the oocyte, resulting in loss of germline formation and abdominal segments in the embryo. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis revealed that spire (spir) and maelstrom (mael), both required for the posterior localization of Osk in the oocyte, were down-regulated in enok mutants. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Enok is localized to and acetylates H3K23 at the spir and mael genes. Furthermore, Gal4-driven expression of spir in the germline can largely rescue the defective Osk localization in enok mutant ovaries. Our results suggest that the Enok-mediated H3K23 acetylation (H3K23Ac) promotes the expression of spir, providing a specific mechanism linking oocyte polarization to histone modification.
|IL-21 induces IL-22 production in CD4+ T cells. |
Yeste, A; Mascanfroni, ID; Nadeau, M; Burns, EJ; Tukpah, AM; Santiago, A; Wu, C; Patel, B; Kumar, D; Quintana, FJ
Nature communications 5 3753 2014
Interleukin (IL)-22 produced by innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and CD4+ T cells plays an important role in host defence and mucosal homeostasis, thus it is important to investigate the mechanisms that regulate IL-22 production. We investigated the regulation IL-22 production by CD4+ T cells. Here we show that IL-21 triggers IL-22, but not IL-17 production by CD4+ T cells. STAT3, activated by IL-21, controls the epigenetic status of the il22 promoter and its interaction with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Moreover, IL-21 and AhR signalling in T cells control IL-22 production and the development of dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis in ILC-deficient mice. Thus, we have identified IL-21 as an inducer of IL-22 production in CD4+ T cells in vitro and in vivo.
|DNA methylation analysis of the macrosatellite repeat associated with FSHD muscular dystrophy at single nucleotide level. |
Huichalaf, C; Micheloni, S; Ferri, G; Caccia, R; Gabellini, D
PloS one 9 e115278 2014
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most common inherited diseases of the skeletal muscle. It is characterized by asymmetric muscle weakness and variable penetrance. FSHD is linked to a reduction in copy number of the D4Z4 3.3 kb macrosatellite repeat, located in 4q35. This causes the epigenetic de-repression of FSHD candidate genes leading to disease. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism responsible for silencing of FSHD candidate genes in healthy subjects is not fully understood. While a role for DNA methylation has been suggested, so far there is limited information regarding the methylation status of the 325 CpGs contained in each D4Z4 unit. Using a human/rodent monochromosomal hybrid cell line containing a single human chromosome 4, we performed an in depth analysis of DNA methylation for the majority of the CpGs inside D4Z4 at single nucleotide level. We found that D4Z4 is not uniformly methylated and that the level of DNA methylation does not correlate with the density of CpG dinucleotides. Moreover, in several D4Z4 regions characterized by near complete methylation, we found specific unmethylated CpGs. These elements are enriched in transcription factor binding sites that could be involved in muscle-specific D4Z4 activity. Our approach also detected differential methylation among different D4Z4 units, suggesting that the D4Z4 array is a mosaic of euchromatic and heterochromatic domains. Finally, we found that DNA methylation and histone de-acetylation are required to maintain FSHD candidate genes repressed. Taken together, our data underscore new players involved in the epigenetic regulation of the FSHD locus that could be targeted for therapeutic purposes.
|Expression and functional analysis of the plant-specific histone deacetylase HDT701 in rice. |
Zhao, J; Zhang, J; Zhang, W; Wu, K; Zheng, F; Tian, L; Liu, X; Duan, J
Frontiers in plant science 5 764 2014
Reversible histone acetylation and deacetylation at the N-terminus of histone tails play a crucial role in regulating eukaryotic gene activity. Acetylation of core histones is associated with gene activation, whereas deacetylation of histone is often correlated with gene repression. The level of histone acetylation is antagonistically catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases citation(HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). In this work, we examined the subcellular localization, expression pattern and function of HDT701, a member of the plant-specific HD2-type histone deacetylase in rice. HDT701 is localized at the subcellular level in the nucleus. Histochemical GUS-staining analysis revealed that HDT701 is constitutively expressed throughout the life cycle of rice. Overexpression of HDT701 in rice decreases ABA, salt and osmotic stress resistance during seed germination. Delayed seed germination of HDT701 overexpression lines is associated with decreased histone H4 acetylation and down-regulated expression of GA biosynthetic genes. Moreover, overexpression of HDT701 in rice enhances salt and osmotic stress resistance during the seedling stage. Taken together, our findings suggested that HDT701 may play an important role in regulating seed germination in response to abiotic stresses in rice.
|A long non-coding RNA promotes full activation of adult gene expression in the chicken α-globin domain. |
Arriaga-Canon, C; Fonseca-Guzmán, Y; Valdes-Quezada, C; Arzate-Mejía, R; Guerrero, G; Recillas-Targa, F
Epigenetics 9 173-81 2014
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were recently shown to regulate chromatin remodelling activities. Their function in regulating gene expression switching during specific developmental stages is poorly understood. Here we describe a nuclear, non-coding transcript responsive for the stage-specific activation of the chicken adult α(D) globin gene. This non-coding transcript, named α-globin transcript long non-coding RNA (lncRNA-αGT) is transcriptionally upregulated in late stages of chicken development, when active chromatin marks the adult α(D) gene promoter. Accordingly, the lncRNA-αGT promoter drives erythroid-specific transcription. Furthermore, loss of function experiments showed that lncRNA-αGT is required for full activation of the α(D) adult gene and maintenance of transcriptionally active chromatin. These findings uncovered lncRNA-αGT as an important part of the switching from embryonic to adult α-globin gene expression, and suggest a function of lncRNA-αGT in contributing to the maintenance of adult α-globin gene expression by promoting an active chromatin structure.
|The natural chemopreventive agent sulforaphane inhibits STAT5 activity. |
Pinz, S; Unser, S; Rascle, A
PloS one 9 e99391 2014
Signal transducer and activator of transcription STAT5 is an essential mediator of cytokine, growth factor and hormone signaling. While its activity is tightly regulated in normal cells, its constitutive activation directly contributes to oncogenesis and is associated to a number of hematological and solid tumor cancers. We previously showed that deacetylase inhibitors can inhibit STAT5 transcriptional activity. We now investigated whether the dietary chemopreventive agent sulforaphane, known for its activity as deacetylase inhibitor, might also inhibit STAT5 activity and thus could act as a chemopreventive agent in STAT5-associated cancers. We describe here sulforaphane (SFN) as a novel STAT5 inhibitor. We showed that SFN, like the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA), can inhibit expression of STAT5 target genes in the B cell line Ba/F3, as well as in its transformed counterpart Ba/F3-1*6 and in the human leukemic cell line K562 both of which express a constitutively active form of STAT5. Similarly to TSA, SFN does not alter STAT5 initial activation by phosphorylation or binding to the promoter of specific target genes, in favor of a downstream transcriptional inhibitory effect. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that, in contrast to TSA however, SFN only partially impaired the recruitment of RNA polymerase II at STAT5 target genes and did not alter histone H3 and H4 acetylation, suggesting an inhibitory mechanism distinct from that of TSA. Altogether, our data revealed that the natural compound sulforaphane can inhibit STAT5 downstream activity, and as such represents an attractive cancer chemoprotective agent targeting the STAT5 signaling pathway.
|Heritability of fat accumulation in white adipocytes. |
Katz, LS; Geras-Raaka, E; Gershengorn, MC
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 307 E335-44 2014
Since individual cells from freshly isolated white adipose tissue (WAT) exhibit variable levels of fat accumulation, we attempted to determine which factor(s) cause this variation. We used primary WAT cells from adult mice and the mouse 3T3-L1 cell-line of preadipocytes for these studies. Cells were labeled with BODIPY (boron-dipyrromethene) lipid probe, a marker for fat accumulation in live cells, and sorted on a fluorescence-activated cell sorter into two populations exhibiting low or high BODIPY fluorescence intensity. After more than 12 doublings as dedifferentiated cells in growth medium, the sorted populations were exposed to adipogenic medium for 7 days and analyzed for BODIPY accumulation and mRNA expression of adipogenic markers. WAT-derived cells initially sorted to have low or high BODIPY fluorescence intensity maintained a similar low or high lipid phenotype after redifferentiation. Cell surface TSH receptor expression, which is known to increase when preadipocytes are differentiated, correlated with BODIPY staining in all states. mRNA levels of Pparγ, Srebp1c, aP2, and Pref1, key regulators of adipogenesis, and leptin, Glut4, Fasn, and Tshr, markers of adipocyte differentiation, correlated with the levels of fat accumulation. Overexpression of Pparγ in 3T3-L1 cells, as expected, caused cells from low- and high-BODIPY populations to accumulate more fat. More importantly, prior to differentiation, the endogenous Pparγ promoter exhibited higher levels of acetylated histone H3, an activatory modification, in high-BODIPY- compared with low-BODIPY-derived populations. We conclude that fat accumulation is a heritable trait in WAT and that epigenetic modification on the Pparγ promoter contributes to this heritability.
|FOXO3a potentiates hTERT gene expression by activating c-MYC and extends the replicative life-span of human fibroblast. |
Yamashita, S; Ogawa, K; Ikei, T; Fujiki, T; Katakura, Y
PloS one 9 e101864 2014
In our previous studies, we reported that SIRT1 prevents cellular senescence in human fibroblast, and that SIRT1-induced inhibition of cellular senescence is due to enhanced hTERT gene expression. In this study, we investigate the molecular mechanisms behind SIRT1-induced potentiation of hTERT transcription and show that FOXO3a functions downstream of SIRT1 and prevents the induction of cellular senescence by enhancing hTERT gene expression. Furthermore, we found that FOXO3a-induced potentiation of hTERT gene expression is regulated in a c-MYC/E-box dependent manner. In addition, we found that FOXO3a binds to the novel binding element in the c-MYC promoter, and this interaction activates the transcription of the c-MYC gene. The resulting increase in c-MYC leads to higher levels of c-MYC recruited to the hTERT promoter and, in turn, activates hTERT gene expression. Taken together, this pathway might constitute the molecular basis for the anti-senescence effects of SIRT1 and FOXO3a.
|TGF-β-mediated Foxp3 gene expression is cooperatively regulated by Stat5, Creb, and AP-1 through CNS2. |
Ogawa, C; Tone, Y; Tsuda, M; Peter, C; Waldmann, H; Tone, M
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 192 475-83 2014
Foxp3 plays an important role in the development and the function of regulatory T cells (Treg). Both the induction and maintenance of Foxp3 gene expression are controlled by several regulatory regions including two enhancers in the conserved noncoding sequences (CNS). The functions of Enhancer 1 in CNS1 are well established, whereas those of Enhancer 2 in CNS2 remain unclear. Although CNS2 contains enhancer activity, methylated CpG sequences in this region prevent Foxp3 gene expression in Foxp3(-) T cells. These sequences are, however, demethylated in Foxp3(+) Treg by mechanisms as yet unknown. To investigate the role of CNS2, we have determined the Enhancer 2 core sequence by luciferase reporter assays in the absence of methylation to exclude the inhibitory effect and shown that transcription factors AP-1, Stat5, and Creb cooperate in regulating Enhancer 2 activity. We have then determined the methylation sensitivity of each of the transcription factors. AP-1 was found to be methylation sensitive as has previously been described for Creb. However, Stat5 was active even when its binding site in CNS2 was methylated. Stat5 binding to Enhancer 2 occurred early and preceded that of AP-1 and Creb during Treg induction. In addition, Stat5 activation is itself dependent on TGF-β signaling through Smad3-mediated blockade of Socs3 expression. These findings suggest that Stat5 is a key regulator for opening up the CNS2 region during induced Treg induction, whereas AP-1 and Creb maintain Enhancer 2 activity.
|The yeast Cyc8-Tup1 complex cooperates with Hda1p and Rpd3p histone deacetylases to robustly repress transcription of the subtelomeric FLO1 gene. |
Fleming, AB; Beggs, S; Church, M; Tsukihashi, Y; Pennings, S
Biochimica et biophysica acta 1839 1242-55 2014
We demonstrate that the yeast flocculation gene, FLO1, is representative of a distinct subset of subtelomeric genes that are robustly repressed by the Cyc8-Tup1 complex. We have examined Cyc8-Tup1 localisation, histone acetylation and long-range chromatin remodelling within the extensive FLO1 upstream region. We show that Cyc8-Tup1 is localised in a DNase I hypersensitive site within an ordered array of strongly positioned nucleosomes around -700 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site. In cyc8 deletion mutant strains, Tup1p localisation is absent, with concomitant histone hyperacetylation of adjacent regions at the FLO1 promoter. This is accompanied by extensive histone depletion across the upstream region and gene activation. The yeast histone deacetylases, Hda1p and Rpd3p, occupy the repressed FLO1 promoter region in a Cyc8-Tup1 dependent manner and coordinate histone deacetylation, nucleosome stabilisation and gene repression. Moreover, we show that the ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complex Swi-Snf occupies the site vacated by Cyc8-Tup1 in a cyc8 mutant. These data suggest that distinctly bound Cyc8-Tup1 cooperates with Hda1p and Rpd3p to establish or maintain an extensive array of strongly positioned, deacetylated nucleosomes over the FLO1 promoter and upstream region which inhibit histone acetylation, block Swi-Snf binding and prevent transcription.
|Camello, a novel family of Histone Acetyltransferases that acetylate histone H4 and is essential for zebrafish development. |
Karmodiya, K; Anamika, K; Muley, V; Pradhan, SJ; Bhide, Y; Galande, S
Scientific reports 4 6076 2014
In this study, we have investigated genome-wide occurrence of Histone Acetyltransferases (HATs) in genomes of Mus musculus and Danio rerio on the basis of presence of HAT domain. Our study identified a group of proteins that lacks characteristic features of known HAT families, relatively smaller in size and has no other associated domains. Most of the proteins in this unclassified group are Camello proteins, which are not yet known and classified as functional HATs. Our in vitro and in vivo analysis revealed that Camello family proteins are active HATs and exhibit specificity towards histone H4. Interestingly, Camello proteins are among the first identified HATs showing perinuclear localization. Moreover, Camello proteins are evolutionarily conserved in all chordates and are observed for the first time in cnidarians in phylogeny. Furthermore, knockdown of Camello protein (CMLO3) in zebrafish embryos exhibited defects in axis elongation and head formation. Thus, our study identified a novel family of active HATs that is specific for histone H4 acetylation, exhibits perinuclear localization and is essential for zebrafish development.
|DNA methylation reader MECP2: cell type- and differentiation stage-specific protein distribution. |
Song, C; Feodorova, Y; Guy, J; Peichl, L; Jost, KL; Kimura, H; Cardoso, MC; Bird, A; Leonhardt, H; Joffe, B; Solovei, I
Epigenetics & chromatin 7 17 2014
Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) is a protein that specifically binds methylated DNA, thus regulating transcription and chromatin organization. Mutations in the gene have been identified as the principal cause of Rett syndrome, a severe neurological disorder. Although the role of MECP2 has been extensively studied in nervous tissues, still very little is known about its function and cell type specific distribution in other tissues.Using immunostaining on tissue cryosections, we characterized the distribution of MECP2 in 60 cell types of 16 mouse neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. We show that MECP2 is expressed at a very high level in all retinal neurons except rod photoreceptors. The onset of its expression during retina development coincides with massive synapse formation. In contrast to astroglia, retinal microglial cells lack MECP2, similar to microglia in the brain, cerebellum, and spinal cord. MECP2 is also present in almost all non-neural cell types, with the exception of intestinal epithelial cells, erythropoietic cells, and hair matrix keratinocytes. Our study demonstrates the role of MECP2 as a marker of the differentiated state in all studied cells other than oocytes and spermatogenic cells. MECP2-deficient male (Mecp2 (-/y) ) mice show no apparent defects in the morphology and development of the retina. The nuclear architecture of retinal neurons is also unaffected as the degree of chromocenter fusion and the distribution of major histone modifications do not differ between Mecp2 (-/y) and Mecp2 (wt) mice. Surprisingly, the absence of MECP2 is not compensated by other methyl-CpG binding proteins. On the contrary, their mRNA levels were downregulated in Mecp2 (-/y) mice.MECP2 is almost universally expressed in all studied cell types with few exceptions, including microglia. MECP2 deficiency does not change the nuclear architecture and epigenetic landscape of retinal cells despite the missing compensatory expression of other methyl-CpG binding proteins. Furthermore, retinal development and morphology are also preserved in Mecp2-null mice. Our study reveals the significance of MECP2 function in cell differentiation and sets the basis for future investigations in this direction.
|Histone deacetylases and phosphorylated polymerase II C-terminal domain recruit Spt6 for cotranscriptional histone reassembly. |
Burugula, BB; Jeronimo, C; Pathak, R; Jones, JW; Robert, F; Govind, CK
Molecular and cellular biology 34 4115-29 2014
Spt6 is a multifunctional histone chaperone involved in the maintenance of chromatin structure during elongation by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Spt6 has a tandem SH2 (tSH2) domain within its C terminus that recognizes Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD) peptides phosphorylated on Ser2, Ser5, or Try1 in vitro. Deleting the tSH2 domain, however, only has a partial effect on Spt6 occupancy in vivo, suggesting that more complex mechanisms are involved in the Spt6 recruitment. Our results show that the Ser2 kinases Bur1 and Ctk1, but not the Ser5 kinase Kin28, cooperate in recruiting Spt6, genome-wide. Interestingly, the Ser2 kinases promote the association of Spt6 in early transcribed regions and not toward the 3' ends of genes, where phosphorylated Ser2 reaches its maximum level. In addition, our results uncover an unexpected role for histone deacetylases (Rpd3 and Hos2) in promoting Spt6 interaction with elongating Pol II. Finally, our data suggest that phosphorylation of the Pol II CTD on Tyr1 promotes the association of Spt6 with the 3' ends of transcribed genes, independently of Ser2 phosphorylation. Collectively, our results show that a complex network of interactions, involving the Spt6 tSH2 domain, CTD phosphorylation, and histone deacetylases, coordinate the recruitment of Spt6 to transcribed genes in vivo.
|Histone H3 lysine 36 methyltransferase Whsc1 promotes the association of Runx2 and p300 in the activation of bone-related genes. |
Lee, YF; Nimura, K; Lo, WN; Saga, K; Kaneda, Y
PloS one 9 e106661 2014
The orchestration of histone modifiers is required to establish the epigenomic status that regulates gene expression during development. Whsc1 (Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome candidate 1), a histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36) trimethyltransferase, is one of the major genes associated with Wolf-Hirshhorn syndrome, which is characterized by skeletal abnormalities. However, the role of Whsc1 in skeletal development remains unclear. Here, we show that Whsc1 regulates gene expression through Runt-related transcription factor (Runx) 2, a transcription factor central to bone development, and p300, a histone acetyltransferase, to promote bone differentiation. Whsc1-/- embryos exhibited defects in ossification in the occipital bone and sternum. Whsc1 knockdown in pre-osteoblast cells perturbed histone modification patterns in bone-related genes and led to defects in bone differentiation. Whsc1 increased the association of p300 with Runx2, activating the bone-related genes Osteopontin (Opn) and Collagen type Ia (Col1a1), and Whsc1 suppressed the overactivation of these genes via H3K36 trimethylation. Our results suggest that Whsc1 fine-tunes the expression of bone-related genes by acting as a modulator in balancing H3K36 trimethylation and histone acetylation. Our results provide novel insight into the mechanisms by which this histone methyltransferase regulates gene expression.
|Epigenetic regulation of EFEMP1 in prostate cancer: biological relevance and clinical potential. |
Almeida, M; Costa, VL; Costa, NR; Ramalho-Carvalho, J; Baptista, T; Ribeiro, FR; Paulo, P; Teixeira, MR; Oliveira, J; Lothe, RA; Lind, GE; Henrique, R; Jerónimo, C
Journal of cellular and molecular medicine 18 2287-97 2014
Epigenetic alterations are common in prostate cancer (PCa) and seem to contribute decisively to its initiation and progression. Moreover, aberrant promoter methylation is a promising biomarker for non-invasive screening. Herein, we sought to characterize EFEMP1 as biomarker for PCa, unveiling its biological relevance in prostate carcinogenesis. Microarray analyses of treated PCa cell lines and primary tissues enabled the selection of differentially methylated genes, among which EFEMP1 was further validated by MSP and bisulfite sequencing. Assessment of biomarker performance was accomplished by qMSP. Expression analysis of EFEMP1 and characterization of histone marks were performed in tissue samples and cancer cell lines to determine the impact of epigenetic mechanisms on EFEMP1 transcriptional regulation. Phenotypic assays, using transfected cell lines, permitted the evaluation of EFEMP1's role in PCa development. EFEMP1 methylation assay discriminated PCa from normal prostate tissue (NPT; P less than 0.001, Kruskall-Wallis test) and renal and bladder cancers (96% sensitivity and 98% specificity). EFEMP1 transcription levels inversely correlated with promoter methylation and histone deacetylation, suggesting that both epigenetic mechanisms are involved in gene regulation. Phenotypic assays showed that EFEMP1 de novo expression reduces malignant phenotype of PCa cells. EFEMP1 promoter methylation is prevalent in PCa and accurately discriminates PCa from non-cancerous prostate tissues and other urological neoplasms. This epigenetic alteration occurs early in prostate carcinogenesis and, in association with histone deacetylation, progressively leads to gene down-regulation, fostering cell proliferation, invasion and evasion of apoptosis.
|Epigenetic control of hypoxia inducible factor-1α-dependent expression of placental growth factor in hypoxic conditions. |
Tudisco, L; Della Ragione, F; Tarallo, V; Apicella, I; D'Esposito, M; Matarazzo, MR; De Falco, S
Epigenetics 9 600-10 2014
Hypoxia plays a crucial role in the angiogenic switch, modulating a large set of genes mainly through the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcriptional complex. Endothelial cells play a central role in new vessels formation and express placental growth factor (PlGF), a member of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, mainly involved in pathological angiogenesis. Despite several observations suggest a hypoxia-mediated positive modulation of PlGF, the molecular mechanism governing this regulation has not been fully elucidated. We decided to investigate if epigenetic modifications are involved in hypoxia-induced PlGF expression. We report that PlGF expression was induced in cultured human and mouse endothelial cells exposed to hypoxia (1% O 2), although DNA methylation at the Plgf CpG-island remains unchanged. Remarkably, robust hyperacetylation of histones H3 and H4 was observed in the second intron of Plgf, where hypoxia responsive elements (HREs), never described before, are located. HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α, binds to identified HREs. Noteworthy, only HIF-1α silencing fully inhibited PlGF upregulation. These results formally demonstrate a direct involvement of HIF-1α in the upregulation of PlGF expression in hypoxia through chromatin remodeling of HREs sites. Therefore, PlGF may be considered one of the putative targets of anti-HIF therapeutic applications.
|Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) plays an important role in retinal ganglion cell death after acute optic nerve injury. |
Schmitt, HM; Pelzel, HR; Schlamp, CL; Nickells, RW
Molecular neurodegeneration 9 39 2014
Optic nerve damage initiates a series of early atrophic events in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that precede the BAX-dependent committed step of the intrinsic apoptotic program. Nuclear atrophy, including global histone deacetylation, heterochromatin formation, shrinkage and collapse of nuclear structure, and the silencing of normal gene expression, comprise an important obstacle to overcome in therapeutic approaches to preserve neuronal function. Several studies have implicated histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the early stages of neuronal cell death, including RGCs. Importantly, these neurons exhibit nuclear translocation of HDAC3 shortly after optic nerve damage. Additionally, HDAC3 activity has been reported to be selectively toxic to neurons.RGC-specific conditional knockout of Hdac3 was achieved by transducing the RGCs of Hdac3fl/fl mice with an adeno-associated virus serotype 2 carrying CRE recombinase and GFP (AAV2-Cre/GFP). Controls included similar viral transduction of Rosa26fl/fl reporter mice. Optic nerve crush (ONC) was then performed on eyes. The ablation of Hdac3 in RGCs resulted in significant amelioration of characteristics of ONC-induced nuclear atrophy such as H4 deacetylation, heterochromatin formation, and the loss of nuclear structure. RGC death was also significantly reduced. Interestingly, loss of Hdac3 expression did not lead to protection against RGC-specific gene silencing after ONC, although this effect was achieved using the broad spectrum inhibitor, Trichostatin A.Although other HDACs may be responsible for gene expression changes in RGCs, our results indicate a critical role for HDAC3 in nuclear atrophy in RGC apoptosis following axonal injury. This study provides a framework for studying the roles of other prevalent retinal HDACs in neuronal death as a result of axonal injury.
|Forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a levels are increased in Huntington disease because of overactivated positive autofeedback loop. |
Kannike, K; Sepp, M; Zuccato, C; Cattaneo, E; Timmusk, T
The Journal of biological chemistry 289 32845-57 2014
Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an increased number of CAG repeats in the HTT gene coding for huntingtin. Decreased neurotrophic support and increased mitochondrial and excitotoxic stress have been reported in HD striatal and cortical neurons. The members of the class O forkhead (FOXO) transcription factor family, including FOXO3a, act as sensor proteins that are activated upon decreased survival signals and/or increased cellular stress. Using immunocytochemical screening in mouse striatal Hdh(7/7) (wild type), Hdh(7/109) (heterozygous for HD mutation), and Hdh(109/109) (homozygous for HD mutation) cells, we identified FOXO3a as a differentially regulated transcription factor in HD. We report increased nuclear FOXO3a levels in mutant Hdh cells. Additionally, we show that treatment with mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid results in enhanced nuclear localization of FOXO3a in wild type Hdh(7/7) cells and in rat primary cortical neurons. Furthermore, mRNA levels of Foxo3a are increased in mutant Hdh cells compared with wild type cells and in 3-nitropropionic acid-treated primary neurons compared with untreated neurons. A similar increase was observed in the cortex of R6/2 mice and HD patient post-mortem caudate tissue compared with controls. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays, we demonstrate that FOXO3a regulates its own transcription by binding to the conserved response element in Foxo3a promoter. Altogether, the findings of this study suggest that FOXO3a levels are increased in HD cells as a result of overactive positive feedback loop.
|CTCF induces histone variant incorporation, erases the H3K27me3 histone mark and opens chromatin. |
Weth, O; Paprotka, C; Günther, K; Schulte, A; Baierl, M; Leers, J; Galjart, N; Renkawitz, R
Nucleic acids research 42 11941-51 2014
Insulators functionally separate active chromatin domains from inactive ones. The insulator factor, CTCF, has been found to bind to boundaries and to mediate insulator function. CTCF binding sites are depleted for the histone modification H3K27me3 and are enriched for the histone variant H3.3. In order to determine whether demethylation of H3K27me3 and H3.3 incorporation are a requirement for CTCF binding at domain boundaries or whether CTCF causes these changes, we made use of the LacI DNA binding domain to control CTCF binding by the Lac inducer IPTG. Here we show that, in contrast to the related factor CTCFL, the N-terminus plus zinc finger domain of CTCF is sufficient to open compact chromatin rapidly. This is preceded by incorporation of the histone variant H3.3, which thereby removes the H3K27me3 mark. This demonstrates the causal role for CTCF in generating the chromatin features found at insulators. Thereby, spreading of a histone modification from one domain through the insulator into the neighbouring domain is inhibited.
|NuA4 links methylation of histone H3 lysines 4 and 36 to acetylation of histones H4 and H3. |
Ginsburg, DS; Anlembom, TE; Wang, J; Patel, SR; Li, B; Hinnebusch, AG
The Journal of biological chemistry 289 32656-70 2014
Cotranscriptional methylation of histone H3 lysines 4 and 36 by Set1 and Set2, respectively, stimulates interaction between nucleosomes and histone deacetylase complexes to block cryptic transcription in budding yeast. We previously showed that loss of all H3K4 and H3K36 methylation in a set1Δset2Δ mutant reduces interaction between native nucleosomes and the NuA4 lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) complex. We now provide evidence that NuA4 preferentially binds H3 tails mono- and dimethylated on H3K4 and di- and trimethylated on H3K36, an H3 methylation pattern distinct from that recognized by the RPD3C(S) and Hos2/Set3 histone deacetylase complexes (HDACs). Loss of H3K4 or H3K36 methylation in set1Δ or set2Δ mutants reduces NuA4 interaction with bulk nucleosomes in vitro and in vivo, and reduces NuA4 occupancy of transcribed coding sequences at particular genes. We also provide evidence that NuA4 acetylation of lysine residues in the histone H4 tail stimulates SAGA interaction with nucleosomes and its recruitment to coding sequences and attendant acetylation of histone H3 in vivo. Thus, H3 methylation exerts opposing effects of enhancing nucleosome acetylation by both NuA4 and SAGA as well as stimulating nucleosome deacetylation by multiple HDACs to maintain the proper level of histone acetylation in transcribed coding sequences.
|Convergence of oncogenic and hormone receptor pathways promotes metastatic phenotypes. |
Augello, MA; Burd, CJ; Birbe, R; McNair, C; Ertel, A; Magee, MS; Frigo, DE; Wilder-Romans, K; Shilkrut, M; Han, S; Jernigan, DL; Dean, JL; Fatatis, A; McDonnell, DP; Visakorpi, T; Feng, FY; Knudsen, KE
The Journal of clinical investigation 123 493-508 2013
Cyclin D1b is a splice variant of the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 and is known to harbor divergent and highly oncogenic functions in human cancer. While cyclin D1b is induced during disease progression in many cancer types, the mechanisms underlying cyclin D1b function remain poorly understood. Herein, cell and human tumor xenograft models of prostate cancer were utilized to resolve the downstream pathways that are required for the protumorigenic functions of cyclin D1b. Specifically, cyclin D1b was found to modulate the expression of a large transcriptional network that cooperates with androgen receptor (AR) signaling to enhance tumor cell growth and invasive potential. Notably, cyclin D1b promoted AR-dependent activation of genes associated with metastatic phenotypes. Further exploration determined that transcriptional induction of SNAI2 (Slug) was essential for cyclin D1b-mediated proliferative and invasive properties, implicating Slug as a critical driver of disease progression. Importantly, cyclin D1b expression highly correlated with that of Slug in clinical samples of advanced disease. In vivo analyses provided strong evidence that Slug enhances both tumor growth and metastatic phenotypes. Collectively, these findings reveal the underpinning mechanisms behind the protumorigenic functions of cyclin D1b and demonstrate that the convergence of the cyclin D1b/AR and Slug pathways results in the activation of processes critical for the promotion of lethal tumor phenotypes.
|Cell cycle-dependent deposition of CENP-A requires the Dos1/2-Cdc20 complex. |
Gonzalez, M; He, H; Sun, S; Li, C; Li, F
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 606-11 2013
Centromeric histone CENP-A, a variant of canonical histone H3, plays a central role in proper chromosome segregation. Loading of CENP-A at centromeres is cell cycle-regulated: parental CENP-A is deposited at centromeres during S phase, whereas newly synthesized CENP-A is deposited during later stages of the cell cycle. The mechanisms involved in deposition of CENP-A at centromeres during S phase remain poorly understood. In fission yeast, loading of CENP-A during S phase is regulated by the GATA-type factor, Ams2. Here we show that the Dos1/2-Cdc20 complex, previously characterized as a silencing complex essential for inheritance of H3K9 methylation during S phase, is also required for localization of CENP-A(cnp1) at centromeres at this stage. Disruption of Dos1 (also known as Raf1/Clr8/Cmc1), Dos2 (also known as Raf2/Clr7/Cmc2), or Cdc20, a DNA polymerase epsilon subunit, results in dissociation of CENP-A from centromeres and mislocalization of the protein to noncentromeric sites. All three mutants display spindle disorganization and mitotic defects. Inactivation of Dos1 or Cdc20 also results in accumulation of noncoding RNA transcripts from centromeric cores, a feature common to mutants affecting kinetochore integrity. We further find that Dos1 physically associates with Ams2 and is required for the association of Ams2 with centromeric cores during S phase. Finally, we show that Dos2 associates with centromeric cores during S phase and that its recruitment to centromeric cores depends on Cdc20. This study identifies a physical link between DNA replication and CENP-A assembly machinery and provides mechanistic insight into how CENP-A is faithfully inherited during S phase.
|BMP-mediated functional cooperation between Dlx5;Dlx6 and Msx1;Msx2 during mammalian limb development. |
Vieux-Rochas, M; Bouhali, K; Mantero, S; Garaffo, G; Provero, P; Astigiano, S; Barbieri, O; Caratozzolo, MF; Tullo, A; Guerrini, L; Lallemand, Y; Robert, B; Levi, G; Merlo, GR
PloS one 8 e51700 2013
The Dlx and Msx homeodomain transcription factors play important roles in the control of limb development. The combined disruption of Msx1 and Msx2, as well as that of Dlx5 and Dlx6, lead to limb patterning defects with anomalies in digit number and shape. Msx1;Msx2 double mutants are characterized by the loss of derivatives of the anterior limb mesoderm which is not observed in either of the simple mutants. Dlx5;Dlx6 double mutants exhibit hindlimb ectrodactyly. While the morphogenetic action of Msx genes seems to involve the BMP molecules, the mode of action of Dlx genes still remains elusive. Here, examining the limb phenotypes of combined Dlx and Msx mutants we reveal a new Dlx-Msx regulatory loop directly involving BMPs. In Msx1;Dlx5;Dlx6 triple mutant mice (TKO), beside the expected ectrodactyly, we also observe the hallmark morphological anomalies of Msx1;Msx2 double mutants suggesting an epistatic role of Dlx5 and Dlx6 over Msx2. In Msx2;Dlx5;Dlx6 TKO mice we only observe an aggravation of the ectrodactyly defect without changes in the number of the individual components of the limb. Using a combination of qPCR, ChIP and bioinformatic analyses, we identify two Dlx/Msx regulatory pathways: 1) in the anterior limb mesoderm a non-cell autonomous Msx-Dlx regulatory loop involves BMP molecules through the AER and 2) in AER cells and, at later stages, in the limb mesoderm the regulation of Msx2 by Dlx5 and Dlx6 occurs also cell autonomously. These data bring new elements to decipher the complex AER-mesoderm dialogue that takes place during limb development and provide clues to understanding the etiology of congenital limb malformations.
|Piccolo NuA4-catalyzed acetylation of nucleosomal histones: critical roles of an Esa1 Tudor/chromo barrel loop and an Epl1 enhancer of polycomb A (EPcA) basic region. |
Huang, J; Tan, S
Molecular and cellular biology 33 159-69 2013
Piccolo NuA4 is an essential yeast histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complex that targets histones H4 and H2A in nucleosome substrates. While Piccolo NuA4's catalytic subunit Esa1 alone is unable to acetylate nucleosomal histones, its accessory subunits, Yng2 and Epl1, enable Esa1 to bind to and to act on nucleosomes. We previously determined that the Tudor domain of Esa1 and the EPcA homology domain of Epl1 play critical roles in Piccolo NuA4's ability to act on the nucleosome. In this work, we pinpoint a loop within the Esa1 Tudor domain and a short basic region at the N terminus of the Epl1 EPcA domain as necessary for this nucleosomal HAT activity. We also show that this Esa1 Tudor domain loop region is positioned close to nucleosomal DNA and that the Epl1 EPcA basic region is in proximity to the N-terminal histone H2A tail, the globular region of histone H4, and also to nucleosomal DNA when Piccolo NuA4 interacts with the nucleosome. Since neither region identified is required for Piccolo NuA4 to bind to nucleosomes and yet both are needed to acetylate nucleosomes, these regions may function after the enzyme binds nucleosomes to disengage substrate histone tails from nucleosomal DNA.
|Transcription factor Sp3 represses expression of p21CIP¹ via inhibition of productive elongation by RNA polymerase II. |
Valin, A; Ouyang, J; Gill, G
Molecular and cellular biology 33 1582-93 2013
Like that of many protein-coding genes, expression of the p21(CIP1) cell cycle inhibitor is regulated at the level of transcription elongation. While many transcriptional activators have been shown to stimulate elongation, the mechanisms by which promoter-specific repressors regulate pausing and elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNA PolII) are not well described. Here we report that the transcription factor Sp3 inhibits basal p21(CIP1) gene expression by promoter-bound RNA PolII. Knockdown of Sp3 led to increased p21(CIP1) mRNA levels and reduced occupancy of the negative elongation factor (NELF) at the p21(CIP1) promoter, although the level of binding of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) kinase was not increased. Sp3 depletion correlated with increased H3K36me3 and H2Bub1, two histone modifications associated with transcription elongation. Further, Sp3 was shown to promote the binding of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to the p21(CIP1) promoter, leading to reduced H3S10 phosphorylation, a finding consistent with Sp3-dependent regulation of the local balance between kinase and phosphatase activities. Analysis of other targets of Sp3-mediated repression suggests that, in addition to previously described SUMO modification-dependent chromatin-silencing mechanisms, inhibition of the transition of paused RNA PolII to productive elongation, described here for p21(CIP1), is a general mechanism by which transcription factor Sp3 fine-tunes gene expression.
|Epigenetics of hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension following intrauterine growth retardation rat: epigenetics in PAH following IUGR. |
Xu, XF; Lv, Y; Gu, WZ; Tang, LL; Wei, JK; Zhang, LY; Du, LZ
Respiratory research 14 20 2013
Accumulating evidence reveals that intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) can cause varying degrees of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) later in life. Moreover, epigenetics plays an important role in the fetal origin of adult disease. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of epigenetics in the development of PAH following IUGR.The IUGR rats were established by maternal undernutrition during pregnancy. Pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PVEC) were isolated from the rat lungs by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). We investigated epigenetic regulation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene in PVEC of 1-day and 6-week IUGR rats, and response of IUGR rats to hypoxia.The maternal nutrient restriction increased the histone acetylation and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) binding levels in the ET-1 gene promoter of PVEC in IUGR newborn rats, and continued up to 6 weeks after birth. These epigenetic changes could result in an IUGR rat being highly sensitive to hypoxia later in life, causing more significant PAH or pulmonary vascular remodeling.These findings suggest that epigenetics is closely associated with the development of hypoxic PAH following IUGR, further providing a new insight for improved prevention and treatment of IUGR-related PAH.
|Genomic occupancy of HLH, AP1 and Runx2 motifs within a nuclease sensitive site of the Runx2 gene. |
Hovhannisyan, H; Zhang, Y; Hassan, MQ; Wu, H; Glackin, C; Lian, JB; Stein, JL; Montecino, M; Stein, GS; van Wijnen, AJ
Journal of cellular physiology 228 313-21 2013
Epigenetic mechanisms mediating expression of the Runt-related transcription factor Runx2 are critical for controlling its osteogenic activity during skeletal development. Here, we characterized bona fide regulatory elements within 120 kbp of the endogenous bone-related Runx2 promoter (P1) in osteoblasts by genomic DNase I footprinting and chromatin immuno-precipitations (ChIPs). We identified a ~10 kbp genomic domain spanning the P1 promoter that interacts with acetylated histones H3 and H4 reflecting an open chromatin conformation in MC3T3 osteoblasts. This large chromatin domain contains a single major DNaseI hypersensitive (DHS) region that defines a 0.4 kbp "basal core" promoter. This region encompasses two endogenous genomic protein/DNA interaction sites (i.e., footprints at Activating Protein 1 [AP1], E-box and Runx motifs). Helix-Loop-Helix (HLH)/E-box occupancy and presence of the DHS region persists in several mesenchymal cell types, but AP1 site occupancy occurs only during S phase when Runx2 expression is minimal. Point-mutation of the HLH/E box dramatically reduces basal promoter activity. Our results indicate that the Runx2 P1 promoter utilizes two stable principal protein/DNA interaction domains associated with AP1 and HLH factors. These sites function together with dynamic and developmentally responsive sites in a major DHS region to support epigenetic control of bone-specific transcription when osteoblasts transition into a quiescent or differentiated state.
|Gene-specific factors determine mitotic expression and bookmarking via alternate regulatory elements. |
Arampatzi, P; Gialitakis, M; Makatounakis, T; Papamatheakis, J
Nucleic acids research 41 2202-15 2013
Transcriptional silencing during mitosis is caused by inactivation of critical transcriptional regulators and/or chromatin condensation. Inheritance of gene expression patterns through cell division involves various bookmarking mechanisms. In this report, we have examined the mitotic and post-mitotic expression of the DRA major histocompatibility class II (MHCII) gene in different cell types. During mitosis the constitutively MHCII-expressing B lymphoblastoid cells showed sustained occupancy of the proximal promoter by the cognate enhanceosome and general transcription factors. In contrast, although mitotic epithelial cells were depleted of these proteins irrespectively of their MHCII transcriptional activity, a distal enhancer selectively recruited the PP2A phosphatase via NFY and maintained chromatin accessibility. Based on our data, we propose a novel chromatin anti-condensation role for this element in mitotic bookmarking and timing of post-mitotic transcriptional reactivation.
|Mitotic arrest and apoptosis in breast cancer cells induced by Origanum majorana extract: upregulation of TNF-α and downregulation of survivin and mutant p53. |
Al Dhaheri, Y; Eid, A; AbuQamar, S; Attoub, S; Khasawneh, M; Aiche, G; Hisaindee, S; Iratni, R
PloS one 8 e56649 2013
In the present study, we investigated the effect of Origanum majorana ethanolic extract on the survival of the highly proliferative and invasive triple-negative p53 mutant breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.We found that O. majorana extract (OME) was able to inhibit the viability of the MDA-MB-231 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The effect of OME on cellular viability was further confirmed by the inhibition of colony growth. We showed, depending on the concentration used, that OME elicited different effects on the MDA-MB 231 cells. Concentrations of 150 and 300 µg/mL induced an accumulation of apoptotic-resistant population of cells arrested in mitotis and overexpressing the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21 and the inhibitor of apoptosis, survivin. On the other hand, higher concentrations of OME (450 and 600 µg/mL) triggered a massive apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway, including the activation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), caspase 8, caspase 3, and cleavage of PARP, downregulation of survivin as well as depletion of the mutant p53 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, OME induced an upregulation of γ-H2AX, a marker of double strand DNA breaks and an overall histone H3 and H4 hyperacetylation.Our findings provide strong evidence that O. majorana may be a promising chemopreventive and therapeutic candidate against cancer especially for highly invasive triple negative p53 mutant breast cancer; thus validating its complementary and alternative medicinal use.
|Transcription-coupled eviction of histones H2A/H2B governs V(D)J recombination. |
Bevington, S; Boyes, J
The EMBO journal 32 1381-92 2013
Initiation of V(D)J recombination critically relies on the formation of an accessible chromatin structure at recombination signal sequences (RSSs) but how this accessibility is generated is poorly understood. Immunoglobulin light-chain loci normally undergo recombination in pre-B cells. We show here that equipping (earlier) pro-B cells with the increased pre-B-cell levels of just one transcription factor, IRF4, triggers the entire cascade of events leading to premature light-chain recombination. We then used this finding to dissect the critical events that generate RSS accessibility and show that the chromatin modifications previously associated with recombination are insufficient. Instead, we establish that non-coding transcription triggers IgL RSS accessibility and find that the accessibility is transient. Transcription transiently evicts H2A/H2B dimers, releasing 35-40 bp of nucleosomal DNA, and we demonstrate that H2A/H2B loss can explain the RSS accessibility observed in vivo. We therefore propose that the transcription-mediated eviction of H2A/H2B dimers is an important mechanism that makes RSSs accessible for the initiation of recombination.
|Heat shock factor 1 counteracts epigenetic silencing of nuclear transgenes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. |
Strenkert, D; Schmollinger, S; Schroda, M
Nucleic acids research 41 5273-89 2013
We found previously that the Chlamydomonas HSP70A promoter counteracts transcriptional silencing of downstream promoters in a transgene setting. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we analyzed chromatin state and transgene expression in transformants containing HSP70A-RBCS2-ble (AR-ble) constructs harboring deletions/mutations in the A promoter. We identified histone modifications at transgenic R promoters indicative for repressive chromatin, i.e. low levels of histone H3/4 acetylation and H3-lysine 4 trimethylation and high levels of H3-lysine 9 monomethylation. Transgenic A promoters also harbor lower levels of active chromatin marks than the native A promoter, but levels were higher than those at transgenic R promoters. Strikingly, in AR promoter fusions, the chromatin state at the A promoter was transferred to R. This effect required intact HSE4, HSE1/2 and TATA-box in the A promoter and was mediated by heat shock factor (HSF1). However, time-course analyses in strains inducibly depleted of HSF1 revealed that a transcriptionally competent chromatin state alone was not sufficient for activating the R promoter, but required constitutive HSF1 occupancy at transgenic A. We propose that HSF1 constitutively forms a scaffold at the transgenic A promoter, presumably containing mediator and TFIID, from which local chromatin remodeling and polymerase II recruitment to downstream promoters is realized.
|The Scaffold attachment factor b1 (Safb1) regulates myogenic differentiation by facilitating the transition of myogenic gene chromatin from a repressed to an activated state. |
Hernández-Hernández, JM; Mallappa, C; Nasipak, BT; Oesterreich, S; Imbalzano, AN
Nucleic acids research 41 5704-16 2013
The regulation of skeletal muscle gene expression during myogenesis is mediated by lineage-specific transcription factors in combination with numerous cofactors, many of which modify chromatin structure. However, the involvement of scaffolding proteins that organize chromatin and chromatin-associated regulatory proteins has not extensively been explored in myogenic differentiation. Here, we report that Scaffold attachment factor b1 (Safb1), primarily associated with transcriptional repression, functions as a positive regulator of myogenic differentiation. Knockdown of Safb1 inhibited skeletal muscle marker gene expression and differentiation in cultured C2C12 myoblasts. In contrast, over-expression resulted in the premature expression of critical muscle structural proteins and formation of enlarged thickened myotubes. Safb1 co-immunoprecipitated with MyoD and was co-localized on myogenic promoters. Upon Safb1 knockdown, the repressive H3K27me3 histone mark and binding of the Polycomb histone methyltransferase Ezh2 persisted at differentiation-dependent gene promoters. In contrast, the appearance of histone marks and regulators associated with myogenic gene activation, such as myogenin and the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling enzyme ATPase, Brg1, was blocked. These results indicate that the scaffold protein Safb1 contributes to the activation of skeletal muscle gene expression during myogenic differentiation by facilitating the transition of promoter sequences from a repressive chromatin structure to one that is transcriptionally permissive.
|Dynamic changes in genomic histone association and modification during activation of the ASNS and ATF3 genes by amino acid limitation. |
Balasubramanian, MN; Shan, J; Kilberg, MS
The Biochemical journal 449 219-29 2013
Amino acid deprivation of mammalian cells triggers several signalling pathways, the AAR (amino acid response), that results in transcriptional activation. For the ASNS (asparagine synthetase) and ATF3 (activating transcription factor 3) genes, increased transcription occurs in conjunction with recruitment of ATF4 to the gene. In HepG2 cells, analysis of the ASNS and ATF3 genes during AAR activation revealed increases in histone H3K4me3 (histone 3 trimethylated Lys4) and H4Ac (acetylated histone 4) levels, marks associated with active transcription, but a concurrent loss of total H3 protein near the promoter. The dynamic nature of AAR-regulated transcription was illustrated by a decline in ASNS transcription activity within minutes after removal of the AAR stress and a return to basal levels by 2 h. Reversal of ASNS transcription occurred in parallel with decreased promoter-associated H4Ac and ATF4 binding. However, the reduction in histone H3 and increase in H3K4me3 were not reversed. In yeast, persistence of H3K4me3 has been proposed to be a 'memory' mark of gene activity that alters the responsiveness of the gene, but the time course and magnitude of ASNS induction was unaffected when cells were challenged with a second round of AAR activation. The results of the present study document changes in gene-associated nucleosome abundance and histone modifications in response to amino-acid-dependent transcription.
|Dosage-dependent tumor suppression by histone deacetylases 1 and 2 through regulation of c-Myc collaborating genes and p53 function. |
Heideman, MR; Wilting, RH; Yanover, E; Velds, A; de Jong, J; Kerkhoven, RM; Jacobs, H; Wessels, LF; Dannenberg, JH
Blood 121 2038-50 2013
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are epigenetic erasers of lysine-acetyl marks. Inhibition of HDACs using small molecule inhibitors (HDACi) is a potential strategy in the treatment of various diseases and is approved for treating hematological malignancies. Harnessing the therapeutic potential of HDACi requires knowledge of HDAC-function in vivo. Here, we generated a thymocyte-specific gradient of HDAC-activity using compound conditional knockout mice for Hdac1 and Hdac2. Unexpectedly, gradual loss of HDAC-activity engendered a dosage-dependent accumulation of immature thymocytes and correlated with the incidence and latency of monoclonal lymphoblastic thymic lymphomas. Strikingly, complete ablation of Hdac1 and Hdac2 abrogated lymphomagenesis due to a block in early thymic development. Genomic, biochemical and functional analyses of pre-leukemic thymocytes and tumors revealed a critical role for Hdac1/Hdac2-governed HDAC-activity in regulating a p53-dependent barrier to constrain Myc-overexpressing thymocytes from progressing into lymphomas by regulating Myc-collaborating genes. One Myc-collaborating and p53-suppressing gene, Jdp2, was derepressed in an Hdac1/2-dependent manner and critical for the survival of Jdp2-overexpressing lymphoma cells. Although reduced HDAC-activity facilitates oncogenic transformation in normal cells, resulting tumor cells remain highly dependent on HDAC-activity, indicating that a critical level of Hdac1 and Hdac2 governed HDAC-activity is required for tumor maintenance.
|The human RVB complex is required for efficient transcription of type I interferon-stimulated genes. |
Gnatovskiy, L; Mita, P; Levy, DE
Molecular and cellular biology 33 3817-25 2013
Type I interferons (IFNs) stimulate transcription through a latent heterotrimeric transcription factor composed of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 and STAT2 and the DNA binding partner IRF9, with STAT2 contributing a critical transactivation domain. Human RVB1 and RVB2, which are highly conserved AAA(+) ATP binding proteins contained in chromatin-remodeling complexes such as Ino80, SNF2-related CBP activator protein (SRCAP), and Tip60/NuA4, interacted with the transactivation domain of STAT2 in the nuclei of IFN-stimulated cells. RNA interference (RNAi) experiments demonstrated that RVB proteins were required for robust activation of IFN-α-stimulated genes (ISGs). The requirement for RVB proteins was specific to IFN-α/STAT2 signaling; transcription of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)- and IFN-γ-driven genes was not affected by RVB1 depletion. Using RNAi-based depletion, we assessed the involvement of catalytic subunits of the RVB-containing Tip60, BRD8, Ino80, SRCAP, and URI complexes. No component other than RVB1/2 was uniquely required for ISG induction, suggesting that RVB1/2 functions as part of an as yet unidentified complex. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that RVB1/2 was required for recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to ISG promoters but was dispensable for STAT2 recruitment to chromatin. We hypothesize that an RVB1/2 chromatin-remodeling complex is required for efficient Pol II recruitment and initiation at ISG promoters and is recruited through interaction with the STAT2 transactivation domain.
|CTCF demarcates chicken embryonic α-globin gene autonomous silencing and contributes to adult stage-specific gene expression. |
Valdes-Quezada, C; Arriaga-Canon, C; Fonseca-Guzmán, Y; Guerrero, G; Recillas-Targa, F
Epigenetics 8 827-38 2013
Genomic loci composed of more than one gene are frequently subjected to differential gene expression, with the chicken α-globin domain being a clear example. In the present study we aim to understand the globin switching mechanisms responsible for the epigenetic silencing of the embryonic π gene and the transcriptional activation of the adult α(D) and α(A) genes at the genomic domain level. In early stages, we describe a physical contact between the embryonic π gene and the distal 3' enhancer that is lost later during development. We show that such a level of regulation is achieved through the establishment of a DNA hypermethylation sub-domain that includes the embryonic gene and the adjacent genomic sequences. The multifunctional CCCTCC-binding factor (CTCF), which is located upstream of the α(D) gene promoter, delimits this sub-domain and creates a transition between the inactive sub-domain and the active sub-domain, which includes the adult α(D) gene. In avian-transformed erythroblast HD3 cells that are induced to differentiate, we found active DNA demethylation of the adult α(D) promoter, coincident with the incorporation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and concomitant with adult gene transcriptional activation. These results suggest that autonomous silencing of the embryonic π gene is needed to facilitate an optimal topological conformation of the domain. This model proposes that CTCF is contributing to a specific chromatin configuration that is necessary for differential α-globin gene expression during development.
|DNMT1 is regulated by ATP-citrate lyase and maintains methylation patterns during adipocyte differentiation. |
Londoño Gentile, T; Lu, C; Lodato, PM; Tse, S; Olejniczak, SH; Witze, ES; Thompson, CB; Wellen, KE
Molecular and cellular biology 33 3864-78 2013
During adipocyte differentiation, significant epigenomic changes occur in association with the implementation of the adipogenic program. We have previously shown that histone acetylation increases during differentiation in a manner dependent on acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) production by the enzyme ATP-citrate lyase (ACL). Whether ACL regulates nuclear targets in addition to histones during differentiation is not clear. In this study, we report that DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) levels in adipocytes are controlled in part by ACL and that silencing of DNMT1 can accelerate adipocyte differentiation. DNMT1 gene expression is induced early in 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation during mitotic clonal expansion and is critical for maintenance of DNA and histone H3K9 methylation patterns during this period. In the absence of DNMT1, adipocyte-specific gene expression and lipid accumulation occur precociously. Later in differentiation, DNMT1 levels decline in an ACL-dependent manner. ACL-mediated suppression of DNMT1 occurs at least in part by promoting expression of microRNA 148a (miR-148a), which represses DNMT1. Ectopic expression of miR-148a accelerates differentiation under standard conditions and can partially rescue a hypermethylation-mediated differentiation block. The data suggest a role for DNMT1 in modulating the timing of differentiation and describe a novel ACL-miR-148a-dependent mechanism for regulating DNMT1 during adipogenesis.
|Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor kinetic rate constants correlate with cellular histone acetylation but not transcription and cell viability. |
Lauffer, BE; Mintzer, R; Fong, R; Mukund, S; Tam, C; Zilberleyb, I; Flicke, B; Ritscher, A; Fedorowicz, G; Vallero, R; Ortwine, DF; Gunzner, J; Modrusan, Z; Neumann, L; Koth, CM; Lupardus, PJ; Kaminker, JS; Heise, CE; Steiner, P
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 26926-43 2013
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are critical in the control of gene expression, and dysregulation of their activity has been implicated in a broad range of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) employing different zinc chelating functionalities such as hydroxamic acids and benzamides have shown promising results in cancer therapy. Although it has also been suggested that HDACi with increased isozyme selectivity and potency may broaden their clinical utility and minimize side effects, the translation of this idea to the clinic remains to be investigated. Moreover, a detailed understanding of how HDACi with different pharmacological properties affect biological functions in vitro and in vivo is still missing. Here, we show that a panel of benzamide-containing HDACi are slow tight-binding inhibitors with long residence times unlike the hydroxamate-containing HDACi vorinostat and trichostatin-A. Characterization of changes in H2BK5 and H4K14 acetylation following HDACi treatment in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y revealed that the timing and magnitude of histone acetylation mirrored both the association and dissociation kinetic rates of the inhibitors. In contrast, cell viability and microarray gene expression analysis indicated that cell death induction and changes in transcriptional regulation do not correlate with the dissociation kinetic rates of the HDACi. Therefore, our study suggests that determining how the selective and kinetic inhibition properties of HDACi affect cell function will help to evaluate their therapeutic utility.
|Transcriptional response to stress in the dynamic chromatin environment of cycling and mitotic cells. |
Vihervaara, A; Sergelius, C; Vasara, J; Blom, MA; Elsing, AN; Roos-Mattjus, P; Sistonen, L
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 E3388-97 2013
Heat shock factors (HSFs) are the master regulators of transcription under protein-damaging conditions, acting in an environment where the overall transcription is silenced. We determined the genomewide transcriptional program that is rapidly provoked by HSF1 and HSF2 under acute stress in human cells. Our results revealed the molecular mechanisms that maintain cellular homeostasis, including HSF1-driven induction of polyubiquitin genes, as well as HSF1- and HSF2-mediated expression patterns of cochaperones, transcriptional regulators, and signaling molecules. We characterized the genomewide transcriptional response to stress also in mitotic cells where the chromatin is tightly compacted. We found a radically limited binding and transactivating capacity of HSF1, leaving mitotic cells highly susceptible to proteotoxicity. In contrast, HSF2 occupied hundreds of loci in the mitotic cells and localized to the condensed chromatin also in meiosis. These results highlight the importance of the cell cycle phase in transcriptional responses and identify the specific mechanisms for HSF1 and HSF2 in transcriptional orchestration. Moreover, we propose that HSF2 is an epigenetic regulator directing transcription throughout cell cycle progression.
|Increased anti-leukemic activity of decitabine via AR-42-induced upregulation of miR-29b: a novel epigenetic-targeting approach in acute myeloid leukemia. |
Mims, A; Walker, AR; Huang, X; Sun, J; Wang, H; Santhanam, R; Dorrance, AM; Walker, C; Hoellerbauer, P; Tarighat, SS; Chan, KK; Klisovic, RB; Perrotti, D; Caligiuri, MA; Byrd, JC; Chen, CS; James Lee, L; Jacob, S; Mrózek, K; Bloomfield, CD; Blum, W; Garzon, R; Schwind, S; Marcucci, G
Leukemia 27 871-8 2013
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors either alone or in combination with hypomethylating agents have limited clinical effect in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Previously, we demonstrated that AML patients with higher miR (microRNA)-29b expression had better response to the hypomethylating agent decitabine. Therefore, an increase in miR-29b expression preceding decitabine treatment may provide a therapeutic advantage. We previously showed that miR-29b expression is suppressed by a repressor complex that includes HDACs. Thus, HDAC inhibition may increase miR-29b expression. We hypothesized that priming AML cells with the novel HDAC inhibitor (HDACI) AR-42 would result in increased response to decitabine treatment via upregulation of miR-29b. Here, we show that AR-42 is a potent HDACI in AML, increasing miR-29b levels and leading to downregulation of known miR-29b targets (that is, SP1, DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B). We then demonstrated that the sequential administration of AR-42 followed by decitabine resulted in a stronger anti-leukemic activity in vitro and in vivo than decitabine followed by AR-42 or either drug alone. These preclinical results with AR-42 priming before decitabine administration represent a promising, novel treatment approach and a paradigm shift with regard to the combination of epigenetic-targeting compounds in AML, where decitabine has been traditionally given before HDACIs.
|Epstein-Barr virus-induced epigenetic alterations following transient infection. |
Queen, KJ; Shi, M; Zhang, F; Cvek, U; Scott, RS
International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer 132 2076-86 2013
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a known tumor virus associated with an increasing array of malignancies; however, the association of the virus with certain malignancies is often erratic. To determine EBV's contributions to tumorigenesis in a setting of incomplete association, a transient model of infection was established where a clonal CCL185 carcinoma cell line infected with recombinant EBV was allowed to lose viral genomes by withdrawal of selection pressure. Global gene expression comparing EBV-negative, transiently infected clones to uninfected controls identified expression changes in more than 1,000 genes. Among downregulated genes, several genes known to be deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylated in cancer were identified including E-cadherin and PYCARD. A cadherin switch, increased motility and enhanced cellular invasiveness present in EBV-positive cells were retained after viral loss, indicating an epigenetic effect. Repression of PYCARD expression was a result of increased promoter CpG methylation, whereas loss of E-cadherin expression after transient EBV infection did not correlate with increased DNA methylation of the E-cadherin promoter. Rather, repression of E-cadherin was consistent with the formation of a repressive chromatin state. Decreased histone 3 or 4 acetylation at the promoter and 5' end of the E-cadherin gene was observed in an EBV-negative, transiently infected clone relative to the uninfected controls. These results suggest that EBV can stably alter gene expression in a heritable fashion in formerly infected cells, whereas its own contribution to the oncogenic process is masked.
|Small-molecule inhibitors of acetyltransferase p300 identified by high-throughput screening are potent anticancer agents. |
Yang, H; Pinello, CE; Luo, J; Li, D; Wang, Y; Zhao, LY; Jahn, SC; Saldanha, SA; Chase, P; Planck, J; Geary, KR; Ma, H; Law, BK; Roush, WR; Hodder, P; Liao, D
Molecular cancer therapeutics 12 610-20 2013
Acetyltransferase p300 (KAT3B) plays key roles in signaling cascades that support cancer cell survival and sustained proliferation. Thus, p300 represents a potential anticancer therapeutic target. To discover novel anticancer agents that target p300, we conducted a high-throughput screening campaign. A library of 622,079 compounds was assayed for cytotoxicity to the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231 but not to the human mammary epithelial cells. The resulting compounds were tested in a biochemical assay for inhibiting the enzymatic activity of p300. One compound (L002, NSC764414) displayed an IC50 of 1.98 μmol/L against p300 in vitro, inhibited acetylation of histones and p53, and suppressed STAT3 activation in cell-based assays. L002 could be docked to the active site of the p300 catalytic domain. Biochemical tests of a series of related compounds revealed functional groups that may impact inhibitory potency of L002 against p300. Interestingly, these analogs showed inhibitory activities against the cellular paralog of p300 (CBP), p300/CBP-associated factor, and GCN5, but not to other acetyltransferases (KAT5, KAT6B, and KAT7), histone deacetylases, and histone methyltransferases. Among the NCI-60 panel of cancer cell lines, leukemia and lymphoma cell lines were extremely sensitive to L002, whereas it is toxic to only a limited number of cell lines derived from solid tumors. Notably, breast cancer cell lines, especially those derived from TNBC, were highly susceptible to L002. In vivo, it potently suppressed tumor growth and histone acetylation of MDA-MB-468 xenografts. Thus, these new acetyltransferase inhibitors are potential anticancer therapeutics.
|Distinct roles for CBP and p300 on the RA-mediated expression of the meiosis commitment gene Stra8 in mouse embryonic stem cells. |
Chen, W; Jia, W; Wang, K; Si, X; Zhu, S; Duan, T; Kang, J
PloS one 8 e66076 2013
In mammalian germ cells, meiotic commitment requires the expression of Stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8), which is transcriptionally activated by retinoic acid (RA). However, little is known about the epigenetic mechanism by which RA induces Stra8 expression. Utilizing a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP), we showed that RA increases histone acetylation at the Stra8 promoter in murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs), a model for germ cell differentiation. Furthermore, we explored whether two coregulators with histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, Creb-binding protein (CBP) and p300, are involved in the activation of Stra8. The lentiviral shRNA knockdown of endogenous CBP led to Stra8 repression, while the overexpression of CBP enhanced Stra8 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. ChIP analysis confirmed that CBP is the crucial coactivator for RA-mediated Stra8 transcription and that it enhances the level of histone acetylation and recruits RNA polymerase II to establish transcriptionally active chromatin. Furthermore, shRNA of p300 enhanced Stra8 expression, and the overexpression of p300 reduced Stra8 expression, independently of its HAT activity. ChIP showed that the knockdown of p300 significantly increased the level of CBP at the Stra8 promoter. These findings demonstrate that CBP and p300 play distinct roles in RA-mediated Stra8 gene transcription.
|Repressive epigenetic changes at the mGlu2 promoter in frontal cortex of 5-HT2A knockout mice. |
Kurita, M; Moreno, JL; Holloway, T; Kozlenkov, A; Mocci, G; García-Bea, A; Hanks, JB; Neve, R; Nestler, EJ; Russo, SJ; González-Maeso, J
Molecular pharmacology 83 1166-75 2013
Serotonin 5-HT(2A) and metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) are G protein-coupled receptors suspected in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, and suicide. Previous findings demonstrate that mGlu2 mRNA expression is down-regulated in brain cortical regions of 5-HT2A knockout (KO) mice. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this alteration remains unknown. We show here repressive epigenetic changes at the promoter region of the mGlu2 gene in frontal cortex of 5-HT(2A)-KO mice. Disruption of 5-HT(2A) receptor-dependent signaling in mice was associated with decreased acetylation of histone H3 (H3ac) and H4 (H4ac) and increased tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) at the mGlu2 promoter, epigenetic changes that correlate with transcriptional repression. Neither methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me1/2/3) nor tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me3) was affected. We found that Egr1, a transcription factor in which promoter activity was positively regulated by the 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist 4-bromo-3,6-dimethoxybenzocyclobuten-1-yl)methylamine hydrobromide, binds less to the mGlu2 promoter in frontal cortex of 5-HT(2A)-KO, compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, expression of mGlu2 was increased by viral-mediated gene transfer of FLAG-tagged Egr1 in mouse frontal cortex. Together, these observations suggest that 5-HT(2A) receptor-dependent signaling epigenetically affects mGlu2 transcription in mouse frontal cortex.
|Interaction between p53 and estradiol pathways in transcriptional responses to chemotherapeutics. |
Lion, M; Bisio, A; Tebaldi, T; De Sanctis, V; Menendez, D; Resnick, MA; Ciribilli, Y; Inga, A
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 12 1211-24 2013
Estrogen receptors (ERs) and p53 can interact via cis-elements to regulate the angiogenesis-related VEGFR-1 (FLT1) gene, as we reported previously. Here, we address cooperation between these transcription factors on a global scale. Human breast adenocarcinoma MCF7 cells were exposed to single or combinatorial treatments with the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin and the ER ligand 17β-estradiol (E2). Whole-genome transcriptome changes were measured by expression microarrays. Nearly 200 differentially expressed genes were identified that showed limited responsiveness to either doxorubicin treatment or ER ligand alone but were upregulated in a greater than additive manner following combined treatment. Based on exposure to 5-fuorouracil and nutlin-3a, the combined responses were treatment-specific. Among 16 genes chosen for validation using quantitative real-time PCR, seven (INPP5D, TLR5, KRT15, EPHA2, GDNF, NOTCH1, SOX9) were confirmed to be novel direct targets of p53, based on responses in MCF7 cells silenced for p53 or cooperative targets of p53 and ER. Promoter pattern searches and chromatin IP experiments for the INPP5D, TLR5, KRT15 genes supported direct, cis-mediated p53 and/or ER regulation through canonical and noncanonical p53 and ER response elements. Collectively, we establish that combinatorial activation of p53 and ER can induce novel gene expression programs that have implications for cell-cell communications, adhesion, cell differentiation, development and inflammatory responses as well as cancer treatments.
|Survival factor NFIL3 restricts FOXO-induced gene expression in cancer. |
Keniry, M; Pires, MM; Mense, S; Lefebvre, C; Gan, B; Justiano, K; Lau, YK; Hopkins, B; Hodakoski, C; Koujak, S; Toole, J; Fenton, F; Calahan, A; Califano, A; DePinho, RA; Maurer, M; Parsons, R
Genes & development 27 916-27 2013
Depending on the circumstance, FOXO (Forkhead O) (FOXO1, FOXO3, and FOXO4) transcription factors activate the expression of markedly different sets of genes to produce different phenotypic effects. For example, distinct FOXO-regulated transcriptional programs stimulate cell death or enhance organism life span. To gain insight into how FOXOs select specific genes for regulation, we performed a screen for genes that modify FOXO activation of TRAIL, a death receptor ligand capable of inducing extrinsic apoptosis. We discovered that the bZIP transcriptional repressor NFIL3 (nuclear factor interleukin 3-regulated) hindered FOXO transcription factor access to chromatin at the TRAIL promoter by binding to nearby DNA and recruiting histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2) to reduce histone acetylation. In the same manner, NFIL3 repressed expression of certain FOXO targets--e.g., FAS, GADD45α (growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible, α), and GADD45β--but not others. NFIL3, which we found to be overexpressed in different cancers, supported tumor cell survival largely through repression of TRAIL and antagonized hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. Moreover, its expression in cancer was associated with lower patient survival. Therefore, NFIL3 alters cancer cell behavior and FOXO function by acting on chromatin to restrict the menu of FOXO target genes. Targeting of NFIL3 could be of therapeutic benefit for cancer patients.
|Concurrent inhibition of enzymatic activity and NF-Y-mediated transcription of Topoisomerase-IIα by bis-DemethoxyCurcumin in cancer cells. |
Belluti, S; Basile, V; Benatti, P; Ferrari, E; Marverti, G; Imbriano, C
Cell death & disease 4 e756 2013
Topoisomerases-IIα (TOP2A) enzyme is essential for cell viability due to its fundamental role in DNA metabolism and in chromatin organization during interphase and mitosis. TOP2A expression is finely regulated at the transcriptional level through the binding of the CCAAT-transcription factor NF-Y to its promoter. Overexpression and/or amplification of TOP2A have been observed in many types of cancers. For this reason, TOP2A is the target of the most widely successful drugs in cancer chemotherapy, such as TOP2A poisons, which stabilize TOP2A-DNA cleavage complexes and create DSBs, leading to chromosome damage and cell death. We previously reported that the Curcumin-derivative bis-DemethoxyCurcumin (bDMC) is an anti-proliferative agent that inhibits cell growth by concomitant G1/S and G2/M arrest. Here we showed that bDMC irreversibly induces DSBs in cancer cells, but not in normal cells, by targeting TOP2A activity and expression. TOP2A ablation by siRNA corroborates its contribution to apoptosis induced by bDMC. Short-term exposure to bDMC induces retention of TOP2A-DNA intermediates, while longer exposure inhibits TOP2A transcription by affecting expression and sub-cellular localization of NF-Y subunits. ChIP analysis highlighted reduced recruitment of NF-Y to TOP2A regulatory regions, concomitantly to histone deacetylation and decreased gene transcription. Our findings suggest that the dual activity of bDMC on TOP2A represents a novel therapeutic strategy to induce persistent apoptosis in cancer cells and identify NF-Y regulation as a promising approach in anti-cancer therapy.
|ATM kinase enables the functional axis of YAP, PML and p53 to ameliorate loss of Werner protein-mediated oncogenic senescence. |
Fausti, F; Di Agostino, S; Cioce, M; Bielli, P; Sette, C; Pandolfi, PP; Oren, M; Sudol, M; Strano, S; Blandino, G
Cell death and differentiation 20 1498-509 2013
Werner syndrome (WS) results from dysfunction of the WRN protein, and is associated with premature aging and early death. Here we report that loss of WRN function elicits accumulation of the Yes-associated protein (YAP protein), a major effector of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, both experimentally and in WS-derived fibroblasts. YAP upregulation correlates with slower cell proliferation and accelerated senescence, which are partially mediated by the formation of a complex between YAP and the PML protein, whose activity promotes p53 activation. The ATM kinase is necessary for YAP and PML accumulation in WRN-depleted cells. Notably, the depletion of either YAP or PML partially impairs the induction of senescence following WRN loss. Altogether, our findings reveal that loss of WRN activity triggers the activation of an ATM-YAP-PML-p53 axis, thereby accelerating cellular senescence. The latter has features of SASP (senescence-associated secretory phenotype), whose protumorigenic properties are potentiated by YAP, PML and p53 depletion.
|Acetylation limits 53BP1 association with damaged chromatin to promote homologous recombination. |
Tang, Jiangbo, et al.
Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol., 20: 317-25 (2013) 2013
The pathogenic sequelae of BRCA1 mutation in human and mouse cells are mitigated by concomitant deletion of 53BP1, which binds histone H4 dimethylated at Lys20 (H4K20me2) to promote nonhomologous end joining, suggesting that a balance between BRCA1 and 53BP1 regulates DNA double strand-break (DSB) repair mechanism choice. Here we document that acetylation is a key determinant of this balance. TIP60 acetyltransferase deficiency reduced BRCA1 at DSB chromatin with commensurate increases in 53BP1, whereas HDAC inhibition yielded the opposite effect. TIP60-dependent H4 acetylation diminished 53BP1 binding to H4K20me2 in part through disruption of a salt bridge between H4K16 and Glu1551 in the 53BP1 Tudor domain. Moreover, TIP60 deficiency impaired homologous recombination and conferred sensitivity to PARP inhibition in a 53BP1-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that acetylation in cis to H4K20me2 regulates relative BRCA1 and 53BP1 DSB chromatin occupancy to direct DNA repair mechanism.
|A DNA element regulates drug tolerance and withdrawal in Drosophila. |
Li, X; Ghezzi, A; Pohl, JB; Bohm, AY; Atkinson, NS
PloS one 8 e75549 2013
Drug tolerance and withdrawal are insidious responses to drugs of abuse; the first increases drug consumption while the second punishes abstention. Drosophila generate functional tolerance to benzyl alcohol sedation by increasing neural expression of the slo BK-type Ca(2+) activated K(+) channel gene. After drug clearance this change produces a withdrawal phenotype-increased seizure susceptibility. The drug-induced histone modification profile identified the 6b element (60 nt) as a drug responsive element. Genomic deletion of 6b produces the allele, slo (Δ6b), that reacts more strongly to the drug with increased induction, a massive increase in the duration of tolerance, and an increase in the withdrawal phenotype yet does not alter other slo-dependent behaviors. The 6b element is a homeostatic regulator of BK channel gene expression and is the first cis-acting DNA element shown to specifically affect the duration of a drug action.
|The class I-specific HDAC inhibitor MS-275 modulates the differentiation potential of mouse embryonic stem cells. |
Franci, G; Casalino, L; Petraglia, F; Miceli, M; Menafra, R; Radic, B; Tarallo, V; Vitale, M; Scarfò, M; Pocsfalvi, G; Baldi, A; Ambrosino, C; Zambrano, N; Patriarca, E; De Falco, S; Minchiotti, G; Stunnenberg, HG; Altucci, L
Biology open 2 1070-7 2013
Exploitation of embryonic stem cells (ESC) for therapeutic use and biomedical applications is severely hampered by the risk of teratocarcinoma formation. Here, we performed a screen of selected epi-modulating compounds and demonstrate that a transient exposure of mouse ESC to MS-275 (Entinostat), a class I histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDAC), modulates differentiation and prevents teratocarcinoma formation. Morphological and molecular data indicate that MS-275-primed ESCs are committed towards neural differentiation, which is supported by transcriptome analyses. Interestingly, in vitro withdrawal of MS-275 reverses the primed cells to the pluripotent state. In vivo, MS275-primed ES cells injected into recipient mice give only rise to benign teratomas but not teratocarcinomas with prevalence of neural-derived structures. In agreement, MS-275-primed ESC are unable to colonize blastocysts. These findings provide evidence that a transient alteration of acetylation alters the ESC fate.
|The deacetylase Sir2 from the yeast Clavispora lusitaniae lacks the evolutionarily conserved capacity to generate subtelomeric heterochromatin. |
Froyd, CA; Kapoor, S; Dietrich, F; Rusche, LN
PLoS genetics 9 e1003935 2013
Deacetylases of the Sir2 or sirtuin family are thought to regulate life cycle progression and life span in response to nutrient availability. This family has undergone successive rounds of duplication and diversification, enabling the enzymes to perform a wide variety of biological functions. Two evolutionarily conserved functions of yeast Sir2 proteins are the generation of repressive chromatin in subtelomeric domains and the suppression of unbalanced recombination within the tandem rDNA array. Here, we describe the function of the Sir2 ortholog ClHst1 in the yeast Clavispora lusitaniae, an occasional opportunistic pathogen. ClHst1 was localized to the non-transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA repeats and deacetylated histones at these loci, indicating that, like other Sir2 proteins, ClHst1 modulates chromatin structure at the rDNA repeats. However, we found no evidence that ClHst1 associates with subtelomeric regions or impacts gene expression directly. This surprising observation highlights the plasticity of sirtuin function. Related yeast species, including Candida albicans, possess an additional Sir2 family member. Thus, it is likely that the ancestral Candida SIR2/HST1 gene was duplicated and subfunctionalized, such that HST1 retained the capacity to regulate rDNA whereas SIR2 had other functions, perhaps including the generation of subtelomeric chromatin. After subsequent species diversification, the SIR2 paralog was apparently lost in the C. lusitaniae lineage. Thus, C. lusitaniae presents an opportunity to discover how subtelomeric chromatin can be reconfigured.
|Global Decrease of Histone H3K27 Acetylation in ZEB1-Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Lung Cancer Cells. |
Roche, J; Nasarre, P; Gemmill, R; Baldys, A; Pontis, J; Korch, C; Guilhot, J; Ait-Si-Ali, S; Drabkin, H
Cancers 5 334-56 2013
The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables epithelial cells with a migratory mesenchymal phenotype. It is activated in cancer cells and is involved in invasion, metastasis and stem-like properties. ZEB1, an E-box binding transcription factor, is a major suppressor of epithelial genes in lung cancer. In the present study, we show that in H358 non-small cell lung cancer cells, ZEB1 downregulates EpCAM (coding for an epithelial cell adhesion molecule), ESRP1 (epithelial splicing regulatory protein), ST14 (a membrane associated serine protease involved in HGF processing) and RAB25 (a small G-protein) by direct binding to these genes. Following ZEB1 induction, acetylation of histone H4 and histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9) and 27 (H3K27) was decreased on ZEB1 binding sites on these genes as demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Of note, decreased H3K27 acetylation could be also detected by western blot and immunocytochemistry in ZEB1 induced cells. In lung cancers, H3K27 acetylation level was higher in the tumor compartment than in the corresponding stroma where ZEB1 was more often expressed. Since HDAC and DNA methylation inhibitors increased expression of ZEB1 target genes, targeting these epigenetic modifications would be expected to reduce metastasis.
|Mouse BAZ1A (ACF1) is dispensable for double-strand break repair but is essential for averting improper gene expression during spermatogenesis. |
Dowdle, JA; Mehta, M; Kass, EM; Vuong, BQ; Inagaki, A; Egli, D; Jasin, M; Keeney, S
PLoS genetics 9 e1003945 2013
ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers control DNA access for transcription, recombination, and other processes. Acf1 (also known as BAZ1A in mammals) is a defining subunit of the conserved ISWI-family chromatin remodelers ACF and CHRAC, first purified over 15 years ago from Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Much is known about biochemical properties of ACF and CHRAC, which move nucleosomes in vitro and in vivo to establish ordered chromatin arrays. Genetic studies in yeast, flies and cultured human cells clearly implicate these complexes in transcriptional repression via control of chromatin structures. RNAi experiments in transformed mammalian cells in culture also implicate ACF and CHRAC in DNA damage checkpoints and double-strand break repair. However, their essential in vivo roles in mammals are unknown. Here, we show that Baz1a-knockout mice are viable and able to repair developmentally programmed DNA double-strand breaks in the immune system and germ line, I-SceI endonuclease-induced breaks in primary fibroblasts via homologous recombination, and DNA damage from mitomycin C exposure in vivo. However, Baz1a deficiency causes male-specific sterility in accord with its high expression in male germ cells, where it displays dynamic, stage-specific patterns of chromosomal localization. Sterility is caused by pronounced defects in sperm development, most likely a consequence of massively perturbed gene expression in spermatocytes and round spermatids in the absence of BAZ1A: the normal spermiogenic transcription program is largely intact but more than 900 other genes are mis-regulated, primarily reflecting inappropriate up-regulation. We propose that large-scale changes in chromatin composition that occur during spermatogenesis create a window of vulnerability to promiscuous transcription changes, with an essential function of ACF and/or CHRAC chromatin remodeling activities being to safeguard against these alterations.
|Argonaute 2 sustains the gene expression program driving human monocytic differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia cells. |
Iosue, I; Quaranta, R; Masciarelli, S; Fontemaggi, G; Batassa, EM; Bertolami, C; Ottone, T; Divona, M; Salvatori, B; Padula, F; Fatica, A; Lo-Coco, F; Nervi, C; Fazi, F
Cell death & disease 4 e926 2013
MicroRNAs are key regulators of many biological processes, including cell differentiation. These small RNAs exert their function assembled in the RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs), where members of Argonaute (Ago) family of proteins provide a unique platform for target recognition and gene silencing. Here, by using myeloid cell lines and primary blasts, we show that Ago2 has a key role in human monocytic cell fate determination and in LPS-induced inflammatory response of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (D3)-treated myeloid cells. The silencing of Ago2 impairs the D3-dependent miR-17-5p/20a/106a, miR-125b and miR-155 downregulation, the accumulation of their translational targets AML1, VDR and C/EBPβ and monocytic cell differentiation. Moreover, we show that Ago2 is recruited on miR-155 host gene promoter and on the upstream region of an overlapping antisense lncRNA, determining their epigenetic silencing, and miR-155 downregulation. These findings highlight Ago2 as a new factor in myeloid cell fate determination in acute myeloid leukemia cells.
|The Xenopus homologue of Down syndrome critical region protein 6 drives dorsoanterior gene expression and embryonic axis formation by antagonising polycomb group proteins. |
Li, HY; Grifone, R; Saquet, A; Carron, C; Shi, DL
Development (Cambridge, England) 140 4903-13 2013
Mesoderm and embryonic axis formation in vertebrates is mediated by maternal and zygotic factors that activate the expression of target genes. Transcriptional derepression plays an important role in the regulation of expression in different contexts; however, its involvement and possible mechanism in mesoderm and embryonic axis formation are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that XDSCR6, a Xenopus homologue of human Down syndrome critical region protein 6 (DSCR6, or RIPPLY3), regulates mesoderm and embryonic axis formation through derepression of polycomb group (PcG) proteins. Xdscr6 maternal mRNA is enriched in the endoderm of the early gastrula and potently triggers the formation of dorsal mesoderm and neural tissues in ectoderm explants; it also dorsalises ventral mesoderm during gastrulation and induces a secondary embryonic axis. A WRPW motif, which is present in all DSCR6 homologues, is necessary and sufficient for the dorsal mesoderm- and axis-inducing activity. Knockdown of Xdscr6 inhibits dorsal mesoderm gene expression and results in head deficiency. We further show that XDSCR6 physically interacts with PcG proteins through the WRPW motif, preventing the formation of PcG bodies and antagonising their repressor activity in embryonic axis formation. By chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that XDSCR6 releases PcG proteins from chromatin and allows dorsal mesoderm gene transcription. Our studies suggest that XDSCR6 might function to sequester PcG proteins and identify a novel derepression mechanism implicated in embryonic induction and axis formation.
|Hdac6 regulates Tip60-p400 function in stem cells. |
Chen, PB; Hung, JH; Hickman, TL; Coles, AH; Carey, JF; Weng, Z; Chu, F; Fazzio, TG
eLife 2 e01557 2013
In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), the Tip60 histone acetyltransferase activates genes required for proliferation and silences genes that promote differentiation. Here we show that the class II histone deacetylase Hdac6 co-purifies with Tip60-p400 complex from ESCs. Hdac6 is necessary for regulation of most Tip60-p400 target genes, particularly those repressed by the complex. Unlike differentiated cells, where Hdac6 is mainly cytoplasmic, Hdac6 is largely nuclear in ESCs, neural stem cells (NSCs), and some cancer cell lines, and interacts with Tip60-p400 in each. Hdac6 localizes to promoters bound by Tip60-p400 in ESCs, binding downstream of transcription start sites. Surprisingly, Hdac6 does not appear to deacetylate histones, but rather is required for Tip60-p400 binding to many of its target genes. Finally, we find that, like canonical subunits of Tip60-p400, Hdac6 is necessary for robust ESC differentiation. These data suggest that Hdac6 plays a major role in the modulation of Tip60-p400 function in stem cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01557.001.
|Epigenetic regulation of MDR1 gene through post-translational histone modifications in prostate cancer. |
Henrique, R; Oliveira, AI; Costa, VL; Baptista, T; Martins, AT; Morais, A; Oliveira, J; Jerónimo, C
BMC genomics 14 898 2013
Multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene encodes for an ATP binding cassette transporter--P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-- involved in chemoresistance to taxanes. MDR1 promoter methylation is frequent in prostate carcinoma (PCa), suggesting an epigenetic regulation but no functional correlation has been established. We aimed to elucidate the epigenetic mechanisms involved in MDR1 deregulation in PCa.MDR1 promoter methylation and P-gp expression were assessed in 121 PCa, 39 high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), 28 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 10 morphologically normal prostate tissue (NPT) samples, using quantitative methylation specific PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. PCa cell lines were exposed to a DNA methyltransferases inhibitor 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine (DAC) and histone deacetylases inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). Methylation and histone posttranscriptional modifications status were characterized and correlated with mRNA and protein expression. MDR1 promoter methylation levels and frequency significantly increased from NPTs, to HGPIN and to PCa. Conversely, decreased or absent P-gp immunoexpression was observed in HGPIN and PCa, inversely correlating with methylation levels. Exposure to DAC alone did not alter significantly methylation levels, although increased expression was apparent. However, P-gp mRNA and protein re-expression were higher in cell lines exposed to TSA alone or combined with DAC. Accordingly, histone active marks H3Ac, H3K4me2, H3K4me3, H3K9Ac, and H4Ac were increased at the MDR1 promoter after exposure to TSA alone or combined with DAC.Our data suggests that, in prostate carcinogenesis, MDR1 downregulation is mainly due to histone post-translational modifications. This occurs concomitantly with aberrant promoter methylation, substantiating the association with P-gp decreased expression.
|Alcohol-induced histone acetylation reveals a gene network involved in alcohol tolerance. |
Ghezzi, A; Krishnan, HR; Lew, L; Prado, FJ; Ong, DS; Atkinson, NS
PLoS genetics 9 e1003986 2013
Sustained or repeated exposure to sedating drugs, such as alcohol, triggers homeostatic adaptations in the brain that lead to the development of drug tolerance and dependence. These adaptations involve long-term changes in the transcription of drug-responsive genes as well as an epigenetic restructuring of chromosomal regions that is thought to signal and maintain the altered transcriptional state. Alcohol-induced epigenetic changes have been shown to be important in the long-term adaptation that leads to alcohol tolerance and dependence endophenotypes. A major constraint impeding progress is that alcohol produces a surfeit of changes in gene expression, most of which may not make any meaningful contribution to the ethanol response under study. Here we used a novel genomic epigenetic approach to find genes relevant for functional alcohol tolerance by exploiting the commonalities of two chemically distinct alcohols. In Drosophila melanogaster, ethanol and benzyl alcohol induce mutual cross-tolerance, indicating that they share a common mechanism for producing tolerance. We surveyed the genome-wide changes in histone acetylation that occur in response to these drugs. Each drug induces modifications in a large number of genes. The genes that respond similarly to either treatment, however, represent a subgroup enriched for genes important for the common tolerance response. Genes were functionally tested for behavioral tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol and benzyl alcohol using mutant and inducible RNAi stocks. We identified a network of genes that are essential for the development of tolerance to sedation by alcohol.
|Histone deacetylase 3 is required for maintenance of bone mass during aging. |
McGee-Lawrence, ME; Bradley, EW; Dudakovic, A; Carlson, SW; Ryan, ZC; Kumar, R; Dadsetan, M; Yaszemski, MJ; Chen, Q; An, KN; Westendorf, JJ
Bone 52 296-307 2013
Histone deacetylase 3 (Hdac3) is a nuclear enzyme that removes acetyl groups from lysine residues in histones and other proteins to epigenetically regulate gene expression. Hdac3 interacts with bone-related transcription factors and co-factors such as Runx2 and Zfp521, and thus is poised to play a key role in the skeletal system. To understand the role of Hdac3 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, Hdac3 conditional knockout (CKO) mice were created with the osteocalcin (OCN) promoter driving Cre expression. Hdac3 CKO(OCN) mice were of normal size and weight, but progressively lost trabecular and cortical bone mass with age. The Hdac3 CKO(OCN) mice exhibited reduced cortical bone mineralization and material properties and suffered frequent fractures. Bone resorption was lower, not higher, in the Hdac3 CKO(OCN) mice, suggesting that primary defects in osteoblasts caused the reduced bone mass. Indeed, reductions in bone formation were observed. Osteoblasts and osteocytes from Hdac3 CKO(OCN) mice showed increased DNA damage and reduced functional activity in vivo and in vitro. Thus, Hdac3 expression in osteoblasts and osteocytes is essential for bone maintenance during aging.
|Serum starvation induces DRAM expression in liver cancer cells via histone modifications within its promoter locus. |
Ni, P; Xu, H; Chen, C; Wang, J; Liu, X; Hu, Y; Fan, Q; Hou, Z; Lu, Y
PloS one 7 e50502 2012
DRAM is a lysosomal membrane protein and is critical for p53-mediated autophagy and apoptosis. DRAM has a potential tumor-suppressive function and is downregulated in many human cancers. However, the regulation of DRAM expression is poorly described so far. Here, we demonstrated that serum deprivation strongly induces DRAM expression in liver cancer cells and a core DNA sequence in the DRAM promoter is essential for its responsiveness to serum deprivation. We further observed that euchromatin markers for active transcriptions represented by diacetyl-H3, tetra-acetyl-H4 and the trimethyl-H3K4 at the core promoter region of DRAM gene are apparently increased in a time-dependent manner upon serum deprivation, and concomitantly the dimethyl-H3K9, a herterochromatin marker associated with silenced genes, was time-dependently decreased. Moreover, the chromatin remodeling factor Brg-1 is enriched at the core promoter region of the DRAM gene and is required for serum deprivation induced DRAM expression. These observations lay the ground for further investigation of the DRAM gene expression.
|Virion-mediated transfer of SV40 epigenetic information. |
Milavetz, B; Kallestad, L; Gefroh, A; Adams, N; Woods, E; Balakrishnan, L
Epigenetics 7 528-34 2012
In eukaryotes, epigenetic information can be encoded in parental cells through modification of histones and subsequently passed on to daughter cells in a process known as transgenerational epigenetic regulation. Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is a well-characterized virus whose small circular DNA genome is organized into chromatin and, as a consequence, undergoes many of the same biological processes observed in cellular chromatin. In order to determine whether SV40 is capable of transgenerational epigenetic regulation, we have analyzed SV40 chromatin from minichromosomes and virions for the presence of modified histones using various ChIP techniques and correlated these modifications with specific biological effects on the SV40 life cycle. Our results demonstrate that, like its cellular counterpart, SV40 chromatin is capable of passing biologically relevant transgenerational epigenetic information between infections.
|Adenoviral vectors stimulate glucagon transcription in human mesenchymal stem cells expressing pancreatic transcription factors. |
Zaldumbide, A; Carlotti, F; Gonçalves, MA; Knaän-Shanzer, S; Cramer, SJ; Roep, BO; Wiertz, EJ; Hoeben, RC
PloS one 7 e48093 2012
Viral gene carriers are being widely used as gene transfer systems in (trans)differentiation and reprogramming strategies. Forced expression of key regulators of pancreatic differentiation in stem cells, liver cells, pancreatic duct cells, or cells from the exocrine pancreas, can lead to the initiation of endocrine pancreatic differentiation. While several viral vector systems have been employed in such studies, the results reported with adenovirus vectors have been the most promising in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined whether the viral vector system itself could impact the differentiation capacity of human bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) toward the endocrine lineage. Lentivirus-mediated expression of Pdx-1, Ngn-3, and Maf-A alone or in combination does not lead to robust expression of any of the endocrine hormones (i.e. insulin, glucagon and somatostatin) in hMSCs. Remarkably, subsequent transduction of these genetically modified cells with an irrelevant early region 1 (E1)-deleted adenoviral vector potentiates the differentiation stimulus and promotes glucagon gene expression in hMSCs by affecting the chromatin structure. This adenovirus stimulation was observed upon infection with an E1-deleted adenovirus vector, but not after exposure to helper-dependent adenovirus vectors, pointing at the involvement of genes retained in the E1-deleted adenovirus vector in this phenomenon. Lentivirus mediated expression of the adenovirus E4-ORF3 mimics the adenovirus effect. From these data we conclude that E1-deleted adenoviral vectors are not inert gene-transfer vectors and contribute to the modulation of the cellular differentiation pathways.
|CBP and p300 histone acetyltransferases contribute to homologous recombination by transcriptionally activating the BRCA1 and RAD51 genes. |
Ogiwara, H; Kohno, T
PloS one 7 e52810 2012
Histone acetylation at DNA double-strand break (DSB) sites by CBP and p300 histone acetyltransferases (HATs) is critical for the recruitment of DSB repair proteins to chromatin. Here, we show that CBP and p300 HATs also function in DSB repair by transcriptionally activating the BRCA1 and RAD51 genes, which are involved in homologous recombination (HR), a major DSB repair system. siRNA-mediated depletion of CBP and p300 impaired HR activity and downregulated BRCA1 and RAD51 at the protein and mRNA levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that CBP and p300 bind to the promoter regions of the BRCA1 and RAD51 genes, and that depletion of CBP and/or p300 reduces H3 and H4 acetylation and inhibits binding of the transcription factor E2F1 to these promoters. Depletion of CBP and p300 impaired DNA damage-induced phosphorylation and chromatin binding of the single-strand DNA-binding protein RPA following BRCA1-mediated DNA end resection. Consistent with this, subsequent phosphorylation of CHK1 and activation of the G2/M damage checkpoint were also impaired. These results indicate that the HATs CBP and p300 play multiple roles in the activation of the cellular response to DSBs.
|HDAC2 regulates atypical antipsychotic responses through the modulation of mGlu2 promoter activity. |
Kurita, M; Holloway, T; García-Bea, A; Kozlenkov, A; Friedman, AK; Moreno, JL; Heshmati, M; Golden, SA; Kennedy, PJ; Takahashi, N; Dietz, DM; Mocci, G; Gabilondo, AM; Hanks, J; Umali, A; Callado, LF; Gallitano, AL; Neve, RL; Shen, L; Buxbaum, JD; Han, MH; Nestler, EJ; Meana, JJ; Russo, SJ; González-Maeso, J
Nature neuroscience 15 1245-54 2012
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) compact chromatin structure and repress gene transcription. In schizophrenia, clinical studies demonstrate that HDAC inhibitors are efficacious when given in combination with atypical antipsychotics. However, the molecular mechanism that integrates a better response to antipsychotics with changes in chromatin structure remains unknown. Here we found that chronic atypical antipsychotics downregulated the transcription of metabotropic glutamate 2 receptor (mGlu2, also known as Grm2), an effect that was associated with decreased histone acetylation at its promoter in mouse and human frontal cortex. This epigenetic change occurred in concert with a serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor-dependent upregulation and increased binding of HDAC2 to the mGlu2 promoter. Virally mediated overexpression of HDAC2 in frontal cortex decreased mGlu2 transcription and its electrophysiological properties, thereby increasing psychosis-like behavior. Conversely, HDAC inhibitors prevented the repressive histone modifications induced at the mGlu2 promoter by atypical antipsychotics, and augmented their therapeutic-like effects. These observations support the view of HDAC2 as a promising new target for schizophrenia treatment.
|Helicobacter pylori decreases p27 expression through the delta opioid receptor-mediated inhibition of histone acetylation within the p27 promoter. |
Byun, SW; Chang, YJ; Chung, IS; Moss, SF; Kim, SS
Cancer letters 326 96-104 2012
Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the decreased expression of the gastric tumour suppressor protein p27. Because transcription of the gene p27 may be regulated epigenetically through histone acetylation, which is mediated by G-protein coupled delta opioid receptor (DOR) stimulation, we examined whether H. pylori regulates the DOR/histone acetylation/p27 promoter pathway. The levels of acetylated histone and p300, a gene-specific histone acetyltransferase within the p27 promoter, were measured using ChIP assays. The expression of phospho-DOR was evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Growth curves were constructed, and cell proliferation was assessed after BrdU incorporation. Low p27 expression in acutely H. pylori-infected AGS gastric epithelial cells and in chronically H. pylori-infected AGS-derived HS3C cells was associated with approximate 20% and 40% decreases in p27 mRNA expression, respectively, when compared to p27 mRNA levels in uninfected AGS parental cells. The low p27 mRNA levels following H. pylori infection were associated with a 15-60% reduction in p27 promoter histone H4 acetylation. The recruitment of p300 to the p27 promoter was also markedly decreased by H. pylori infection. The expression of phospho-DOR was decreased by H. pylori infection in cell lines in vitro and in H. pylori-infected human gastric mucosa in vivo. The level of cellular p27 inversely correlated with cell proliferation in HS3C cells. These results demonstrate that H. pylori decreases p27 expression by modulating the DOR and thereby inhibiting histone acetylation of the p27 promoter. These findings link low gastric p27 expression levels with increased instances of gastric carcinogenesis associated with H. pylori infection.
|Zinc-induced Dnmt1 expression involves antagonism between MTF-1 and nuclear receptor SHP. |
Zhang, Y; Andrews, GK; Wang, L
Nucleic acids research 40 4850-60 2012
Dnmt1 is frequently overexpressed in cancers, which contributes significantly to cancer-associated epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes. However, the mechanism of Dnmt1 overexpression remains elusive. Herein, we elucidate a pathway through which nuclear receptor SHP inhibits zinc-dependent induction of Dnmt1 by antagonizing metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1). Zinc treatment induces Dnmt1 transcription by increasing the occupancy of MTF-1 on the Dnmt1 promoter while decreasing SHP expression. SHP in turn represses MTF-1 expression and abolishes zinc-mediated changes in the chromatin configuration of the Dnmt1 promoter. Dnmt1 expression is increased in SHP-knockout (sko) mice but decreased in SHP-transgenic (stg) mice. In human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), increased DNMT1 expression is negatively correlated with SHP levels. Our study provides a molecular explanation for increased Dnmt1 expression in HCC and highlights SHP as a potential therapeutic target.
|Histone deacetylase complexes promote trinucleotide repeat expansions. |
Debacker, K; Frizzell, A; Gleeson, O; Kirkham-McCarthy, L; Mertz, T; Lahue, RS
PLoS biology 10 e1001257 2012
Expansions of DNA trinucleotide repeats cause at least 17 inherited neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease. Expansions can occur at frequencies approaching 100% in affected families and in transgenic mice, suggesting that specific cellular proteins actively promote (favor) expansions. The inference is that expansions arise due to the presence of these promoting proteins, not their absence, and that interfering with these proteins can suppress expansions. The goal of this study was to identify novel factors that promote expansions. We discovered that specific histone deacetylase complexes (HDACs) promote CTG•CAG repeat expansions in budding yeast and human cells. Mutation or inhibition of yeast Rpd3L or Hda1 suppressed up to 90% of expansions. In cultured human astrocytes, expansions were suppressed by 75% upon inhibition or knockdown of HDAC3, whereas siRNA against the histone acetyltransferases CBP/p300 stimulated expansions. Genetic and molecular analysis both indicated that HDACs act at a distance from the triplet repeat to promote expansions. Expansion assays with nuclease mutants indicated that Sae2 is one of the relevant factors regulated by Rpd3L and Hda1. The causal relationship between HDACs and expansions indicates that HDACs can promote mutagenesis at some DNA sequences. This relationship further implies that HDAC3 inhibitors being tested for relief of expansion-associated gene silencing may also suppress somatic expansions that contribute to disease progression.
|Stress-induced epigenetic regulation of κ-opioid receptor gene involves transcription factor c-Myc. |
Flaisher-Grinberg, S; Persaud, SD; Loh, HH; Wei, LN
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 9167-72 2012
Exposure to stress is associated with adverse emotional and behavioral responses. Whereas the κ-opioid receptor (KOR) system is known to mediate some of the effects, it is unclear whether and how stress affects epigenetic regulation of this gene. Because the KOR gene can use two promoters (Pr1 and Pr2) and two polyadenylation signals (PA1 and PA2), it is also interesting whether and how these distinct regulatory mechanisms are differentially modulated by stress. The current study examined the effects of stress on these different regulatory mechanisms of the KOR gene. Results showed that stress selectively increased the expression of KOR mRNA isoforms controlled by Pr1 and terminated at PA1 in specific brain areas including the medial-prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, brainstem, and sensorimotor cortex, but not in the amygdala or hypothalamus. These effects correlated with altered epigenetic state of KOR Pr1 chromatin, as well as elevation and increased recruitment of the principal transcription factor c-Myc, which could activate Pr1. Stress-induced modulation of Pr1 was further validated using glutamate-sensitive murine hippocampal cell line, HT22. The results revealed a common molecular mechanism underlying the effect of stress on selected chromatin regions of this gene at the cellular level and in the context of whole animal and identified a critical role for c-Myc in stress-triggered epigenetic regulation of the KOR gene locus. This study sheds light on the mechanisms of stress-induced epigenetic regulation that targets specific chromatin segments and suggests certain KOR transcripts and its principal transcription factor c-Myc as potential targets for brain-area-specific intervention.
|ATF4-dependent regulation of the JMJD3 gene during amino acid deprivation can be rescued in Atf4-deficient cells by inhibition of deacetylation. |
Shan, J; Fu, L; Balasubramanian, MN; Anthony, T; Kilberg, MS
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 36393-403 2012
Following amino acid deprivation, the amino acid response (AAR) induces transcription from specific genes through a collection of signaling mechanisms, including the GCN2-eIF2-ATF4 pathway. The present report documents that the histone demethylase JMJD3 is an activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4)-dependent target gene. The JMJD3 gene contains two AAR-induced promoter activities and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that the AAR leads to enhanced ATF4 recruitment to the C/EBP-ATF response element (CARE) upstream of Promoter-1. AAR-induced histone modifications across the JMJD3 gene locus occur upon ATF4 binding. Jmjd3 transcription is not induced in Atf4-knock-out cells, but the AAR-dependent activation was rescued by inhibition of histone deacetylation with trichostatin A (TSA). The TSA rescue of AAR activation in the absence of Atf4 also occurred for the Atf3 and C/EBP homology protein (Chop) genes, but not for the asparagine synthetase gene. ChIP analysis of the Jmjd3, Atf3, and Chop genes in Atf4 knock-out cells documented that activation of the AAR in the presence of TSA led to specific changes in acetylation of histone H4. The results suggest that a primary function of ATF4 is to recruit histone acetyltransferase activity to a sub-set of AAR target genes. Thus, absolute binding of ATF4 to these particular genes is not required and no ATF4 interaction with the general transcription machinery is necessary. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that ATF4 functions as a pioneer factor to alter chromatin structure and thus, enhance transcription in a gene-specific manner.
|Regulation of GATA factor expression is distinct between erythroid and mast cell lineages. |
Ohmori, S; Takai, J; Ishijima, Y; Suzuki, M; Moriguchi, T; Philipsen, S; Yamamoto, M; Ohneda, K
Molecular and cellular biology 32 4742-55 2012
The zinc finger transcription factors GATA1 and GATA2 participate in mast cell development. Although the expression of these factors is regulated in a cell lineage-specific and differentiation stage-specific manner, their regulation during mast cell development has not been clarified. Here, we show that the GATA2 mRNA level was significantly increased while GATA1 was maintained at low levels during the differentiation of mast cells derived from mouse bone marrow (BMMCs). Unlike in erythroid cells, forced expression or small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of GATA1 rarely affected GATA2 expression, and vice versa, in mast cells, indicating the absence of cross-regulation between Gata1 and Gata2 genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that both GATA factors bound to most of the conserved GATA sites of Gata1 and Gata2 loci in BMMCs. However, the GATA1 hematopoietic enhancer (G1HE) of the Gata1 gene, which is essential for GATA1 expression in erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages, was bound only weakly by both GATA factors in BMMCs. Furthermore, transgenic-mouse reporter assays revealed that the G1HE is not essential for reporter expression in BMMCs and peritoneal mast cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the expression of GATA factors in mast cells is regulated in a manner quite distinct from that in erythroid cells.
|A dual role for the dREAM/MMB complex in the regulation of differentiation-specific E2F/RB target genes. |
Lee, H; Ragusano, L; Martinez, A; Gill, J; Dimova, DK
Molecular and cellular biology 32 2110-20 2012
E2F and RB proteins regulate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle progression, apoptosis, differentiation, and development. Recent studies indicate that they function as part of an evolutionarily conserved multiprotein complex termed dREAM/DREAM/LINC. Here we characterize the role of the Drosophila complex, dREAM, in the regulation of differentiation-specific E2F target genes in actively proliferating cells. These genes are regulated differently from cell cycle-related E2F targets, they do not depend on E2F activation, and E2F/RB repression is maintained throughout the cell cycle. In proliferating cells, their repression is dependent on dREAM. We find that dREAM plays a dual role in their regulation. First, it is required for the stability of the repressive dE2F2/RBF complexes at their promoters during S phase. Second, we find that dREAM is indispensable for both transcriptional repression mechanisms employed at these genes.
|Juxtaposition of heterochromatic and euchromatic regions by chromosomal translocation mediates a heterochromatic long-range position effect associated with a severe neurological phenotype. |
Finelli, P; Sirchia, SM; Masciadri, M; Crippa, M; Recalcati, MP; Rusconi, D; Giardino, D; Monti, L; Cogliati, F; Faravelli, F; Natacci, F; Zoccante, L; Bernardina, BD; Russo, S; Larizza, L
Molecular cytogenetics 5 16 2012
The term "position effect" is used when the expression of a gene is deleteriously affected by an alteration in its chromosomal environment even though the integrity of the protein coding sequences is maintained. We describe a patient affected by epilepsy and severe neurodevelopment delay carrying a balanced translocation t(15;16)(p11.2;q12.1)dn that we assume caused a position effect as a result of the accidental juxtaposition of heterochromatin in the euchromatic region.FISH mapped the translocation breakpoints (bkps) to 15p11.2 within satellite III and the 16q12.1 euchromatic band within the ITFG1 gene. The expression of the genes located on both sides of the translocation were tested by means of real-time PCR and three, all located on der(16), were found to be variously perturbed: the euchromatic gene NETO2/BTCL2 was silenced, whereas VPS35 and SHCBP1, located within the major heterochromatic block of chromosome 16q11.2, were over-expressed. Pyrosequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation of NETO2/BTCL2 and VPS35 confirmed the expression findings. Interphase FISH analysis showed that der(16) localised to regions occupied by the beta satellite heterochromatic blocks more frequently than der(15).To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a heterochromatic position effect in humans caused by the juxtaposition of euchromatin/heterochromatin as a result of chromosomal rearrangement. The overall results are fully in keeping with the observations in Drosophila and suggest the occurrence of a human heterochromatin position effect associated with the nuclear repositioning of the der(16) and its causative role in the patient's syndromic phenotype.
|MeCP2 binds to nucleosome free (linker DNA) regions and to H3K9/H3K27 methylated nucleosomes in the brain. |
Thambirajah, AA; Ng, MK; Frehlick, LJ; Li, A; Serpa, JJ; Petrotchenko, EV; Silva-Moreno, B; Missiaen, KK; Borchers, CH; Adam Hall, J; Mackie, R; Lutz, F; Gowen, BE; Hendzel, M; Georgel, PT; Ausió, J
Nucleic acids research 40 2884-97 2012
Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a chromatin-binding protein that mediates transcriptional regulation, and is highly abundant in brain. The nature of its binding to reconstituted templates has been well characterized in vitro. However, its interactions with native chromatin are less understood. Here we show that MeCP2 displays a distinct distribution within fractionated chromatin from various tissues and cell types. Artificially induced global changes in DNA methylation by 3-aminobenzamide or 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, do not significantly affect the distribution or amount of MeCP2 in HeLa S3 or 3T3 cells. Most MeCP2 in brain is chromatin-bound and localized within highly nuclease-accessible regions. We also show that, while in most tissues and cell lines, MeCP2 forms stable complexes with nucleosome, in brain, a fraction of it is loosely bound to chromatin, likely to nucleosome-depleted regions. Finally, we provide evidence for novel associations of MeCP2 with mononucleosomes containing histone H2A.X, H3K9me(2) and H3K27me(3) in different chromatin fractions from brain cortex and in vitro. We postulate that the functional compartmentalization and tissue-specific distribution of MeCP2 within different chromatin types may be directed by its association with nucleosomes containing specific histone variants, and post-translational modifications.
|Regulation of mouse Cyp24a1 expression via promoter-proximal and downstream-distal enhancers highlights new concepts of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) action. |
Pike, JW; Meyer, MB
Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 523 2-8 2012
CYP24A1 functions in vitamin D target tissues to degrade 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)). Thus, the concentration of this enzyme and the regulation of its expression is a primary determinant of the overall biological activity of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) within cells. The principle regulator of CYP24A1 expression is 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) itself, which functions through the vitamin D receptor to upregulate the transcriptional activity of the Cyp24a1 gene. In this report, we explore the mechanism of this regulation using recently developed ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq techniques that permit an unbiased search for enhancer elements that participate in this transcriptional control. Our studies both confirm a regulatory region defined earlier and located proximal to the transcriptional start site (TSS) of mouse Cyp24a1 (-160 and -265nt) and identify a novel intergenic region located downstream of the transcription unit that contains two enhancers (+35 and +37kb) that facilitate 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-dependent upregulation of Cyp24a1 expression. Interestingly, while C/EBPβ also binds under basal conditions to a site located immediately upstream of the Cyp24a1 promoter (-345nt), occupancy by this factor is strikingly increased following 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment. The locations and activities of these regulatory regions that mediate 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) actions were confirmed in mice in vivo. We conclude that the mechanism through which 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) induces the CYP24A1 enzyme, thereby autoregulating its own destruction, involves both promoter-proximal as well as downstream-distal enhancers. These findings highlight new concepts regarding the molecular mechanism of action of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and other hormonal regulators.
|Hepatic cellular senescence pathway genes are induced through histone modifications in a diet-induced obese rat model. |
Zhang, X; Zhou, D; Strakovsky, R; Zhang, Y; Pan, YX
American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 302 G558-64 2012
Overnutrition, such as a high-fat (HF) diet, is a feature followed by some in developed nations that leads to obesity and fatty liver disease. In rats, when fed a fat-high diet, some develop obesity (obesity prone, OP) while others display an obesity-resistant (OR) phenotype. The present study investigated the differences between OP and OR rats on their activation of hepatic cellular senescence pathways on a HF diet. Male OP and OR rats were fed a HF diet containing 45% kcal from fat for 13 wk, and livers were collected for analysis by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and chromatin immunoprecipitation. OP rats were 41% heavier than OR rats, despite consuming the same amount of food. Triacylglycerol levels were increased significantly in both plasma and liver of OP rats. Gene analysis demonstrated a significant increase of both the amount and the transcription rates of p16(INK4a) and p21(Cip1) mRNA in OP rats. The increased p16(INK4a) and p21(Cip1) also caused a significant decrease in the level of phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. In OP rats, the increase of p16(INK4a) was associated with the higher acetylation levels of histone H4 at the p16(INK4a) promoter and coding region and lower methylation level of histone H3 lysine-27 in the p16(INK4a) coding region. The increase of p21(Cip1) was associated with increased acetylation of both histone H3 and H4 and decreased trimethylation of histone H3 lysine-27 at the p21(Cip1) promoter. In the p21(Cip1) coding region, dimethylation of histone H3 lysine-4 was significantly higher (P less than 0.05) in livers of OP rats compared with OR rats.
|CBX7 is a tumor suppressor in mice and humans. |
Forzati, F; Federico, A; Pallante, P; Abbate, A; Esposito, F; Malapelle, U; Sepe, R; Palma, G; Troncone, G; Scarfò, M; Arra, C; Fedele, M; Fusco, A
The Journal of clinical investigation 122 612-23 2012
The CBX7 gene encodes a polycomb group protein that is known to be downregulated in many types of human cancers, although the role of this protein in carcinogenesis remains unclear. To shed light on this issue, we generated mice null for Cbx7. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from these mice had a higher growth rate and reduced susceptibility to senescence compared with their WT counterparts. This was associated with upregulated expression of multiple cell cycle components, including cyclin E, which is known to play a key role in lung carcinogenesis in humans. Adult Cbx7-KO mice developed liver and lung adenomas and carcinomas. In in vivo and in vitro experiments, we demonstrated that CBX7 bound to the CCNE1 promoter in a complex that included HDAC2 and negatively regulated CCNE1 expression. Finally, we found that the lack of CBX7 protein expression in human lung carcinomas correlated with CCNE1 overexpression. These data suggest that CBX7 is a tumor suppressor and that its loss plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cancer.
|The HPV E6 oncoprotein targets histone methyltransferases for modulating specific gene transcription. |
Hsu, CH; Peng, KL; Jhang, HC; Lin, CH; Wu, SY; Chiang, CM; Lee, SC; Yu, WC; Juan, LJ
Oncogene 31 2335-49 2012
Expression of viral proteins causes important epigenetic changes leading to abnormal cell growth. Whether viral proteins directly target histone methyltransferases (HMTs), a key family enzyme for epigenetic regulation, and modulate their enzymatic activities remains elusive. Here we show that the E6 proteins of both low-risk and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) interact with three coactivator HMTs, CARM1, PRMT1 and SET7, and downregulate their enzymatic activities in vitro and in HPV-transformed HeLa cells. Furthermore, these three HMTs are required for E6 to attenuate p53 transactivation function. Mechanistically, E6 hampers CARM1- and PRMT1-catalyzed histone methylation at p53-responsive promoters, and suppresses the binding of p53 to chromatinized DNA independently of E6-mediated p53 degradation. p53 pre-methylated at lysine-372 (p53K372 mono-methylation) by SET7 protects p53 from E6-induced degradation. Consistently, E6 downregulates p53K372 mono-methylation and thus reduces p53 protein stability. As a result of the E6-mediated inhibition of HMT activity, expression of p53 downstream genes is suppressed. Together, our results not only reveal a clever approach for the virus to interfere with p53 function, but also demonstrate the modulation of HMT activity as a novel mechanism of epigenetic regulation by a viral oncoprotein.
|HDA6 directly interacts with DNA methyltransferase MET1 and maintains transposable element silencing in Arabidopsis. |
Liu, X; Yu, CW; Duan, J; Luo, M; Wang, K; Tian, G; Cui, Y; Wu, K
Plant physiology 158 119-29 2012
The molecular mechanism of how the histone deacetylase HDA6 participates in maintaining transposable element (TE) silencing in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is not yet defined. In this study, we show that a subset of TEs was transcriptionally reactivated and that TE reactivation was associated with elevated histone H3 and H4 acetylation as well as increased H3K4Me3 and H3K4Me2 in hda6 mutants. Decreased DNA methylation of the TEs was also detected in hda6 mutants, suggesting that HDA6 silences the TEs by regulating histone acetylation and methylation as well as the DNA methylation status of the TEs. Similarly, transcripts of some of these TEs were also increased in the methyltransferase1 (met1) mutant, with decreased DNA methylation. Furthermore, H4 acetylation, H3K4Me3, H3K4Me2, and H3K36Me2 were enriched at the coregulated TEs in the met1 and hda6 met1 mutants. Protein-protein interaction analysis indicated that HDA6 physically interacts with MET1 in vitro and in vivo, and further deletion analysis demonstrated that the carboxyl-terminal region of HDA6 and the bromo-adjacent homology domain of MET1 were responsible for the interaction. These results suggested that HDA6 and MET1 interact directly and act together to silence TEs by modulating DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and histone methylation status.Full Text Article
|CBP mediates NF-κB-dependent histone acetylation and estrogen receptor recruitment to an estrogen response element in the BIRC3 promoter. |
Pradhan, M; Baumgarten, SC; Bembinster, LA; Frasor, J
Molecular and cellular biology 32 569-75 2012
Estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-κB are transcription factors with profound effects on breast cancer cell proliferation and survival. While many studies demonstrate that ER and NF-κB can repress each other, we previously identified a gene signature that is synergistically upregulated by these two factors in more aggressive luminal B breast tumors. Herein, we examine a novel mechanism of cross talk between ER and NF-κB that results in the upregulation of the antiapoptotic gene BIRC3 (also known as cIAP2). We demonstrate that NF-κB, acting through two response elements, is required for ER recruitment to an adjacent estrogen response element (ERE) in the BIRC3 promoter. This effect is accompanied by a major increase in NF-κB-dependent histone acetylation around the ERE. Interestingly, CBP, a histone acetyltransferase previously implicated in repressive interactions between ER and NF-κB, plays a permissive role by promoting histone acetylation and ER recruitment, as well as enhanced expression of BIRC3. These findings suggest a new gene regulatory mechanism by which inflammation and NF-κB activation can influence ER recruitment to inherently inactive ER binding sites. This fine-tuning mechanism may explain how two factors that generally repress each other's activity may work together on certain genes to promote breast cancer cell survival and tumor progression.
|Epigenetic regulation of the latency-associated region of Marek's disease virus in tumor-derived T-cell lines and primary lymphoma. |
Brown, AC; Nair, V; Allday, MJ
Journal of virology 86 1683-95 2012
Meq is the major Marek's disease virus (MDV)-encoded oncoprotein and is essential for T-cell lymphomagenesis. Meq and several noncoding RNAs, including three microRNA (MiR) clusters, are expressed from the repeats of the MDV genome during latent infection of T cells. To investigate the state of the chromatin in this and flanking regions, we carried out chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis of covalent histone modifications and associated bound proteins. T-cell lines and a lymphoma were compared. The chromatin around the promoters for Meq and the noncoding RNAs in both cell lines and the lymphoma were associated with H3K9 acetylation and H3K4 trimethylation, which are marks of transcriptionally active chromatin. These correlated with bound Meq-c-Jun heterodimers. The only binding site for Meq homodimers is located at the lytic origin of replication (OriLyt), next to the lytic gene pp38. This region lacked active marks and was associated with repressive histone modifications (H3K27 and H3K9 trimethylation). DNA CpG methylation was investigated using methylated DNA precipitation (MeDP). In cell lines, DNA methylation was abundant across the repeats but noticeably reduced or absent around the active promoters. In primary tumors, CpG methylation occurred less than 2 months after infection, focused within the ICP4 gene. These data suggest that nonrandom de novo DNA methylation occurs early in lymphomagenesis. In addition, the histone data indicate a role for Meq in the epigenetic regulation of the MDV genome repeats in transformed T cells and suggest that the OriLyt region and the Meq/MiR region might be separated by chromatin boundary elements, and preliminary data on CTCF binding are consistent with this.
|Distal interleukin-1β (IL-1β) response element of human matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) binds activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factors and regulates gene expression. |
Schmucker, AC; Wright, JB; Cole, MD; Brinckerhoff, CE
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 1189-97 2012
The collagenase matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) plays an important role in the destruction of cartilage in arthritic joints. MMP-13 expression is strongly up-regulated in arthritis, largely because of stimulation by inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β. Treatment of chondrocytes with IL-1β induces transcription of MMP-13 in vitro. IL-1β signaling converges upon the activator protein-1 transcription factors, which have been shown to be required for IL-1β-induced MMP-13 gene expression. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we detected activator protein-1 binding within an evolutionarily conserved DNA sequence ∼20 kb 5' relative to the MMP-13 transcription start site (TSS). Also using ChIP, we detected histone modifications and binding of RNA polymerase II within this conserved region, all of which are consistent with transcriptional activation. Chromosome conformation capture indicates that chromosome looping brings this region in close proximity with the MMP-13 TSS. Finally, a luciferase reporter construct driven by a component of the conserved region demonstrated an expression pattern similar to that of endogenous MMP-13. These data suggest that a conserved region at 20 kb upstream from the MMP-13 TSS includes a distal transcriptional response element of MMP-13, which contributes to MMP-13 gene expression.
|Local microenvironment provides important cues for cell differentiation in lingual epithelia. |
Li, F; Zhou, M
PloS one 7 e35362 2012
Transgenic Keratin14-rtTA-PTR mice specifically express Keratin14 (K14) in the tongue epithelia, as well as co-express EGFP and the dominant negative ΔTgfbr2 genes upon treatment with Doxycycline (Dox). As TGF-β signaling negatively regulates the stem cell cycle and proliferation, its disruption by Dox induction in these transgenic mice shortens the cell cycle and allows observation of the final fate of those mutated cell lineages within a short period of time. Here, we used inducible transgenic mice to track the K14+ cells through the cell migration stream by immunohistochemical an immunofluorescent imaging. We showed that these cells have different development patterns from the tip to posterior of the tongue, achieved presumably by integrating positional information from the microenvironment. The expression of the K14 gene was variable, depending on the location of the tongue and papillae. Disruption of TGF-β signaling in K14+ progenitor cells resulted in proliferation of stem cell pools.
|miR-206 integrates multiple components of differentiation pathways to control the transition from growth to differentiation in rhabdomyosarcoma cells. |
Macquarrie, KL; Yao, Z; Young, JM; Cao, Y; Tapscott, SJ
Skeletal muscle 2 7 2012
Similar to replicating myoblasts, many rhabdomyosarcoma cells express the myogenic determination gene MyoD. In contrast to myoblasts, rhabdomyosarcoma cells do not make the transition from a regulative growth phase to terminal differentiation. Previously we demonstrated that the forced expression of MyoD with its E-protein dimerization partner was sufficient to induce differentiation and suppress multiple growth-promoting genes, suggesting that the dimer was targeting a switch that regulated the transition from growth to differentiation. Our data also suggested that a balance between various inhibitory transcription factors and MyoD activity kept rhabdomyosarcomas trapped in a proliferative state.Potential myogenic co-factors were tested for their ability to drive differentiation in rhabdomyosarcoma cell culture models, and their relation to MyoD activity determined through molecular biological experiments.Modulation of the transcription factors RUNX1 and ZNF238 can induce differentiation in rhabdomyosarcoma cells and their activity is integrated, at least in part, through the activation of miR-206, which acts as a genetic switch to transition the cell from a proliferative growth phase to differentiation. The inhibitory transcription factor MSC also plays a role in controlling miR-206, appearing to function by occluding a binding site for MyoD in the miR-206 promoter.These findings support a network model composed of coupled regulatory circuits with miR-206 functioning as a switch regulating the transition from one stable state (growth) to another (differentiation).
|Chromatin modulation at the FLO11 promoter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by HDAC and Swi/Snf complexes. |
Barrales, RR; Korber, P; Jimenez, J; Ibeas, JI
Genetics 191 791-803 2012
Cell adhesion and biofilm formation are critical processes in the pathogenicity of fungi and are mediated through a family of adhesin proteins conserved throughout yeasts and fungi. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Flo11 is the main adhesin involved in cell adhesion and biofilm formation, making the study of its function and regulation in this nonpathogenic budding yeast highly relevant. The S. cerevisiae FLO11 gene is driven by a TATA-box-containing promoter that is regulated through one of the longest regulatory upstream regions (3 kb) in yeast. We reported recently that two chromatin cofactor complexes, the Rpd3L deacetylase and the Swi/Snf chromatin-remodeling complexes, contribute significantly to the regulation of FLO11. Here, we analyze directly how these complexes impact on FLO11 promoter chromatin structure and dissect further the interplay between histone deacetylases, chromatin remodeling, and the transcriptional repressor Sfl1. We show that the regulation of chromatin structure represents an important layer of control in the highly complex regulation of the FLO11 promoter.
|Nuclear epidermal growth factor receptor interacts with transcriptional intermediary factor 2 to activate cyclin D1 gene expression triggered by the oncoprotein latent membrane protein 1. |
Shi, Y; Tao, Y; Jiang, Y; Xu, Y; Yan, B; Chen, X; Xiao, L; Cao, Y
Carcinogenesis 33 1468-78 2012
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a ubiquitously expressed receptor tyrosine kinase, is an important factor in carcinogenesis. Transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (TIF2), a member of the p160 nuclear receptor co-activator gene family, is linked to the proliferation of cancer cells. However, the direct interplay between the EGFR and the nuclear receptors remains unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that nuclear EGFR could directly bind to the cyclin D1 promoter under the regulation of the oncoprotein latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), but it also indicated that other factors are involved in the activation of target genes. In this study, we found that LMP1 upregulated the expression of TIF2 and promoted the interaction of EGFR with TIF2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the intact complex was linked with cyclin D1 promoter activity in an LMP1-dependent manner. The physiological functions of the intact complex were associated with cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. These findings suggest that TIF2 is a novel binding partner for nuclear EGFR and is involved in regulating its target gene expression.
|The CpG island shore of the GLT-1 gene acts as a methylation-sensitive enhancer. |
Tatjana Perisic,Florian Holsboer,Theo Rein,Jürgen Zschocke
Glia 60 2012
Astrocytic lineage commitment and brain region-dependent specialization of glia are partly ascribed to epigenetic processes. Clearance of glutamate is an essential task, which astrocytes assume in a temporal-spatial fashion by distinct glutamate transporter expression. Glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1) is predominant in cortex (CTX), while it plays an inferior role in cerebellum (CER). Here, we set out to identify regulatory elements that could account for the differences in brain region-specific activity as well as response to dexamethasone (DEX) or epigenetic factors. We found a distal promoter element at the shore of the CpG island exhibiting enhancer function in response to DEX in reporter gene assays. This shore region showed slight enrichment in repressive trimethyl-histone H3 (Lys27) and under-representation of acetyl-histone H4 (H4ac) marks in DEX nonresponsive CER astrocytes as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation. In addition, CpG sites of the shore region displayed higher methylation in CER than in CTX cells. Targeted in vitro methylation of CpG sites within the shore abrogated the stimulatory effects of DEX. Interestingly, the shore was characterized by a pronounced epigenetic plasticity in CTX cells since DEX exposure elicited an increase of H4ac in CTX in comparison to DEX nonresponsive CER. The transcriptional activity of this region was also affected by histone deacetylase inhibitors in a methylation- and brain region-dependent manner. Together, our study highlights the impact of an epigenetically adaptive DNA element of the GLT-1 promoter being decisive for brain region-specific activity and reactivity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
|NFκB and AP-1 drive human myometrial IL8 expression. |
Khanjani, S; Terzidou, V; Johnson, MR; Bennett, PR
Mediators of inflammation 2012 504952 2012
The uterine expression of the chemokine IL8 increases dramatically with the onset of labour both at term and preterm. The IL8 promoter contains binding sites for the transcription factors nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBP). In this study we investigated the roles of these transcription factors in IL1B regulation of the IL8 gene in human myometrium. Using chromatin immune precipitation (ChIP) assay, we showed that each of NFκB, CEBP, and AP-1 binds to the IL8 promoter upon IL1B stimulation. To examine the relative importance of each site in IL8 gene expression, site-directed mutagenesis of each of these sites was performed. We found that the NFκB site was essential for basal and IL1B-stimulated gene expression. Mutation of the AP-1 site reduced both basal and IL1B-stimulated expression but to a lesser extent. Mutation of the CEBP site had no effect upon basal expression but eliminated the IL1B response. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of NFκB abolished the IL8 response to IL1B significantly; siRNA against AP-1 reduced it to a lesser extent whilst knockdown of CEBP enhanced the response. Our data confirms a central and essential role for NFκB in regulation of IL8 in human myometrium.
|Late-onset increases in oxidative stress and other tumorigenic activities and tumors with a Ha-ras mutation in the liver of adult male C3H mice gestationally exposed to arsenic. |
Nohara, K; Tateishi, Y; Suzuki, T; Okamura, K; Murai, H; Takumi, S; Maekawa, F; Nishimura, N; Kobori, M; Ito, T
Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology 129 293-304 2012
Tumorigenesis is a complex process involving genetic, epigenetic, and metabolic alterations. Gestational arsenic exposure has been shown to increase hepatic tumors in adult male offspring of C3H mice, which spontaneously develop hepatic tumors often harboring activating Ha-ras mutation. We explored tumor-promoting changes by gestational arsenic exposure with a focus on Ha-ras mutation and gene expression changes. The results of this study demonstrated that gestational arsenic exposure particularly increased hepatic tumors with a C61A Ha-ras mutation. Real-time PCR analyses on the adult normal livers showed that two genes (Creld2, Slc25a30), whose expression are induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress and cellular oxidative stress, respectively, were significantly upregulated and two genes (Fabp4, Ell3), whose products are involved in lipid efflux and apoptosis, respectively, were significantly downregulated more than twofold by gestational arsenic exposure compared with control mice. The expression changes in the four genes were shown to be late-onset events and to some extent to be associated with corresponding histone modifications, and not with DNA methylation changes. The gene expression changes suggested alterations in lipid metabolism and associated oxidative stress augmentation. Consistently, expression of an oxidative-stress-inducible gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was upregulated in the livers of the arsenic group. We also found increased expression of retrotransposon L1 mRNA in the tumor-bearing livers of the arsenic group in comparison with control mice. These results suggested that gestational arsenic exposure induces tumor-augmenting changes, including oxidative stress and L1 activation, in a late-onset manner, which would particularly promote tumorigenic expansion of cells with a C61A Ha-ras mutation.
|Valproic acid triggers erythro/megakaryocyte lineage decision through induction of GFI1B and MLLT3 expression. |
Roberta Zini,Ruggiero Norfo,Francesco Ferrari,Elisa Bianchi,Simona Salati,Valentina Pennucci,Giorgia Sacchi,Chiara Carboni,Giovanni Battista Ceccherelli,Enrico Tagliafico,Sergio Ferrari,Rossella Manfredini,
Experimental hematology 40 2012
Histone deacetylase inhibitors represent a family of targeted anticancer compounds that are widely used against hematological malignancies. So far little is known about their effects on normal myelopoiesis. Therefore, in order to investigate the effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors on the myeloid commitment of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, we treated CD34(+) cells with valproic acid (VPA). Our results demonstrate that VPA treatment induces H4 histone acetylation and hampers cell cycle progression in CD34(+) cells sustaining high levels of CD34 protein expression. In addition, our data show that VPA treatment promotes erythrocyte and megakaryocyte differentiation. In fact, we demonstrate that VPA treatment is able to induce the expression of growth factor-independent protein 1B (GFI1B) and of mixed-lineage leukemia translocated to chromosome 3 protein (MLLT3), which are crucial regulators of erythrocyte and megakaryocyte differentiation, and that the up-regulation of these genes is mediated by the histone hyperacetylation at their promoter sites. Finally, we show that GFI1B inhibition impairs erythroid and megakaryocyte differentiation induced by VPA, while MLLT3 silencing inhibits megakaryocyte commitment only. As a whole, our data suggest that VPA sustains the expression of stemness-related markers in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and is able to interfere with hematopoietic lineage commitment by enhancing erythrocyte and megakaryocyte differentiation and by inhibiting the granulocyte and mono-macrophage maturation.
|Valproate alters dopamine signaling in association with induction of Par-4 protein expression. |
Lee, S; Jeong, J; Park, YU; Kwak, Y; Lee, SA; Lee, H; Son, H; Park, SK
PloS one 7 e45618 2012
Chromatin remodeling through histone modifications has emerged as a key mechanism in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Valproate (VPA), a first-line medication for bipolar disorder, is known to have histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor activity, but the relationship between its efficacy as a mood stabilizer and HDAC inhibitory activity is unclear. Here we provide evidence that prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4), an intracellular binding partner of dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2), plays a role in mediating the effectiveness of VPA. We found that chronic VPA treatment enhanced the expression of Par-4 in cultured neurons and adult mouse brains. This Par-4 induction phenomenon occurred at the transcriptional level and was correlated with an increase in histone H3 and H4 acetylation of the Par-4 promoter regions. Furthermore, chronic VPA treatment potentiated the suppression of the cAMP signaling cascade upon dopamine stimulation, which was blocked by sulpiride treatment. These results indicate that VPA potentiates DRD2 activity by enhancing Par-4 expression via a chromatin remodeling mechanism.
|Role of PU.1 in MHC class II expression through transcriptional regulation of class II transactivator pI in dendritic cells. |
Nao Kitamura,Hokuto Yokoyama,Takuya Yashiro,Nobuhiro Nakano,Makoto Nishiyama,Shunsuke Kanada,Tatsuo Fukai,Mutsuko Hara,Shigaku Ikeda,Hideoki Ogawa,Ko Okumura,Chiharu Nishiyama
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 129 2012
PU.1 is a hematopoietic cell-specific transcription factor belonging to the Ets family. We hypothesized that PU.1 is involved in MHC class II expression in dendritic cells (DCs).
|Measuring dynamic changes in histone modifications and nucleosome density during activated transcription in budding yeast. |
Govind, CK; Ginsburg, D; Hinnebusch, AG
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 833 15-27 2012
Chromatin immunoprecipitation is widely utilized to determine the in vivo binding of factors that regulate transcription. This procedure entails formaldehyde-mediated cross-linking of proteins and isolation of soluble chromatin followed by shearing. The fragmented chromatin is subjected to immunoprecipitation using antibodies against the protein of interest and the associated DNA is identified using quantitative PCR. Since histones are posttranslationally modified during transcription, this technique can be effectively used to determine the changes in histone modifications that occur during transcription. In this paper, we describe a detailed methodology to determine changes in histone modifications in budding yeast that takes into account reductions in nucleosome.
|IFN-α inhibits HBV transcription and replication in cell culture and in humanized mice by targeting the epigenetic regulation of the nuclear cccDNA minichromosome. |
Belloni, L; Allweiss, L; Guerrieri, F; Pediconi, N; Volz, T; Pollicino, T; Petersen, J; Raimondo, G; Dandri, M; Levrero, M
The Journal of clinical investigation 122 529-37 2012
HBV infection remains a leading cause of death worldwide. IFN-α inhibits viral replication in vitro and in vivo, and pegylated IFN-α is a commonly administered treatment for individuals infected with HBV. The HBV genome contains a typical IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE), but the molecular mechanisms by which IFN-α suppresses HBV replication have not been established in relevant experimental systems. Here, we show that IFN-α inhibits HBV replication by decreasing the transcription of pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) and subgenomic RNA from the HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) minichromosome, both in cultured cells in which HBV is replicating and in mice whose livers have been repopulated with human hepatocytes and infected with HBV. Administration of IFN-α resulted in cccDNA-bound histone hypoacetylation as well as active recruitment to the cccDNA of transcriptional corepressors. IFN-α treatment also reduced binding of the STAT1 and STAT2 transcription factors to active cccDNA. The inhibitory activity of IFN-α was linked to the IRSE, as IRSE-mutant HBV transcribed less pgRNA and could not be repressed by IFN-α treatment. Our results identify a molecular mechanism whereby IFN-α mediates epigenetic repression of HBV cccDNA transcriptional activity, which may assist in the development of novel effective therapeutics.
|Biochemical inhibition of the acetyltransferases ATase1 and ATase2 reduces β-secretase (BACE1) levels and Aβ generation. |
Ding, Y; Ko, MH; Pehar, M; Kotch, F; Peters, NR; Luo, Y; Salamat, SM; Puglielli, L
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 8424-33 2012
The cellular levels of β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), the rate-limiting enzyme for the generation of the Alzheimer disease (AD) amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), are tightly regulated by two ER-based acetyl-CoA:lysine acetyltransferases, ATase1 and ATase2. Here we report that both acetyltransferases are expressed in neurons and glial cells, and are up-regulated in the brain of AD patients. We also report the identification of first and second generation compounds that inhibit ATase1/ATase2 and down-regulate the expression levels as well as activity of BACE1. The mechanism of action involves competitive and non-competitive inhibition as well as generation of unstable intermediates of the ATases that undergo degradation.
|The novel function of HINFP as a co-activator in sterol-regulated transcription of PCSK9 in HepG2 cells. |
Li, H; Liu, J
The Biochemical journal 443 757-68 2012
PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) plays an important role in control of plasma LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol metabolism by modulating the degradation of hepatic LDL receptor. Previous studies demonstrated that PCSK9 is a target gene of the SREBP2 [SRE (sterol-regulatory element)-binding protein 2] that activates PCSK9 gene transcription through an SRE motif of the promoter. In addition to SREBP2, HNF1α (hepatic nuclear factor 1α) positively regulates PCSK9 gene transcription in hepatic cells through a binding site located 28 bp upstream from SRE. In the present study, we have identified a novel HINFP (histone nuclear factor P) recognition motif residing between the HNF1 motif and SRE that is essential for basal and sterol-regulated transcriptions of the PCSK9 promoter. Mutation of this motif lowers the basal promoter activity and abolishes the sterol-mediated repression as well as the SREBP2-induced activation of the PCSK9 promoter. We show further that the activity of SREBP2 in stimulating PCSK9 promoter activity is greatly enhanced by HINFP. Additional experiments suggest that HINFP and its cofactor NPAT (nuclear protein of the ataxia telangectasia mutated locus) form a functional complex, and NPAT may subsequently recruit the HAT (histone acetyltransferase) cofactor TRRAP (transformation/transactivation domain-associated protein) to facilitate the histone H4 acetylation of the PCSK9 promoter. Knockdown of HINFP, NPAT or TRRAP each markedly reduces the amount of acetylated histone H4 on the PCSK9 promoter region and lowers PCSK9 protein levels. Importantly, by utilizing co-immunoprecipitation assays, we have demonstrated a direct interaction between SREBP2 and HINFP and its cofactors NPAT/TRRAP. Taken together, these new findings identify HINFP as a co-activator in SREBP-mediated transactivation of PCSK9 gene expression.
|Influence of epigenetic modifications of the interleukin-10 promoter on IL10 gene expression. |
Lena Larsson,Sara Thorbert-Mros,Lars Rymo,Tord Berglundh
European journal of oral sciences 120 2012
Epigenetic modifications of DNA and its associated proteins influence gene expression. The -1087 interleukin-10 (IL10) gene polymorphism is associated with differences in IL10 expression. The objectives of this study were to analyze the effect of DNA methylation and histone modifications on IL10 gene expression, the differences in epigenetic modifications between GG and AA genotypes of the -1087 IL10 gene polymorphism, and the methylation pattern in the region close to the -1087 position. Using B cells obtained from subjects with GG and AA genotypes we demonstrated that treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors and 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine resulted in an increase in the production of IL10 mRNA. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that stimulation with lipopolysaccharide resulted in a higher fold increase in the acetylation of histone H4 and in the methylation of histone H3 for GG genotype cells than for AA genotype cells. The increase in acetylation of histone H3 was larger for AA genotype cells than for GG genotype cells. For unstimulated cells the acetylation and methylation of histone H3 were higher for GG genotype cells than for AA genotype cells, while AA genotype cells had a higher increase in acetylation of histone H4. DNA methylation assays revealed that the three CpG sites distal to the -1087 site were methylated in blood cells and gingival tissues.
|Amyloid precursor protein is a biomarker for transformed human pluripotent stem cells. |
Venkataramani, Vivek, et al.
Am. J. Pathol., 180: 1636-52 (2012) 2012
Increasing evidence suggests an important function of the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) in malignant disease in humans; however, the biological basis for this evidence is not well understood at present. To understand the role of APP in transformed pluripotent stem cells, we studied its expression levels in human testicular germ cell tumors using patient tissues, model cell lines, and an established xenograft mouse model. In the present study, we demonstrate the cooperative expression of APP with prominent pluripotency-related genes such as Sox2, NANOG, and POU5F1 (Oct3/4). The closest homologue family member, APLP2, showed no correlation to these stem cell factors. In addition, treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors suppressed the levels of APP and stem cell markers. Loss of pluripotency, either spontaneously or as a consequence of treatment with an HDAC inhibitor, was accompanied by decreased APP protein levels both in vitro and in vivo. These observations suggest that APP represents a novel and specific biomarker in human transformed pluripotent stem cells that can be selectively modulated by HDAC inhibitors.
|HIF2α-Sp1 interaction mediates a deacetylation-dependent FVII-gene activation under hypoxic conditions in ovarian cancer cells. |
Koizume, S; Ito, S; Miyagi, E; Hirahara, F; Nakamura, Y; Sakuma, Y; Osaka, H; Takano, Y; Ruf, W; Miyagi, Y
Nucleic acids research 40 5389-401 2012
Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF)-1α and HIF2α are major transcription factors required for adaptive responses to hypoxia. HIFs form a complex with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) to bind to the regulatory regions of target genes. The acetylation of histones by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) is one of the epigenetic marks associated with active chromatin. Indeed, HIFs recruit p300 HAT to hypoxia response elements (HREs) within gene regulatory regions. Here, we report an unusual HIF-mediated transcriptional activation in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC). While characterizing coagulation factor VII (FVII) gene induction during hypoxic conditions, we observed that the interaction of HIF2α with Sp1, but not with ARNT, could induce transcription of FVII in a HRE-independent manner. Unexpectedly, this gene activation is associated with histone deacetylation. We found that a class II HDAC, HDAC4, is recruited with HIF2α to the FVII promoter as a co-activator, while p300 HAT negatively regulated this process. Furthermore, this mechanism can be synergistically enhanced via a deacetylation-dependent pathway when cells are simultaneously exposed to hypoxic and serum-free conditions. These results suggest the presence of a stress-responsive transcription mediated by the HIF2α/Sp1/HDAC4 network and explain how CCC shed their procoagulant activity under hypoxia.
|Silencing of Wnt5a during colon cancer metastasis involves histone modifications. |
Li, Qian and Chen, Hong
Epigenetics, 7: 551-8 (2012) 2012
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the United States. Approximately 90% of colon cancer deaths arise from the metastasis of primary tumors. Aberrant expression of Wnt5a, one of the WNT signaling factors, has been reported during colon cancer development and progression. We found that both mRNA and protein expression of Wnt5a were decreased in the highly metastatic human colon cancer cell line SW620 compared with the non-metastatic human colon cancer cell SW480. This study tested the hypothesis that the silencing of Wnt5a in metastatic human colon cancer cells is related to altered epigenetic modifications. Wnt5a expression was not responsive to DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-cytidine treatment. However, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaBt) significantly increased Wnt5a mRNA expression in SW620. Importantly, lower transcription of Wnt5a in SW620 than SW480 corresponded to multiple histone modifications, including lower levels of acetylated histone H3, H4 and H3K4me2 and higher levels of H3K27me3 in the promoter region. The increase of H3Ac, H4Ac and H3K4me2 after NaBt treatment in SW620 confirmed the involvement of histone modifications in the transcriptional regulation of Wnt5a. Additionally, NaBt treatment increased β-catenin signaling and diminished the difference in cell adhesion ability between non-metastatic SW480 and metastatic SW620, suggesting that the HDAC inhibitor plays critical roles in the WNT signaling pathway and cell physiology that relate to metastasis. In conclusion, our study suggests the importance of Wnt5a in colon cancer metastasis and also indicates that Wnt5a silencing in the highly invasive human colon cancer cell line might result from transcriptional regulation of the gene by histone modifications.
|Higher-order chromatin regulation and differential gene expression in the human tumor necrosis factor/lymphotoxin locus in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. |
Watanabe, T; Ishihara, K; Hirosue, A; Watanabe, S; Hino, S; Ojima, H; Kanai, Y; Sasaki, Y; Nakao, M
Molecular and cellular biology 32 1529-41 2012
The three-dimensional context of endogenous chromosomal regions may contribute to the regulation of gene clusters by influencing interactions between transcriptional regulatory elements. In this study, we investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling on spatiotemporal enhancer-promoter interactions in the human tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/lymphotoxin (LT) gene locus, mediated by CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-dependent chromatin insulators. The cytokine genes LTα, TNF, and LTβ are differentially regulated by NF-κB signaling in inflammatory and oncogenic responses. We identified at least four CTCF-enriched sites with enhancer-blocking activities and a TNF-responsive TE2 enhancer in the TNF/LT locus. One of the CTCF-enriched sites is located between the early-inducible LTα/TNF promoters and the late-inducible LTβ promoter. Depletion of CTCF reduced TNF expression and accelerated LTβ induction. After TNF stimulation, via intrachromosomal dynamics, these insulators mediated interactions between the enhancer and the LTα/TNF promoters, followed by interaction with the LTβ promoter. These results suggest that insulators mediate the spatiotemporal control of enhancer-promoter associations in the TNF/LT gene cluster.
|An essential role for a mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex during male meiosis. |
Kim, Y; Fedoriw, AM; Magnuson, T
Development (Cambridge, England) 139 1133-40 2012
Germ cell development and gametogenesis require genome-wide transitions in epigenetic modifications and chromatin structure. These changes include covalent modifications to the DNA and histones as well as remodeling activities. Here, we explore the role of the mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex during spermatogenesis using a conditional allele of the ATPase subunit, brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1, or Smarca4). Not only do BRG1 levels peak during the early stages of meiosis, genetic ablation of Brg1 in murine embryonic gonocytes results in arrest during prophase of meiosis I. Coincident with the timing of meiotic arrest, mutant spermatocytes accumulate unrepaired DNA and fail to complete synapsis. Furthermore, mutant spermatocytes show global alterations to histone modifications and chromatin structure indicative of a more heterochromatic genome. Together, these data demonstrate a requirement for BRG1 activity in spermatogenesis, and suggest a role for the mammalian SWI/SNF complex in programmed recombination and repair events that take place during meiosis.
|N-Myc and GCN5 regulate significantly overlapping transcriptional programs in neural stem cells. |
Martínez-Cerdeño, V; Lemen, JM; Chan, V; Wey, A; Lin, W; Dent, SR; Knoepfler, PS
PloS one 7 e39456 2012
Here we examine the functions of the Myc cofactor and histone acetyltransferase, GCN5/KAT2A, in neural stem and precursor cells (NSC) using a conditional knockout approach driven by nestin-cre. Mice with GCN5-deficient NSC exhibit a 25% reduction in brain mass with a microcephaly phenotype similar to that observed in nestin-cre driven knockouts of c- or N-myc. In addition, the loss of GCN5 inhibits precursor cell proliferation and reduces their populations in vivo, as does loss of N-myc. Gene expression analysis indicates that about one-sixth of genes whose expression is affected by loss of GCN5 are also affected in the same manner by loss of N-myc. These findings strongly support the notion that GCN5 protein is a key N-Myc transcriptional cofactor in NSC, but are also consistent with recruitment of GCN5 by other transcription factors and the use by N-Myc of other histone acetyltransferases. Putative N-Myc/GCN5 coregulated transcriptional pathways include cell metabolism, cell cycle, chromatin, and neuron projection morphogenesis genes. GCN5 is also required for maintenance of histone acetylation both at its putative specific target genes and at Myc targets. Thus, we have defined an important role for GCN5 in NSC and provided evidence that GCN5 is an important Myc transcriptional cofactor in vivo.
|Aiolos promotes TH17 differentiation by directly silencing Il2 expression. |
Quintana, FJ; Jin, H; Burns, EJ; Nadeau, M; Yeste, A; Kumar, D; Rangachari, M; Zhu, C; Xiao, S; Seavitt, J; Georgopoulos, K; Kuchroo, VK
Nature immunology 13 770-7 2012
CD4(+) interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing helper T cells (T(H)17 cells) are instrumental in the immune response to pathogens. However, an overactive T(H)17 response results in tissue inflammation and autoimmunity, and therefore it is important to identify the molecular mechanisms that control the development of T(H)17 cells. IL-2 suppresses such development, but how IL-2 production is actively suppressed during T(H)7 differentiation is not understood. Here we report that under T(H)17-polarizing conditions, the transcription factors STAT3 and AhR upregulated the expression of Aiolos, a member of the Ikaros family of transcription factors. Using Aiolos-deficient mice, we demonstrated that Aiolos silenced the Il2 locus, promoting T(H)17 differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we have identified a module in the transcriptional program of T(H)17 cells that actively limits IL-2 production and promotes their differentiation.
|Identification of core DNA elements that target somatic hypermutation. |
Kohler, KM; McDonald, JJ; Duke, JL; Arakawa, H; Tan, S; Kleinstein, SH; Buerstedde, JM; Schatz, DG
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 189 5314-26 2012
Somatic hypermutation (SHM) diversifies the V region of Ig genes and underlies the process of affinity maturation, in which B lymphocytes producing high-affinity Abs are generated and selected. SHM is triggered in activated B cells by deamination of deoxycytosine residues mediated by activation-induced deaminase (AID). Whereas mistargeting of SHM and AID results in mutations and DNA damage in many non-Ig genes, they act preferentially at Ig loci. The mechanisms responsible for preferential targeting of SHM and AID activity to Ig loci are poorly understood. Using an assay involving an SHM reporter cassette inserted into the Ig L chain locus (IgL) of chicken DT40 B cells, we have identified a 1.9-kb DIVAC (diversification activator) element derived from chicken IgL that supports high levels of AID-dependent mutation activity. Systematic deletion analysis reveals that targeting activity is spread throughout much of the sequence and identifies two core regions that are particularly critical for function: a 200-bp region within the IgL enhancer, and a 350-bp 3' element. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that whereas DIVAC does not alter levels of several epigenetic marks in the mutation cassette, it does increase levels of serine-5 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II in the mutation target region, consistent with an effect on transcriptional elongation/pausing. We propose that multiple, dispersed DNA elements collaborate to recruit and activate the mutational machinery at Ig gene variable regions during SHM.
|Impaired coenzyme A synthesis in fission yeast causes defective mitosis, quiescence-exit failure, histone hypoacetylation and fragile DNA. |
Nakamura, T; Pluskal, T; Nakaseko, Y; Yanagida, M
Open biology 2 120117 2012
Biosynthesis of coenzyme A (CoA) requires a five-step process using pantothenate and cysteine in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. CoA contains a thiol (SH) group, which reacts with carboxylic acid to form thioesters, giving rise to acyl-activated CoAs such as acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is essential for energy metabolism and protein acetylation, and, in higher eukaryotes, for the production of neurotransmitters. We isolated a novel S. pombe temperature-sensitive strain ppc1-537 mutated in the catalytic region of phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase (designated Ppc1), which is essential for CoA synthesis. The mutant becomes auxotrophic to pantothenate at permissive temperature, displaying greatly decreased levels of CoA, acetyl-CoA and histone acetylation. Moreover, ppc1-537 mutant cells failed to restore proliferation from quiescence. Ppc1 is thus the product of a super-housekeeping gene. The ppc1-537 mutant showed combined synthetic lethal defects with five of six histone deacetylase mutants, whereas sir2 deletion exceptionally rescued the ppc1-537 phenotype. In synchronous cultures, ppc1-537 cells can proceed to the S phase, but lose viability during mitosis failing in sister centromere/kinetochore segregation and nuclear division. Additionally, double-strand break repair is defective in the ppc1-537 mutant, producing fragile broken DNA, probably owing to diminished histone acetylation. The CoA-supported metabolism thus controls the state of chromosome DNA.
|Sulforaphane causes a major epigenetic repression of myostatin in porcine satellite cells. |
Fan, H; Zhang, R; Tesfaye, D; Tholen, E; Looft, C; Hölker, M; Schellander, K; Cinar, MU
Epigenetics 7 1379-90 2012
Satellite cells function as skeletal muscle stem cells to support postnatal muscle growth and regeneration following injury or disease. There is great promise for the improvement of muscle performance in livestock and for the therapy of muscle pathologies in humans by the targeting of myostatin (MSTN) in this cell population. Human diet contains many histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, such as the bioactive component sulforaphane (SFN), whose epigenetic effects on MSTN gene in satellite cells are unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the epigenetic influences of SFN on the MSTN gene in satellite cells. The present work provides the first evidence, which is distinct from the effects of trichostatin A (TSA), that SFN supplementation in vitro not only acts as a HDAC inhibitor but also as a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor in porcine satellite cells. Compared with TSA and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), SFN treatment significantly represses MSTN expression, accompanied by strongly attenuated expression of negative feedback inhibitors of the MSTN signaling pathway. miRNAs targeting MSTN are not implicated in posttranscriptional regulation of MSTN. Nevertheless, a weakly enriched myoblast determination (MyoD) protein associated with diminished histone acetylation in the MyoD binding site located in the MSTN promoter region may contribute to the transcriptional repression of MSTN by SFN. These findings reveal a new mode of epigenetic repression of MSTN by the bioactive compound SFN. This novel pharmacological, biological activity of SFN in satellite cells may thus allow for the development of novel approaches to weaken the MSTN signaling pathway, both for therapies of human skeletal muscle disorders and for livestock production improvement.
|Requirement for the histone deacetylase Hdac3 for the inflammatory gene expression program in macrophages. |
Chen, X; Barozzi, I; Termanini, A; Prosperini, E; Recchiuti, A; Dalli, J; Mietton, F; Matteoli, G; Hiebert, S; Natoli, G
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 E2865-74 2012
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate inflammatory gene expression, as indicated by the potent antiinflammatory activity of pan-HDAC inhibitors. However, the specific contribution of each of the 11 HDAC proteins to the inflammatory gene expression program is unknown. Using an integrated genomic approach, we found that Hdac3-deficient macrophages were unable to activate almost half of the inflammatory gene expression program when stimulated with LPS. A large part of the activation defect was attributable to loss of basal and LPS-inducible expression of IFN-β, which maintains Stat1 protein levels in unstimulated cells and acts in an autocrine/paracrine manner after stimulation to promote a secondary wave of Stat1-dependent gene expression. Loss of Hdac3-mediated repression of nuclear receptors led to hyperacetylation of thousands of genomic sites and associated gene derepression. The up-regulation of the constitutively expressed prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase, Ptgs1 (Cox-1), a nuclear receptor target, had a causative role in the phenotype because its chemical inhibition reverted, albeit partially, the Ifn-β activation defect. These data indicate a central role for Hdac3 in inflammation and may have relevance for the use of selective Hdac inhibitors as antiinflammatory agents.
|Genistein affects histone modifications on Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1) gene in SW480 human colon cancer cell line. |
Wang, H; Li, Q; Chen, H
PloS one 7 e40955 2012
Genistein (GEN) is a plant-derived isoflavone and can block uncontrolled cell growth in colon cancer by inhibiting the WNT signaling pathway. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the enhanced gene expression of the WNT signaling pathway antagonist, DKK1 by genistein treatment is associated with epigenetic modifications of the gene in colon cancer cells. Genistein treatment induced a concentration-dependent G2 phase arrest in the human colon cancer cell line SW480 and reduced cell proliferation. Results from several other human colon cancer cell lines confirmed the growth inhibitory effects of genistein. Overexpression of DKK1 confirmed its involvement in growth inhibition. Knockdown of DKK1 expression by siRNA slightly induced cell growth. DKK1 gene expression was increased by genistein in SW480 and HCT15 cells. DNA methylation at the DKK1 promoter was not affected by genistein treatment in all the cell lines tested. On the other hand, genistein induced histone H3 acetylation of the DKK1 promoter region in SW480 and HCT15 cells. This indicates that increased histone acetylation is associated with the genistein-induced DKK1 expression. The association between histone acetylation and DKK1 gene expression is confirmed by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) treatment. In conclusion, genistein treatment decreases cell growth and proliferation in colon cancer cell lines. The effect is associated with the increased DKK1 expression through the induction of histone acetylation at the DKK1 promoter region.
|Amino acid starvation induces reactivation of silenced transgenes and latent HIV-1 provirus via down-regulation of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). |
Palmisano, I; Della Chiara, G; D'Ambrosio, RL; Huichalaf, C; Brambilla, P; Corbetta, S; Riba, M; Piccirillo, R; Valente, S; Casari, G; Mai, A; Martinelli Boneschi, F; Gabellini, D; Poli, G; Schiaffino, MV
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 E2284-93 2012
The epigenetic silencing of exogenous transcriptional units integrated into the genome represents a critical problem both for long-term gene therapy efficacy and for the eradication of latent viral infections. We report here that limitation of essential amino acids, such as methionine and cysteine, causes selective up-regulation of exogenous transgene expression in mammalian cells. Prolonged amino acid deprivation led to significant and reversible increase in the expression levels of stably integrated transgenes transcribed by means of viral or human promoters in HeLa cells. This phenomenon was mediated by epigenetic chromatin modifications, because histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reproduced starvation-induced transgene up-regulation, and transcriptome analysis, ChIP, and pharmacological and RNAi approaches revealed that a specific class II HDAC, namely HDAC4, plays a critical role in maintaining the silencing of exogenous transgenes. This mechanism was also operational in cells chronically infected with HIV-1, the etiological agent of AIDS, in a latency state. Indeed, both amino acid starvation and pharmacological inhibition of HDAC4 promoted reactivation of HIV-1 transcription and reverse transcriptase activity production in HDAC4(+) ACH-2 T-lymphocytic cells but not in HDAC4(-) U1 promonocytic cells. Thus, amino acid deprivation leads to transcriptional derepression of silenced transgenes, including integrated plasmids and retroviruses, by a process involving inactivation or down-regulation of HDAC4. These findings suggest that selective targeting of HDAC4 might represent a unique strategy for modulating the expression of therapeutic viral vectors, as well as that of integrated HIV-1 proviruses in latent reservoirs without significant cytotoxicity.
|The mouse RANKL gene locus is defined by a broad pattern of histone H4 acetylation and regulated through distinct distal enhancers. |
Martowicz, ML; Meyer, MB; Pike, JW
Journal of cellular biochemistry 112 2030-45 2011
RANKL is a stromal cell-derived tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like factor that plays a primary role in osteoclast formation and function. Recent studies suggest that 1,25(OH)(2) D(3) induces Rankl expression via vitamin D receptor (VDR) interaction at several enhancers located up to 76 kb upstream of the gene's transcriptional start site (TSS). In the current studies, we explored these interactions further using ChIP-chip and RNA analysis. We confirm VDR and RXR binding to the five enhancers described previously and identify two additional sites, one located within the Rankl coding region. We also show that RNA polymerase II is recruited to these enhancers, most likely through transcription factors TBP, TFIIB, and TAF(II) 250. Interestingly, the recruitment of these factors leads to the production of RNA transcripts, although their role at present is unknown. We also discovered that histone H4 acetylation (H4ac) marks many upstream Rankl enhancers under basal conditions and that H4ac is increased upon 1,25(OH)(2) D(3) treatment. Surprisingly, the hormone also induces C/EBPβ binding across the Rankl locus. C/EBPβ binding correlates directly with increased H4ac activity following 1,25(OH)(2) D(3) treatment. Finally, elevated H4ac is restricted to an extended region located between two potential insulator sites occupied by CTCF and Rad21. These data suggest a mechanism whereby 1,25(OH)(2) D(3) functions via the VDR and C/EBPβ to upregulate Rankl expression.
|Genome-wide approaches reveal functional interleukin-4-inducible STAT6 binding to the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 promoter. |
Tozawa, H; Kanki, Y; Suehiro, J; Tsutsumi, S; Kohro, T; Wada, Y; Aburatani, H; Aird, WC; Kodama, T; Minami, T
Molecular and cellular biology 31 2196-209 2011
Endothelial cell activation and dysfunction underlie many vascular disorders, including atherosclerosis and inflammation. Here, we show that interleukin-4 (IL-4) markedly induced vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), both in cultured endothelial cells and in the intact endothelium in mice. Combined treatment with IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) resulted in further, sustained induction of VCAM-1 expression. IL-4-mediated induction of VCAM-1 and secondary monocyte adhesion was predominantly regulated by the transcription factor STAT6. Genome-wide survey of IL-4-mediated STAT6 binding from sequential chromatin-immunoprecipitation with deep sequencing (chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing [ChIP-seq]) in endothelial cells revealed regions of transient and sustained transcription factor binding. Through the combination of DNA microarrays and ChIP-seq at the same time points, the majority of IL-4-responsive genes were shown to be STAT6 dependent and associated with direct STAT6 binding to their promoter. IL-4-mediated stable binding of STAT6 led to sustained target gene expression. Moreover, our strategy led to the identification of a novel functionally important STAT6 binding site within 16 kb upstream of the VCAM-1 gene. Taken together, these findings support a critical role for STAT6 in mediating IL-4 signal transduction in endothelial cells. Identification of a novel IL-4-mediated VCAM-1 enhancer may provide a foundation for targeted therapy in vascular disease.
|Direct inhibition of TNF-α promoter activity by Fanconi anemia protein FANCD2. |
Matsushita, N; Endo, Y; Sato, K; Kurumizaka, H; Yamashita, T; Takata, M; Yanagi, S
PloS one 6 e23324 2011
Fanconi anemia (FA), an inherited disease, is associated with progressive bone marrow failure, predisposition to cancer, and genomic instability. Genes corresponding to 15 identified FA complementation groups have been cloned, and each gene product functions in the response to DNA damage induced by cross-linking agents and/or in protection against genome instability. Interestingly, overproduction of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and aberrant activation of NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity have been observed in FA cells. Here we demonstrated that FANCD2 protein inhibits NF-κB activity in its monoubiquitination-dependent manner. Furthermore, we detected a specific association between FANCD2 and an NF-κB consensus element in the TNF-α promoter by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Therefore, we propose FANCD2 deficiency promotes transcriptional activity of the TNF-α promoter and induces overproduction of TNF-which then sustains prolonged inflammatory responses. These results also suggest that artificial modulation of TNFα production could be a promising therapeutic approach to FA.
|Altered levels of histone deacetylase OsHDT1 affect differential gene expression patterns in hybrid rice. |
Li, C; Huang, L; Xu, C; Zhao, Y; Zhou, DX
PloS one 6 e21789 2011
Hybrids between different inbred varieties display novel patterns of gene expression resulted from parental variation in allelic nucleotide sequences. To study the function of chromatin regulators in hybrid gene expression, the histone deacetylase gene OsHDT1 whose expression displayed a circadian rhythm was over-expressed or inactivated by RNAi in an elite rice parent. Increased OsHDT1 expression did not affect plant growth in the parent but led to early flowering in the hybrid. Nonadditive up-regulation of key flowering time genes was found to be related to flowering time of the hybrid. Over-expression of OsHDT1 repressed the nonadditive expression of the key flowering repressors in the hybrid (i.e. OsGI and Hd1) inducing early flowering. Analysis of histone acetylation suggested that OsHDT1 over-expression might promote deacetylation on OsGI and Hd1 chromatin during the peak expression phase. High throughput differential gene expression analysis revealed that altered OsHDT1 levels affected nonadditive expression of many genes in the hybrid. These data demonstrate that nonadditive gene expression was involved in flowering time control in the hybrid rice and that OsHDT1 level was important for nonadditive or differential expression of many genes including the flowering time genes, suggesting that OsHDT1 may be involved in epigenetic control of parental genome interaction for differential gene expression.
|Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity is critical for embryonic kidney gene expression, growth, and differentiation. |
Chen, S; Bellew, C; Yao, X; Stefkova, J; Dipp, S; Saifudeen, Z; Bachvarov, D; El-Dahr, SS
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 32775-89 2011
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate fundamental biological processes such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival via genomic and nongenomic effects. This study examined the importance of HDAC activity in the regulation of gene expression and differentiation of the developing mouse kidney. Class I HDAC1-3 and class II HDAC4, -7, and -9 genes are developmentally regulated. Moreover, HDAC1-3 are highly expressed in nephron precursors. Short term treatment of cultured mouse embryonic kidneys with HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) induced global histone H3 and H4 hyperacetylation and H3K4 hypermethylation. However, genome-wide profiling revealed that the HDAC-regulated transcriptome is restricted and encompasses regulators of the cell cycle, Wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β/Smad, and PI3K-AKT pathways. Further analysis demonstrated that base-line expression of key developmental renal regulators, including Osr1, Eya1, Pax2/8, WT1, Gdnf, Wnt9b, Sfrp1/2, and Emx2, is dependent on intact HDAC activity. Treatment of cultured embryonic kidney cells with HDACi recapitulated these gene expression changes, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that HDACi is associated with histone hyperacetylation of Pax2/Pax8, Gdnf, Sfrp1, and p21. Gene knockdown studies demonstrated that HDAC1 and HDAC2 play a redundant role in regulation of Pax2/8 and Sfrp1 but not Gdnf. Long term treatment of embryonic kidneys with HDACi impairs the ureteric bud branching morphogenesis program and provokes growth arrest and apoptosis. We conclude that HDAC activity is critical for normal embryonic kidney homeostasis, and we implicate class I HDACs in the regulation of early nephron gene expression, differentiation, and survival.
|CBP/p300 and SIRT1 are involved in transcriptional regulation of S-phase specific histone genes. |
He, H; Yu, FX; Sun, C; Luo, Y
PloS one 6 e22088 2011
Histones constitute a type of essential nuclear proteins important for chromatin structure and functions. The expression of major histones is strictly confined to the S phase of a cell cycle and tightly coupled to DNA replication.With RT-qPCR and ChIP assays, we investigated transcriptional regulation of the S-phase specific histone genes and found that the acetylation level of histones on core histone gene promoters fluctuated during cell cycle in a pattern similar to RNA polymerase II association. Further, we showed that CBP/p300 and SIRT1 were recruited to histone gene promoters in an NPAT-dependent manner, knockdown of which affected histone acetylation on histone gene promoters and histone gene transcription.These observations contribute to further understanding of the mechanism by which the expression of canonical histone genes is regulated, and also implicate a link between histone expression and DNA damage repair and cell metabolism.
|Histone deacetylase inhibitors impair innate immune responses to Toll-like receptor agonists and to infection. |
Roger, T; Lugrin, J; Le Roy, D; Goy, G; Mombelli, M; Koessler, T; Ding, XC; Chanson, AL; Reymond, MK; Miconnet, I; Schrenzel, J; François, P; Calandra, T
Blood 117 1205-17 2011
Regulated by histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases (HDACs), histone acetylation is a key epigenetic mechanism controlling chromatin structure, DNA accessibility, and gene expression. HDAC inhibitors induce growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis of tumor cells and are used as anticancer agents. Here we describe the effects of HDAC inhibitors on microbial sensing by macrophages and dendritic cells in vitro and host defenses against infection in vivo. HDAC inhibitors down-regulated the expression of numerous host defense genes, including pattern recognition receptors, kinases, transcription regulators, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and costimulatory molecules as assessed by genome-wide microarray analyses or innate immune responses of macrophages and dendritic cells stimulated with Toll-like receptor agonists. HDAC inhibitors induced the expression of Mi-2β and enhanced the DNA-binding activity of the Mi-2/NuRD complex that acts as a transcriptional repressor of macrophage cytokine production. In vivo, HDAC inhibitors increased the susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections but conferred protection against toxic and septic shock. Thus, these data identify an essential role for HDAC inhibitors in the regulation of the expression of innate immune genes and host defenses against microbial pathogens.
|Serotonin-mediated synapsin expression is necessary for long-term facilitation of the Aplysia sensorimotor synapse. |
Hart, AK; Fioravante, D; Liu, RY; Phares, GA; Cleary, LJ; Byrne, JH
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 18401-11 2011
Serotonin (5-HT)-induced long-term facilitation (LTF) of the Aplysia sensorimotor synapse depends on enhanced gene expression and protein synthesis, but identification of the genes whose expression and regulation are necessary for LTF remains incomplete. In this study, we found that one such gene is synapsin, which encodes a synaptic vesicle-associated protein known to regulate short-term synaptic plasticity. Both synapsin mRNA and protein levels were increased by 5-HT. Upregulation of synapsin protein occurred in presynaptic sensory neurons at neurotransmitter release sites. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying synapsin regulation, we cloned the promoter region of Aplysia synapsin, and found that the synapsin promoter contained a cAMP response element (CRE), raising the possibility that the transcriptional activator CRE-binding protein 1 (CREB1) mediates 5-HT-induced regulation of synapsin. Indeed, binding of CREB1 to the synapsin promoter was increased following treatment with 5-HT. Furthermore, increased acetylation of histones H3 and H4 and decreased association of histone deacetylase 5 near the CRE site are consistent with transcriptional activation by CREB1. RNA interference (RNAi) targeting synapsin mRNA blocked the 5-HT-induced increase in synapsin protein levels and LTF; in the absence of 5-HT treatment, basal synapsin levels were unaffected. These results indicate that the 5-HT-induced regulation of synapsin levels is necessary for LTF and that this regulation is part of the cascade of synaptic events involved in the consolidation of memory.
|Reversal of heterochromatic silencing of quiescent herpes simplex virus type 1 by ICP0. |
Ferenczy, MW; DeLuca, NA
Journal of virology 85 3424-35 2011
Persisting latent herpes simplex virus genomes are to some degree found in a heterochromatic state, and this contributes to reduced gene expression resulting in quiescence. We used a relatively long-term quiescent infection model in human fibroblasts, followed by provision of ICP0 in trans, to determine the effects of ICP0 on the viral chromatin state as gene expression is reactivated. Expression of ICP0, even at low levels, results in a reduction of higher-order chromatin structure and heterochromatin on quiescent viral genomes, and this effect precedes an increase in transcription. Concurrent with transcriptional activation, high levels of ICP0 expression result in the reduction of the heterochromatin mark trimethylated H3K9, removal of histones H3 and H4 from the quiescent genome, and hyperacetylation of the remaining histones. In contrast, low levels of ICP0 did not appreciably change the levels of histones on the viral genome. These results indicate that ICP0 activity ultimately affects chromatin structure of quiescent genomes at multiple levels, including higher-order chromatin structure, histone modifications, and histone association. Additionally, the level of ICP0 expression affected its ability to change chromatin structure but not to reactivate gene expression. While these observations suggest that some of the effects on chromatin structure are possibly not direct, they also suggest that ICP0 exerts its effects through multiple mechanisms.
|Hyphal development in Candida albicans requires two temporally linked changes in promoter chromatin for initiation and maintenance. |
Lu, Y; Su, C; Wang, A; Liu, H
PLoS biology 9 e1001105 2011
Phenotypic plasticity is common in development. For Candida albicans, the most common cause of invasive fungal infections in humans, morphological plasticity is its defining feature and is critical for its pathogenesis. Unlike other fungal pathogens that exist primarily in either yeast or hyphal forms, C. albicans is able to switch reversibly between yeast and hyphal growth forms in response to environmental cues. Although many regulators have been found involved in hyphal development, the mechanisms of regulating hyphal development and plasticity of dimorphism remain unclear. Here we show that hyphal development involves two sequential regulations of the promoter chromatin of hypha-specific genes. Initiation requires a rapid but temporary disappearance of the Nrg1 transcriptional repressor of hyphal morphogenesis via activation of the cAMP-PKA pathway. Maintenance requires promoter recruitment of Hda1 histone deacetylase under reduced Tor1 (target of rapamycin) signaling. Hda1 deacetylates a subunit of the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase module, leading to eviction of the NuA4 acetyltransferase module and blockage of Nrg1 access to promoters of hypha-specific genes. Promoter recruitment of Hda1 for hyphal maintenance happens only during the period when Nrg1 is gone. The sequential regulation of hyphal development by the activation of the cAMP-PKA pathway and reduced Tor1 signaling provides a molecular mechanism for plasticity of dimorphism and how C. albicans adapts to the varied host environments in pathogenesis. Such temporally linked regulation of promoter chromatin by different signaling pathways provides a unique mechanism for integrating multiple signals during development and cell fate specification.
|Trichostatin A selectively suppresses the cold-induced transcription of the ZmDREB1 gene in maize. |
Hu, Y; Zhang, L; Zhao, L; Li, J; He, S; Zhou, K; Yang, F; Huang, M; Jiang, L; Li, L
PloS one 6 e22132 2011
Post-translational modifications of histone proteins play a crucial role in responding to environmental stresses. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the removal of an acetyl group from histones and are generally believed to be a transcriptional repressor. In this paper, we report that cold treatment highly induces the up-regulation of HDACs, leading to global deacetylation of histones H3 and H4. Treatment of maize with the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) under cold stress conditions strongly inhibits induction of the maize cold-responsive genes ZmDREB1 and ZmCOR413. However, up-regulation of the ZmICE1 gene in response to cold stress is less affected. The expression of drought and salt induced genes, ZmDBF1 and rab17, is almost unaffected by TSA treatment. Thus, these observations show that HDACs may selectively activate transcription. The time course of TSA effects on the expression of ZmDREB1 and ZmCOR413 genes indicates that HDACs appear to directly activate the ZmDREB1 gene, which in turn modulates ZmCOR413 expression. After cold treatment, histone hyperacetylation and DNA demethylation occurs in the ICE1 binding region, accompanied by an increase in accessibility to micrococcal nuclease (MNase). The two regions adjacent to the ICE1 binding site remain hypoacetylated and methylated. However, during cold acclimation, TSA treatment increases the acetylation status and accessibility of MNase and decreases DNA methylation at these two regions. However, TSA treatment does not affect histone hyperacetylation and DNA methylation levels at the ICE1 binding regions of the ZmDREB1 gene. Altogether, our findings indicate that HDACs positively regulate the expression of the cold-induced ZmDREB1 gene through histone modification and chromatin conformational changes and that this activation is both gene and site selective.
|Similarities and differences between two modes of antagonism of the thyroid hormone receptor. |
Sadana, P; Hwang, JY; Attia, RR; Arnold, LA; Neale, G; Guy, RK
ACS chemical biology 6 1096-106 2011
Thyroid hormone (T3) mediates diverse physiological functions including growth, differentiation, and energy homeostasis through the thyroid hormone receptors (TR). The TR binds DNA at specific recognition sequences in the promoter regions of their target genes known as the thyroid hormone response elements (TREs). Gene expression at TREs regulated by TRs is mediated by coregulator recruitment to the DNA bound receptor. This TR-coregulator interaction controls transcription of target genes by multiple mechanisms including covalent histone modifications and chromatin remodeling. Our previous studies identified a β-aminoketone as a potent inhibitor of the TR-coactivator interaction. We describe here the activity of one of these inhibitors in modulating effects of T3 signaling in comparison to an established ligand-competitive inhibitor of TR, NH-3. The β-aminoketone was found to reverse thyroid hormone induced gene expression by inhibiting coactivator recruitment at target gene promoters, thereby regulating downstream effects of thyroid hormone. While mimicking the downstream effects of NH-3 at the molecular level, the β-aminoketone affects only a subset of the thyroid responsive signaling network. Thus antagonists directed to the coregulator binding site have distinct pharmacological properties relative to ligand-based antagonists and may provide complementary activity in vivo.
|Polycomb eviction as a new distant enhancer function. |
Vernimmen, D; Lynch, MD; De Gobbi, M; Garrick, D; Sharpe, JA; Sloane-Stanley, JA; Smith, AJ; Higgs, DR
Genes & development 25 1583-8 2011
Remote distal enhancers may be located tens or thousands of kilobases away from their promoters. How they control gene expression is still poorly understood. Here, we analyze the influence of a remote enhancer on the balance between repression (Polycomb-PcG) and activation (Trithorax-TrxG) of a developmentally regulated gene associated with a CpG island. We reveal its essential, nonredundant role in clearing the PcG complex and H3K27me3 from the CpG island. In the absence of the enhancer, the H3K27me3 demethylase (JMJD3) is not recruited to the CpG island. We propose a new role of long-range regulatory elements in removing repressive PcG complexes.
|Interleukin-1beta induces increased transcriptional activation of the transforming growth factor-beta-activating integrin subunit beta8 through altering chromatin architecture. |
Markovics, JA; Araya, J; Cambier, S; Somanath, S; Gline, S; Jablons, D; Hill, A; Wolters, PJ; Nishimura, SL
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 36864-74 2011
The integrin αvβ8 is a cell surface receptor for the latent domain (LAP) of the multifunctional cytokine TGF-β. Through its association with LAP, TGF-β is maintained in a latent form that must be activated to function. Binding to the integrin αvβ8 with subsequent metalloproteolytic cleavage of LAP represents a major mechanism of TGF-β activation in vivo. Altered expression of the integrin β8 subunit (ITGB8) is found in human chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancers, and brain vascular malformations. We have previously shown that the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) increases ITGB8 expression on lung fibroblasts, which increases αvβ8-mediated TGF-β activation in fibrosis and pathologic inflammation. Here we report the mechanism of increased ITGB8 expression by IL-1β. Our data support a model where the chromatin architecture of the ITGB8 core promoter is altered by nucleosomal repositioning that enhances the interaction of an AP1 complex (containing c-Jun and ATF2). This repositioning is caused by the dissociation of HDAC2 with the ITGB8 core promoter, leading to increased histone H4 acetylation and a loosening of nucleosomal-DNA interactions allowing "opening" of the chromatin structure and increased association of c-Jun and ATF-2. These changes are mediated through NFκB- and p38-dependent pathways. Ultimately, these events culminate in increasing ITGB8 transcription, αvβ8 surface expression, and αvβ8-mediated TGFβ activation.
|Treatment of breast cancer cells with DNA demethylating agents leads to a release of Pol II stalling at genes with DNA-hypermethylated regions upstream of TSS. |
Tao, Y; Liu, S; Briones, V; Geiman, TM; Muegge, K
Nucleic acids research 39 9508-20 2011
Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes plays an important role in tumorigenesis, and epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation are frequently associated with transcriptional repression. Here, we show that gene silencing at selected genes with signs of DNA hypermethylation in breast cancer cells involves Pol II stalling. We studied several repressed genes with DNA hypermethylation within a region 1-kb upstream of the transcriptional start site that were upregulated after treatment with DNA demethylating agents, such as Azacytidine and several natural products. All those selected genes had stalled Pol II at their transcriptional start site and showed enhanced ser2 phosphorylated Pol II and elevated transcripts after drug treatment indicating successful elongation. In addition, a decrease of the epigenetic regulator LSH in a breast cancer cell line by siRNA treatment reduced DNA methylation and overcame Pol II stalling, whereas overexpression of LSH in a normal breast epithelial cell line increased DNA methylation and resulted in repression. Decrease of LSH was associated with reduced DNMT3b binding to promoter sequences, and depletion of DNMT3b by siRNA could release Pol II suggesting that DNMT3b is functionally involved. The release of paused Pol II was accompanied by a dynamic switch from repressive to active chromatin marks. Thus release of Pol II stalling can act as a mechanism for gene reactivation at specific target genes after DNA demethylating treatment in cancer cells.
|Chromatin disruption in the promoter of bovine leukemia virus during transcriptional activation. |
Colin, L; Dekoninck, A; Reichert, M; Calao, M; Merimi, M; Van den Broeke, A; Vierendeel, V; Cleuter, Y; Burny, A; Rohr, O; Van Lint, C
Nucleic acids research 39 9559-73 2011
Bovine leukemia virus expression relies on its chromatin organization after integration into the host cell genome. Proviral latency, which results from transcriptional repression in vivo, represents a viral strategy to escape the host immune system and likely allows for tumor progression. Here, we discriminated two types of latency: an easily reactivable latent state of the YR2 provirus and a 'locked' latent state of the L267 provirus. The defective YR2 provirus was characterized by the presence of nuclease hypersensitive sites at the U3/R junction and in the R/U5 region of the 5'-long terminal repeat (5'-LTR), whereas the L267 provirus displayed a closed chromatin configuration at the U3/R junction. Reactivation of viral expression in YR2 cells by the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus ionomycin combination was accompanied by a rapid but transient chromatin remodeling in the 5'-LTR, leading to an increased PU.1 and USF-1/USF-2 recruitment in vivo sustained by PMA/ionomycin-mediated USF phosphorylation. In contrast, viral expression was not reactivated by PMA/ionomycin in L267 cells, because the 5'-LTR U3/R region remained inaccessible to nucleases and hypermethylated at CpG dinucleotides. Remarkably, we elucidated the BLV 5'-LTR chromatin organization in PBMCs isolated from BLV-infected cows, thereby depicting the virus hiding in vivo in its natural host.
|Genomic analysis reveals a novel nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-binding site in Alu-repetitive elements. |
Antonaki, A; Demetriades, C; Polyzos, A; Banos, A; Vatsellas, G; Lavigne, MD; Apostolou, E; Mantouvalou, E; Papadopoulou, D; Mosialos, G; Thanos, D
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 38768-82 2011
The transcription factor NF-κB is a critical regulator of immune responses. To determine how NF-κB builds transcriptional control networks, we need to obtain a topographic map of the factor bound to the genome and correlate it with global gene expression. We used a ChIP cloning technique and identified novel NF-κB target genes in response to virus infection. We discovered that most of the NF-κB-bound genomic sites deviate from the consensus and are located away from conventional promoter regions. Remarkably, we identified a novel abundant NF-κB-binding site residing in specialized Alu-repetitive elements having the potential for long range transcription regulation, thus suggesting that in addition to its known role, NF-κB has a primate-specific function and a role in human evolution. By combining these data with global gene expression profiling of virus-infected cells, we found that most of the sites bound by NF-κB in the human genome do not correlate with changes in gene expression of the nearby genes and they do not appear to function in the context of synthetic promoters. These results demonstrate that repetitive elements interspersed in the human genome function as common target sites for transcription factors and may play an important role in expanding the repertoire of binding sites to engage new genes into regulatory networks.
|Transcriptional activation of endoplasmic reticulum chaperone GRP78 by HCMV IE1-72 protein. |
Shi-Chen Ou, D; Lee, SB; Chu, CS; Chang, LH; Chung, BC; Juan, LJ
Cell research 21 642-53 2011
Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), a key regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, facilitates cancer cell growth and viral replication. The mechanism leading to grp78 gene activation during viral infection is largely unknown. In this study, we show that the immediate-early 1 (IE1-72) protein of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is essential for HCMV-mediated GRP78 activation. IE1-72 upregulated grp78 gene expression depending on the ATP-binding site, the zinc-finger domain and the putative leucine-zipper motif of IE1-72, as well as the ER stress response elements (ERSEs) on the grp78 promoter. The purified IE1-72 protein bound to the CCAAT box within ERSE in vitro, whereas deletion mutants of IE1-72 deficient in grp78 promoter stimulation failed to do so. Moreover, IE1-72 binding to the grp78 promoter in infected cells accompanied the recruitment of TATA box-binding protein-associated factor 1 (TAF1), a histone acetyltransferase, and the increased level of acetylated histone H4, an indicator of active-state chromatin. These results provide evidence that HCMV IE1-72 activates grp78 gene expression through direct promoter binding and modulation of the local chromatin structure, indicating an active viral mechanism of cellular chaperone induction for viral growth.
|All-trans retinoic acid promotes TGF-β-induced Tregs via histone modification but not DNA demethylation on Foxp3 gene locus. |
Lu, L; Ma, J; Li, Z; Lan, Q; Chen, M; Liu, Y; Xia, Z; Wang, J; Han, Y; Shi, W; Quesniaux, V; Ryffel, B; Brand, D; Li, B; Liu, Z; Zheng, SG
PloS one 6 e24590 2011
It has been documented all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) promotes the development of TGF-β-induced CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (iTreg) that play a vital role in the prevention of autoimmune responses, however, molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. Our objective, therefore, was to determine how atRA promotes the differentiation of iTregs.Addition of atRA to naïve CD4(+)CD25(-) cells stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies in the presence of TGF-β not only increased Foxp3(+) iTreg differentiation, but maintained Foxp3 expression through apoptosis inhibition. atRA/TGF-β-treated CD4(+) cells developed complete anergy and displayed increased suppressive activity. Infusion of atRA/TGF-β-treated CD4(+) cells resulted in the greater effects on suppressing symptoms and protecting the survival of chronic GVHD mice with typical lupus-like syndromes than did CD4(+) cells treated with TGF-β alone. atRA did not significantly affect the phosphorylation levels of Smad2/3 and still promoted iTreg differentiation in CD4(+) cells isolated from Smad3 KO and Smad2 conditional KO mice. Conversely, atRA markedly increased ERK1/2 activation, and blockade of ERK1/2 signaling completely abolished the enhanced effects of atRA on Foxp3 expression. Moreover, atRA significantly increased histone methylation and acetylation within the promoter and conserved non-coding DNA sequence (CNS) elements at the Foxp3 gene locus and the recruitment of phosphor-RNA polymerase II, while DNA methylation in the CNS3 was not significantly altered.We have identified the cellular and molecular mechanism(s) by which atRA promotes the development and maintenance of iTregs. These results will help to enhance the quantity and quality of development of iTregs and may provide novel insights into clinical cell therapy for patients with autoimmune diseases and those needing organ transplantation.
|MiR-129-5p is required for histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced cell death in thyroid cancer cells. |
Brest, P; Lassalle, S; Hofman, V; Bordone, O; Gavric Tanga, V; Bonnetaud, C; Moreilhon, C; Rios, G; Santini, J; Barbry, P; Svanborg, C; Mograbi, B; Mari, B; Hofman, P
Endocrine-related cancer 18 711-9 2011
The molecular mechanism responsible for the antitumor activity of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) remains elusive. As HDACi have been described to alter miRNA expression, the aim of this study was to characterize HDACi-induced miRNAs and to determine their functional importance in the induction of cell death alone or in combination with other cancer drugs. Two HDACi, trichostatin A and vorinostat, induced miR-129-5p overexpression, histone acetylation and cell death in BCPAP, TPC-1, 8505C, and CAL62 cell lines and in primary cultures of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) cells. In addition, miR-129-5p alone was sufficient to induce cell death and knockdown experiments showed that expression of this miRNA was required for HDACi-induced cell death. Moreover, miR-129-5p accentuated the anti-proliferative effects of other cancer drugs such as etoposide or human α-lactalbumin made lethal for tumor cells (HAMLET). Taken together, our data show that miR-129-5p is involved in the antitumor activity of HDACi and highlight a miRNA-driven cell death mechanism.
|Effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid on human pericytes in vitro. |
Karén, J; Rodriguez, A; Friman, T; Dencker, L; Sundberg, C; Scholz, B
PloS one 6 e24954 2011
Microvascular pericytes are of key importance in neoformation of blood vessels, in stabilization of newly formed vessels as well as maintenance of angiostasis in resting tissues. Furthermore, pericytes are capable of differentiating into pro-fibrotic collagen type I producing fibroblasts. The present study investigates the effects of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on pericyte proliferation, cell viability, migration and differentiation. The results show that HDAC inhibition through exposure of pericytes to VPA in vitro causes the inhibition of pericyte proliferation and migration with no effect on cell viability. Pericyte exposure to the potent HDAC inhibitor Trichostatin A caused similar effects on pericyte proliferation, migration and cell viability. HDAC inhibition also inhibited pericyte differentiation into collagen type I producing fibroblasts. Given the importance of pericytes in blood vessel biology a qPCR array focusing on the expression of mRNAs coding for proteins that regulate angiogenesis was performed. The results showed that HDAC inhibition promoted transcription of genes involved in vessel stabilization/maturation in human microvascular pericytes. The present in vitro study demonstrates that VPA influences several aspects of microvascular pericyte biology and suggests an alternative mechanism by which HDAC inhibition affects blood vessels. The results raise the possibility that HDAC inhibition inhibits angiogenesis partly through promoting a pericyte phenotype associated with stabilization/maturation of blood vessels.
|EAPP: gatekeeper at the crossroad of apoptosis and p21-mediated cell-cycle arrest. |
Andorfer, P; Rotheneder, H
Oncogene 30 2679-90 2011
We previously identified and characterized E2F-associated phospho-protein (EAPP), a nuclear phosphoprotein that interacts with the activating members of the E2F transcription factor family. EAPP levels are frequently elevated in transformed human cells. To examine the biological relevance of EAPP, we studied its properties in stressed and unstressed cells. Overexpression of EAPP in U2OS cells increased the fraction of G1 cells and lead to heightened resistance against DNA damage- or E2F1-induced apoptosis in a p21-dependent manner. EAPP itself becomes upregulated in confluent cells and after DNA damage and stimulates the expression of p21 independently of p53. It binds to the p21 promoter and seems to be required for the assembly of the transcription initiation complex. RNAi-mediated knockdown of EAPP expression brought about increased sensitivity towards DNA damage and resulted in apoptosis even in the absence of stress. Our results indicate that the level of EAPP is critical for cellular homeostasis. Too much of it results in G1 arrest and resistance to apoptosis, which, paradoxically, might favor cellular transformation. Too little EAPP seems to retard the expression not only of the p21 gene, but also of a number of other genes and ultimately results in apoptosis.
|Epigenetic repression of the Igk locus by STAT5-mediated recruitment of the histone methyltransferase Ezh2. |
Mandal, M; Powers, SE; Maienschein-Cline, M; Bartom, ET; Hamel, KM; Kee, BL; Dinner, AR; Clark, MR
Nature immunology 12 1212-20 2011
During B lymphopoiesis, recombination of the locus encoding the immunoglobulin κ-chain complex (Igk) requires expression of the precursor to the B cell antigen receptor (pre-BCR) and escape from signaling via the interleukin 7 receptor (IL-7R). By activating the transcription factor STAT5, IL-7R signaling maintains proliferation and represses Igk germline transcription by unknown mechanisms. We demonstrate that a STAT5 tetramer bound the Igk intronic enhancer (E(κi)), which led to recruitment of the histone methyltransferase Ezh2. Ezh2 marked trimethylation of histone H3 at Lys27 (H3K27me3) throughout the κ-chain joining region (J(κ)) to the κ-chain constant region (C(κ)). In the absence of Ezh2, IL-7 failed to repress Igk germline transcription. H3K27me3 modifications were lost after termination of IL-7R-STAT5 signaling, and the transcription factor E2A bound E(κi), which resulted in acquisition of H3K4me1 and acetylated histone H4 (H4Ac). Genome-wide analyses showed a STAT5 tetrameric binding motif associated with transcriptional repression. Our data demonstrate how IL-7R signaling represses Igk germline transcription and provide a general model for STAT5-mediated epigenetic transcriptional repression.
|The epigenetic modifier PRDM5 functions as a tumor suppressor through modulating WNT/β-catenin signaling and is frequently silenced in multiple tumors. |
Shu, XS; Geng, H; Li, L; Ying, J; Ma, C; Wang, Y; Poon, FF; Wang, X; Ying, Y; Yeo, W; Srivastava, G; Tsao, SW; Yu, J; Sung, JJ; Huang, S; Chan, AT; Tao, Q
PloS one 6 e27346 2011
PRDM (PRDI-BF1 and RIZ domain containing) proteins are zinc finger proteins involved in multiple cellular regulations by acting as epigenetic modifiers. We studied a recently identified PRDM member PRDM5 for its epigenetic abnormality and tumor suppressive functions in multiple tumorigeneses.Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that PRDM5 was broadly expressed in human normal tissues, but frequently silenced or downregulated in multiple carcinoma cell lines due to promoter CpG methylation, including 80% (4/5) nasopharyngeal, 44% (8/18) esophageal, 76% (13/17) gastric, 50% (2/4) cervical, and 25% (3/12) hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, but not in any immortalized normal epithelial cell lines. PRDM5 expression could be restored by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine demethylation treatment in silenced cell lines. PRDM5 methylation was frequently detected by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) in multiple primary tumors, including 93% (43/46) nasopharyngeal, 58% (25/43) esophageal, 88% (37/42) gastric and 63% (29/46) hepatocellular tumors. PRDM5 was further found a stress-responsive gene, but its response was impaired when the promoter was methylated. Ectopic PRDM5 expression significantly inhibited tumor cell clonogenicity, accompanied by the inhibition of TCF/β-catenin-dependent transcription and downregulation of CDK4, TWIST1 and MDM2 oncogenes, while knocking down of PRDM5 expression lead to increased cell proliferation. ChIP assay showed that PRDM5 bound to its target gene promoters and suppressed their transcription. An inverse correlation between the expression of PRDM5 and activated β-catenin was also observed in cell lines.PRDM5 functions as a tumor suppressor at least partially through antagonizing aberrant WNT/β-catenin signaling and oncogene expression. Frequent epigenetic silencing of PRDM5 is involved in multiple tumorigeneses, which could serve as a tumor biomarker.
|Changes in the Histone Acetylation Patterns during the Development of the Nervous System. |
Cho, B; Kim, HJ; Kim, H; Sun, W
Experimental neurobiology 20 81-4 2011
Epigenetic modification such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation plays essential roles in many aspects of cellular function and development of animals. There is an increasing amounts of evidence for dynamic changes in the histone acetylation of specific gene segments, but little attempt was made to examine global pattern changes in the histone acetylation in developing nervous system. In this study, we found that acetylated histone H3 and H4 immunoreactivities were relatively weak in neuroepithelial cells in the ventricular zone of developing rat cerebral cortex or chick spinal cord, compared to the immature young neurons in the cortical plate of a rat embryo or lateral motor column in chick spinal cord. On the other hand, adult neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of rat hippocampal formation did not exhibit such diminished histone acetylation, compared to neuroblasts and mature DG neurons. These results suggest that the level of histone acetylation is highly dynamic and tightly linked to the neuronal types and the differentiation stages.
|The FRIGIDA complex activates transcription of FLC, a strong flowering repressor in Arabidopsis, by recruiting chromatin modification factors. |
Choi, K; Kim, J; Hwang, HJ; Kim, S; Park, C; Kim, SY; Lee, I
The Plant cell 23 289-303 2011
The flowering of Arabidopsis thaliana winter annuals is delayed until the subsequent spring by the strong floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). FRIGIDA (FRI) activates the transcription of FLC, but the molecular mechanism remains elusive. The fri mutation causes early flowering with reduced FLC expression similar to frl1, fes1, suf4, and flx, which are mutants of FLC-specific regulators. Here, we report that FRI acts as a scaffold protein interacting with FRL1, FES1, SUF4, and FLX to form a transcription activator complex (FRI-C). Each component of FRI-C has a specialized function. SUF4 binds to a cis-element of the FLC promoter, FLX and FES1 have transcriptional activation potential, and FRL1 and FES1 stabilize the complex. FRI-C recruits a general transcription factor, a TAF14 homolog, and chromatin modification factors, the SWR1 complex and SET2 homolog. Complex formation was confirmed by the immunoprecipitation of FRI-associated proteins followed by mass spectrometric analysis. Our results provide insight into how a specific transcription activator recruits chromatin modifiers to regulate a key flowering gene.
|Subregion-specific p300 conditional knock-out mice exhibit long-term memory impairments. |
Oliveira, AM; Estévez, MA; Hawk, JD; Grimes, S; Brindle, PK; Abel, T
Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.) 18 161-9 2011
Histone acetylation plays a critical role during long-term memory formation. Several studies have demonstrated that the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CBP is required during long-term memory formation, but the involvement of other HAT proteins has not been extensively investigated. The HATs CBP and p300 have at least 400 described interacting proteins including transcription factors known to play a role in long-term memory formation. Thus, CBP and p300 constitute likely candidates for transcriptional coactivators in memory formation. In this study, we took a loss-of-function approach to evaluate the role of p300 in long-term memory formation. We used conditional knock-out mice in which the deletion of p300 is restricted to the postnatal phase and to subregions of the forebrain. We found that p300 is required for the formation of long-term recognition memory and long-term contextual fear memory in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and cortical areas.
|C/EBPα and C/EBPα oncoproteins regulate nfkb1 and displace histone deacetylases from NF-κB p50 homodimers to induce NF-κB target genes. |
Paz-Priel, I; Houng, S; Dooher, J; Friedman, AD
Blood 117 4085-94 2011
Mutated CEBPA defines a subgroup of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We have previously shown that C/EBPα or its AML mutants synergize with NF-κB p50 to activate antiapoptotic genes, including BCL2 and FLIP. Furthermore, p50 binds and activates the CEBPA gene in myeloid cells. We now report that C/EBPα or C/EBPα leucine zipper AML mutants bind in vivo to the nfkb1 (p50) promoter and induce its expression even in the presence of cycloheximide. Induction of p50 by C/EBPα depends on 2 conserved κB sites in the nfkb1 promoter. C/EBPα did not induce p65 expression. Thus, C/EBPα and p50 reciprocally regulate each other's expression, establishing a positive feedback relationship. Although p50 homodimers inhibit transcription, C/EBPα and p50 synergistically activate antiapoptotic genes. ChIP analysis showed that C/EBPα diminishes the occupation of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) or HDAC3 on the endogenous FLIP promoter but not in mice lacking p50. Coimmunoprecipitation confirmed that C/EBPα, its AML variants, or C/EBPβ disrupt interaction between p50 and HDACs dependent on the C/EBP basic region. These findings suggest that C/EBPs displace HDACs from p50 homodimers bound to antiapoptotic genes, contributing to NF-κB dysregulation in leukemia, and that the C/EBPα:p50 complex is a potential therapeutic target.
|Histone acetylation controls the inactive X chromosome replication dynamics. |
Casas-Delucchi, CS; Brero, A; Rahn, HP; Solovei, I; Wutz, A; Cremer, T; Leonhardt, H; Cardoso, MC
Nature communications 2 222 2011
In mammals, dosage compensation between male and female cells is achieved by inactivating one female X chromosome (Xi). Late replication of Xi was proposed to be involved in the maintenance of its silenced state. Here, we show a highly synchronous replication of the Xi within 1 to 2 h during early-mid S-phase by following DNA replication in living mammalian cells with green fluorescent protein-tagged replication proteins. The Xi was replicated before or concomitant with perinuclear or perinucleolar facultative heterochromatin and before constitutive heterochromatin. Ectopic expression of the X-inactive-specific transcript (Xist) gene from an autosome imposed the same synchronous replication pattern. We used mutations and chemical inhibition affecting different epigenetic marks as well as inducible Xist expression and we demonstrate that histone hypoacetylation has a key role in controlling Xi replication. The epigenetically controlled, highly coordinated replication of the Xi is reminiscent of embryonic genome replication in flies and frogs before genome activation and might be a common feature of transcriptionally silent chromatin.
|Genes for embryo development are packaged in blocks of multivalent chromatin in zebrafish sperm. |
Wu, SF; Zhang, H; Cairns, BR
Genome research 21 578-89 2011
In mature human sperm, genes of importance for embryo development (i.e., transcription factors) lack DNA methylation and bear nucleosomes with distinctive histone modifications, suggesting the specialized packaging of these developmental genes in the germline. Here, we explored the tractable zebrafish model and found conceptual conservation as well as several new features. Biochemical and mass spectrometric approaches reveal the zebrafish sperm genome packaged in nucleosomes and histone variants (and not protamine), and we find linker histones high and H4K16ac absent, key factors that may contribute to genome condensation. We examined several activating (H3K4me2/3, H3K14ac, H2AFV) and repressing (H3K27me3, H3K36me3, H3K9me3, hypoacetylation) modifications/compositions genome-wide and find developmental genes packaged in large blocks of chromatin with coincident activating and repressing marks and DNA hypomethylation, revealing complex "multivalent" chromatin. Notably, genes that acquire DNA methylation in the soma (muscle) are enriched in transcription factors for alternative cell fates. Remarkably, whereas H3K36me3 is located in the 3' coding region of heavily transcribed genes in somatic cells, H3K36me3 is present in the promoters of "silent" developmental regulators in sperm, suggesting different rules for H3K36me3 in the germline and soma. We also reveal the chromatin patterns of transposons, rDNA, and tDNAs. Finally, high levels of H3K4me3 and H3K14ac in sperm are correlated with genes activated in embryos prior to the mid-blastula transition (MBT), whereas multivalent genes are correlated with activation at or after MBT. Taken together, gene sets with particular functions in the embryo are packaged by distinctive types of complex and often atypical chromatin in sperm.
|Prolonged treatment with pimelic o-aminobenzamide HDAC inhibitors ameliorates the disease phenotype of a Friedreich ataxia mouse model. |
Sandi, C; Pinto, RM; Al-Mahdawi, S; Ezzatizadeh, V; Barnes, G; Jones, S; Rusche, JR; Gottesfeld, JM; Pook, MA
Neurobiology of disease 42 496-505 2011
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by GAA repeat expansion within the FXN gene, leading to epigenetic changes and heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing that result in a frataxin protein deficit. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, including pimelic o-aminobenzamide compounds 106, 109 and 136, have previously been shown to reverse FXN gene silencing in short-term studies of FRDA patient cells and a knock-in mouse model, but the functional consequences of such therapeutic intervention have thus far not been described. We have now investigated the long-term therapeutic effects of 106, 109 and 136 in our GAA repeat expansion mutation-containing YG8R FRDA mouse model. We show that there is no overt toxicity up to 5 months of treatment and there is amelioration of the FRDA-like disease phenotype. Thus, while the neurological deficits of this model are mild, 109 and 106 both produced an improvement of motor coordination, whereas 109 and 136 produced increased locomotor activity. All three compounds increased global histone H3 and H4 acetylation of brain tissue, but only 109 significantly increased acetylation of specific histone residues at the FXN locus. Effects on FXN mRNA expression in CNS tissues were modest, but 109 significantly increased frataxin protein expression in brain tissue. 109 also produced significant increases in brain aconitase enzyme activity, together with reduction of neuronal pathology of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Overall, these results support further assessment of HDAC inhibitors for treatment of Friedreich ataxia.
|Activities of ICP0 involved in the reversal of silencing of quiescent herpes simplex virus 1. |
Ferenczy, MW; Ranayhossaini, DJ; Deluca, NA
Journal of virology 85 4993-5002 2011
ICP0 is a transcriptional activating protein required for the efficient replication and reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Multiple regions of ICP0 contribute its activity, the most prominent of which appears to be the RING finger, which confers E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. A region in the C terminus of ICP0 has also been implicated in several activities, including the disruption of a cellular repressor complex, REST/CoREST/HDAC1/2/LSD1. We used quiescent infection of MRC-5 cells with a virus that does not express immediate-early proteins, followed by superinfection with various viral mutants to quantify the ability of ICP0 variants to reactivate gene expression and alter chromatin structure. Superinfection with wild-type virus resulted in a 400-fold increase in expression from the previously quiescent d109 genome, the removal of heterochromatin and histones from the viral genome, and an increase in histone marks associated with activated transcription. RING finger mutants were unable to reactivate transcription or remove heterochromatin from d109, while mutants that are unable to bind CoREST activate gene expression from quiescent d109, albeit to a lesser degree than the wild-type virus. One such mutant, R8507, resulted in the partial removal of heterochromatin. Infection with R8507 did not result in the hyperacetylation of H3 and H4. The results demonstrate that (i) consistent with previous findings, the RING finger domain of ICP0 is required for the activation of quiescent genomes, (ii) the RF domain is also crucial for the ultimate removal of repressive chromatin, (iii) activities or interactions specified by the carboxy-terminal region of ICP0 significantly contribute to activation, and (iv) while the effects of the R8507 on chromatin are consistent with a role for REST/CoREST/HDAC1/2/LSD1 in the repression of quiescent genomes, the mutation may also affect other activities involved in derepression.
|Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) participates in the down-regulation of corticotropin releasing hormone gene (crh) expression. |
Miller, L; Foradori, CD; Lalmansingh, AS; Sharma, D; Handa, RJ; Uht, RM
Physiology & behavior 104 312-20 2011
The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) plays a central role in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Medial parvocellular neurons of the PVH (mpPVH) integrate sensory and humoral inputs to maintain homeostasis. Humoral inputs include glucocorticoids secreted by the adrenals, which down-regulate HPA activation. A primary glucocorticoid target is the population of mpPVH neurons that synthesize and secrete corticotropin-releasing factors, the most potent of which is corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Although CRH gene (crh) expression is known to be down-regulated by glucocorticoids, the mechanisms by which this process occurs are still poorly understood. To begin this study we postulated that glucocorticoid repression of crh involves HDAC recruitment to the region of the crh proximal promoter. To evaluate this hypothesis, we treated hypothalamic cells that express CRH with the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). As predicted, treatment with TSA led to increased CRH mRNA levels and crh promoter activity. Although co-treatment with Dex (10(-7)M) reduced the TSA effect on mRNA levels, it failed to reduce promoter activity; however co-transfection of HDAC1 but not 3 restored Dex inhibition. A distinction between HDAC1 and 3 was also apparent with respect to crh promoter occupancy. Dex led to increased HDAC1 but not HDAC3 occupancy. In vivo studies revealed that CRH-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons contained HDAC1- and HDAC3-ir. Collectively, these data point to a role for HDAC1 in the physiologic regulation of crh.
|Multiple Wnt/ß-catenin responsive enhancers align with the MYC promoter through long-range chromatin loops. |
PloS one 6 e18966 2011
Inappropriate activation of c-Myc (MYC) gene expression by the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway is required for colorectal carcinogenesis. The elevated MYC levels in colon cancer cells are attributed in part to ß-catenin/TCF4 transcription complexes that are assembled at proximal Wnt/ß-catenin responsive enhancers (WREs). Recent studies suggest that additional WREs that control MYC expression reside far upstream of the MYC transcription start site. Here, I report the characterization of five novel WREs that localize to a region over 400 kb upstream from MYC. These WREs harbor nucleosomes with post-translational histone modifications that demarcate enhancer and gene promoter regions. Using quantitative chromatin conformation capture, I show that the distal WREs are aligned with the MYC promoter through large chromatin loops. The chromatin loops are not restricted to colon cancer cells, but are also found in kidney epithelial and lung fibroblast cell lines that lack de-regulated Wnt signaling and nuclear ß-catenin/TCF4 complexes. While each chromatin loop is detected in quiescent cells, the positioning of three of the five distal enhancers with the MYC promoter is induced by serum mitogens. These findings suggest that the architecture of the MYC promoter is comprised of distal elements that are juxtaposed through large chromatin loops and that ß-catenin/TCF4 complexes utilize this conformation to activate MYC expression in colon cancer cells.Full Text Article
|Arabidopsis HDA6 regulates locus-directed heterochromatin silencing in cooperation with MET1. |
To, TK; Kim, JM; Matsui, A; Kurihara, Y; Morosawa, T; Ishida, J; Tanaka, M; Endo, T; Kakutani, T; Toyoda, T; Kimura, H; Yokoyama, S; Shinozaki, K; Seki, M
PLoS genetics 7 e1002055 2011
Heterochromatin silencing is pivotal for genome stability in eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, a plant-specific mechanism called RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is involved in heterochromatin silencing. Histone deacetylase HDA6 has been identified as a component of such machineries; however, its endogenous targets and the silencing mechanisms have not been analyzed globally. In this study, we investigated the silencing mechanism mediated by HDA6. Genome-wide transcript profiling revealed that the loci silenced by HDA6 carried sequences corresponding to the RDR2-dependent 24-nt siRNAs, however their transcript levels were mostly unaffected in the rdr2 mutant. Strikingly, we observed significant overlap of genes silenced by HDA6 to those by the CG DNA methyltransferase MET1. Furthermore, regardless of dependence on RdDM pathway, HDA6 deficiency resulted in loss of heterochromatic epigenetic marks and aberrant enrichment for euchromatic marks at HDA6 direct targets, along with ectopic expression of these loci. Acetylation levels increased significantly in the hda6 mutant at all of the lysine residues in the H3 and H4 N-tails, except H4K16. Interestingly, we observed two different CG methylation statuses in the hda6 mutant. CG methylation was sustained in the hda6 mutant at some HDA6 target loci that were surrounded by flanking DNA-methylated regions. In contrast, complete loss of CG methylation occurred in the hda6 mutant at the HDA6 target loci that were isolated from flanking DNA methylation. Regardless of CG methylation status, CHG and CHH methylation were lost and transcriptional derepression occurred in the hda6 mutant. Furthermore, we show that HDA6 binds only to its target loci, not the flanking methylated DNA, indicating the profound target specificity of HDA6. We propose that HDA6 regulates locus-directed heterochromatin silencing in cooperation with MET1, possibly recruiting MET1 to specific loci, thus forming the foundation of silent chromatin structure for subsequent non-CG methylation.
|Histone deacetylation during brain development is essential for permanent masculinization of sexual behavior. |
Matsuda, KI; Mori, H; Nugent, BM; Pfaff, DW; McCarthy, MM; Kawata, M
Endocrinology 152 2760-7 2011
Epigenetic histone modifications are emerging as important mechanisms for conveyance of and maintenance of effects of the hormonal milieu to the developing brain. We hypothesized that alteration of histone acetylation status early in development by sex steroid hormones is important for sexual differentiation of the brain. It was found that during the critical period for sexual differentiation, histones associated with promoters of essential genes in masculinization of the brain (estrogen receptor α and aromatase) in the medial preoptic area, an area necessary for male sexual behavior, were differentially acetylated between the sexes. Consistent with these findings, binding of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2 and 4 to the promoters was higher in males than in females. To examine the involvement of histone deacetylation on masculinization of the brain at the behavioral level, we inhibited HDAC in vivo by intracerebroventricular infusion of the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A or antisense oligodeoxynucleotide directed against the mRNA for HDAC2 and -4 in newborn male rats. Aspects of male sexual behavior in adulthood were significantly reduced by administration of either trichostatin A or antisense oligodeoxynucleotide. These results demonstrate that HDAC activity during the early postnatal period plays a crucial role in the masculinization of the brain via modifications of histone acetylation status.
|An insulator embedded in the chicken α-globin locus regulates chromatin domain configuration and differential gene expression. |
Furlan-Magaril, M; Rebollar, E; Guerrero, G; Fernández, A; Moltó, E; González-Buendía, E; Cantero, M; Montoliu, L; Recillas-Targa, F
Nucleic acids research 39 89-103 2011
Genome organization into transcriptionally active domains denotes one of the first levels of gene expression regulation. Although the chromatin domain concept is generally accepted, only little is known on how domain organization impacts the regulation of differential gene expression. Insulators might hold answers to address this issue as they delimit and organize chromatin domains. We have previously identified a CTCF-dependent insulator with enhancer-blocking activity embedded in the 5' non-coding region of the chicken α-globin domain. Here, we demonstrate that this element, called the αEHS-1.4 insulator, protects a transgene against chromosomal position effects in stably transfected cell lines and transgenic mice. We found that this insulator can create a regulated chromatin environment that coincides with the onset of adult α-globin gene expression. Furthermore, such activity is in part dependent on the in vivo regulated occupancy of CTCF at the αEHS-1.4 element. Insulator function is also regulated by CTCF poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Our results suggest that the αEHS-1.4 insulator contributes in organizing the chromatin structure of the α-globin gene domain and prevents activation of adult α-globin gene expression at the erythroblast stage via CTCF.
|Ca2+-induced PARP-1 activation and ANF expression are coupled events in cardiomyocytes. |
Geistrikh, I; Visochek, L; Klein, R; Miller, L; Mittelman, L; Shainberg, A; Cohen-Armon, M
The Biochemical journal 438 337-47 2011
The nuclear protein PARP-1 [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1] is activated in cardiomyocytes exposed to hypoxia causing DNA breaks. Unlike this stress-induced PARP-1 activation, our results provide evidence for Ca(2+)-induced PARP-1 activation in contracting newborn cardiomyocytes treated with growth factors and hormones that increased their contraction rate, induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and its rhythmical and transient translocation into the nucleus. Furthermore, activated PARP-1 up-regulated the activity of phosphorylated ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) in the nucleus, promoting expression of the Elk1 target gene c-fos. Up-regulation of the transcription factor c-Fos/GATA-4 promoted ANF (atrial natriuretic factor) expression. Given that expression of ANF is known to be implicated in morphological changes, growth and development of cardiomyocytes, these results outline a PARP-1-dependent signal transduction mechanism that links contraction rate and Ca(2+) mobilization with the expression of genes underlying morphological changes in cardiomyocytes.
|Alcohol exposure decreases CREB binding protein expression and histone acetylation in the developing cerebellum. |
Guo, W; Crossey, EL; Zhang, L; Zucca, S; George, OL; Valenzuela, CF; Zhao, X
PloS one 6 e19351 2011
Fetal alcohol exposure affects 1 in 100 children making it the leading cause of mental retardation in the US. It has long been known that alcohol affects cerebellum development and function. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear.We demonstrate that CREB binding protein (CBP) is widely expressed in granule and Purkinje neurons of the developing cerebellar cortex of naïve rats. We also show that exposure to ethanol during the 3(rd) trimester-equivalent of human pregnancy reduces CBP levels. CBP is a histone acetyltransferase, a component of the epigenetic mechanism controlling neuronal gene expression. We further demonstrate that the acetylation of both histone H3 and H4 is reduced in the cerebellum of ethanol-treated rats.These findings indicate that ethanol exposure decreases the expression and function of CBP in the developing cerebellum. This effect of ethanol may be responsible for the motor coordination deficits that characterize fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.
|Dickkopf homolog 1, a Wnt signaling antagonist, is transcriptionally up-regulated via an ATF4-independent and MAPK/ERK-dependent pathway following amino acid deprivation. |
Zhou, D; Zhang, Y; Pan, YX; Chen, H
Biochimica et biophysica acta 1809 306-15 2011
Amino acid response (AAR) pathway is activated when cells are deprived of amino acids. In the present study, using the human colon cancer cell line SW480, we observed that DKK1, an antagonist of the Wnt pathway, was significantly induced at the mRNA level after the removal of amino acids from the medium. Addition of the amino alcohol histidinol, which prevents the formation of histidinyl-tRNA(His), also increased DKK1 mRNA to a level similar to that observed when cells were deprived of all amino acids. Transcriptional activity and stability of DKK1 mRNA were both increased in the amino acid-deprived condition. The induction of DKK1 gene expression was confirmed by the increased immunofluorescent staining of the DKK1 protein in the amino acid deprived condition. Although chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed increased RNA Polymerase II binding at the DKK1 promoter in amino acid-limited conditions, ATF4 binding to the promoter is absent. Luciferase reporter assays did not detect any functional AARE within the DKK1 gene structure. Knockdown of ATF4 by siRNA did not affect the increase of DKK1 mRNA during amino acid limitation. Inhibition of ERK phosphorylation abolished the induction of DKK1. Our study revealed that DKK1 is a novel target gene in the response to amino acid deficiency and that the expression of DKK1 is up-regulated through an ATF4-independent and an ERK-dependent pathway.
|Transcription factor-dependent chromatin remodeling at heat shock and copper-responsive promoters in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. |
Strenkert, D; Schmollinger, S; Sommer, F; Schulz-Raffelt, M; Schroda, M
The Plant cell 23 2285-301 2011
How transcription factors affect chromatin structure to regulate gene expression in response to changes in environmental conditions is poorly understood in the green lineage. To shed light on this issue, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation and formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements to investigate the chromatin structure at target genes of HSF1 and CRR1, key transcriptional regulators of the heat shock and copper starvation responses, respectively, in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Generally, we detected lower nucleosome occupancy, higher levels of histone H3/4 acetylation, and lower levels of histone H3 Lys 4 (H3K4) monomethylation at promoter regions of active genes compared with inactive promoters and transcribed and intergenic regions. Specifically, we find that activated HSF1 and CRR1 transcription factors mediate the acetylation of histones H3/4, nucleosome eviction, remodeling of the H3K4 mono- and dimethylation marks, and transcription initiation/elongation. By this, HSF1 and CRR1 quite individually remodel and activate target promoters that may be inactive and embedded into closed chromatin (HSP22F/CYC6) or weakly active and embedded into partially opened (CPX1) or completely opened chromatin (HSP70A/CRD1). We also observed HSF1-independent histone H3/4 deacetylation at the RBCS2 promoter after heat shock, suggesting interplay of specific and presumably more generally acting factors to adapt gene expression to the new requirements of a changing environment.
|Secreted frizzled-related protein-5 is epigenetically downregulated and functions as a tumor suppressor in kidney cancer. |
Kazumori Kawakami,Soichiro Yamamura,Hiroshi Hirata,Koji Ueno,Sharanjot Saini,Shahana Majid,Yuichiro Tanaka,Ken Kawamoto,Hideki Enokida,Masayuki Nakagawa,Rajvir Dahiya
International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer 128 2011
Secreted frizzled-related protein-5 (sFRP-5) has been identified as 1 of the secreted antagonists that bind Wnt protein. However, the functional significance of sFRP-5 in renal cell cancer (RCC) has not been reported. We hypothesized that sFRP-5 may be epigenetically downregulated through DNA methylation and histone modification and function as a tumor suppressor gene in RCC. Using tissue microarray and real-time RT-PCR, we found that sFRP-5 was significantly downregulated in kidney cancer tissues and cell lines, respectively. DNA bisulfite sequencing of the sFRP-5 promoter region in RCC cell lines showed it to be densely methylated, whereas there was few promoter methylation in normal kidney. The sFRP-5 expression was restored and the acetylation of H3 and H4 histones associated with the sFRP-5 promoter region were significantly increased after treatment with demethylation agent (5-Aza-dc) and histone deacetylase inhibitor (TSA). When RCC cells were transfected with the sFRP-5 gene, significant inhibition of anchorage independent colony formation and cell invasion were observed compared to controls. The sFRP-5 transfection also significantly induced apoptosis in RCC cells. In conclusion, this is the first report documenting that the sFRP-5 is downregulated by promoter methylation and histone acetylation and functions as a tumor suppressor gene by inducing apoptosis in RCC cells.
|Epigenetic regulation of thy-1 by histone deacetylase inhibitor in rat lung fibroblasts. |
Sanders, YY; Tollefsbol, TO; Varisco, BM; Hagood, JS
American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology 45 16-23 2011
Thy-1 is a cell surface glycoprotein present on normal lung fibroblasts but absent from the fibroblastic foci of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Thy-1 correlates inversely with fibrogenic phenotypic characteristics and functions as a "fibrosis suppressor." Promoter region hypermethylation can silence Thy-1 expression in fibroblastic foci, suggesting that epigenetic regulation is important in programming the fibrotic phenotype. We examined whether histone modifications are important in regulating Thy-1 expression in lung fibroblasts. Treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) restored Thy-1 expression in Thy-1(-) cells in a time-dependent and concentration-dependent fashion and was associated with enrichment of histone acetylation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated Thy-1 depletion of trimethylated H3K27 after 24 hours of TSA treatment, concurrent with enrichment of trimethylated H3K4 and acetylated H4. Bisulfite sequencing of the Thy-1 promoter region revealed demethylation of the previously hypermethylated CpG sites after treatment with TSA. Although Thy-1 was hypermethylated in Thy-1(-) lung fibroblasts, we observed that Thy-1(-) cells have lower global DNA methylation compared with Thy-1(+) lung fibroblasts, which was partially reversed by TSA treatment. TSA treatment up-regulates total methyltransferase activity in these cells. Our data indicate that Thy-1 silencing is regulated by histone modifications in addition to promoter hypermethylation in lung fibroblasts. Additionally, our findings indicate that alteration of histone modifications alters DNA methylation. Understanding the molecular hierarchy of events with respect to reactivation of transcription and reversal of histone modification will be critical to understand and modify the regulated expression of Thy-1, a tumor-supressor and fibrosis-suppressor gene.
|Perturbation of BRD4 protein function by BRD4-NUT protein abrogates cellular differentiation in NUT midline carcinoma. |
Yan, J; Diaz, J; Jiao, J; Wang, R; You, J
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 27663-75 2011
NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) belongs to a class of highly lethal and poorly differentiated epithelial cancers arising mainly in human midline organs. NMC is caused by the chromosome translocation-mediated fusion of the NUT (nuclear protein in testis) gene on chromosome 15 to a few other genes, most frequently the BRD4 gene on chromosome 19. The mechanism by which the BRD4-NUT fusion product blocks NMC cellular differentiation and contributes to oncogenesis remains elusive. In this study, we show that BRD4-NUT and BRD4 colocalize in discrete nuclear foci that are hyperacetylated but transcriptionally inactive. BRD4-NUT recruits histone acetyltransferases to induce histone hyperacetylation in these chromatin foci, which provide docking sites for accumulation of additional BRD4 and associated P-TEFB (positive transcription elongation factor b) complexes in the transcriptionally inactive BRD4-NUT foci. These molecular events lead to repression of a BRD4·P-TEFB downstream target gene c-fos, a component of activator protein 1 (AP-1), that directly regulates epithelial differentiation. Knockdown of BRD4-NUT in NMC cells disperses the transcriptionally inactive chromatin foci and releases the transcriptional activators to stimulate c-fos expression, leading to restoration of cellular differentiation. Our study provides a novel mechanism by which the BRD4-NUT oncogene perturbs BRD4 functions to block cellular differentiation and to contribute to the oncogenic progression in the highly aggressive NMC.
|H3K4 trimethylation by Set1 promotes efficient termination by the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 pathway. |
Terzi, N; Churchman, LS; Vasiljeva, L; Weissman, J; Buratowski, S
Molecular and cellular biology 31 3569-83 2011
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 pathway mediates the termination of snoRNAs and cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs). Both Nrd1 and the Set1 histone H3K4 methyltransferase complex interact with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) during early elongation, leading us to test whether these two processes are functionally linked. The deletion of SET1 exacerbates the growth rate and termination defects of nrd1 mutants. Set1 is important for the appropriate recruitment of Nrd1. Additionally, Set1 modulates histone acetylation levels in the promoter-proximal region via the Rpd3L deacetylase and NuA3 acetyltransferase complexes, both of which contain PHD finger proteins that bind methylated H3K4. Increased levels of histone acetylation reduce the efficiency of Nrd1-dependent termination. We speculate that Set1 promotes proper early termination by the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 complex by affecting the kinetics of Pol II transcription in early elongation.
|A novel mammalian complex containing Sin3B mitigates histone acetylation and RNA polymerase II progression within transcribed loci. |
Jelinic, P; Pellegrino, J; David, G
Molecular and cellular biology 31 54-62 2011
Transcription requires the progression of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) through a permissive chromatin structure. Recent studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have demonstrated that the yeast Sin3 protein contributes to the restoration of the repressed chromatin structure at actively transcribed loci. Yet, the mechanisms underlying the restoration of the repressive chromatin structure at transcribed loci and its significance in gene expression have not been investigated in mammals. We report here the identification of a mammalian complex containing the corepressor Sin3B, the histone deacetylase HDAC1, Mrg15, and the PHD finger-containing Pf1 and show that this complex plays important roles in regulation of transcription. We demonstrate that this complex localizes at discrete loci approximately 1 kb downstream of the transcription start site of transcribed genes, and this localization requires both Pf1's and Mrg15's interaction with chromatin. Inactivation of this mammalian complex promotes increased RNAP II progression within transcribed regions and subsequent increased transcription. Our results define a novel mammalian complex that contributes to the regulation of transcription and point to divergent uses of the Sin3 protein homologues throughout evolution in the modulation of transcription.
|Specific histone lysine 4 methylation patterns define TR-binding capacity and differentiate direct T3 responses. |
Bilesimo, P; Jolivet, P; Alfama, G; Buisine, N; Le Mevel, S; Havis, E; Demeneix, BA; Sachs, LM
Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 25 225-37 2011
The diversity of thyroid hormone T(3) effects in vivo makes their molecular analysis particularly challenging. Indeed, the current model of the action of T(3) and its receptors on transcription does not reflect this diversity. Here, T(3)-dependent amphibian metamorphosis was exploited to investigate, in an in vivo developmental context, how T(3) directly regulates gene expression. Two, direct positively regulated T(3)-response genes encoding transcription factors were analyzed: thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) and TH/bZIP. Reverse transcription-real-time quantitative PCR analysis on Xenopus tropicalis tadpole brain and tail fin showed differences in expression levels in premetamorphic tadpoles (lower for TH/bZIP than for TRβ) and differences in induction after T(3) treatment (lower for TRβ than for TH/bZIP). To dissect the mechanisms underlying these differences, chromatin immunoprecipitation was used. T(3) differentially induced RNA polymerase II and histone tail acetylation as a function of transcriptional level. Gene-specific patterns of TR binding were found on the different T(3) -responsive elements (higher for TRβ than for TH/bZIP), correlated with gene-specific modifications of H3K4 methylation (higher for TRβ than for TH/bZIP). Moreover, tissue-specific modifications of H3K27 were found (lower in brain than in tail fin). This first in vivo analysis of the association of histone modifications and TR binding/gene activation during vertebrate development for any nuclear receptor indicate that chromatin context of thyroid-responsive elements loci controls the capacity to bind TR through variations in histone H3K4 methylation, and that the histone code, notably H3, contributes to the fine tuning of gene expression that underlies complex physiological T(3) responses.
|Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP)||Xenopus||21239616|
|Protocol: methodology for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. |
Strenkert, D; Schmollinger, S; Schroda, M
Plant methods 7 35 2011
We report on a detailed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocol for the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The protocol is suitable for the analysis of nucleosome occupancy, histone modifications and transcription factor binding sites at the level of mononucleosomes for targeted and genome-wide studies. We describe the optimization of conditions for crosslinking, chromatin fragmentation and antibody titer determination and provide recommendations and an example for the normalization of ChIP results as determined by real-time PCR.Full Text Article
|A small molecule differentiation inducer increases insulin production by pancreatic β cells. |
Dioum, EM; Osborne, JK; Goetsch, S; Russell, J; Schneider, JW; Cobb, MH
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108 20713-8 2011
New drugs for preserving and restoring pancreatic β-cell function are critically needed for the worldwide epidemic of type 2 diabetes and the cure for type 1 diabetes. We previously identified a family of neurogenic 3,5-disubstituted isoxazoles (Isx) that increased expression of neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1, also known as BETA2); this transcription factor functions in neuronal and pancreatic β-cell differentiation and is essential for insulin gene transcription. Here, we probed effects of Isx on human cadaveric islets and MIN6 pancreatic β cells. Isx increased the expression and secretion of insulin in islets that made little insulin after prolonged ex vivo culture and increased expression of neurogenic differentiation 1 and other regulators of islet differentiation and insulin gene transcription. Within the first few hours of exposure, Isx caused biphasic activation of ERK1/2 and increased bulk histone acetylation. Although there was little effect on histone deacetylase activity, Isx increased histone acetyl transferase activity in nuclear extracts. Reconstitution assays indicated that Isx increased the activity of the histone acetyl transferase p300 through an ERK1/2-dependent mechanism. In summary, we have identified a small molecule with antidiabetic activity, providing a tool for exploring islet function and a possible lead for therapeutic intervention in diabetes.
|p53-paralog DNp73 oncogene is repressed by IFNα/STAT2 through the recruitment of the Ezh2 polycomb group transcriptional repressor. |
Testoni, B; Schinzari, V; Guerrieri, F; Gerbal-Chaloin, S; Blandino, G; Levrero, M
Oncogene 30 2670-8 2011
The DNp73 proteins act as trans-repressors of p53 and p73-dependent transcription and exert both anti-apoptotic activity and pro-proliferative activity. DNp73s are frequently up-regulated in a variety of human cancers, including human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Increased levels of DNp73 proteins confer to HCC cells resistance to apoptosis and, irrespective to p53 status, a chemoresistant phenotype. Here, we show that interferon (IFN)α down-regulates DNp73 expression in primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) and HCC cell lines. IFNα has been used as pro-apoptotic agent in the treatment of malignancies and there is increasing evidence of IFNα effectiveness in HCC treatment and prevention of recurrence. The precise mechanisms by which class I IFNs exert their anti-proliferative and anti-tumor activity remain unclear. IFNα binding to its receptor activates multiple intracellular signaling cascades regulating the transcription of numerous direct target genes through the recruitment of a complex comprising of STAT1, STAT2 and IFN regulatory factor (IRF)9 to their promoters. We found that, in response to IFNα, the P2p73 promoter undergoes substantial chromatin remodeling. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) replace histone acetyl transferases. STAT2 is recruited onto the endogenous P2p73 promoter together with the polycomb group protein Ezh2, leading to increased H3K27 methylation and transcriptional repression. The reduction of DNp73 levels by IFNα is paralleled by an increased susceptibility to IFNα-triggered apoptosis of Huh7 hepatoma cells. Our results show, for the first time, that IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 recruitment may serve both in activating and repressing gene expression and identify the down-regulation of DNp73 as an additional mechanism to counteract the chemoresistance of liver cancer cells.
|Mouse Rankl expression is regulated in T cells by c-Fos through a cluster of distal regulatory enhancers designated the T cell control region. |
Bishop, KA; Coy, HM; Nerenz, RD; Meyer, MB; Pike, JW
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 20880-91 2011
Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (Rankl) is a TNF-like factor that induces the formation of osteoclasts responsible for bone resorption. Although T cell activation up-regulates this gene, the molecular mechanism of its transcriptional control remains unknown. We used ChIP-chip analysis in mouse primary T cells and a T cell hybridoma to define the regulatory enhancers responsible for this up-regulation and to characterize their properties. Elevated H3/H4 acetylation and increased RNA polymerase II density were evident at mRL-D5, a known enhancer located 76 kb upstream of the TSS, as well as at a cluster of regulatory sites located even further upstream between -123 to -156 kb, termed the T cell control region (TCCR). Based upon the ability of calcium signaling and MAPK inhibitors to block Rankl expression, we conducted further ChIP-chip analysis of the transcriptional mediators c-Fos, NF-κB, and Nfat. T cell activation induced c-Fos binding at the mRL-D5 enhancer and within the TCCR. The interaction of NF-κB was observed at the transcriptional start site and at mRL-D5. Both mRL-D5 and segments of the TCCR exhibited robust transcriptional activity in reporter assays, and site-specific mutagenesis of c-Fos and Nfat elements abrogated reporter activity, suggesting a role for both factors in the control of enhancer-mediated Rankl transcription. Finally, chromosome conformation capture analysis confirmed that mRL-D5 and segments of the TCCR were located in proximity to the Rankl gene promoter and thus potentially able to influence directly Rankl gene promoter activity. We conclude that both mRL-D5 and the TCCR represent control segments that play an integral role in Rankl expression in T cells.
|Chromatin loading of E2F-MLL complex by cancer-associated coregulator ANCCA via reading a specific histone mark. |
Revenko, AS; Kalashnikova, EV; Gemo, AT; Zou, JX; Chen, HW
Molecular and cellular biology 30 5260-72 2010
Histone modifications are regarded as the carrier of epigenetic memory through cell divisions. How the marks facilitate cell cycle-dependent gene expression is poorly understood. The evolutionarily conserved AAA ATPase ANCCA (AAA nuclear coregulator cancer-associated protein)/ATAD2 was identified as a direct target of oncogene AIB1/ACTR/SRC-3 and a transcriptional coregulator for estrogen and androgen receptors and is strongly implicated in tumorigenesis. We report here that ANCCA directly interacts with E2F1 to E2F3 and that its N terminus interacts with both the N and C termini of E2F1. ANCCA preferentially associates via its bromodomain with H3 acetylated at lysine 14 (H3K14ac) and is required for key cell cycle gene expression and cancer cell proliferation. ANCCA associates with chromosomes at late mitosis, and its occupancy at E2F targets peaks at the G(1)-to-S transition. Strikingly, ANCCA is required for recruitment of specific E2Fs to their targets and chromatin assembly of the host cell factor 1 (HCF-1)-MLL histone methyltransferase complex. ANCCA depletion results in a marked decrease of the gene activation-linked H3K4me3 mark. Bromodomain mutations disable ANCCA function as an E2F coactivator and its ability to promote cancer cell proliferation, while ANCCA overexpression in tumors correlates with tumor growth. Together, these results suggest that ANCCA acts as a pioneer factor in E2F-dependent gene activation and that a novel mechanism involving ANCCA bromodomain may contribute to cancer cell proliferation.Full Text Article
|Progesterone receptor induces ErbB-2 nuclear translocation to promote breast cancer growth via a novel transcriptional effect: ErbB-2 function as a coactivator of Stat3. |
Béguelin, W; Díaz Flaqué, MC; Proietti, CJ; Cayrol, F; Rivas, MA; Tkach, M; Rosemblit, C; Tocci, JM; Charreau, EH; Schillaci, R; Elizalde, PV
Molecular and cellular biology 30 5456-72 2010
Progesterone receptor (PR) and ErbB-2 bidirectional cross talk participates in breast cancer development. Here, we identified a new mechanism of the PR and ErbB-2 interaction involving the PR induction of ErbB-2 nuclear translocation and the assembly of a transcriptional complex in which ErbB-2 acts as a coactivator of Stat3. We also highlighted that the function of ErbB-2 as a Stat3 coactivator drives progestin-induced cyclin D1 promoter activation. Notably, PR is also recruited together with Stat3 and ErbB-2 to the cyclin D1 promoter, unraveling a new and unexpected nonclassical PR genomic mechanism. The assembly of the nuclear Stat3/ErbB-2 transcriptional complex plays a key role in the proliferation of breast tumors with functional PR and ErbB-2. Our findings reveal a novel therapeutic intervention for PR- and ErbB-2-positive breast tumors via the specific blockage of ErbB-2 nuclear translocation.
|H2B- and H3-specific histone deacetylases are required for DNA methylation in Neurospora crassa. |
Smith, KM; Dobosy, JR; Reifsnyder, JE; Rountree, MR; Anderson, DC; Green, GR; Selker, EU
Genetics 186 1207-16 2010
Neurospora crassa utilizes DNA methylation to inhibit transcription of heterochromatin. DNA methylation is controlled by the histone methyltransferase DIM-5, which trimethylates histone H3 lysine 9, leading to recruitment of the DNA methyltransferase DIM-2. Previous work demonstrated that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A caused a reduction in DNA methylation, suggesting involvement of histone deacetylation in DNA methylation. We therefore created mutants of each of the four classical N. crassa HDAC genes and tested their effect on histone acetylation levels and DNA methylation. Global increases in H3 and H4 acetylation levels were observed in both the hda-3 and the hda-4 mutants. Mutation of two of the genes, hda-1 and hda-3, caused partial loss of DNA methylation. The site-specific loss of DNA methylation in hda-1 correlated with loss of H3 lysine 9 trimethylation and increased H3 acetylation. In addition, an increase in H2B acetylation was observed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of histones of the hda-1 mutant. We found a similar increase in the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Clr3 mutant, suggesting that this HDAC has a previously unrecognized substrate and raising the possibility that the acetylation state of H2B may play a role in the regulation of DNA methylation and heterochromatin formation.Full Text Article
|Features of cryptic promoters and their varied reliance on bromodomain-containing factors. |
Pattenden, SG; Gogol, MM; Workman, JL
PloS one 5 e12927 2010
The Set2-Rpd3S pathway is important for the control of transcription memory. Mutation of components of this pathway results in cryptic transcription initiation within the coding region of approximately 30% of yeast genes. Specifically, deletion of the Set2 histone methyltransferase or Rco1, a component of the Rpd3S histone deacetylase complex leads to hyperacetylation of certain open reading frames (ORFs). We used this mutant as a system to study the role of histone modifications and co-activator recruitment in preinitiation complex (PIC) formation. Specifically, we looked at the dependence of promoters on the bromodomain-containing RSC complex and the Bdf1 protein. We found that the dependence of cryptic promoters for these proteins varied. Overall, our data indicate that cryptic promoters are independently regulated, and their activation is dependent on factors that govern gene activation at canonical promoters.Full Text Article
|A phosphorylation switch regulates the transcriptional activation of cell cycle regulator p21 by histone deacetylase inhibitors. |
Simboeck, E; Sawicka, A; Zupkovitz, G; Senese, S; Winter, S; Dequiedt, F; Ogris, E; Di Croce, L; Chiocca, S; Seiser, C
The Journal of biological chemistry 285 41062-73 2010
Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells and are, therefore, promising anti-cancer drugs. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is activated in histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor-treated tumor cells, and its growth-inhibitory function contributes to the anti-tumorigenic effect of HDAC inhibitors. We show here that induction of p21 by trichostatin A involves MAP kinase signaling. Activation of the MAP kinase signaling pathway by growth factors or stress signals results in histone H3 serine 10 phosphorylation at the p21 promoter and is crucial for acetylation of the neighboring lysine 14 and recruitment of activated RNA polymerase II in response to trichostatin A treatment. In non-induced cells, the protein phosphatase PP2A is associated with the p21 gene and counteracts its activation. Induction of p21 is linked to simultaneous acetylation and phosphorylation of histone H3. The dual modification mark H3S10phK14ac at the activated p21 promoter is recognized by the phospho-binding protein 14-3-3ζ, which protects the phosphoacetylation mark from being processed by PP2A. Taken together we have revealed a cross-talk of reversible phosphorylation and acetylation signals that controls the activation of p21 by HDAC inhibitors and identify the phosphatase PP2A as chromatin-associated transcriptional repressor in mammalian cells.Full Text Article
|CTCF regulates the local epigenetic state of ribosomal DNA repeats. |
van de Nobelen, S; Rosa-Garrido, M; Leers, J; Heath, H; Soochit, W; Joosen, L; Jonkers, I; Demmers, J; van der Reijden, M; Torrano, V; Grosveld, F; Delgado, MD; Renkawitz, R; Galjart, N; Sleutels, F
Epigenetics & chromatin 3 19 2010
CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) is a highly conserved zinc finger protein, which is involved in chromatin organization, local histone modifications, and RNA polymerase II-mediated gene transcription. CTCF may act by binding tightly to DNA and recruiting other proteins to mediate its various functions in the nucleus. To further explore the role of this essential factor, we used a mass spectrometry-based approach to screen for novel CTCF-interacting partners.Using biotinylated CTCF as bait, we identified upstream binding factor (UBF) and multiple other components of the RNA polymerase I complex as potential CTCF-interacting partners. Interestingly, CTCFL, the testis-specific paralog of CTCF, also binds UBF. The interaction between CTCF(L) and UBF is direct, and requires the zinc finger domain of CTCF(L) and the high mobility group (HMG)-box 1 and dimerization domain of UBF. Because UBF is involved in RNA polymerase I-mediated ribosomal (r)RNA transcription, we analyzed CTCF binding to the rDNA repeat. We found that CTCF bound to a site upstream of the rDNA spacer promoter and preferred non-methylated over methylated rDNA. DNA binding by CTCF in turn stimulated binding of UBF. Absence of CTCF in cultured cells resulted in decreased association of UBF with rDNA and in nucleolar fusion. Furthermore, lack of CTCF led to reduced binding of RNA polymerase I and variant histone H2A.Z near the rDNA spacer promoter, a loss of specific histone modifications, and diminished transcription of non-coding RNA from the spacer promoter.UBF is the first common interaction partner of CTCF and CTCFL, suggesting a role for these proteins in chromatin organization of the rDNA repeats. We propose that CTCF affects RNA polymerase I-mediated events globally by controlling nucleolar number, and locally by regulating chromatin at the rDNA spacer promoter, similar to RNA polymerase II promoters. CTCF may load UBF onto rDNA, thereby forming part of a network that maintains rDNA genes poised for transcription.
|Interaction of the retinoblastoma protein with Orc1 and its recruitment to human origins of DNA replication. |
Mendoza-Maldonado, R; Paolinelli, R; Galbiati, L; Giadrossi, S; Giacca, M
PloS one 5 e13720 2010
The retinoblastoma protein (Rb) is a crucial regulator of cell cycle progression by binding with E2F transcription factor and repressing the expression of a variety of genes required for the G1-S phase transition.Here we show that Rb and E2F1 directly participate in the control of initiation of DNA replication in human HeLa, U2OS and T98G cells by specifically binding to origins of DNA replication in a cell cycle regulated manner. We show that, both in vitro and inside the cells, the largest subunit of the origin recognition complex (Orc1) specifically binds hypo-phosphorylated Rb and that this interaction is competitive with the binding of Rb to E2F1. The displacement of Rb-bound Orc1 by E2F1 at origins of DNA replication marks the progression of the G1 phase of the cell cycle toward the G1-S border.The participation of Rb and E2F1 in the formation of the multiprotein complex that binds origins of DNA replication in mammalian cells appears to represent an effective mechanism to couple the expression of genes required for cell cycle progression to the activation of DNA replication.
|Mutation of a barrier insulator in the human ankyrin-1 gene is associated with hereditary spherocytosis. |
Gallagher, PG; Steiner, LA; Liem, RI; Owen, AN; Cline, AP; Seidel, NE; Garrett, LJ; Bodine, DM
The Journal of clinical investigation 120 4453-65 2010
Defects of the ankyrin-1 gene are the most common cause in humans of hereditary spherocytosis, an inherited anemia that affects patients of all ethnic groups. In some kindreds, linked -108/-153 nucleotide substitutions have been found in the upstream region of the ankyrin gene promoter that is active in erythroid cells. In vivo, the ankyrin erythroid promoter and its upstream region direct position-independent, uniform expression, a property of barrier insulators. Using human erythroid cell lines and primary cells and transgenic mice, here we have demonstrated that a region upstream of the erythroid promoter is a barrier insulator in vivo in erythroid cells. The region exhibited both functional and structural characteristics of a barrier, including prevention of gene silencing in an in vivo functional assay, appropriate chromatin configuration, and occupancy by barrier-associated proteins. Fragments with the -108/-153 spherocytosis-associated mutations failed to function as barrier insulators in vivo and demonstrated perturbations in barrier-associated chromatin configuration. In transgenic mice, flanking a mutant -108/-153 ankyrin gene promoter with the well-characterized chicken HS4 barrier insulator restored position-independent, uniform expression at levels comparable to wild-type. These data indicate that an upstream region of the ankyrin-1 erythroid promoter acts as a barrier insulator and identify disruption of the barrier element as a potential pathogenetic mechanism of human disease.
|The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor controls androgen signaling and human prostate cancer progression. |
Sharma, A; Yeow, WS; Ertel, A; Coleman, I; Clegg, N; Thangavel, C; Morrissey, C; Zhang, X; Comstock, CE; Witkiewicz, AK; Gomella, L; Knudsen, ES; Nelson, PS; Knudsen, KE
The Journal of clinical investigation 120 4478-92 2010
Retinoblastoma (RB; encoded by RB1) is a tumor suppressor that is frequently disrupted in tumorigenesis and acts in multiple cell types to suppress cell cycle progression. The role of RB in tumor progression, however, is poorly defined. Here, we have identified a critical role for RB in protecting against tumor progression through regulation of targets distinct from cell cycle control. In analyses of human prostate cancer samples, RB loss was infrequently observed in primary disease and was predominantly associated with transition to the incurable, castration-resistant state. Further analyses revealed that loss of the RB1 locus may be a major mechanism of RB disruption and that loss of RB function was associated with poor clinical outcome. Modeling of RB dysfunction in vitro and in vivo revealed that RB controlled nuclear receptor networks critical for tumor progression and that it did so via E2F transcription factor 1-mediated regulation of androgen receptor (AR) expression and output. Through this pathway, RB depletion induced unchecked AR activity that underpinned therapeutic bypass and tumor progression. In agreement with these findings, disruption of the RB/E2F/nuclear receptor axis was frequently observed in the transition to therapy resistance in human disease. Together, these data reveal what we believe to be a new paradigm for RB function in controlling prostate tumor progression and lethal tumor phenotypes.
|Amino acid availability controls TRB3 transcription in liver through the GCN2/eIF2α/ATF4 pathway. |
Carraro, V; Maurin, AC; Lambert-Langlais, S; Averous, J; Chaveroux, C; Parry, L; Jousse, C; Ord, D; Ord, T; Fafournoux, P; Bruhat, A
PloS one 5 e15716 2010
In mammals, plasma amino acid concentrations are markedly affected by dietary or pathological conditions. It has been well established that amino acids are involved in the control of gene expression. Up to now, all the information concerning the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of gene transcription by amino acid availability has been obtained in cultured cell lines. The present study aims to investigate the mechanisms involved in transcriptional activation of the TRB3 gene following amino acid limitation in mice liver. The results show that TRB3 is up-regulated in the liver of mice fed a leucine-deficient diet and that this induction is quickly reversible. Using transient transfection and chromatin immunoprecipitation approaches in hepatoma cells, we report the characterization of a functional Amino Acid Response Element (AARE) in the TRB3 promoter and the binding of ATF4, ATF2 and C/EBPβ to this AARE sequence. We also provide evidence that only the binding of ATF4 to the AARE plays a crucial role in the amino acid-regulated transcription of TRB3. In mouse liver, we demonstrate that the GCN2/eIF2α/ATF4 pathway is essential for the induction of the TRB3 gene transcription in response to a leucine-deficient diet. Therefore, this work establishes for the first time that the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of gene transcription by amino acid availability are functional in mouse liver.
|Hypoxic repression of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase transcription is coupled with eviction of promoter histones. |
Fish, JE; Yan, MS; Matouk, CC; St Bernard, R; Ho, JJ; Ho, JJ; Gavryushova, A; Srivastava, D; Marsden, PA
The Journal of biological chemistry 285 810-26 2010
Hypoxia elicits endothelial dysfunction, in part, through reduced expression of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS). Here we present evidence that hypoxia causes a rapid decrease in the transcription of the eNOS/NOS3 gene, accompanied by decreased acetylation and lysine 4 (histone H3) methylation of eNOS proximal promoter histones. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that histones are rapidly evicted from the eNOS proximal promoter during hypoxia. We also demonstrate endothelium-specific H2A.Z incorporation at the eNOS promoter and find that H2A.Z is also evicted by hypoxic stimulation. After longer durations of hypoxia, histones are reincorporated at the eNOS promoter, but these histones lack substantial histone acetylation. Additionally, we identify a key role for the chromatin remodeler, BRG1, in re-establishing eNOS expression following reoxygenation of hypoxic cells. We posit that post-translational histone modifications are required to maintain constitutive eNOS transcriptional activity and that histone eviction rapidly resets histone marks and is a proximal event in the hypoxic repression of eNOS. Although nucleosome eviction has been reported in models of transcriptional activation, the observation that eviction can also accompany transcriptional repression in hypoxic mammalian cells argues that eviction may be broadly relevant to both positive and negative changes in transcription.
|Genistein reverses hypermethylation and induces active histone modifications in tumor suppressor gene B-Cell translocation gene 3 in prostate cancer. |
Majid, S; Dar, AA; Shahryari, V; Hirata, H; Ahmad, A; Saini, S; Tanaka, Y; Dahiya, AV; Dahiya, R
Cancer 116 66-76 2010
: B-cell translocation gene 3 (BTG3/ANA/APRO4) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene in some malignancies. We report here that B-cell translocation gene 3 (BTG3) is transcriptionally down-regulated in prostate cancer and the mechanism of inactivation is through promoter hypermethylation.: Prostate cancer and normal cell lines were treated with different doses of genistein and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5Aza-C). BTG3 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in tissues and cell lines. Bisulfate-modified polymerase chain reaction, cloning and sequencing were used to examine promoter methylation in tumor samples and cell lines. Enzyme activity/inhibition assays were done to check the effect of genistein and 5Aza-C on DNA methyltransferases. ChIP assay was performed to analyze chromatin modifications caused by genistein treatment.: BTG3 mRNA expression was down-regulated in cancer tissues and cells. Genistein and 5Aza-C induced BTG3 mRNA expression in all PC cell lines. Complete methylation of BTG3 promoter in tumor samples and cancer cell lines was observed. Genistein and 5Aza-C treatment significantly decreased promoter methylation, reactivating BTG3 expression. Genistein and 5Aza-C increased levels of acetylated histones 3, 4, histone 3 dimethylated at lysine 4, histone 3 trimethylated at lysine 4, and RNA polymerase II, decreased DNA methyl transferase and methyl-binding domain protein 2 activity, and increased histone acetyl transferase (HAT) activity.: This is the first report to show that BTG3 is silenced in prostate cancer and can be reactivated by genistein-induced promoter demethylation and active histone modification. Genistein showed similar effects to that of 5Aza-C, which is currently undergoing phase 2 clinical trials as a treatment for prostate cancer. Because genistein is a natural, nontoxic, and dietary isoflavone, these results indicate that genistein is a novel, advantageous therapeutic agent for treating prostate cancer.
|Valproate and amitriptyline exert common and divergent influences on global and gene promoter-specific chromatin modifications in rat primary astrocytes. |
Perisic, T; Zimmermann, N; Kirmeier, T; Asmus, M; Tuorto, F; Uhr, M; Holsboer, F; Rein, T; Zschocke, J
Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 35 792-805 2010
Aberrant biochemical processes in the brain frequently go along with subtle shifts of the cellular epigenetic profile that might support the pathogenic progression of psychiatric disorders. Although recent reports have implied the ability of certain antidepressants and mood stabilizers to modulate epigenetic parameters, studies comparing the actions of these compounds under the same conditions are lacking. In this study, we screened amitriptyline (AMI), venlafaxine, citalopram, as well as valproic acid (VPA), carbamazepine, and lamotrigine for their potential actions on global and local epigenetic modifications in rat primary astrocytes. Among all drugs, VPA exposure evoked the strongest global chromatin modifications, including histone H3/H4 hyperacetylation, 2MeH3K9 hypomethylation, and DNA demethylation, as determined by western blot and luminometric methylation analysis, respectively. CpG demethylation occurred independently of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) suppression. Strikingly, AMI also induced slight cytosine demethylation, paralleled by the reduction in DNMT enzymatic activity, without affecting the global histone acetylation status. Locally, VPA-induced chromatin modifications were reflected at the glutamate transporter (GLT-1) promoter as shown by bisulfite sequencing and acetylated histone H4 chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. Distinct CpG sites in the distal part of the GLT-1 promoter were demethylated and enriched in acetylated histone H4 in response to VPA. For the first time, we could show that these changes were associated with an enhanced transcription of this astrocyte-specific gene. In contrast, AMI failed to stimulate GLT-1 transcription and to alter promoter methylation levels. In conclusion, VPA and AMI globally exerted chromatin-modulating activities using different mechanisms that divergently precipitated at an astroglial gene locus.
|Uncovering an IL-10-dependent NF-kappaB recruitment to the IL-1ra promoter that is impaired in STAT3 functionally defective patients. |
Tamassia, N; Castellucci, M; Rossato, M; Gasperini, S; Bosisio, D; Giacomelli, M; Badolato, R; Cassatella, MA; Bazzoni, F
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 24 1365-75 2010
The interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) is an important negative regulator of the inflammatory response, whose genetic deficiency has been recently shown to cause a severe autoinflammatory syndrome in humans. In this study we characterized the molecular mechanisms whereby interleukin 10 (IL-10) potentiates IL-1ra transcription in LPS-stimulated monocytes and neutrophils. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that although NF-kappaBp65 and NF-kappaBp50 proteins accumulate into the nuclei and bind to the IkappaB alpha promoter during LPS stimulation, they are not recruited to the kappaB sites of the IL-1ra promoter. However, in response to LPS plus IL-10, which were found to induce chromatin acetylation, recruitment of both NF-kappaBp65 and NF-kappaBp50 to the IL-1ra promoter efficiently occurs in a STAT3-dependent manner. Accordingly, in neutrophils from hyper-IgE syndrome patients, who carry a nonfunctional STAT3, IL-10 failed to promote NF-kappaBp65 recruitment to the IL-1ra promoter and consequently to potentiate LPS-induced IL-1ra transcription. Altogether our findings uncover a novel mechanism whereby IL-10-activated STAT3 modulates IL-1ra transcription in LPS-treated phagocytes by making IL-1ra promoter accessible to readily available nuclear NF-kappaB.
|KLF8 recruits the p300 and PCAF co-activators to its amino terminal activation domain to activate transcription. |
Urvalek, AM; Wang, X; Lu, H; Zhao, J
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 9 601-11 2010
Krüppel-like factor 8 (KLF8) regulates critical cellular processes including cell cycle progression, transformation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, migration and invasion by either repressing or activating target gene promoters. As a repressor, KLF8 recruits the CtBP co-repressor via its PVDLS repression motif. However, how KLF8 acts as an activator has not been determined. Here we report the identification of both the KLF8 activation domain and associated co-activators. By site-directed mutagenesis and cyclin D1 promoter reporter assays using both mouse fibroblasts and human epithelial cells, we determined that deletion of residues 100-260 or mutation of Q118-Q248 abolished KLF8 transactivity. this transactivity was dramatically reduced in p300(-/-), CBP(-/-) or PCAF(-/-) cells and could be restored by re-expressing p300 or PCAF, but not CBP. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that KLF8 interacted with these co-activators whereas the Q118N-Q248N mutant did not. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed that KLF8 promoted histone acetylation at the promoter whereas the Q118N-Q248N mutant had a dramatic loss of this function. Western blotting revealed that unlike wild-type KLF8 the Q118N-Q248N was no longer able to upregulate cyclin D1 protein level. BrdU incorporation assays showed that the Q118N-Q248N mutant also lost the ability to promote DNA synthesis. Taken together, these results identified the KLF8 activation domain located between residues 101-260 where the well-conserved Q118 and Q248 are essential for recruiting p300 and PCAF to activate target gene transcription.
|Gamma interferon-dependent transcriptional memory via relocalization of a gene locus to PML nuclear bodies. |
Gialitakis, M; Arampatzi, P; Makatounakis, T; Papamatheakis, J
Molecular and cellular biology 30 2046-56 2010
Memory of past cellular responses is an essential adaptation to repeating environmental stimuli. We addressed the question of whether gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-inducible transcription generates memory that sensitizes cells to a second stimulus. We have found that the major histocompatibility complex class II gene DRA is relocated to promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies upon induction with IFN-gamma, and this topology is maintained long after transcription shut off. Concurrent interaction of PML protein with mixed-lineage leukemia generates a prolonged permissive chromatin state on the DRA gene characterized by high promoter histone H3 K4 dimethylation that facilitates rapid expression upon restimulation. We propose that the primary signal-induced transcription generates spatial and epigenetic memory that is maintained through several cell generations and endows the cell with increased responsiveness to future activation signals.Full Text Article
|Deacetylase inhibitors dissociate the histone-targeting ING2 subunit from the Sin3 complex. |
Smith, KT; Martin-Brown, SA; Florens, L; Washburn, MP; Workman, JL
Chemistry & biology 17 65-74 2010
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are in clinical development for several diseases, including cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. HDACs 1 and 2 are among the targets of these inhibitors and are part of multisubunit protein complexes. HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) block the activity of HDACs by chelating a zinc molecule in their catalytic sites. It is not known if the inhibitors have any additional functional effects on the multisubunit HDAC complexes. Here, we find that suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), the first FDA-approved HDACi for cancer, causes the dissociation of the PHD-finger-containing ING2 subunit from the Sin3 deacetylase complex. Loss of ING2 disrupts the in vivo binding of the Sin3 complex to the p21 promoter, an important target gene for cell growth inhibition by SAHA. Our findings reveal a molecular mechanism by which HDAC inhibitors disrupt deacetylase function.Full Text Article
|Drosophila RB proteins repress differentiation-specific genes via two different mechanisms. |
Lee, H; Ohno, K; Voskoboynik, Y; Ragusano, L; Martinez, A; Dimova, DK
Molecular and cellular biology 30 2563-77 2010
The RB and E2F proteins play important roles in the regulation of cell division, cell death, and development by controlling the expression of genes involved in these processes. The mechanisms of repression by the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) have been extensively studied at cell cycle-regulated promoters. However, little is known about developmentally regulated E2F/RB genes. Here, we have taken advantage of the simplicity of the E2F/RB pathway in flies to inspect the regulation of differentiation-specific target genes. These genes are repressed by dE2F2/RBF and a recently identified RB-containing complex, dREAM/MMB, in a cell type- and cell cycle-independent manner. Our studies indicate that the mechanism of repression differs from that of cell cycle-regulated genes. We find that two different activities are involved in their regulation and that in proliferating cells, both are required to maintain repression. First, dE2F2/RBF and dREAM/MMB employ histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities at promoter regions. Remarkably, we have also uncovered an unconventional mechanism of repression by the Polycomb group (PcG) protein Enhancer of zeste [E(Z)], which is involved in silencing of these genes through the dimethylation of histone H3 Lys27 at nucleosomes located downstream of the transcription start sites (TSS).Full Text Article
|CpG-B oligodeoxynucleotides inhibit TLR-dependent and -independent induction of type I IFN in dendritic cells. |
Liu, YC; Gray, RC; Hardy, GA; Kuchtey, J; Abbott, DW; Emancipator, SN; Harding, CV
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 184 3367-76 2010
CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) signal through TLR9 to induce type I IFN (IFN-alphabeta) in dendritic cells (DCs). CpG-A ODNs are more efficacious than CpG-B ODNs for induction of IFN-alphabeta. Because IFN-alphabeta may contribute to autoimmunity, it is important to identify mechanisms to inhibit induction of IFN-alphabeta. In our studies, CpG-B ODN inhibited induction of IFN-alphabeta by CpG-A ODN, whereas induction of TNF-alpha and IL-12p40 by CpG-A ODN was not affected. CpG-B inhibition of IFN-alphabeta was observed in FLT3 ligand-induced murine DCs, purified murine myeloid DCs, plasmacytoid DCs, and human PBMCs. CpG-B ODN inhibited induction of IFN-alphabeta by agonists of multiple receptors, including MyD88-dependent TLRs (CpG-A ODN signaling via TLR9, or R837 or Sendai virus signaling via TLR7) and MyD88-independent receptors (polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid signaling via TLR3 or ds break-DNA signaling via a cytosolic pathway). CpG-B ODN did not inhibit the IFN-alphabeta positive feedback loop second-wave IFN-alphabeta, because IFN-alphabeta-induced expression of IFN-alphabeta was unaffected, and CpG-B inhibition of IFN-alphabeta was manifested in IFN-alphabetaR(-/-) DCs, which lack the positive feedback mechanism. Rather, CpG-B ODN inhibited early TLR-induced first wave IFN-alpha4 and IFN-beta. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that association of IFN regulatory factor 1 with the IFN-alpha4 and IFN-beta promoters was induced by CpG-A ODN but not CpG-B ODN. Moreover, CpG-A-induced association of IFN regulatory factor 1 with these promoters was inhibited by CpG-B ODN. Our studies demonstrate a novel mechanism of transcriptional regulation of first-wave IFN-alphabeta that selectively inhibits induction of IFN-alphabeta downstream of multiple receptors and may provide targets for future therapeutic inhibition of IFN-alphabeta expression in vivo.
|FOXM1 is a transcriptional target of ERalpha and has a critical role in breast cancer endocrine sensitivity and resistance. |
Millour, J; Constantinidou, D; Stavropoulou, AV; Wilson, MS; Myatt, SS; Kwok, JM; Sivanandan, K; Coombes, RC; Medema, RH; Hartman, J; Lykkesfeldt, AE; Lam, EW
Oncogene 29 2983-95 2010
In this study, we investigated the regulation of FOXM1 expression by estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and its role in hormonal therapy and endocrine resistance. FOXM1 protein and mRNA expression was regulated by ER-ligands, including estrogen, tamoxifen (OHT) and fulvestrant (ICI182780; ICI) in breast carcinoma cell lines. Depletion of ERalpha by RNA interference (RNAi) in MCF-7 cells downregulated FOXM1 expression. Reporter gene assays showed that ERalpha activates FOXM1 transcription through an estrogen-response element (ERE) located within the proximal promoter region. The direct binding of ERalpha to the FOXM1 promoter was confirmed in vitro by mobility shift and DNA pull-down assays and in vivo by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis. Our data also revealed that upon OHT treatment ERalpha recruits histone deacetylases to the ERE site of the FOXM1 promoter, which is associated with a decrease in histone acetylation and transcription activity. Importantly, silencing of FOXM1 by RNAi abolished estrogen-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation and overcame acquired tamoxifen resistance. Conversely, ectopic expression of FOXM1 abrogated the cell cycle arrest mediated by the anti-estrogen OHT. OHT repressed FOXM1 expression in endocrine sensitive but not resistant breast carcinoma cell lines. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis of breast cancer patient samples revealed that there was a strong and significant positive correlation between ERalpha and FOXM1 mRNA expression. Collectively, these results show FOXM1 to be a key mediator of the mitogenic functions of ERalpha and estrogen in breast cancer cells, and also suggest that the deregulation of FOXM1 may contribute to anti-estrogen insensitivity.
|A downstream intergenic cluster of regulatory enhancers contributes to the induction of CYP24A1 expression by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. |
Meyer, MB; Goetsch, PD; Pike, JW
The Journal of biological chemistry 285 15599-610 2010
CYP24A1 expression is up-regulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) via a vitamin D receptor (VDR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimer that binds to two vitamin D response elements (VDREs) located near the proximal promoter. Interestingly, although 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) induced VDR/RXR binding to the VDRE-containing proximal promoter, the VDR/RXR heterodimer also localized to a cluster of at least four potential enhancers located in intergenic regions 50-69 kb downstream of the human CYP24A1 gene and 35-45 kb downstream of the mouse Cyp24a1 gene as revealed by ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq analyses. To address whether this downstream region and potential VDREs located within mediated CYP24A1 induction, we constructed recombinant wild-type and mutant bacterial artificial chromosome clones that spanned mouse and human loci and contained luciferase reporters inserted into their 3'-untranslated regions. The activity of these clones in stably transfected cells revealed that both the proximal and the putative downstream elements contributed to CYP24A1 up-regulation by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Further analysis using transfected enhancer fragments led to the identification of contributing regulatory elements in several of these downstream regions. Additional studies of coregulator recruitment using ChIP-chip analysis revealed both similarities and differences between the region located proximal to and those located downstream of the promoter. Recruitment of these coregulators was likely responsible for the increase in RNA polymerase II and histone H4 acetylation, which was also observed in response to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) at the enhancer sites across the locus. We conclude that a more complex mechanism is responsible for the striking CYP24A1 up-regulation induced by the vitamin D hormone in target cells.
|Chromatin states of developmentally-regulated genes revealed by DNA and histone methylation patterns in zebrafish embryos. |
Lindeman, LC; Winata, CL; Aanes, H; Mathavan, S; Alestrom, P; Collas, P
The International journal of developmental biology 54 803-13 2010
Embryo development proceeds from a cascade of gene activation and repression events controlled by epigenetic modifications of DNA and histones. Little is known about epigenetic states in the developing zebrafish, despite its importance as a model organism. We report here DNA methylation and histone modification profiles of promoters of developmentally-regulated genes (pou5f1, sox2, sox3, klf4, nnr, otx1b, nes, vasa), as well as tert and bactin2, in zebrafish embryos at the mid-late blastula transition, shortly after embryonic genome activation. We identify four classes of promoters based on the following profiles: (i) those enriched in marks of active genes (H3K9ac, H4ac, H3K4me3) without transcriptionally repressing H3K9me3 or H3K27me3; (ii) those enriched in H3K9ac, H4ac and H3K27me3, without H3K9me3; one such gene was klf4, shown by in situ hybridization to be mosaically expressed, likely accounting for the detection of both activating and repressive marks on its promoter; (iii) those enriched in H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 without acetylation; and (iv) those enriched in all histone modifications examined. Culture of embryo-derived cells under differentiation conditions leads to H3K9 and H4 deacetylation and H3K9 and H3K27 trimethylation on genes that are inactivated, yielding an epigenetic profile similar to those of fibroblasts or muscle. All promoters however retain H3K4me3, indicating an uncoupling of H3K4me3 occupancy and gene expression. All non-CpG island developmentally-regulated promoters are DNA unmethylated in embryos, but hypermethylated in fibroblasts. Our results suggest that differentially expressed embryonic genes are regulated by various patterns of histone modifications on unmethylated DNA, which create a developmentally permissive chromatin state.
|Distinct and histone-specific modifications mediate positive versus negative transcriptional regulation of TSHalpha promoter. |
Wang, D; Xia, X; Weiss, RE; Refetoff, S; Yen, PM
PloS one 5 e9853 2010
Hormonally-regulated histone modifications that govern positive versus negative transcription of target genes are poorly characterized despite their importance for normal and pathological endocrine function. There have been only a few studies examining chromatin modifications on target gene promoters by nuclear hormone receptors. Moreover, these studies have focused on positively-regulated target genes. TSHalpha, a heterodimer partner for thyrotropin (TSH), is secreted by the pituitary gland. T(3) negatively regulates TSHalpha gene expression via thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) which belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, whereas thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) positively regulates via the TRH receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor.We studied regulation of the TSHalpha gene by cAMP and T(3) using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays in stably-transfected rat pituitary cells containing the human TSHalpha promoter. Interestingly, cAMP selectively increased histone H4 acetylation whereas, as previously reported, T(3) induced histone H3 acetylation. In particular, cAMP increased H4K5 and H4K8 acetylation and decreased H4K20 trimethylation, modifications associated with transcriptional activation. T(3) increased H3K9 and H3K18 acetylation and H3K4 trimethylation; however, it also decreased H3K27 acetylation and increased H3K27 trimethylation which are associated with transcriptional repression. Of note, cAMP recruited pCREB, CBP/p300, and PCAF to the promoter whereas T(3) caused dissociation of NCoR/SMRT and HDAC3. Overexpression of a dominant negative mutant thyroid hormone receptor (TR) from a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) led to less T(3)-dependent negative regulation and partially blocked histone H3 modifications of the TSHalpha promoter.Our findings show that non-overlapping and specific histone modifications determine positive versus negative transcriptional regulation, and integrate opposing hormonal and intracellular signals at the TSHalpha promoter. A mutant TR from a patient with RTH exerted dominant negative activity by blocking the histone modifications induced by T(3) on the TSHalpha promoter and likely contributes to the inappropriate TSH production observed in RTH.
|Functional modulation of IGF-binding protein-3 expression in melanoma. |
Dar, AA; Majid, S; Nosrati, M; de Semir, D; Federman, S; Kashani-Sabet, M
The Journal of investigative dermatology 130 2071-9 2010
IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) is a member of the IGFBP family, which regulates mitogenic and antiapoptotic effects of IGFs. In this report we evaluated the role of IGFBP3 in melanoma. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blot, and ELISA analyses indicated a significant downregulation of IGFBP3 expression in melanoma cell lines as compared with a normal melanocyte cell line. Melanoma cell lines treated with the demethylating agent 5-AZA-2'-deoxycytidine reexpressed IGFBP3 at the mRNA and protein levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed enrichment of acetylated histones H3 and H4, and H3 di- and tri-methylated lysine 4 on the unmethylated IGFBP3 promoter. The IGFBP3 promoter region was highly methylated in human melanoma samples as compared with normal nevi. Overexpression of IGFBP3 in melanoma cells in vitro suppressed tumor cell survival, induced apoptosis, reduced colony formation and invasion, and induced expression of the proapoptotic genes p21, PUMA, and BAX. IGFBP3 overexpression also resulted in cleavage of caspase 3 and reduced expression of phosphorylated AKT. Stable overexpression of IGFBP3 suppressed tumor cell growth in vivo. Our study results indicate that silencing of IGFBP3 in melanoma is due to the methylation of its promoter, and that overexpression of IGFBP3 induces apoptosis and suppresses cell survival and growth.
|A SUMO-regulated activation function controls synergy of c-Myb through a repressor-activator switch leading to differential p300 recruitment. |
Molvaersmyr, AK; Saether, T; Gilfillan, S; Lorenzo, PI; Kvaløy, H; Matre, V; Gabrielsen, OS
Nucleic acids research 38 4970-84 2010
Synergy between transcription factors operating together on complex promoters is a key aspect of gene activation. The ability of specific factors to synergize is restricted by sumoylation (synergy control, SC). Focusing on the haematopoietic transcription factor c-Myb, we found evidence for a strong SC linked to SUMO-conjugation in its negative regulatory domain (NRD), while AMV v-Myb has escaped this control. Mechanistic studies revealed a SUMO-dependent switch in the function of NRD. When NRD is sumoylated, the activity of c-Myb is reduced. When sumoylation is abolished, NRD switches into being activating, providing the factor with a second activation function (AF). Thus, c-Myb harbours two AFs, one that is constitutively active and one in the NRD being SUMO-regulated (SRAF). This double AF augments c-Myb synergy at compound natural promoters. A similar SUMO-dependent switch was observed in the regulatory domains of Sp3 and p53. We show that the change in synergy behaviour correlates with a SUMO-dependent differential recruitment of p300 and a corresponding local change in histone H3 and H4 acetylation. We therefore propose a general model for SUMO-mediated SC, where SUMO controls synergy by determining the number and strength of AFs associated with a promoter leading to differential chromatin signatures.
|Thyroid hormone controls the gene expression of HSV-1 LAT and ICP0 in neuronal cells. |
Bedadala, GR; Pinnoji, RC; Palem, JR; Hsia, SC
Cell research 20 587-98 2010
Various factors/pathways including hormonal regulation have been suggested to control herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency and reactivation. Our computer analysis identified a DNA repeat containing thyroid hormone-responsive elements (TRE) in the regulatory region of HSV-1 latency-associated transcript (LAT). Thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, T(3)) functions via its receptor TR (thyroid hormone receptor), a transcription factor. Present study investigated the roles of TR and T(3) in HSV-1 gene expression using cultured neuoroblastoma cell lines. We demonstrated that liganded TR activated LAT transcription, but repressed infected cell protein no. 0 (ICP0) transcription in the presence of LAT TRE. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that TRs were recruited to LAT TREs independently of T(3) and hyperacetylated H4 was associated with the LAT promoter that was transcriptionally active. In addition, ChIP results showed that the chromatin insulator protein CCCTC-binding factor was enriched at the LAT TREs in the presence of TR and T(3). In addition, the BRG1 chromatin remodeling complex is found to participate in the T(3)/TR-mediated LAT activation since overexpression of BRG1 enhanced the LAT transcription and the dominant-negative mutant K785R abolished the activation. This is the first report revealing that TR elicits epigenetic regulation on HSV-1 ICP0 expression in neuronal cells and could have a role in the complex processes of HSV-1 latency/reactivation.
|Groucho-mediated repression may result from a histone deacetylase-dependent increase in nucleosome density. |
Winkler, CJ; Ponce, A; Courey, AJ
PloS one 5 e10166 2010
Groucho (Gro) is a Drosophila melanogaster transcriptional corepressor that directly interacts with the histone deacetylase Rpd3. Although previous studies suggest that this interaction is required for repression of Gro-responsive reporters in cultured cells, the in vivo significance of this interaction and the mechanism by which it leads to repression remain largely unexplored. In this study, we show that Gro is partially dependent on Rpd3 for repression, supporting the idea that Rpd3-mediated repression is one mode of Gro-mediated repression. We demonstrate that Gro colocalizes with Rpd3 to the chromatin of a target gene and that this is accompanied by the deacetylation of specific lysines within the N-terminal tails of histones H3 and H4. Gro overexpression leads to wing patterning defects and ectopic repression in the wing disc of transcription directed by the vestigial quadrant enhancer. These effects are reversed by the histone deacetylase inhibitors TSA and HC-Toxin and by the reduction of Rpd3 gene dosage. Furthermore, repression of the vestigial quadrant enhancer is accompanied by a Gro-mediated increase in nucleosome density, an effect that is reversed by histone deacetylase inhibitors. We propose a model in which Gro-mediated histone deacetylation results in increased nucleosome density leading to transcriptional repression.
|Aberrant silencing of imprinted genes on chromosome 12qF1 in mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. |
Stadtfeld, M; Apostolou, E; Akutsu, H; Fukuda, A; Follett, P; Natesan, S; Kono, T; Shioda, T; Hochedlinger, K
Nature 465 175-81 2010
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been generated by enforced expression of defined sets of transcription factors in somatic cells. It remains controversial whether iPSCs are molecularly and functionally equivalent to blastocyst-derived embryonic stem (ES) cells. By comparing genetically identical mouse ES cells and iPSCs, we show here that their overall messenger RNA and microRNA expression patterns are indistinguishable with the exception of a few transcripts encoded within the imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 gene cluster on chromosome 12qF1, which were aberrantly silenced in most of the iPSC clones. Consistent with a developmental role of the Dlk1-Dio3 gene cluster, these iPSC clones contributed poorly to chimaeras and failed to support the development of entirely iPSC-derived animals ('all-iPSC mice'). In contrast, iPSC clones with normal expression of the Dlk1-Dio3 cluster contributed to high-grade chimaeras and generated viable all-iPSC mice. Notably, treatment of an iPSC clone that had silenced Dlk1-Dio3 with a histone deacetylase inhibitor reactivated the locus and rescued its ability to support full-term development of all-iPSC mice. Thus, the expression state of a single imprinted gene cluster seems to distinguish most murine iPSCs from ES cells and allows for the prospective identification of iPSC clones that have the full development potential of ES cells.
|The number of vitamin D receptor binding sites defines the different vitamin D responsiveness of the CYP24 gene in malignant and normal mammary cells. |
Matilainen, JM; Malinen, M; Turunen, MM; Carlberg, C; Väisänen, S
The Journal of biological chemistry 285 24174-83 2010
Primary 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3))-responding genes are controlled by the vitamin D receptor (VDR) binding to specific sites (VDREs) that are located within the regulatory regions of these genes. According to previous studies, the gene encoding 25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase, CYP24, which is the strongest known 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)-responsive gene, has multiple VDREs that locate within the proximal and the distal promoter. However, it has remained unclear, what is the biological role of these regions and how they participate in the regulation of transcription. In this study, we found a different CYP24 expression profile in normal (MCF-10A) and malignant (MCF-7) human mammary cells. Moreover, CYP24 mRNA showed to be three times more stable in MCF-7 cells than in MCF-10A cells. We studied the mechanism of this difference using expression profiling, quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation and chromosome conformation capture assays. Interestingly, the number of functional VDREs was higher in MCF-7 cells than in MCF-10A cells. Three functional VDREs in MCF-7 cells are connected to linear mRNA accumulation, whereas only one VDRE seems to lead to stepwise CYP24 mRNA accumulation in MCF-10A cells. The distal VDREs were involved in transcriptional regulation via ligand-dependent, dynamic chromatin looping, which brings cyclically the distal elements together either individually or simultaneously next to the transcription start site. In conclusion, our data suggest that in comparison to normal cells, clearing of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) is enhanced in malignant cells due to differences in transcriptional regulation of CYP24 and metabolism of CYP24 mRNA.
|Benzo[a]pyrene increases the Nrf2 content by downregulating the Keap1 message. |
Nguyen, PM; Park, MS; Chow, M; Chang, JH; Wrischnik, L; Chan, WK
Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology 116 549-61 2010
We employed the suppressive subtractive hybridization to identify 41 up- and downregulated transcripts in Jurkat cells after benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) treatment. Among the 21 downregulated transcripts, we found that BaP suppresses the Keap1 transcript by 7.5-fold. Subsequent analyses revealed that BaP significantly suppresses the Keap1 message and protein levels to about 40 and 60%, respectively, of the vehicle controls in Jurkat cells without reactive oxygen species involvement. In addition, the nuclear Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor) protein content is significantly increased by 2.6-fold. The same BaP treatment to Hepa1c1c7 cells also downregulates the Keap1 message and protein levels to a similar extent. When we treated Jurkat cells with 3-(4-morpholinyl)propyl isothiocyanate, which is known to increase the amount of the Nrf2 content, we found that there is no change in the Keap1 message, but the amount of the Keap1 (kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) protein is reduced to 75% of the vehicle controls. Although both Nrf2 target messages nqo1 and gstp1 are upregulated by BaP in Jurkat cells, only GSTP1 is upregulated at the protein level. Unlike Hepa1c1c7 cells, Jurkat cells have no detectable aryl hydrocarbon receptor and BaP metabolites, minimal CYP1A1 activity, and no quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity. We concluded that BaP, but not its metabolites, increases the amount of the nuclear Nrf2 protein by downregulating the Keap1 message in Jurkat cells.
|A complex small RNA repertoire is generated by a plant/fungal-like machinery and effected by a metazoan-like Argonaute in the single-cell human parasite Toxoplasma gondii. |
Braun, L; Cannella, D; Ortet, P; Barakat, M; Sautel, CF; Kieffer, S; Garin, J; Bastien, O; Voinnet, O; Hakimi, MA
PLoS pathogens 6 e1000920 2010
In RNA silencing, small RNAs produced by the RNase-III Dicer guide Argonaute-like proteins as part of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC) to regulate gene expression transcriptionally or post-transcriptionally. Here, we have characterized the RNA silencing machinery and exhaustive small RNAome of Toxoplasma gondii, member of the Apicomplexa, a phylum of animal- and human-infecting parasites that cause extensive health and economic damages to human populations worldwide. Remarkably, the small RNA-generating machinery of Toxoplasma is phylogenetically and functionally related to that of plants and fungi, and accounts for an exceptionally diverse array of small RNAs. This array includes conspicuous populations of repeat-associated small interfering RNA (siRNA), which, as in plants, likely generate and maintain heterochromatin at DNA repeats and satellites. Toxoplasma small RNAs also include many microRNAs with clear metazoan-like features whose accumulation is sometimes extremely high and dynamic, an unexpected finding given that Toxoplasma is a unicellular protist. Both plant-like heterochromatic small RNAs and metazoan-like microRNAs bind to a single Argonaute protein, Tg-AGO. Toxoplasma miRNAs co-sediment with polyribosomes, and thus, are likely to act as translational regulators, consistent with the lack of catalytic residues in Tg-AGO. Mass spectrometric analyses of the Tg-AGO protein complex revealed a common set of virtually all known RISC components so far characterized in human and Drosophila, as well as novel proteins involved in RNA metabolism. In agreement with its loading with heterochromatic small RNAs, Tg-AGO also associates substoichiometrically with components of known chromatin-repressing complexes. Thus, a puzzling patchwork of silencing processor and effector proteins from plant, fungal and metazoan origin accounts for the production and action of an unsuspected variety of small RNAs in the single-cell parasite Toxoplasma and possibly in other apicomplexans. This study establishes Toxoplasma as a unique model system for studying the evolution and molecular mechanisms of RNA silencing among eukaryotes.
|Position-dependent silencing of germline Vß segments on TCRß alleles containing preassembled VßDJßCß1 genes. |
Brady, BL; Oropallo, MA; Yang-Iott, KS; Serwold, T; Hochedlinger, K; Jaenisch, R; Weissman, IL; Bassing, CH
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 185 3564-73 2010
The genomic organization of TCRbeta loci enables Vbeta-to-DJbeta2 rearrangements on alleles with assembled VbetaDJbetaCbeta1 genes, which could have deleterious physiologic consequences. To determine whether such Vbeta rearrangements occur and, if so, how they might be regulated, we analyzed mice with TCRbeta alleles containing preassembled functional VbetaDJbetaCbeta1 genes. Vbeta10 segments were transcribed, rearranged, and expressed in thymocytes when located immediately upstream of a Vbeta1DJbetaCbeta1 gene, but not on alleles with a Vbeta14DJbetaCbeta1 gene. Germline Vbeta10 transcription was silenced in mature alphabeta T cells. This allele-dependent and developmental stage-specific silencing of Vbeta10 correlated with increased CpG methylation and decreased histone acetylation over the Vbeta10 promoter and coding region. Transcription, rearrangement, and expression of the Vbeta4 and Vbeta16 segments located upstream of Vbeta10 were silenced on alleles containing either VbetaDJbetaCbeta1 gene; sequences within Vbeta4, Vbeta16, and the Vbeta4/Vbeta16-Vbeta10 intergenic region exhibited constitutive high CpG methylation and low histone acetylation. Collectively, our data indicate that the position of Vbeta segments relative to assembled VbetaDJbetaCbeta1 genes influences their rearrangement and suggest that DNA sequences between Vbeta segments may form boundaries between active and inactive Vbeta chromatin domains upstream of VbetaDJbetaCbeta genes.Full Text Article
|In vivo chromatin organization of mouse rod photoreceptors correlates with histone modifications. |
Kizilyaprak, C; Spehner, D; Devys, D; Schultz, P
PloS one 5 e11039 2010
The folding of genetic information into chromatin plays important regulatory roles in many nuclear processes and particularly in gene transcription. Post translational histone modifications are associated with specific chromatin condensation states and with distinct transcriptional activities. The peculiar chromatin organization of rod photoreceptor nuclei, with a large central domain of condensed chromatin surrounded by a thin border of extended chromatin was used as a model to correlate in vivo chromatin structure, histone modifications and transcriptional activity.We investigated the functional relationships between chromatin compaction, distribution of histone modifications and location of RNA polymerase II in intact murine rod photoreceptors using cryo-preparation methods, electron tomography and immunogold labeling. Our results show that the characteristic central heterochromatin of rod nuclei is organized into concentric domains characterized by a progressive loosening of the chromatin architecture from inside towards outside and by specific combinations of silencing histone marks. The peripheral heterochromatin is formed by closely packed 30 nm fibers as revealed by a characteristic optical diffraction signal. Unexpectedly, the still highly condensed most external heterochromatin domain contains acetylated histones, which are usually associated with active transcription and decondensed chromatin. Histone acetylation is thus not sufficient in vivo for complete chromatin decondensation. The euchromatin domain contains several degrees of chromatin compaction and the histone tails are hyperacetylated, enriched in H3K4 monomethylation and hypo trimethylated on H3K9, H3K27 and H4K20. The transcriptionally active RNA polymerases II molecules are confined in the euchromatin domain and are preferentially located at the vicinity of the interface with heterochromatin.Our results show that transcription is located in the most decondensed and highly acetylated chromatin regions, but since acetylation is found associated with compact chromatin it is not sufficient to decondense chromatin in vivo. We also show that a combination of histone marks defines distinct concentric heterochromatin domains.
|Active DNA demethylation in human postmitotic cells correlates with activating histone modifications, but not transcription levels. |
Klug, M; Heinz, S; Gebhard, C; Schwarzfischer, L; Krause, SW; Andreesen, R; Rehli, M
Genome biology 11 R63 2010
In mammals, the dynamics of DNA methylation, in particular the regulated, active removal of cytosine methylation, has remained a mystery, partly due to the lack of appropriate model systems to study DNA demethylation. Previous work has largely focused on proliferating cell types that are mitotically arrested using pharmacological inhibitors to distinguish between active and passive mechanisms of DNA demethylation.We explored this epigenetic phenomenon in a natural setting of post-mitotic cells: the differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into macrophages or dendritic cells, which proceeds without cell division. Using a global, comparative CpG methylation profiling approach, we identified many novel examples of active DNA demethylation and characterized accompanying transcriptional and epigenetic events at these sites during monocytic differentiation. We show that active DNA demethylation is not restricted to proximal promoters and that the time-course of demethylation varies for individual CpGs. Irrespective of their location, the removal of methylated cytosines always coincided with the appearance of activating histone marks.Demethylation events are highly reproducible in monocyte-derived dendritic cells from different individuals. Our data suggest that active DNA demethylation is a precisely targeted event that parallels or follows the modification of histones, but is not necessarily coupled to alterations in transcriptional activity.Full Text Article
|Chromatin remodeling is required for gene reactivation after decitabine-mediated DNA hypomethylation. |
Si, J; Boumber, YA; Shu, J; Qin, T; Ahmed, S; He, R; Jelinek, J; Issa, JP
Cancer research 70 6968-77 2010
The DNA hypomethylating drug decitabine (DAC) reactivates silenced gene expression in cancer and is approved for the treatment of the myelodysplastic syndrome. Gene reactivation after DAC is variable and incompletely understood. Here, we established a cell line system (YB5) derived from the SW48 colon cancer cell line to study DAC-induced reactivation. YB5 contains a hypermethylated cytomegalovirus promoter driving green fluorescent protein (GFP), and the locus is transcriptionally silent. GFP reexpression can be achieved by DAC treatment, but the expression level of individual cells is heterogeneous. DAC-treated YB5 cells were separated into GFP-positive and GFP-negative subpopulations. By comparing DAC-treated sorted GFP-positive and GFP-negative cells, we found that their methylation levels were similarly decreased but that histone modifications and histone H3 densities were remarkably different. Despite a similar degree of (incomplete) DNA hypomethylation, GFP-positive cells reverted to an active chromatin structure marked by higher H3K9 acetylation, lower H3K27 trimethylation, and lower promoter nucleosome density. GFP-negative cells had histone modifications and promoter nucleosome density, similar to parental cells. On DAC withdrawal, gradual resilencing and remethylation occurred in both GFP-positive and GFP-negative cells, and the resilencing correlated with a gradual increase in nucleosome occupancy in GFP-positive cells. These data show that hypomethylation alone after DAC is insufficient for gene expression induction, and that chromatin resetting to an active state including nucleosome eviction is required for activation of protein expression. Our findings suggest that gene expression is the key in optimizing DAC treatment strategies in the clinic.
|Trichostatin A and 5-azacytidine both cause an increase in global histone H4 acetylation and a decrease in global DNA and H3K9 methylation during mitosis in maize. |
Yang, F; Zhang, L; Li, J; Huang, J; Wen, R; Ma, L; Zhou, D; Li, L
BMC plant biology 10 178 2010
Modifications of DNA and histones in various combinations are correlated with many cellular processes. In this study, we investigated the possible relationship between histone H4 tetraacetylation, DNA methylation and histone H3 dimethylation at lysine 9 during mitosis in maize root meristems.Treatment with trichostatin A, which inhibits histone deacetylases, resulted in increased histone H4 acetylation accompanied by the decondensation of interphase chromatin and a decrease in both global H3K9 dimethylation and DNA methylation during mitosis in maize root tip cells. These observations suggest that histone acetylation may affect DNA and histone methylation during mitosis. Treatment with 5-azacytidine, a cytosine analog that reduces DNA methylation, caused chromatin decondensation and mediated an increase in H4 acetylation, in addition to reduced DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation during interphase and mitosis. These results suggest that decreased DNA methylation causes a reduction in H3K9 dimethylation and an increase in H4 acetylation.The interchangeable effects of 5-azacytidine and trichostatin A on H4 acetylation, DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation indicate a mutually reinforcing action between histone acetylation, DNA methylation and histone methylation with respect to chromatin modification. Treatment with trichostatin A and 5-azacytidine treatment caused a decrease in the mitotic index, suggesting that H4 deacetylation and DNA and H3K9 methylation may contain the necessary information for triggering mitosis in maize root tips.Full Text Article
|MicroRNA-205-directed transcriptional activation of tumor suppressor genes in prostate cancer. |
Majid, S; Dar, AA; Saini, S; Yamamura, S; Hirata, H; Tanaka, Y; Deng, G; Dahiya, R
Cancer 116 5637-49 2010
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate the expression of approximately 60% of all human genes. They play important roles in numerous cellular processes, including development, proliferation, and apoptosis. Currently, it is believed that miRNAs elicit their effect by silencing the expression of target genes. In this study, the authors demonstrated that miRNA-205 (miR-205) induced the expression the interleukin (IL) tumor suppressor genes IL24 and IL32 by targeting specific sites in their promoters.The methods used in this study included transfection of small RNAs; quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; in situ hybridization; fluorescence-labeled in situ hybridization; cell cycle, apoptosis, cell viability, migratory, clonability, and invasion assays; immunoblotting; and luciferase reporter, nuclear run-on, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays.The results revealed that miR-205 was silenced in prostate cancer. Its re-expression induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. It also impaired cell growth, migration, clonability, and invasiveness of prostate cancer cells. Micro-RNA-205 induced the expression of tumor suppressor genes IL24 and IL32 at both the messenger RNA and protein levels. The induction of in vitro transcription and enrichment of markers for transcriptionally active promoters in the IL24 and IL32 genes was observed in response to miR-205.In this study, a new function for miR-205 was identified that specifically activated tumor suppressor genes by targeting specific sites in their promoters. These results corroborate a newly identified function that miRNAs have in regulating gene expression at the transcriptional level. The specific activation of tumor suppressor genes (eg, IL24, IL32) or other dysregulated genes by miRNA may contribute to a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of prostate cancer.
|VE-statin/egfl7 expression in endothelial cells is regulated by a distal enhancer and a proximal promoter under the direct control of Erg and GATA-2. |
Le Bras, A; Samson, C; Trentini, M; Caetano, B; Lelievre, E; Mattot, V; Beermann, F; Soncin, F
PloS one 5 e12156 2010
Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels arise from existing ones by the budding out of endothelial cell capillaries from the luminal side of blood vessels. Blood vessel formation is essential for organ development during embryogenesis and is associated with several physiological and pathological processes, such as wound healing and tumor development. The VE-statin/egfl7 gene is specifically expressed in endothelial cells during embryonic development and in the adult. We studied here the regulatory mechanisms that control this tissue-specific expression. RT-qPCR analyses showed that the specificity of expression of VE-statin/egfl7 in endothelial cells is not shared with its closest neighbor genes notch1 and agpat2 on the mouse chromosome 2. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation analysis of histone modifications at the VE-statin/egfl7 locus showed that the chromatin is specifically opened in endothelial cells, but not in fibroblasts at the transcription start sites. A 13 kb genomic fragment of promoter was cloned and analyzed by gene reporter assays which showed that two conserved regions are important for the specific expression of VE-statin/egfl7 in endothelial cells; a -8409/-7563 enhancer and the -252/+38 region encompassing the exon-1b transcription start site. The latter contains essential GATA and ETS-binding sites, as assessed by linker-scanning analysis and site-directed mutagenesis. An analysis of expression of the ETS and GATA transcription factors showed that Erg, Fli-1 and GATA-2 are the most highly expressed factors in endothelial cells. Erg and GATA-2 directly control the expression of the endogenous VE-statin/egfl7 while Fli-1 probably exerts an indirect control, as assessed by RNA interference and chromatin immunoprecipitation. This first detailed analysis of the mechanisms that govern the expression of the VE-statin/egfl7 gene in endothelial cells pinpoints the specific importance of ETS and GATA factors in the specific regulation of genes in this cell lineage.
|15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is a preferential peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta agonist. |
S Naruhn, W Meissner, T Adhikary, K Kaddatz, T Klein, B Watzer, S Muller-Brusselbach, R Muller
Molecular pharmacology 77 171-84 2010
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARs) modulate target gene expression in response to unsaturated fatty acid ligands, such as arachidonic acid (AA). Here, we report that the AA metabolite 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) activates the ligand-dependent activation domain (AF2) of PPARbeta/delta in vivo, competes with synthetic agonists in a PPARbeta/delta ligand binding assay in vitro, and triggers the interaction of PPARbeta/delta with coactivator peptides. These agonistic effects were also seen with PPARalpha and PPARgamma, but to a significantly weaker extent. We further show that 15-HETE strongly induces the expression of the bona fide PPAR target gene Angptl4 in a PPARbeta/delta-dependent manner and, conversely, that inhibition of 15-HETE synthesis reduces PPARbeta/delta transcriptional activity. Consistent with its function as an agonistic ligand, 15-HETE triggers profound changes in chromatin-associated PPARbeta/delta complexes in vivo, including the recruitment of the coactivator cAMP response element-binding protein binding protein. Both 15R-HETE and 15S-HETE are similarly potent at inducing PPARbeta/delta coactivator binding and transcriptional activation, indicating that 15-HETE enantiomers generated by different pathways function as PPARbeta/delta agonists.
|Jmjd1a demethylase-regulated histone modification is essential for cAMP-response element modulator-regulated gene expression and spermatogenesis. |
Liu, Z; Zhou, S; Liao, L; Chen, X; Meistrich, M; Xu, J
The Journal of biological chemistry 285 2758-70 2010
Spermatogenesis, a fundamental process in the male reproductive system, requires a series of tightly controlled epigenetic and genetic events in germ cells ranging from spermatogonia to spermatozoa. Jmjd1a is a key epigenetic regulator expressed in the testis. It specifically demethylates mono- and di-methylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me1 and H3K9me2) but not tri-methylated H3K9 (H3K9me3). In this study, we generated a Jmjd1a antibody for immunohistochemistry and found Jmjd1a was specifically produced in pachytene and secondary spermatocytes. Disruption of the Jmjd1a gene in mice significantly increased H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 levels in pachytene spermatocytes and early elongating spermatids without affecting H3K9me3 levels. Concurrently, the levels of histone acetylation were decreased in Jmjd1a knock-out germ cells. This suggests Jmjd1a promotes transcriptional activation by lowering histone methylation and increasing histone acetylation. Interestingly, the altered histone modifications in Jmjd1a-deficient germ cells caused diminished cAMP-response element modulator (Crem) recruitment to chromatin and decreased expression of the Crem coactivator Act and their target genes Tnp1 (transition protein 1), Tnp2, Prm1 (protamine 1), and Prm2, all of which are essential for chromatin condensation in spermatids. In agreement with these findings, Jmjd1a deficiency caused extensive germ cell apoptosis and blocked spermatid elongation, resulting in severe oligozoospermia, small testes, and infertility in male mice. These results indicate that the Jmjd1a-controlled epigenetic histone modifications are crucial for Crem-regulated gene expression and spermatogenesis.Full Text Article
|Variations in DNA methylation, acetylated histone H4, and methylated histone H3 during Pinus radiata needle maturation in relation to the loss of in vitro organogenic capability. |
Luis Valledor,Mónica Meijón,Rodrigo Hasbún,Maria Jesús Cañal,Roberto Rodríguez
Journal of plant physiology 167 2010
Needle differentiation is a very complex process associated with the formation of a mature photosynthetic organ. From meristem differentiation to leaf maturation, gene control must play an important role switching required genes on and off to define tissue functions, with the epigenetic code being one of the main regulation mechanisms. In this work, we examined the connections between the variation in the levels of some epigenetic players (DNA methylation, acetylated histone H4 and histone H3 methylation at Lys 4 and Lys 9) at work during needle maturation. Our results indicate that needle maturation, which is associated with a decrease in organogenic capability, is related to an increase in heterochromatin-related epigenetic markers (high DNA methylation and low acetylated histone H4 levels, and the presence of histone H3 methylated at lys 9). Immunohistochemical analyses also showed that the DNA methylation of palisade parenchyma cell layers during the transition from immature to mature scions is associated with the loss of the capacity to induce adventitious organs.
|Phosphorylation by Cdk2 is required for Myc to repress Ras-induced senescence in cotransformation. |
Hydbring P, Bahram F, Su Y, TronnersjÃ¶ S, HÃ¶gstrand K, von der Lehr N, Sharifi HR, Lilischkis R, Hein N, Wu S, Vervoorts J, Henriksson M, Grandien A, LÃ¼scher B, Larsson LG
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107 58-63. Epub 2009 Dec 4. 2010
The MYC and RAS oncogenes are frequently activated in cancer and, together, are sufficient to transform rodent cells. The basis for this cooperativity remains unclear. We found that although Ras interfered with Myc-induced apoptosis, Myc repressed Ras-induced senescence, together abrogating two main barriers of tumorigenesis. Inhibition of cellular senescence required phosphorylation of Myc at Ser-62 by cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2. Cdk2 interacted with Myc at promoters, where it affected Myc-dependent regulation of genes, including Bmi-1, p16, p21, and hTERT, which encode proteins known to control senescence. Repression of senescence by Myc was abrogated by the Cdk inhibitor p27Kip1, which is induced by antiproliferative signals like IFN-gamma or by pharmacological inhibitors of Cdk2 but not by inhibitors of other Cdks. In contrast, a phospho-mimicking Myc-S62D mutant was resistant to these manipulations. Inhibition of cyclin E/Cdk2 reversed the senescence-associated gene expression pattern imposed by Myc/cyclin E/Cdk2. This indicates a role of Cdk2 as a transcriptional cofactor and activator of the antisenescence function of Myc and provides mechanistic insight into the Myc-p27Kip1 antagonism. Finally, our findings highlight that pharmacological inhibition of Cdk2 activity is a potential therapeutical principle for cancer therapy, in particular for tumors with activated Myc or Ras.
|Dynamics of DNA methylation and Histone H4 acetylation during floral bud differentiation in azalea. |
Meijón, M; Feito, I; Valledor, L; Rodríguez, R; Cañal, MJ
BMC plant biology 10 10 2010
The ability to control the timing of flowering is a key strategy for planning production in ornamental species such as azalea, however it requires a thorough understanding of floral transition. Floral transition is achieved through a complex genetic network and regulated by multiple environmental and endogenous cues. Dynamic changes between chromatin states facilitating or inhibiting DNA transcription regulate the expression of floral induction pathways in response to environmental and developmental signals. DNA methylation and histone modifications are involved in controlling the functional state of chromatin and gene expression.The results of this work indicate that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone H4 acetylation have opposite and particular dynamics during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development in the apical shoots of azalea. Global levels of DNA methylation and histone H4 acetylation as well as immunodetection of 5-mdC and acetylated H4, in addition to a morphological study have permitted the delimitation of four basic phases in the development of the azalea bud and allowed the identification of a stage of epigenetic reprogramming which showed a sharp decrease of whole DNA methylation similar to that is defined in other developmental processes in plants and in mammals.The epigenetic control and reorganization of chromatin seem to be decisive for coordinating floral development in azalea. DNA methylation and H4 deacetylation act simultaneously and co-ordinately, restructuring the chromatin and regulating the gene expression during soot apical meristem development and floral differentiation.Full Text Article
|CREB up-regulates long non-coding RNA, HULC expression through interaction with microRNA-372 in liver cancer. |
Wang, J; Liu, X; Wu, H; Ni, P; Gu, Z; Qiao, Y; Chen, N; Sun, F; Fan, Q
Nucleic acids research 38 5366-83 2010
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), highly up-regulated in liver cancer (HULC) plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Depletion of HULC resulted in a significant deregulation of several genes involved in liver cancer. Although up-regulation of HULC expression in hepatocellular carcinoma has been reported, the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we used in vivo and in vitro approaches to characterize cancer-dependent alterations in the chromatin organization and find a CREB binding site (encompassing from -67 to -53 nt) in the core promoter. Besides, we also provided evidence that PKA pathway may involved in up-regulation of HULC. Furthermore, we demonstrated HULC may act as an endogenous 'sponge', which down-regulates a series of microRNAs (miRNAs) activities, including miR-372. Inhibition of miR-372 leads to reducing translational repression of its target gene, PRKACB, which in turn induces phosphorylation of CREB. Over-expression of miR-372 decreases the association of CREB with the proximal promoter, followed by the dissociation of P300, resulting in a change of the histone 'code', such as in deacetylation and methylation. The study elucidates that fine tuning of HULC expression is part of an auto-regulatory loop in which it's inhibitory to expression and activity of miR-372 allows lncRNA up-regulated expression in liver cancer.
|Valproate treatment of human cord blood CD4-positive effector T cells confers on them the molecular profile (microRNA signature and FOXP3 expression) of natural regulatory CD4-positive cells through inhibition of histone deacetylase. |
Fayyad-Kazan, H; Rouas, R; Merimi, M; El Zein, N; Lewalle, P; Jebbawi, F; Mourtada, M; Badran, H; Ezzeddine, M; Salaun, B; Romero, P; Burny, A; Martiat, P; Badran, B
The Journal of biological chemistry 285 20481-91 2010
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a key role in immune system homeostasis and tolerance to antigens, thereby preventing autoimmunity, and may be partly responsible for the lack of an appropriate immune response against tumor cells. Although not sufficient, a high expression of forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) is necessary for their suppressive function. Recent reports have shown that histones deacetylase inhibitors increased FOXP3 expression in T cells. We therefore decided to investigate in non-Tregs CD4-positive cells, the mechanisms by which an aspecific opening of the chromatin could lead to an increased FOXP3 expression. We focused on binding of potentially activating transcription factors to the promoter region of FOXP3 and on modifications in the five miRs constituting the Tregs signature. Valproate treatment induced binding of Ets-1 and Ets-2 to the FOXP3 promoter and acted positively on its expression, by increasing the acetylation of histone H4 lysines. Valproate treatment also induced the acquisition of the miRs Tregs signature. To elucidate whether the changes in the miRs expression could be due to the increased FOXP3 expression, we transduced these non-Tregs with a FOXP3 lentiviral expression vector, and found no changes in miRs expression. Therefore, the modification in their miRs expression profile is not due to an increased expression of FOXP3 but directly results from histones deacetylase inhibition. Rather, the increased FOXP3 expression results from the additive effects of Ets factors binding and the change in expression level of miR-21 and miR-31. We conclude that valproate treatment of human non-Tregs confers on them a molecular profile similar to that of their regulatory counterpart.Full Text Article
|Genetic and maternal effects on valproic acid teratogenesis in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. |
Downing, C; Biers, J; Larson, C; Kimball, A; Wright, H; Ishii, T; Gilliam, D; Johnson, T
Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology 116 632-9 2010
Valproic acid (VPA) is used worldwide to treat epilepsy, migraine headaches, and bipolar disorder. However, VPA is teratogenic and in utero exposure can lead to congenital malformations. Using inbred C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mice, we asked whether genetic variation could play a role in susceptibility to VPA teratogenesis. Whereas B6 fetuses were more susceptible than D2 fetuses to digit and vertebral malformations, D2 fetuses were more susceptible to rib malformations. In a reciprocal cross between B6 and D2, genetically identical F1 mice carried in a B6 mother had a greater percentage of vertebral malformations following prenatal VPA exposure than F1 mice carried in a D2 mother. This reciprocal F1 difference is known as a maternal effect and shows that maternal genotype/uterine environment is an important mediator of VPA teratogenecity. VPA is a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and it is possible that the differential teratogenesis in B6 and D2 is because of strain differences in histone acetylation. We observed strain differences in acetylation of histones H3 and H4 in both embryo and placenta following in utero VPA exposure, but additional studies are needed to determine the significance of these changes in mediating teratogenesis. Our results provide additional support that genetic factors, both maternal and fetal, play a role in VPA teratogenesis. Lines of mice derived from B6 and D2 will be a useful model for elucidating the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to VPA teratogenesis.Full Text Article
|SP1 is required for basal activation and chromatin accessibility of CD151 promoter in liver cancer cells. |
Wang J, Liu X, Ni P, Gu Z, Fan Q
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 393 291-6 Epub 2010 Feb 10 2010
CD151 plays an important role in liver cancer metastasis. The mechanism on how CD151 is expressed remains unclear. Here we have identified SP1 is a protein functioning in constitutive activation of CD151. Applying a PCR-based chromatin accessibility assay, an open chromatin conformation was discovered localized around the transcription start site of the CD151 gene. Deletion constructs of the 5' flanking region were fused to a luciferase reporter gene. After transient transfection in HepG2 and Hep3B cells, a minimal region -171/-53 bearing three SP1-binding sites was identified as the core promoter. Results obtained from electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that SP1 is bound to the core promoter. Deletion of SP1 consensus sequence resulted in the total loss of the promoter activity. Moreover, knockdown of SP1 reduced both CD151 promoter activity and chromatin accessibility. Conclusively, SP1 is pivotal to CD151 transcription partly via the construction of a local open chromatin configuration across the promoter. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|Essential role of Tip60-dependent recruitment of ribonucleotide reductase at DNA damage sites in DNA repair during G1 phase. |
Niida H, Katsuno Y, Sengoku M, Shimada M, Yukawa M, Ikura M, Ikura T, Kohno K, Shima H, Suzuki H, Tashiro S, Nakanishi M
Genes & development 24 333-8 2010
A balanced deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) supply is essential for DNA repair. Here, we found that ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) subunits RRM1 and RRM2 accumulated very rapidly at damage sites. RRM1 bound physically to Tip60. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses of cells with an I-SceI cassette revealed that RRM1 bound to a damage site in a Tip60-dependent manner. Active RRM1 mutants lacking Tip60 binding failed to rescue an impaired DNA repair in RRM1-depleted G1-phase cells. Inhibition of RNR recruitment by an RRM1 C-terminal fragment sensitized cells to DNA damage. We propose that Tip60-dependent recruitment of RNR plays an essential role in dNTP supply for DNA repair.Full Text Article
|Genome-wide analysis of the VDRRXR cistrome in osteoblast cells provides new mechanistic insight into the actions of the vitamin D hormone. |
Meyer MB, Goetsch PD, Pike JW
The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 2010
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates the actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) in target cells and tissues by orchestrating the expression of gene networks responsible for vitamin D-induced phenotypes. The molecular mechanisms of these regulatory systems have been studied for decades under the principle that transcriptional regulation occurs near the transcriptional start site of the gene. However, this now appears to be an outdated view of transcriptional control. In this study, we examined the genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation on microarray (ChIP-chip) across pre-osteoblastic cells for VDR, retinoid X receptor (RXR), RNA polymerase II, and histone H4 acetylation (H4ac). We uncovered potential regulatory mechanisms for genes important to osteoblast biology as well as skeletal formation under the control of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). We found that VDR, along with RXR and H4ac, binds to distal regions 43% of the time; and within gene introns and exons 44%, leaving only 13% of activation at traditional promoter regions. Here, we briefly summarize our findings for all the VDR/RXR cis-acting transcriptional elements (VDR/RXR cistrome) in pre-osteoblastic cells, MC3T3-E1, provide a few examples of this dynamic control by VDR and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), and demonstrate that distal transcriptional control contributes to the majority of vitamin D(3)-mediated transcription. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), but not HDAC2, controls embryonic stem cell differentiation. |
Dovey, Oliver M, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 107: 8242-7 (2010) 2010
Histone deacetylases (HDAC) 1 and 2 are highly similar enzymes that help regulate chromatin structure as the core catalytic components of corepressor complexes. Although tissue-specific deletion of HDAC1 and HDAC2 has demonstrated functional redundancy, germ-line deletion of HDAC1 in the mouse causes early embryonic lethality, whereas HDAC2 does not. To address the unique requirement for HDAC1 in early embryogenesis we have generated conditional knockout embryonic stem (ES) cells in which HDAC1 or HDAC2 genes can be inactivated. Deletion of HDAC1, but not HDAC2, causes a significant reduction in the HDAC activity of Sin3A, NuRD, and CoREST corepressor complexes. This reduced corepressor activity results in a specific 1.6-fold increase in histone H3 K56 acetylation (H3K56Ac), thus providing genetic evidence that H3K56Ac is a substrate of HDAC1. In culture, ES cell proliferation was unaffected by loss of either HDAC1 or HDAC2. Rather, we find that loss of HDAC1 affects ES cell differentiation. ES cells lacking either HDAC1 or HDAC2 were capable of forming embryoid bodies (EBs), which stimulates differentiation into the three primary germ layers. However, HDAC1-deficient EBs were significantly smaller, showed spontaneous rhythmic contraction, and increased expression of both cardiomyocyte and neuronal markers. In summary, our genetic study of HDAC1 and HDAC2 in ES cells, which mimic the embryonic epiblast, has identified a unique requirement for HDAC1 in the optimal activity of HDAC1/2 corepressor complexes and cell fate determination during differentiation.
|Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression via PKC-delta/p42/p44 MAPK/Elk-1 Cascade in Brain Astrocytes. |
HH Wang, HL Hsieh, CY Wu, CM Yang
Neurotoxicity research 17 50-65 2010
After ischemic injury to brain, disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) raises the possibility of exposing the central nervous system (CNS) to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), a risk factor implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially MMP-9, contribute to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling during the CNS diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying oxLDL-induced MMP-9 expression in astrocytes remained unclear. Here, we reported that oxLDL induced MMP-9 expression via a PKC-delta/p42/p44 MAPK-dependent Elk-1 activation in rat brain astrocyte (RBA)-1 cells, revealed by gelatin zymography, RT-PCR, and Western blotting analyses. These responses were attenuated by pretreatment with pharmacological inhibitors and transfection with dominant negative mutants. Moreover, Elk-1-mediated MMP-9 gene transcription was confirmed by transfection with an Elk-1 binding site-mutated MMP-9 promoter construct (mt-Ets-MMP9), which blocked oxLDL-stimulated MMP-9 luciferase activity. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms by which oxLDL induced MMP-9 expression in astrocytes might provide a new therapeutic strategy of brain diseases.
|Maintenance of a constitutive heterochromatin domain in vertebrates by a Dicer-dependent mechanism. |
Giles, KE; Ghirlando, R; Felsenfeld, G
Nature cell biology 12 94-9; sup pp 1-6 2010
The 16 kilobase (kb) heterochromatin domain between the chicken beta-globin locus and the folate receptor gene is used here to study the roles of RNA-dependent mechanisms and histone modifications in the maintenance of a constitutive heterochromatic structure. Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity is shown to both increase intergenic transcription and render the heterochromatin more accessible to MspI digestion. We show that short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated downregulation of the enzyme Dicer has similar effects: histone acetylation is increased, transcript levels rise and the compact chromatin structure becomes more accessible to restriction endonucleases. We also show that the chicken Argonaute 2 homologue binds the 16 kb region in a Dicer-dependent manner and is necessary for a condensed chromatin structure. Heterochromatic domains of this kind, which are widely distributed in vertebrate genomes, thus seem to be maintained in their condensed form by highly conserved mechanisms.
|Asf1 can promote trimethylation of H3 K36 by Set2. |
Lin, LJ; Minard, LV; Johnston, GC; Singer, RA; Schultz, MC
Molecular and cellular biology 30 1116-29 2010
Asf1 is a conserved histone H3/H4 chaperone that can assemble and disassemble nucleosomes and promote histone acetylation. Set2 is an H3 K36 methyltransferase. The functions of these proteins intersect in the context of transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II: both contribute to the establishment of repressive chromatin structures that inhibit spurious intragenic transcription. Here we characterize further interactions between budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Asf1 and Set2 using assays of intragenic transcription, H3/H4 posttranslational modification, coding region cross-linking of Asf1 and Set2, and cooccurrence of Asf1 and Set2 in protein complexes. We find that at some genes Asf1 and Set2 control chromatin metabolism as components of separate pathways. However, the existence of a low-abundance complex containing both proteins suggests that Asf1 and Set2 can more directly collaborate in chromatin regulation. Consistent with this possibility, we show that Asf1 stimulates Set2 occupancy of the coding region of a highly transcribed gene by a mechanism that depends on Asf1 binding to H3/H4. This function of Asf1 promotes the switch from di- to trimethylation of H3 K36 at that gene. These results support the view that Set2 function in chromatin metabolism can intimately involve histone chaperone Asf1.Full Text Article
|Animals lacking link protein have attenuated perineuronal nets and persistent plasticity. |
Carulli D, Pizzorusso T, Kwok JC, Putignano E, Poli A, Forostyak S, Andrews MR, Deepa SS, Glant T, Fawcett JW
Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix restrict plasticity in the adult central nervous system and their digestion with chondroitinase reactivates plasticity. However the structures in the extracellular matrix that restrict plasticity are unknown. There are many changes in the extracellular matrix as critical periods for plasticity close, including changes in chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan core protein levels, changes in glycosaminoglycan sulphation and the appearance of dense chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan-containing perineuronal nets around many neurons. We show that formation of perineuronal nets is triggered by neuronal production of cartilage link protein Crtl1 (Hapln1), which is up-regulated in the visual cortex as perineuronal nets form during development and after dark rearing. Mice lacking Crtl1 have attenuated perineuronal nets, but the overall levels of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans and their pattern of glycan sulphation are unchanged. Crtl1 knockout animals retain juvenile levels of ocular dominance plasticity and their visual acuity remains sensitive to visual deprivation. In the sensory pathway, axons in knockout animals but not controls sprout into the party denervated cuneate nucleus. The organization of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan into perineuronal nets is therefore the key event in the control of central nervous system plasticity by the extracellular matrix.
|Distal regions of the human IFNG locus direct cell type-specific expression. |
Collins, PL; Chang, S; Henderson, M; Soutto, M; Davis, GM; McLoed, AG; Townsend, MJ; Glimcher, LH; Mortlock, DP; Aune, TM
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 185 1492-501 2010
Genes, such as IFNG, which are expressed in multiple cell lineages of the immune system, may employ a common set of regulatory elements to direct transcription in multiple cell types or individual regulatory elements to direct expression in individual cell lineages. By employing a bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic system, we demonstrate that IFNG employs unique regulatory elements to achieve lineage-specific transcriptional control. Specifically, a one 1-kb element 30 kb upstream of IFNG activates transcription in T cells and NKT cells but not in NK cells. This distal regulatory element is a Runx3 binding site in Th1 cells and is needed for RNA polymerase II recruitment to IFNG, but it is not absolutely required for histone acetylation of the IFNG locus. These results support a model whereby IFNG uses cis-regulatory elements with cell type-restricted function.Full Text Article
|Protein kinase Czeta represses the interleukin-6 promoter and impairs tumorigenesis in vivo. |
Galvez, AS; Duran, A; Linares, JF; Pathrose, P; Castilla, EA; Abu-Baker, S; Leitges, M; Diaz-Meco, MT; Moscat, J
Molecular and cellular biology 29 104-15 2009
Gene alterations in tumor cells that confer the ability to grow under nutrient- and mitogen-deficient conditions constitute a competitive advantage that leads to more-aggressive forms of cancer. The atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoform, PKCzeta, has been shown to interact with the signaling adapter p62, which is important for Ras-induced lung carcinogenesis. Here we show that PKCzeta-deficient mice display increased Ras-induced lung carcinogenesis, suggesting a new role for this kinase as a tumor suppressor in vivo. We also show that Ras-transformed PKCzeta-deficient lungs and embryo fibroblasts produced more interleukin-6 (IL-6), which we demonstrate here plays an essential role in the ability of Ras-transformed cells to grow under nutrient-deprived conditions in vitro and in a mouse xenograft system in vivo. We also show that PKCzeta represses histone acetylation at the C/EBPbeta element in the IL-6 promoter. Therefore, PKCzeta, by controlling the production of IL-6, is a critical signaling molecule in tumorigenesis.
|A positive role for Myc in TGFbeta-induced Snail transcription and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. |
Smith, AP; Verrecchia, A; Fagà, G; Doni, M; Perna, D; Martinato, F; Guccione, E; Amati, B
Oncogene 28 422-30 2009
Myc and transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) signaling are mutually antagonistic, that is Myc suppresses the activation of TGFbeta-induced genes, whereas TGFbeta represses c-myc transcription. Here, we report a positive role for Myc in the TGFbeta response, consisting in the induction of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the activation of the EMT-associated gene Snail. Knockdown of either Myc or the TGFbeta effectors SMAD3/4 in epithelial cells eliminated Snail induction by TGFbeta. Both Myc and SMAD complexes targeted the Snail promoter in vivo, DNA binding occurring in a mutually independent manner. Myc was bound prior to TGFbeta treatment, and was required for rapid Snail activation upon SMAD binding induced by TGFbeta. On the other hand, c-myc downregulation by TGFbeta was a slower event, occurring after Snail induction. The response of Snail to another cytokine, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), also depended on Myc and SMAD4. Thus, contrary to their antagonistic effects on Cip1 and INK4b, Myc and SMADs cooperate in signal-dependent activation of Snail in epithelial cells. Although Myc also targeted the Snail promoter in serum-stimulated fibroblasts, it was dispensable for its activation in these conditions, further illustrating that the action of Myc in transcriptional regulation is context-dependent. Our findings suggest that Myc and TGFbeta signaling may cooperate in promoting EMT and metastasis in carcinomas.
|Coactivation of estrogen receptor beta by gonadotropin-induced cofactor GIOT-4. |
Kouzu-Fujita, M; Mezaki, Y; Sawatsubashi, S; Matsumoto, T; Yamaoka, I; Yano, T; Taketani, Y; Kitagawa, H; Kato, S
Molecular and cellular biology 29 83-92 2009
Estrogen exerts its diverse effects through two subtypes of estrogen receptors (ER), ERalpha and ERbeta. Each subtype has its own distinct function and expression pattern in its target tissues. Little, however, is known about the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of ERbeta in the major ERbeta-expressing tissues. Using biochemical methods, we identified and described a novel ERbeta coactivator. This protein, designated GIOT-4, was biochemically purified from 293F cells. It coactivated ERbeta in ovarian granulosa cells. GIOT-4 expression was induced by stimulation with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). GIOT-4 recruited an SWI/SNF-type complex in a ligand-independent manner to ERbeta as an ER subtype-specific physical bridging factor and induced subsequent histone modifications in the ERbeta target gene promoters in a human ovarian granulosa cell line (KGN). Indeed, two ERbeta-specific target genes were upregulated by FSH at a specific stage of a normal ovulatory cycle in intact mice. These findings imply the presence of a novel regulatory convergence between the gonadotropin signaling cascade and ERbeta-mediated transcription in the ovary.
|Pharmacological manipulation of the RAR/RXR signaling pathway maintains the repopulating capacity of hematopoietic stem cells in culture. |
Safi, R; Muramoto, GG; Salter, AB; Meadows, S; Himburg, H; Russell, L; Daher, P; Doan, P; Leibowitz, MD; Chao, NJ; McDonnell, DP; Chute, JP
Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 23 188-201 2009
The retinoid X receptor (RXR) contributes to the regulation of diverse biological pathways via its role as a heterodimeric partner of several nuclear receptors. However, RXR has no established role in the regulation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) fate. In this study, we sought to determine whether direct modulation of RXR signaling could impact human HSC self-renewal or differentiation. Treatment of human CD34(+)CD38(-)lin(-) cells with LG1506, a selective RXR modulator, inhibited the differentiation of HSCs in culture and maintained long-term repopulating HSCs in culture that were otherwise lost in response to cytokine treatment. Further studies revealed that LG1506 had a distinct mechanism of action in that it facilitated the recruitment of corepressors to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR)/RXR complex at target gene promoters, suggesting that this molecule was functioning as an inverse agonist in the context of this heterodimer. Interestingly, using combinatorial peptide phage display, we identified unique surfaces presented on RXR when occupied by LG1506 and demonstrated that other modulators that exhibited these properties functioned similarly at both a mechanistic and biological level. These data indicate that the RAR/RXR heterodimer is a critical regulator of human HSC differentiation, and pharmacological modulation of RXR signaling prevents the loss of human HSCs that otherwise occurs in short-term culture.
|The H3K4 demethylase lid associates with and inhibits histone deacetylase Rpd3. |
Lee, N; Erdjument-Bromage, H; Tempst, P; Jones, RS; Zhang, Y
Molecular and cellular biology 29 1401-10 2009
JmjC domain-containing proteins have been shown to possess histone demethylase activity. One of these proteins is the Drosophila histone H3 lysine 4 demethylase Little imaginal discs (Lid), which has been genetically classified as a Trithorax group protein. However, contrary to the supposed function of Lid in gene activation, the biochemical activity of this protein entails the removal of a histone mark that is correlated with active transcription. To understand the molecular mechanism behind the function of Lid, we have purified a Lid-containing protein complex from Drosophila embryo nuclear extracts. In addition to Lid, the complex contains Rpd3, CG3815/Drosophila Pf1, CG13367, and Mrg15. Rpd3 is a histone deacetylase, and along with Polycomb group proteins, which antagonize the function of Trithorax group proteins, it negatively regulates transcription. By reconstituting the Lid complex, we demonstrated that the demethylase activity of Lid is not affected by its association with other proteins. However, the deacetylase activity of Rpd3 is greatly diminished upon incorporation into the Lid complex. Thus, our finding that Lid antagonizes Rpd3 function provides an explanation for the genetic classification of Lid as a positive transcription regulator.
|BTG3 tumor suppressor gene promoter demethylation, histone modification and cell cycle arrest by genistein in renal cancer. |
Majid, S; Dar, AA; Ahmad, AE; Hirata, H; Kawakami, K; Shahryari, V; Saini, S; Tanaka, Y; Dahiya, AV; Khatri, G; Dahiya, R
Carcinogenesis 30 662-70 2009
BTG3/ANA/APRO4 has been reported to be a tumor suppressor gene in some malignancies. It constitutes important negative regulatory mechanism for Src-mediated signaling, a negative regulator of the cell cycle and inhibits transcription factor E2F1. We report that BTG3 is downregulated in renal cancer and that the mechanism of inactivation is through promoter hypermethylation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that BTG3 was downregulated in cancer tissues and cells. Genistein and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5Aza-C) induced BTG3 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in A498, ACHN and HEK-293 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines. Bisulfite-modified PCR and DNA sequencing results showed complete methylation of BTG3 promoter in tumor samples and cancer cell lines. Genistein and 5Aza-C treatment significantly decreased promoter methylation, reactivating BTG3 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that genistein and 5Aza-C increased levels of acetylated histones 3, 4, 2H3K4, 3H3K4 and RNA polymerase II at the BTG3 promoter indicative of active histone modifications. Enzymatic assays showed genistein and 5Aza-C decreased DNA Methyltransferase, methyl-CpG-binding domain 2 activity and increased HAT activity. Cell cycle and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide cell proliferation assays showed that genistein has antiproliferative effect on cancer cell growth through induction of cell cycle arrest. This is the first report to show that BTG3 is epigenetically silenced in RCC and can be reactivated by genistein-induced promoter demethylation and active histone modification. Genistein had similar effects to that of 5Aza-C, which is a potent demethylating agent with high toxicity and instability. Genistein being a natural, non-toxic, dietary isoflavone is effective in retarding the growth of RCC cells, making it a promising candidate for epigenetic therapy in renal carcinoma.
|A histone map of human chromosome 20q13.12. |
Akan, P; Sahlén, M; Deloukas, P
PloS one 4 e4479 2009
We present a systematic search for regulatory elements in a 3.5 Mb region on human chromosome 20q13.12, a region associated with a number of medical conditions such as type II diabetes and obesity.We profiled six histone modifications alongside RNA polymerase II (PolII) and CTCF in two cell lines, HeLa S3 and NTERA-2 clone D1 (NT2/D1), by chromatin immunoprecipitation using an in-house spotted DNA array, constructed with 1.8 kb overlapping plasmid clones. In both cells, more than 90% of transcription start sites (TSSs) of expressed genes showed enrichments with PolII, di-methylated lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me2), tri-methylated lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me3) or acetylated H3 (H3Ac), whereas mono-methylated lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me1) signals did not correlate with expression. No TSSs were enriched with tri-methylated lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) in HeLa S3, while eight TSSs (4 expressed) showed enrichments in NT2/D1. We have also located several CTCF binding sites that are potential insulator elements.In summary, we annotated a number of putative regulatory elements in 20q13.12 and went on to verify experimentally a subset of them using dual luciferase reporter assays. Correlating this data to sequence variation can aid identification of disease causing variants.
|Inter-MAR association contributes to transcriptionally active looping events in human beta-globin gene cluster. |
Wang, L; Di, LJ; Lv, X; Zheng, W; Xue, Z; Guo, ZC; Liu, DP; Liang, CC
PloS one 4 e4629 2009
Matrix attachment regions (MARs) are important in chromatin organization and gene regulation. Although it is known that there are a number of MAR elements in the beta-globin gene cluster, it is unclear that how these MAR elements are involved in regulating beta-globin genes expression. Here, we report the identification of a new MAR element at the LCR (locus control region) of human beta-globin gene cluster and the detection of the inter-MAR association within the beta-globin gene cluster. Also, we demonstrate that SATB1, a protein factor that has been implicated in the formation of network like higher order chromatin structures at some gene loci, takes part in beta-globin specific inter-MAR association through binding the specific MARs. Knocking down of SATB1 obviously reduces the binding of SATB1 to the MARs and diminishes the frequency of the inter-MAR association. As a result, the ACH establishment and the alpha-like globin genes and beta-like globin genes expressions are affected either. In summary, our results suggest that SATB1 is a regulatory factor of hemoglobin genes, especially the early differentiation genes at least through affecting the higher order chromatin structure.
|Neuronal cell depolarization induces intragenic chromatin modifications affecting NCAM alternative splicing. |
Schor, IE; Rascovan, N; Pelisch, F; Alló, M; Kornblihtt, AR
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 4325-30 2009
In search for physiological pathways affecting alternative splicing through its kinetic coupling with transcription, we found that membrane depolarization of neuronal cells triggers the skipping of exon 18 from the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) mRNA, independently of the calcium/calmodulin protein kinase IV pathway. We show that this exon responds to RNA polymerase II elongation, because its inclusion is increased by a slow polymerase II mutant. Depolarization affects the chromatin template in a specific way, by causing H3K9 hyper-acetylation restricted to an internal region of the NCAM gene surrounding the alternative exon. This intragenic histone hyper-acetylation is not paralleled by acetylation at the promoter, is associated with chromatin relaxation, and is linked to H3K36 tri-methylation. The effects on acetylation and splicing fully revert when the depolarizing conditions are withdrawn and can be both duplicated and potentiated by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. Our results are consistent with a mechanism involving the kinetic coupling of splicing and transcription in response to depolarization through intragenic epigenetic changes on a gene that is relevant for the differentiation and function of neuronal cells.
|Adenovirus transforming protein E1A induces c-Myc in quiescent cells by a novel mechanism. |
Kadeppagari, RK; Sankar, N; Thimmapaya, B
Journal of virology 83 4810-22 2009
Previously we showed that the E1A binding proteins p300 and CBP negatively regulate c-Myc in quiescent cells and that binding of E1A to p300 results in the induction of c-Myc and thereby induction of S phase. We demonstrated that p300 and HDAC3 cooperate with the transcription factor YY1 at an upstream YY1 binding site and repress the Myc promoter. Here we show that the small E1A protein induces c-Myc by interfering with the protein-protein interaction between p300, YY1, and HDAC3. Wild-type E1A but not the E1A mutants that do not bind to p300 interfered in recruitment of YY1, p300, and HDAC3 to the YY1 binding site. As E1A started to accumulate after infection, it transiently associated with promoter-bound p300. Subsequently, YY1, p300, and HDAC3 began to dissociate from the promoter. Later in infection, E1A dissociated from the promoter as well as p300, YY1, and HDAC3. Removal of HDAC3 from the promoter correlated with increased acetylation of Myc chromatin and induction. In vivo E1A stably associated with p300 and dissociated YY1 and HDAC3 from the trimolecular complex. In vitro protein-protein interaction studies indicated that E1A initially binds to the p300-YY1-HDAC3 complex, briefly associates with it, and then dissociates the complex, recapitulating somewhat the in vivo situation. Thus, E1A binding to the C-terminal region of p300 disrupts the important corepressor function provided by p300 in repressing c-Myc. Our results reveal a novel mechanism by which a viral oncoprotein activates c-Myc in quiescent cells and raise the possibility that the oncoproteins encoded by the small-DNA tumor viruses may use this mechanism to induce c-Myc, which may be critical for cell transformation.
|Extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling initiates a dynamic interplay between sumoylation and ubiquitination to regulate the activity of the transcriptional activator PEA3. |
Guo, B; Sharrocks, AD
Molecular and cellular biology 29 3204-18 2009
Many transcription factors are controlled through SUMO modification, and in the majority of cases this modification results in enhancements in their repressive properties. In some instances, SUMO modification and its associated repressive activities can be reversed by the action of intracellular signaling pathways, leading to enhanced transcriptional capacities of transcription factors. Here we have investigated sumoylation of the ETS domain transcription factor PEA3 and its interplay with the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway. PEA3 is modified by SUMO in vitro and in vivo on multiple sites in its N-terminal region. Activation of the ERK MAP kinase pathway promotes sumoylation of PEA3. Importantly, sumoylation of PEA3 is required for maximal activation of target gene promoters, including MMP-1 and COX-2. Molecularly, sumoylation is selectively required for synergistic activation of target gene expression with the coactivator CBP. Moreover, sumoylation of PEA3 is required for ubiquitination of PEA3 and promotes its degradation, suggesting that SUMO-mediated recycling of PEA3 plays a role in PEA3-mediated promoter activation. Thus, in contrast to the majority of other transcription factors studied, sumoylation of PEA3 plays a positive role in PEA3-mediated transcriptional activation and the ERK MAP kinase pathway cooperates with rather than antagonizes this process.
|Gene-specific transcriptional activation mediated by the p150 subunit of the chromatin assembly factor 1. |
Lee, SB; Ou, DS; Lee, CF; Juan, LJ
The Journal of biological chemistry 284 14040-9 2009
Chromatin assembly factor 1 contains three subunits, p150, p60, and p48. It is essential for coupling nucleosome assembly to newly synthesized DNA. Whether chromatin assembly factor 1 subunits have functions beyond escorting histones, which depends on the complex formation of p150 and p60, has been an issue of great interest. This study reveals a novel role of p150, but not p60, in gene-specific transcriptional activation. We found that p150 transcriptionally activated an essential viral promoter, the major immediate early promoter (MIEP) of the human cytomegalovirus, independently of p60. Knocking down p150 decreased the MIEP function in both transfected and virally infected cells. The chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis and the in vitro protein-DNA binding assay demonstrated that p150 used its KER domain to associate with the MIEP from -593 to -574 bp. The N-terminal 244 residues were also found essential for p150-mediated MIEP activation, likely through recruiting the acetyltransferase p300 to acetylate local histones. Domain swapping experiments further showed that the KER and the N terminus of p150 acted as an independent DNA binding and transcriptional activation domain, respectively. Because p60 did not seem involved in the reaction, together these results indicate for the first time that p150 directly activates transcription, independently of its histone deposition function.Full Text Article
|Remodeling of chromatin structure within the promoter is important for bmp-2-induced fgfr3 expression. |
Sun, F; Chen, Q; Yang, S; Pan, Q; Ma, J; Wan, Y; Chang, CH; Hong, A
Nucleic acids research 37 3897-911 2009
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) plays an important role in cartilage development. Although upregulation of FGFR3 expression in response to bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) has been reported, the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we used in vivo approaches to characterize BMP-2-induced alterations in the chromatin organization of the FGFR3 core promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that the binding of Brg1, a component of the SWI/SNF remodeling complex, may selectively remodel a chromatin region (encompassing nucleotide -90 to +35), uncovering the transcription start site and three Sp1-binding sites, as revealed by nuclease digestion hypersensitivity assays. We then showed an increase in the association of Sp1 with the proximal promoter, followed by the recruitment of p300, resulting in a change of the histone 'code', such as in phosphorylation and methylation. Collectively, our study results suggest a model for BMP-2-induced FGFR3 expression in which the core promoter architecture is specifically regulated.Full Text Article
|HDAC2 negatively regulates memory formation and synaptic plasticity. |
Guan, JS; Haggarty, SJ; Giacometti, E; Dannenberg, JH; Joseph, N; Gao, J; Nieland, TJ; Zhou, Y; Wang, X; Mazitschek, R; Bradner, JE; DePinho, RA; Jaenisch, R; Tsai, LH
Nature 459 55-60 2009
Chromatin modifications, especially histone-tail acetylation, have been implicated in memory formation. Increased histone-tail acetylation induced by inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACis) facilitates learning and memory in wild-type mice as well as in mouse models of neurodegeneration. Harnessing the therapeutic potential of HDACis requires knowledge of the specific HDAC family member(s) linked to cognitive enhancement. Here we show that neuron-specific overexpression of HDAC2, but not that of HDAC1, decreased dendritic spine density, synapse number, synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Conversely, Hdac2 deficiency resulted in increased synapse number and memory facilitation, similar to chronic treatment with HDACis in mice. Notably, reduced synapse number and learning impairment of HDAC2-overexpressing mice were ameliorated by chronic treatment with HDACis. Correspondingly, treatment with HDACis failed to further facilitate memory formation in Hdac2-deficient mice. Furthermore, analysis of promoter occupancy revealed an association of HDAC2 with the promoters of genes implicated in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Taken together, our results suggest that HDAC2 functions in modulating synaptic plasticity and long-lasting changes of neural circuits, which in turn negatively regulates learning and memory. These observations encourage the development and testing of HDAC2-selective inhibitors for human diseases associated with memory impairment.
|The histone deacetylase Rpd3p is required for transient changes in genomic expression in response to stress. |
Alejandro-Osorio, AL; Huebert, DJ; Porcaro, DT; Sonntag, ME; Nillasithanukroh, S; Will, JL; Gasch, AP
Genome biology 10 R57 2009
Yeast responding to stress activate a large gene expression program called the Environmental Stress Response that consists of approximately 600 repressed genes and approximately 300 induced genes. Numerous factors are implicated in regulating subsets of Environmental Stress Response genes; however, a complete picture of Environmental Stress Response regulation remains unclear. We investigated the role of the histone deacetylase Rpd3p, previously linked to the upstream regions of many Environmental Stress Response genes, in producing Environmental Stress Response gene expression changes in response to stress.We found that the Rpd3-Large complex is required for proper expression of both induced and repressed Environmental Stress Response genes under multiple stress conditions. Cells lacking RPD3 or the Rpd3-Large subunit PHO23 had a major defect in Environmental Stress Response initiation, particularly during the transient phase of expression immediately after stress exposure. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation showed a direct role for Rpd3-Large at representative genes; however, there were different effects on nucleosome occupancy and histone deacetylation at different promoters. Computational analysis implicated regulators that may act with Rpd3p at Environmental Stress Response genes. We provide genetic and biochemical evidence that Rpd3p is required for binding and action of the stress-activated transcription factor Msn2p, although the contribution of these factors differs for different genes.Our results implicate Rpd3p as an important co-factor in the Environmental Stress Response regulatory network, and suggest the importance of histone modification in producing transient changes in gene expression triggered by stress.
|DNA methylation-histone modification relationships across the desmin locus in human primary cells. |
Lindahl Allen, M; Koch, CM; Clelland, GK; Dunham, I; Antoniou, M
BMC molecular biology 10 51 2009
We present here an extensive epigenetic analysis of a 500 kb region, which encompasses the human desmin gene (DES) and its 5' locus control region (LCR), the only muscle-specific transcriptional regulatory element of this type described to date. These data complement and extend Encyclopaedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) studies on region ENr133. We analysed histone modifications and underlying DNA methylation patterns in physiologically relevant DES expressing (myoblast/myotube) and non-expressing (peripheral blood mononuclear) primary human cells.We found that in expressing myoblast/myotube but not peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures, histone H4 acetylation displays a broadly distributed enrichment across a gene rich 200 kb region whereas H3 acetylation localizes at the transcriptional start site (TSS) of genes. We show that the DES LCR and TSS of DES are enriched with hyperacetylated domains of acetylated histone H3, with H3 lysine 4 di- and tri-methylation (H3K4me2 and me3) exhibiting a different distribution pattern across this locus. The CpG island that extends into the first intron of DES is methylation-free regardless of the gene's expression status and in non-expressing PBMCs is marked with histone H3 lysine 27 tri-methylation (H3K27me3).Overall, our results constitute the first study correlating patterns of histone modifications and underlying DNA methylation of a muscle-specific LCR and its associated downstream gene region whilst additionally placing this within a much broader genomic context. Our results clearly show that there are distinct patterns of histone H3 and H4 acetylation and H3 methylation at the DES LCR, promoter and intragenic region. In addition, the presence of H3K27me3 at the DES methylation-free CpG only in non-expressing PBMCs may serve to silence this gene in non-muscle tissues. Generally, our work demonstrates the importance of using multiple, physiologically relevant tissue types that represent different expressing/non-expressing states when investigating epigenetic marks and that underlying DNA methylation status should be correlated with histone modification patterns when studying chromatin structure.Full Text Article
|Roles of PU.1 in monocyte- and mast cell-specific gene regulation: PU.1 transactivates CIITA pIV in cooperation with IFN-gamma. |
Ito, T; Nishiyama, C; Nakano, N; Nishiyama, M; Usui, Y; Takeda, K; Kanada, S; Fukuyama, K; Akiba, H; Tokura, T; Hara, M; Tsuboi, R; Ogawa, H; Okumura, K
International immunology 21 803-16 2009
Over-expression of PU.1, a myeloid- and lymphoid-specific transcription factor belonging to the Ets family, induces monocyte-specific gene expression in mast cells. However, the effects of PU.1 on each target gene and the involvement of cytokine signaling in PU.1-mediated gene expression are largely unknown. In the present study, PU.1 was over-expressed in two different types of bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMMCs): BMMCs cultured with IL-3 plus stem cell factor (SCF) and BMMCs cultured with pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen-conditioned medium (PWM-SCM). PU.1 over-expression induced expression of MHC class II, CD11b, CD11c and F4/80 on PWM-SCM-cultured BMMCs, whereas IL-3/SCF-cultured BMMCs expressed CD11b and F4/80, but not MHC class II or CD11c. When IFN-gamma was added to the IL-3/SCF-based medium, PU.1 transfectant acquired MHC class II expression, which was abolished by antibody neutralization or in Ifngr(-/-) BMMCs, through the induction of expression of the MHC class II transactivator, CIITA. Real-time PCR detected CIITA mRNA driven by the fourth promoter, pIV, and chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated direct binding of PU.1 to pIV in PU.1-over-expressing BMMCs. PU.1-over-expressing cells showed a marked increase in IL-6 production in response to LPS stimulation in both IL-3/SCF and PWM-SCM cultures. These results suggest that PU.1 overproduction alone is sufficient for both expression of CD11b and F4/80 and for amplification of LPS-induced IL-6 production. However, IFN-gamma stimulation is essential for PU.1-mediated transactivation of CIITA pIV. Reduced expression of mast cell-related molecules and transcription factors GATA-1/2 and up-regulation of C/EBPalpha in PU.1 transfectants indicate that enforced PU.1 suppresses mast cell-specific gene expression through these transcription factors.
|Host cell detection of noncoding stuffer DNA contained in helper-dependent adenovirus vectors leads to epigenetic repression of transgene expression. |
Ross, PJ; Kennedy, MA; Parks, RJ
Journal of virology 83 8409-17 2009
Helper-dependent adenovirus (hdAd) vectors have shown great promise as therapeutic gene delivery vehicles in gene therapy applications. However, the level and duration of gene expression from hdAd can differ considerably depending on the nature of the noncoding stuffer DNA contained within the vector. For example, an hdAd containing 22 kb of prokaryotic DNA (hdAd-prok) expresses its transgene 60-fold less efficiently than a similar vector containing eukaryotic DNA (hdAd-euk). Here we have determined the mechanistic basis of this phenomenon. Although neither vector was subjected to CpG methylation and both genomes associated with cellular histones to similar degrees, hdAd-prok chromatin was actively deacetylated. Insertion of an insulator element between the transgene and the bacterial DNA derepressed hdAd-prok, suggesting that foreign DNA nucleates repressive chromatin structures that spread to the transgene. We found that Sp100B/Sp100HMG and Daxx play a role in repressing transgene expression from hdAd and act independently of PML bodies. Thus, we have identified nuclear factors involved in recognizing foreign DNA and have determined the mechanism by which associated genes are repressed.
|Epstein-barr virus latency in B cells leads to epigenetic repression and CpG methylation of the tumour suppressor gene Bim. |
Paschos, K; Smith, P; Anderton, E; Middeldorp, JM; White, RE; Allday, MJ
PLoS pathogens 5 e1000492 2009
In human B cells infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), latency-associated virus gene products inhibit expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family member Bim and enhance cell survival. This involves the activities of the EBV nuclear proteins EBNA3A and EBNA3C and appears to be predominantly directed at regulating Bim mRNA synthesis, although post-transcriptional regulation of Bim has been reported. Here we show that protein and RNA stability make little or no contribution to the EBV-associated repression of Bim in latently infected B cells. However, treatment of cells with inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) enzymes indicated that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the down-regulation of Bim. This was initially confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of histone acetylation levels on the Bim promoter. Consistent with this, methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and bisulphite sequencing of regions within the large CpG island located at the 5' end of Bim revealed significant methylation of CpG dinucleotides in all EBV-positive, but not EBV-negative B cells examined. Genomic DNA samples exhibiting methylation of the Bim promoter included extracts from a series of explanted EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) biopsies. Subsequent analyses of the histone modification H3K27-Me3 (trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27) and CpG methylation at loci throughout the Bim promoter suggest that in EBV-positive B cells repression of Bim is initially associated with this repressive epigenetic histone mark gradually followed by DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotides. We conclude that latent EBV initiates a chain of events that leads to epigenetic repression of the tumour suppressor gene Bim in infected B cells and their progeny. This reprogramming of B cells could have important implications for our understanding of EBV persistence and the pathogenesis of EBV-associated disease, in particular BL.
|Pre-TCR signaling inactivates Notch1 transcription by antagonizing E2A. |
Yashiro-Ohtani, Y; He, Y; Ohtani, T; Jones, ME; Shestova, O; Xu, L; Fang, TC; Chiang, MY; Intlekofer, AM; Blacklow, SC; Zhuang, Y; Pear, WS
Genes & development 23 1665-76 2009
Precise control of the timing and magnitude of Notch signaling is essential for the normal development of many tissues, but the feedback loops that regulate Notch are poorly understood. Developing T cells provide an excellent context to address this issue. Notch1 signals initiate T-cell development and increase in intensity during maturation of early T-cell progenitors (ETP) to the DN3 stage. As DN3 cells undergo beta-selection, during which cells expressing functionally rearranged TCRbeta proliferate and differentiate into CD4(+)CD8(+) progeny, Notch1 signaling is abruptly down-regulated. In this report, we investigate the mechanisms that control Notch1 expression during thymopoiesis. We show that Notch1 and E2A directly regulate Notch1 transcription in pre-beta-selected thymocytes. Following successful beta-selection, pre-TCR signaling rapidly inhibits Notch1 transcription via signals that up-regulate Id3, an E2A inhibitor. Consistent with a regulatory role for Id3 in Notch1 down-regulation, post-beta-selected Id3-deficient thymocytes maintain Notch1 transcription, whereas enforced Id3 expression decreases Notch1 expression and abrogates Notch1-dependent T-cell survival. These data provide new insights into Notch1 regulation in T-cell progenitors and reveal a direct link between pre-TCR signaling and Notch1 expression during thymocyte development. Our findings also suggest new strategies for inhibiting Notch1 signaling in pathologic conditions.
|Functional significance of secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 in metastatic renal cell carcinomas. |
Saini, S; Liu, J; Yamamura, S; Majid, S; Kawakami, K; Hirata, H; Dahiya, R
Cancer research 69 6815-22 2009
The secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) is a Wingless-type (Wnt) antagonist that has been associated with various malignancies, including renal cell carcinomas (RCC). However, the functional significance of SFRP1 has never been investigated in metastatic RCC. Here, we investigated the role of this molecule in kidney cancer progression and metastasis. Using Wnt pathway-focused cDNA expression profiling in normal renal, primary RCC, and metastatic RCC cell lines, we identified that SFRP1 is up-regulated in metastatic RCC. SFRP1 overexpression in metastatic RCC was confirmed by immunostaining in renal tissues. We explored the molecular mechanisms underlying SFRP1 up-regulation by analyzing DNA methylation and histone modification patterns on SFRP1 promoter. We found that this gene is unmethylated/hypomethylated and enriched in activating histone modifications in metastatic RCC. To understand the functional significance of SFRP1 overexpression in metastatic RCC with regard to tumorigenesis, we used a small interfering RNA-mediated approach to knockdown the gene and monitored cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and metastatic behavior. Proliferation was unaltered and apoptosis increased on attenuation of SFRP1 expression. Also, SFRP1 depletion decreased the invasive potential of the metastatic RCC cell line, suggesting that the overexpression of this Wnt antagonist may be related to invasiveness and metastatic behavior in RCC. We investigated the molecular basis of the role of SFRP1 in invasion and metastasis and found that matrix metalloproteinase MMP10 is regulated by SFRP1. In conclusion, our data suggest that SFRP1 plays a role in the metastatic potential of RCC. The present findings may be important in the design of treatment modalities for metastatic RCC.
|Regulation of oleosin expression in developing peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) embryos through nucleosome loss and histone modifications. |
Li, C; Wu, K; Fu, G; Li, Y; Zhong, Y; Lin, X; Zhou, Y; Tian, L; Huang, S
Journal of experimental botany 60 4371-82 2009
Nucleosome loss and histone modifications are important mechanisms for transcriptional regulation. Concomitant changes in chromatin structures of two peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) oleosin genes, AhOleo17.8 and AhOleo18.5, were examined in relation to transcriptional activity. Spatial and temporal expression analyses showed that both AhOleo17.8 and AhOleo18.5 promoters can adopt three conformational states, an inactive state (in vegetative tissues), a basal activated state (in early maturation embryos), and a fully activated state (in late maturation embryos). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed an increase of histone H3 acetylation levels at the proximal promoters and coding regions of AhOleo17.8 and AhOleo18.5 associated with basal transcription in early maturation embryos. Meanwhile, a decrease of histone H3K9 dimethylation levels at coding regions of oleosins was observed in early maturation embryos. However, a dramatic decrease in the histone acetylation signal was observed at the core promoters and the coding regions of the two oleosins in the fully activated condition in late maturation embryos. Although a small decrease of histone H3 levels of oleosins chromatin was detected in early maturation embryos, a significant loss of histone H3 levels occurred in late maturation embryos. These analyses indicate that the histone eviction from the proximal promoters and coding regions is associated with the high expression of oleosin genes during late embryos maturation. Moreover, the basal expression of oleosins in early maturation embryos is accompanied by the increase of histone H3 acetylation and decrease of histone H3K9me2.
|Phenylbutyrate induces antimicrobial peptide expression. |
Steinmann, J; Halldórsson, S; Agerberth, B; Gudmundsson, GH
Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 53 5127-33 2009
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of our first line of defense. Induction of AMPs such as LL-37 of the cathelicidin family might provide a novel approach in treating bacterial infections. In this study we identified 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) as a novel inducer of AMP expression and investigated affected regulatory pathways. We treated various cell lines with PBA and assessed mRNA expression by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Cathelicidin AMP (CAMP) gene expression was found to be upregulated in all four cell lines tested. Additionally, we found that the beta-defensin 1 gene was upregulated in the lung epithelial cell line VA10 while being downregulated in the monocytic cell line U937. Further we found that PBA induced CAMP gene expression synergistically with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) at both protein and mRNA levels. The general mechanism of induction of CAMP gene expression by PBA was found to be dependent on protein synthesis. Results from quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments challenge the common view that histone deacetylase inhibitors directly increase CAMP gene expression. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinases MEK1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase attenuate PBA-induced CAMP gene expression. Similarly, alpha-methylhydrocinnamate (ST7), an analogue of PBA, increases CAMP gene expression. Our findings contribute to understanding of the regulation of AMP expression and suggest that PBA and/or ST7 is a promising drug candidate for treatment of microbial infections by strengthening the epithelial antimicrobial barriers.
|Heat-shock factor 1 controls genome-wide acetylation in heat-shocked cells. |
Fritah, S; Col, E; Boyault, C; Govin, J; Sadoul, K; Chiocca, S; Christians, E; Khochbin, S; Jolly, C; Vourc'h, C
Molecular biology of the cell 20 4976-84 2009
A major regulatory function has been evidenced here for HSF1, the key transcription factor of the heat-shock response, in a large-scale remodeling of the cell epigenome. Indeed, upon heat shock, HSF1, in addition to its well-known transactivating activities, mediates a genome-wide and massive histone deacetylation. Investigating the underlying mechanisms, we show that HSF1 specifically associates with and uses HDAC1 and HDAC2 to trigger this heat-shock-dependent histone deacetylation. This work therefore identifies HSF1 as a master regulator of global chromatin acetylation and reveals a cross-talk between HSF1 and histone deacetylases in the general control of genome organization in response to heat shock.Full Text Article
|Epigenetic and conventional regulation is distributed among activators of FLO11 allowing tuning of population-level heterogeneity in its expression. |
Octavio, LM; Gedeon, K; Maheshri, N
PLoS genetics 5 e1000673 2009
Epigenetic switches encode their state information either locally, often via covalent modification of DNA or histones, or globally, usually in the level of a trans-regulatory factor. Here we examine how the regulation of cis-encoded epigenetic switches controls the extent of heterogeneity in gene expression, which is ultimately tied to phenotypic diversity in a population. We show that two copies of the FLO11 locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae switch between a silenced and competent promoter state in a random and independent fashion, implying that the molecular event leading to the transition occurs locally at the promoter, in cis. We further quantify the effect of trans regulators both on the slow epigenetic transitions between a silenced and competent promoter state and on the fast promoter transitions associated with conventional regulation of FLO11. We find different classes of regulators affect epigenetic, conventional, or both forms of regulation. Distributing kinetic control of epigenetic silencing and conventional gene activation offers cells flexibility in shaping the distribution of gene expression and phenotype within a population.
|Adventitious changes in long-range gene expression caused by polymorphic structural variation and promoter competition. |
Lower, KM; Hughes, JR; De Gobbi, M; Henderson, S; Viprakasit, V; Fisher, C; Goriely, A; Ayyub, H; Sloane-Stanley, J; Vernimmen, D; Langford, C; Garrick, D; Gibbons, RJ; Higgs, DR
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 21771-6 2009
It is well established that all of the cis-acting sequences required for fully regulated human alpha-globin expression are contained within a region of approximately 120 kb of conserved synteny. Here, we show that activation of this cluster in erythroid cells dramatically affects expression of apparently unrelated and noncontiguous genes in the 500 kb surrounding this domain, including a gene (NME4) located 300 kb from the alpha-globin cluster. Changes in NME4 expression are mediated by physical cis-interactions between this gene and the alpha-globin regulatory elements. Polymorphic structural variation within the globin cluster, altering the number of alpha-globin genes, affects the pattern of NME4 expression by altering the competition for the shared alpha-globin regulatory elements. These findings challenge the concept that the genome is organized into discrete, insulated regulatory domains. In addition, this work has important implications for our understanding of genome evolution, the interpretation of genome-wide expression, expression-quantitative trait loci, and copy number variant analyses.
|Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4-independent synthesis of coagulation factor VII in breast cancer cells and its inhibition by targeting selective histone acetyltransferases. |
Koizume, S; Yokota, N; Miyagi, E; Hirahara, F; Nakamura, Y; Sakuma, Y; Yoshida, A; Kameda, Y; Tsuchiya, E; Ruf, W; Miyagi, Y
Molecular cancer research : MCR 7 1928-36 2009
Tissue factor/coagulation factor VII (fVII) complex formation on the surface of cancer cells plays important roles in cancer biology, such as cell migration and invasion, angiogenesis, and antiapoptotic effects. We recently found that various cancer cells ectopically synthesize fVII, resulting in activation of cell motility and invasion. Here, we characterized mechanisms of hepatic and ectopic fVII (FVII) gene expression to identify molecular targets enabling selective inhibition of the ectopic expression. Unlike hepatic expression, hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 binding to the promoter is not required for ectopic FVII expression, although Sp1 binding is essential. Furthermore, we found novel nuclear targets of basal hepatocytic and ectopic FVII expression. Notably, histone acetyltransferases p300 and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein-binding protein (CBP) are exclusively recruited to the promoter region of the FVII gene specifically in breast cancer cells. We further show that curcumin, a dietary compound, can selectively inhibit ectopic fVII expression by targeting p300/CBP activity. These results suggest a strategy to inhibit ectopic fVII-induced tumor progression without impairment of the physiologic hemostatic process.
|Dual agarose magnetic (DAM) ChIP. |
Balakrishnan, L; Milavetz, B
BMC research notes 2 250 2009
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) has become a very popular technique to study epigenetic regulation because it can be used to identify proteins and protein modifications present at specific locations in chromatin. While techniques have been developed to investigate epigenetic modifications present in chromatin during a specific biological function such as transcription, they depend upon the ability of the ChIP to analyze two epitopes on the same chromatin and are generally time consuming, difficult to perform, and not very sensitive. The Dual Agarose Magnetic (DAM) ChIP procedure described here is designed to address these shortcomings.Protein A agarose and protein G magnetic beads bound with different IgGs have been combined in a single Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay to analyze for the presence of two epitopes on the same chromatin at the same time. This procedure has been used with non-immune rabbit IgG bound to either the agarose or beads in order to include an internal negative control for non-specific binding of chromatin. The procedure has also been used with various antibodies including those targeting RNA Polymerase II and replication protein A 70 to determine whether specific forms of modified histones are present in either transcribing or replicating forms of SV40 minichromosomes respectively.The DAM ChIP procedure is a rapid, simple, and sensitive technique to characterize two epitopes located in the same chromatin. It should be particularly useful for the rapid screening of epigenetic modifications present in biologically active chromatin.
|Multiple chromatin-bound protein kinases assemble factors that regulate insulin gene transcription. |
Lawrence, MC; Shao, C; McGlynn, K; Naziruddin, B; Levy, MF; Cobb, MH
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 22181-6 2009
During the onset of diabetes, pancreatic beta cells become unable to produce sufficient insulin to maintain blood glucose within the normal range. Proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in impaired beta cell function. To understand more about the molecular events that reduce insulin gene transcription, we examined the effects of hyperglycemia alone and together with the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) on signal transduction pathways that regulate insulin gene transcription. Exposure to IL-1beta in fasting glucose activated multiple protein kinases that associate with the insulin gene promoter and transiently increased insulin gene transcription in beta cells. In contrast, cells exposed to hyperglycemic conditions were sensitized to the inhibitory actions of IL-1beta. Under these conditions, IL-1beta caused the association of the same protein kinases, but a different combination of transcription factors with the insulin gene promoter and began to reduce transcription within 2 h; stimulatory factors were lost, RNA polymerase II was lost, and inhibitory factors were bound to the promoter in a kinase-dependent manner.
|Epigenetic analysis of the critical region I for premature ovarian failure: demonstration of a highly heterochromatic domain on the long arm of the mammalian X chromosome. |
Rizzolio, F; Pramparo, T; Sala, C; Zuffardi, O; De Santis, L; Rabellotti, E; Calzi, F; Fusi, F; Bellazzi, R; Toniolo, D
Journal of medical genetics 46 585-92 2009
X chromosome rearrangements defined a critical region for premature ovarian failure (POF) that extended for greater than 15 Mb in Xq. It has been shown previously that the region could be divided into two functionally distinct portions and suggested that balanced translocations interrupting its proximal part, critical region 1 (CR1), could be responsible for POF through downregulation of ovary expressed autosomal genes translocated to the X chromosome.This study reports that such position effect can indeed be demonstrated by analysis of breakpoint regions in somatic cells of POF patients and by the finding that CR1 has a highly heterochromatic organisation, very different from that of the euchromatic autosomal regions involved in the rearrangements. The chromatin organisation of the POF CR1 is likely to be responsible for the epigenetic modifications observed in POF patients. The characteristics of CR1 and its downregulation in oocytes may very well explain its role in POF and the frequency of the POF phenotype in chromosomal rearrangements involving Xq. This study also demonstrates a large and evolutionary conserved domain of the long arm of the X chromosome, largely corresponding to CR1, that may have structural or functional roles, in oocyte maturation or in X chromosome inactivation.
|Analysis of intergenic transcription and histone modification across the human immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus. |
Chowdhury, M; Forouhi, O; Dayal, S; McCloskey, N; Gould, HJ; Felsenfeld, G; Fear, DJ
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 15872-7 2008
Ig class switch recombination (CSR) is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mediated deamination of the switch (S) regions; the resultant mismatch is processed to yield the DNA breaks required for recombination. Whereas many of the pathways involved in the mechanism of recombination have been identified, little is known about how CSR is regulated. AID action is known to require transcription of the Ig heavy-chain genes. However, it is not understood how AID is restricted to the Ig genes. Many aspects of gene expression are known to be regulated by modification of chromatin structure. In turn, chromatin is known to be regulated by several RNA-dependent activities. We have mapped the transcriptional and chromatin landscape of the human Ig heavy-chain locus to investigate the effect these activities have on CSR. We demonstrate that the Ig heavy-chain constant genes and 3'-regulatory regions are in an active chromatin conformation in unstimulated total human B cells: the locus undergoes both genic and intergenic transcription and possesses histone modifications associated with "active" chromatin (acetylated H3 and H4 and lysine 4 trimethylated H3). However, on cytokine stimulation, these modifications spread into the S regions, demonstrating a chromatin remodeling activity associated with switching. Surprisingly, after stimulation, the S regions also accumulate lysine 9 trimethylated H3, a modification previously associated with gene silencing. These data demonstrates that the Ig locus is maintained with a complex pattern of both positive and negative histone marks and suggest that some of these marks may have dual functions.
|The ubiquitin-proteasome system is necessary for long-term synaptic depression in Aplysia. |
Fioravante, D; Liu, RY; Byrne, JH
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 10245-56 2008
The neuropeptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH(2) (FMRFa) can induce transcription-dependent long-term synaptic depression (LTD) in Aplysia sensorimotor synapses. We investigated the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the regulation of one of its components, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (ap-uch), in LTD. LTD was sensitive to presynaptic inhibition of the proteasome and was associated with upregulation of ap-uch mRNA and protein. This upregulation appeared to be mediated by CREB2, which is generally regarded as a transcription repressor. Binding of CREB2 to the promoter region of ap-uch was accompanied by histone hyperacetylation, suggesting that CREB2 cannot only inhibit but also promote gene expression. CREB2 was phosphorylated after FMRFa, and blocking phospho-CREB2 blocked LTD. In addition to changes in the expression of ap-uch, the synaptic vesicle-associated protein synapsin was downregulated in LTD in a proteasome-dependent manner. These results suggest that proteasome-mediated protein degradation is engaged in LTD and that CREB2 may act as a transcription activator under certain conditions.
|p53 induces distinct epigenetic states at its direct target promoters. |
Vrba, L; Junk, DJ; Novak, P; Futscher, BW
BMC genomics 9 486 2008
The tumor suppressor protein p53 is a transcription factor that is mutated in many cancers. Regulation of gene expression by binding of wild-type p53 to its target sites is accompanied by changes in epigenetic marks like histone acetylation. We studied DNA binding and epigenetic changes induced by wild-type and mutant p53 in non-malignant hTERT-immortalized human mammary epithelial cells overexpressing either wild-type p53 or one of four p53 mutants (R175H, R249S, R273H and R280K) on a wild-type p53 background.Using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to a 13,000 human promoter microarray, we found that wild-type p53 bound 197 promoters on the microarray including known and novel p53 targets. Of these p53 targets only 20% showed a concomitant increase in histone acetylation, which was linked to increased gene expression, while 80% of targets showed no changes in histone acetylation. We did not observe any decreases in histone acetylation in genes directly bound by wild-type p53. DNA binding in samples expressing mutant p53 was reduced over 95% relative to wild-type p53 and very few changes in histone acetylation and no changes in DNA methylation were observed in mutant p53 expressing samples.We conclude that wild-type p53 induces transcription of target genes by binding to DNA and differential induction of histone acetylation at target promoters. Several new wild-type p53 target genes, including DGKZ, FBXO22 and GDF9, were found. DNA binding of wild-type p53 is highly compromised if mutant p53 is present due to interaction of both p53 forms resulting in no direct effect on epigenetic marks.
|Yin Yang 1 is a critical repressor of matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in brain neurons. |
Rylski, M; Amborska, R; Zybura, K; Mioduszewska, B; Michaluk, P; Jaworski, J; Kaczmarek, L
The Journal of biological chemistry 283 35140-53 2008
Membrane depolarization controls long lasting adaptive neuronal changes in brain physiology and pathology. Such responses are believed to be gene expression-dependent. Notably, however, only a couple of gene repressors active in nondepolarized neurons have been described. In this study, we show that in the unstimulated rat hippocampus in vivo, as well as in the nondepolarized brain neurons in primary culture, the transcriptional regulator Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is bound to the proximal Mmp-9 promoter and strongly represses Mmp-9 transcription. Furthermore, we demonstrate that monoubiquitinated and CtBP1 (C-terminal binding protein 1)-bound YY1 regulates Mmp-9 mRNA synthesis in rat brain neurons controlling its transcription apparently via HDAC3-dependent histone deacetylation. In conclusion, our data suggest that YY1 exerts, via epigenetic mechanisms, a control over neuronal expression of MMP-9. Because MMP-9 has recently been shown to play a pivotal role in physiological and pathological neuronal plasticity, YY1 may be implicated in these phenomena as well.
|Analysis of Myc-induced histone modifications on target chromatin. |
Martinato, F; Cesaroni, M; Amati, B; Guccione, E
PloS one 3 e3650 2008
The c-myc proto-oncogene is induced by mitogens and is a central regulator of cell growth and differentiation. The c-myc product, Myc, is a transcription factor that binds a multitude of genomic sites, estimated to be over 10-15% of all promoter regions. Target promoters generally pre-exist in an active or poised chromatin state that is further modified by Myc, contributing to fine transcriptional regulation (activation or repression) of the afferent gene. Among other mechanisms, Myc recruits histone acetyl-transferases to target chromatin and locally promotes hyper-acetylation of multiple lysines on histones H3 and H4, although the identity and combination of the modified lysines is unknown. Whether Myc dynamically regulates other histone modifications (or marks) at its binding sites also remains to be addressed. Here, we used quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (qChIP) to profile a total of 24 lysine-acetylation and -methylation marks modulated by Myc at target promoters in a human B-cell line with a regulatable c-myc transgene. Myc binding promoted acetylation of multiple lysines, primarily of H3K9, H3K14, H3K18, H4K5 and H4K12, but significantly also of H4K8, H4K91 and H2AK5. Dimethylation of H3K79 was also selectively induced at target promoters. A majority of target promoters showed co-induction of multiple marks - in various combinations - correlating with recruitment of the two HATs tested (Tip60 and HBO1), incorporation of the histone variant H2A.Z and transcriptional activation. Based on this and previous findings, we surmise that Myc recruits the Tip60/p400 complex to achieve a coordinated histone acetylation/exchange reaction at activated promoters. Our data are also consistent with the additive and redundant role of multiple acetylation events in transcriptional activation.
|Control of replication initiation by the Sum1/Rfm1/Hst1 histone deacetylase. |
Weber, JM; Irlbacher, H; Ehrenhofer-Murray, AE
BMC molecular biology 9 100 2008
Replication initiation at origins of replication in the yeast genome takes place on chromatin as a template, raising the question how histone modifications, for instance histone acetylation, influence origin firing. Initiation requires binding of the replication initiator, the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC), to a consensus sequence within origins. In addition, other proteins bind to recognition sites in the vicinity of ORC and support initiation. In previous work, we identified Sum1 as an origin-binding protein that contributes to efficient replication initiation. Sum1 is part of the Sum1/Rfm1/Hst1 complex that represses meiotic genes during vegetative growth via histone deacetylation by the histone deacetylase (HDAC) Hst1.In this study, we investigated how Sum1 affected replication initiation. We found that it functioned in initiation as a component of the Sum1/Rfm1/Hst1 complex, implying a role for histone deacetylation in origin activity. We identified several origins in the yeast genome whose activity depended on both Sum1 and Hst1. Importantly, sum1Delta or hst1Delta caused a significant increase in histone H4 lysine 5 (H4 K5) acetylation levels, but not other H4 acetylation sites, at those origins. Furthermore, mutation of lysines to glutamines in the H4 tail, which imitates the constantly acetylated state, resulted in a reduction of origin activity comparable to that in the absence of Hst1, showing that deacetylation of H4 was important for full initiation capacity of these origins.Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for histone deacetylation in origin activity and reveal a novel aspect of origin regulation by chromatin. These results suggest recruitment of the Sum1/Rfm1/Hst1 complex to a number of yeast origins, where Hst1 deacetylated H4 K5.
|The fungus Neurospora crassa displays telomeric silencing mediated by multiple sirtuins and by methylation of histone H3 lysine 9. |
Smith, KM; Kothe, GO; Matsen, CB; Khlafallah, TK; Adhvaryu, KK; Hemphill, M; Freitag, M; Motamedi, MR; Selker, EU
Epigenetics & chromatin 1 5 2008
Silencing of genes inserted near telomeres provides a model to investigate the function of heterochromatin. We initiated a study of telomeric silencing in Neurospora crassa, a fungus that sports DNA methylation, unlike most other organisms in which telomeric silencing has been characterized.The selectable marker, hph, was inserted at the subtelomere of Linkage Group VR in an nst-1 (neurospora sir two-1) mutant and was silenced when nst-1 function was restored. We show that NST-1 is an H4-specific histone deacetylase. A second marker, bar, tested at two other subtelomeres, was similarly sensitive to nst-1 function. Mutation of three additional SIR2 homologues, nst-2, nst-3 and nst-5, partially relieved silencing. Two genes showed stronger effects: dim-5, which encodes a histone H3 K9 methyltransferase and hpo, which encodes heterochromatin protein-1. Subtelomeres showed variable, but generally low, levels of DNA methylation. Elimination of DNA methylation caused partial derepression of one telomeric marker. Characterization of histone modifications at subtelomeric regions revealed H3 trimethyl-K9, H3 trimethyl-K27, and H4 trimethyl-K20 enrichment. These modifications were slightly reduced when telomeric silencing was compromised. In contrast, acetylation of histones H3 and H4 increased.We demonstrate the presence of telomeric silencing in Neurospora and show a dependence on histone deacetylases and methylation of histone H3 lysine 9. Our studies also reveal silencing functions for DIM-5 and HP1 that appear independent of their role in de novo DNA methylation.
|Induction of PPM1D following DNA-damaging treatments through a conserved p53 response element coincides with a shift in the use of transcription initiation sites. |
Rossi, M; Demidov, ON; Anderson, CW; Appella, E; Mazur, SJ
Nucleic acids research 36 7168-80 2008
PPM1D (Wip1), a type PP2C phosphatase, is expressed at low levels in most normal tissues but is overexpressed in several types of cancers. In cells containing wild-type p53, the levels of PPM1D mRNA and protein increase following exposure to genotoxic stress, but the mechanism of regulation by p53 was unknown. PPM1D also has been identified as a CREB-regulated gene due to the presence of a cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in the promoter. Transient transfection and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in HCT116 cells were used to characterize a conserved p53 response element located in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the PPM1D gene that is required for the p53-dependent induction of transcription from the human PPM1D promoter. CREB binding to the CRE contributes to the regulation of basal expression of PPM1D and directs transcription initiation at upstream sites. Following exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or ionizing radiation, the abundance of transcripts with short 5' UTRs increased in cells containing wild-type p53, indicating increased utilization of downstream transcription initiation sites. In cells containing wild-type p53, exposure to UV resulted in increased PPM1D protein levels even when PPM1D mRNA levels remained constant, indicating post-transcriptional regulation of PPM1D protein levels.
|Transcriptional activation of histone genes requires NPAT-dependent recruitment of TRRAP-Tip60 complex to histone promoters during the G1/S phase transition. |
DeRan, M; Pulvino, M; Greene, E; Su, C; Zhao, J
Molecular and cellular biology 28 435-47 2008
Transcriptional activation of histone subtypes is coordinately regulated and tightly coupled with the onset of DNA replication during S-phase entry. The underlying molecular mechanisms for such coordination and coupling are not well understood. The cyclin E-Cdk2 substrate NPAT has been shown to play an essential role in the transcriptional activation of histone genes at the G(1)/S-phase transition. Here, we show that NPAT interacts with components of the Tip60 histone acetyltransferase complex through a novel amino acid motif, which is functionally conserved in E2F and adenovirus E1A proteins. In addition, we demonstrate that transformation/transactivation domain-associated protein (TRRAP) and Tip60, two components of the Tip60 complex, associate with histone gene promoters at the G(1)/S-phase boundary in an NPAT-dependent manner. In correlation with the association of the TRRAP-Tip60 complex, histone H4 acetylation at histone gene promoters increases at the G(1)/S-phase transition, and this increase involves NPAT function. Suppression of TRRAP or Tip60 expression by RNA interference inhibits histone gene activation. Thus, our data support a model in which NPAT recruits the TRRAP-Tip60 complex to histone gene promoters to coordinate the transcriptional activation of multiple histone genes during the G(1)/S-phase transition.
|The transcriptional status but not the imprinting control region determines allele-specific histone modifications at the imprinted H19 locus. |
Verona, RI; Thorvaldsen, JL; Reese, KJ; Bartolomei, MS
Molecular and cellular biology 28 71-82 2008
Genomic imprinting governs allele-specific gene expression in an epigenetically heritable manner. The characterization of histone modifications at imprinted gene loci is incomplete, and whether specific histone marks determine transcription or are dependent on it is not understood. Using chromatin immunoprecipitations, we examined in multiple cell types and in an allele-specific manner the active and repressive histone marks of several imprinted loci, including H19, KvDMR1, Snrpn promoter/exon 1, and IG-DMR imprinting control regions. Expressed alleles are enriched for specific actively modified histones, including H3 di- and trimethylated at Lys4 and acetylated histones H3 and H4, while their silent counterparts are associated with repressive marks such as H3 trimethylated at Lys9 alone or in combination with H3 trimethylated at Lys27 and H4/H2A symmetrically dimethylated at Arg3. At H19, allele-specific histone modifications occur throughout the entire locus, including nontranscribed regions such as the differentially methylated domain (DMD) as well as sequences in the H19 gene body that are not differentially methylated. Significantly, the presence of active marks at H19 depends on transcriptional activity and occurs even in the absence of the DMD. These findings suggest that histone modifications are dependent on the transcriptional status of imprinted alleles and illuminate epigenetic mechanisms of genomic imprinting.Full Text Article
|STAGA recruits Mediator to the MYC oncoprotein to stimulate transcription and cell proliferation. |
Liu, X; Vorontchikhina, M; Wang, YL; Faiola, F; Martinez, E
Molecular and cellular biology 28 108-21 2008
Activation of eukaryotic gene transcription involves the recruitment by DNA-binding activators of multiprotein histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and Mediator complexes. How these coactivator complexes functionally cooperate and the roles of the different subunits/modules remain unclear. Here we report physical interactions between the human HAT complex STAGA (SPT3-TAF9-GCN5-acetylase) and a "core" form of the Mediator complex during transcription activation by the MYC oncoprotein. Knockdown of the STAF65gamma component of STAGA in human cells prevents the stable association of TRRAP and GCN5 with the SPT3 and TAF9 subunits; impairs transcription of MYC-dependent genes, including MYC transactivation of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter; and inhibits proliferation of MYC-dependent cells. STAF65gamma is required for SPT3/STAGA interaction with core Mediator and for MYC recruitment of SPT3, TAF9, and core Mediator components to the TERT promoter but is dispensable for MYC recruitment of TRRAP, GCN5, and p300 and for acetylation of nucleosomes and loading of TFIID and RNA polymerase II on the promoter. These results suggest a novel STAF65gamma-dependent function of STAGA-type complexes in cell proliferation and transcription activation by MYC postloading of TFIID and RNA polymerase II that involves direct recruitment of core Mediator.
|Naturally extended CT . AG repeats increase H-DNA structures and promoter activity in the smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase gene. |
Han, YJ; de Lanerolle, P
Molecular and cellular biology 28 863-72 2008
Naturally occurring repeat sequences capable of adopting H-DNA structures are abundant in promoters of disease-related genes. In support of this, we found (CT)(22) . (AG)(22) repeats in the promoter of smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK), a key regulator of vascular smooth muscle function. We also found an insertion mutation that adds another six pairs of CT . AG repeats and increases smMLCK promoter activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Therefore, we used the smMLCK promoters from normotensive and hypertensive rats as a model system to determine how CT . AG repeats form H-DNA, an intramolecular triplex, and regulate promoter activity. High-resolution mapping with a chemical probe selective for H-DNA showed that the CT . AG repeats adopt H-DNA structures at a neutral pH. Importantly, the SHR promoter forms longer H-DNA structures than the promoter from normotensive rats. Reconstituting nucleosomes on the promoters, in vitro, showed no difference in nucleosome positioning between the two promoters. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that histone acetylations are greater in the hypertensive promoter. Thus, our findings suggest that the extended CT . AG repeats in the SHR promoter increase H-DNA structures, histone modifications, and promoter activity of the smMLCK, perhaps contributing to vascular disorders in hypertension.
|Bypassing the requirements for epigenetic modifications in gene transcription by increasing enhancer strength. |
Koutroubas, G; Merika, M; Thanos, D
Molecular and cellular biology 28 926-38 2008
Our current concept postulates that histone acetylation is required for the recruitment of bromodomain-containing transcription complexes, such as the chromatin-remodeling machine SWI/SNF and the basal transcription factor TFIID. We generated simple NF-kappaB-dependent enhancers of increasing transcriptional strengths and found that the histone acetylation requirements for activation of transcription depended on the strengths of these enhancers. All enhancers function by recruiting SWI/SNF and TFIID to induce nucleosome sliding, a prerequisite for transcriptional activation. However, histone acetylation, although it occurs, is dispensable for TFIID and SWI/SNF recruitment by the strong enhancers, indicating that strong activators can overcome the chromatin barrier by directly recruiting the necessary transcriptional complexes. Weak enhancers depend on histone acetylation for recruitment, and this requirement is independent of a histone acetylation code. Thus, the need for nucleosome modifications is imposed on genes and translated according to the quality and strengths of the activators.
|KAP1-mediated epigenetic repression in the forebrain modulates behavioral vulnerability to stress. |
Jakobsson, J; Cordero, MI; Bisaz, R; Groner, AC; Busskamp, V; Bensadoun, JC; Cammas, F; Losson, R; Mansuy, IM; Sandi, C; Trono, D
Neuron 60 818-31 2008
KAP1 is an essential cofactor of KRAB-zinc finger proteins, a family of vertebrate-specific epigenetic repressors of largely unknown functions encoded in the hundreds by the mouse and human genomes. Here, we report that KAP1 is expressed at high levels and necessary for KRAB-mediated repression in mature neurons of the mouse brain. Mice deleted for KAP1 in the adult forebrain exhibit heightened levels of anxiety-like and exploratory activity and stress-induced alterations in spatial learning and memory. In the hippocampus, a small number of genes are dysregulated, including some imprinted genes. Chromatin analyses of the promoters of two genes markedly upregulated in knockout mice reveal decreased histone 3 K9-trimethylation and increased histone 3 and histone 4 acetylation. We propose a model in which the tethering of KAP1-associated chromatin remodeling factors via KRAB-ZFPs epigenetically controls gene expression in the hippocampus, thereby conditioning responses to behavioral stress.
|Genetic variation stimulated by epigenetic modification. |
Cummings, WJ; Bednarski, DW; Maizels, N
PloS one 3 e4075 2008
Homologous recombination is essential for maintaining genomic integrity. A common repair mechanism, it uses a homologous or homeologous donor as a template for repair of a damaged target gene. Such repair must be regulated, both to identify appropriate donors for repair, and to avoid excess or inappropriate recombination. We show that modifications of donor chromatin structure can promote homology-directed repair. These experiments demonstrate that either the activator VP16 or the histone chaperone, HIRA, accelerated gene conversion approximately 10-fold when tethered within the donor array for Ig gene conversion in the chicken B cell line DT40. VP16 greatly increased levels of acetylated histones H3 and H4, while tethered HIRA did not affect histone acetylation, but caused an increase in local nucleosome density and levels of histone H3.3. Thus, epigenetic modification can stimulate genetic variation. The evidence that distinct activating modifications can promote similar functional outcomes suggests that a variety of chromatin changes may regulate homologous recombination, and that disregulation of epigenetic marks may have deleterious genetic consequences.
|Estradiol regulates corticotropin-releasing hormone gene (crh) expression in a rapid and phasic manner that parallels estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta recruitment to a 3',5'-cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate regulatory region of the proximal crh promoter. |
Lalmansingh, AS; Uht, RM
Endocrinology 149 346-57 2008
In the central nervous system, CRH regulates several affective states. Dysregulation of neuronal crh expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus correlates with some forms of depression, and amygdalar crh expression may modulate levels of anxiety. Because estrogens modulate these states, we sought to determine 17beta-estradiol (E2) effects on crh expression. CRH mRNA levels were measured in the AR-5 amygdaloid cell line by RT-PCR analysis. They increased by 1 min of E2 treatment, suggesting that crh behaves as an immediate-early gene. After peaking at 3 min, CRH mRNA returned to basal levels and then increased by 60 min. To dissect some of the molecular mechanisms underlying these events, we measured occupancy of the crh promoter by estrogen receptors (ERs) and coactivators, using chromatin immunoprecipitation. Because this promoter does not contain palindromic estrogen response elements, we targeted the region of a cAMP regulatory element (CRE), implicated in crh regulation. The temporal pattern of the mRNA response was mimicked by recruitment of ERalpha and -beta, phospho-CRE-binding protein, coactivators steroid receptor coactivator-1 and CRE-binding protein-binding protein (CBP), and an increase in histone 3 and 4 acetylation. Lastly, ERalpha and -beta loading were temporally dissociated, peaking at 1 and 3 min, respectively. The ER peaks were associated with coactivators and acetylation patterns. ERalpha associated with phospho-CRE-binding protein, CBP, steroid receptor coactivator-1, and increased acetylated histone 3. ERbeta associated with CBP and increased acetylated histone 4. The tight temporal correlation between E2-induced CRH mRNA levels and promoter occupancy by ERs strongly suggest that E2 regulates crh expression through an ERalpha- and/or ERbeta-CRE alternate pathway.
|Histone modifications associated with herpes simplex virus type 1 genomes during quiescence and following ICP0-mediated de-repression. |
Coleman, HM; Connor, V; Cheng, ZS; Grey, F; Preston, CM; Efstathiou, S
The Journal of general virology 89 68-77 2008
In the current study, it was shown that repressed virus genomes in quiescently infected MRC5 cells adopt a repressed histone-associated structure marked by the enrichment of deacetylated histones at a wide variety of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) promoters. In addition, it was shown that genome de-repression, mediated by HSV-2 superinfection or delivery of ICP0 using a recombinant adenovirus vector, resulted in the enrichment of acetylated histones on HSV DNA. These data indicate that ICP0-mediated genome de-repression is intimately linked to enrichment of acetylated histones at virus promoters. The fold change in association of pan-acetylated histone H3 following Ad.TRE.ICP0-mediated de-repression consistently revealed promoter-specific variation, with the highest fold changes (greater than 50-fold) being observed at the latency-associated transcript promoter and enhancer regions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses using an antibody specific to the C terminus of histone H3 as a surrogate measure of nucleosome occupancy revealed little variability in the total loading of histone H3 at the various HSV promoters. This observation suggests that acetylation of histone H3 in response to ICP0 expression is not uniformly targeted across the HSV-1 genome during ICP0-mediated de-repression.
|Wingless signaling induces widespread chromatin remodeling of target loci. |
Parker, DS; Ni, YY; Chang, JL; Li, J; Cadigan, KM
Molecular and cellular biology 28 1815-28 2008
How signaling cascades influence gene regulation at the level of chromatin modification is not well understood. We studied this process using the Wingless/Wnt pathway in Drosophila. When cells sense Wingless ligand, Armadillo (the fly beta-catenin) becomes stabilized and translocates to the nucleus, where it binds to the sequence-specific DNA binding protein TCF to activate transcription of target genes. Here, we show that Wingless signaling induces TCF and Armadillo recruitment to a select subset of TCF binding site clusters that act as Wingless response elements. Despite this localized TCF/Armadillo recruitment, histones are acetylated over a wide region (up to 30 kb) surrounding the Wingless response elements in response to pathway activation. This widespread histone acetylation occurs independently of transcription. In contrast to Wingless targets, other active genes not regulated by the pathway display sharp acetylation peaks centered on their core promoters. Widespread acetylation of Wingless targets is dependent upon CBP, a histone acetyltransferase known to bind to Armadillo and is correlated with activation of target gene expression. These data suggest that pathway activation induces localized recruitment of TCF/Armadillo/CBP to Wingless response elements, leading to widespread histone acetylation of target loci prior to transcriptional activation.
|SIRT1 acts as a nutrient-sensitive growth suppressor and its loss is associated with increased AMPK and telomerase activity. |
Narala, SR; Allsopp, RC; Wells, TB; Zhang, G; Prasad, P; Coussens, MJ; Rossi, DJ; Weissman, IL; Vaziri, H
Molecular biology of the cell 19 1210-9 2008
SIRT1, the mammalian homolog of SIR2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is an NAD-dependent deacetylase implicated in regulation of lifespan. By designing effective short hairpin RNAs and a silent shRNA-resistant mutant SIRT1 in a genetically defined system, we show that efficient inhibition of SIRT1 in telomerase-immortalized human cells enhanced cell growth under normal and nutrient limiting conditions. Hematopoietic stem cells obtained from SIRT1-deficient mice also showed increased growth capacity and decreased dependency on growth factors. Consistent with this, SIRT1 inhibition was associated with increased telomerase activity in human cells. We also observed a significant increase in AMPK levels up on SIRT1 inhibition under glucose limiting conditions. Although SIRT1 suppression cooperated with hTERT to promote cell growth, either overexpression or suppression of SIRT1 alone had no effect on life span of human diploid fibroblasts. Our findings challenge certain models and connect nutrient sensing enzymes to the immortalization process. Furthermore, they show that in certain cell lineages, SIRT1 can act as a growth suppressor gene.
|Involvement of Sp1/Sp3 in the activation of the GATA-1 erythroid promoter in K562 cells. |
Hou, CH; Huang, J; He, QY; Zhang, CN; Zhang, XJ; Qian, RL
Cell research 18 302-10 2008
GATA-1 is a hematopoietic transcription factor that is essential for the terminal maturation of proerythroblasts, megakaryocytic cells and mast cells. The erythroid-specific promoter of the human GATA-1 gene directs the high expression of a reporter gene in K562 cells. Multiple putative transcription factor binding sites were identified in the promoter from the -860 to the -1 base pair (bp). For a better understanding of the transcriptional control of human GATA-1 gene expression, we tested the transcriptional activity of a series of deletions from the 5' end of the 860-bp promoter. A region between -221 and -128 bp retains most of the transcriptional activity of the full-length promoter. Deletion of the CGCCC box at -195 bp reduced reporter gene activity to 60.4%. Further deletion of the CACCC box at -173 bp nearly abolished reporter gene expression, indicating that the CACCC box is more critical. In vitro experiments of electrophoretic mobility shifts and in vivo studies using chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP) assays show that the Sp1/Sp3 proteins bind the CACCC site in the nuclei of K562 cells. Coincidently, hyperacetylation of histones in the GATA-1 erythroid promoter was also shown by ChIP assay. Co-transfection of Sp1 expression plasmids and plasmids with a wild-type promoter showed enhanced reporter gene activity in a dose-dependent manner. The combined data demonstrate that Sp1/Sp3, but not EKLF, is involved in the activation of the GATA-1 erythroid promoter, and that histones H3 and H4 are highly acetylated in this promoter region for an actively transcribed GATA-1 gene in K562 cells in which EKLF is barely detectable.
|Methoxyacetic acid-induced spermatocyte death is associated with histone hyperacetylation in rats. |
Wade, MG; Kawata, A; Williams, A; Yauk, C
Biology of reproduction 78 822-31 2008
We used high-density microarrays to evaluate the possible mechanisms by which 2-methoxyacetic acid (MAA) disrupts spermatogenesis. Levels of mRNA transcripts were determined in total RNA isolated from testes of MAA-treated (650 mg/kg i.p.) or concurrent control rats killed 4, 8, 12, or 24 h postexposure (PE). Germ cell death was examined in testis sections using in situ staining for DNA fragmentation. MAA treatment caused increased death of pachytene spermatocytes starting 8 h PE and increasing dramatically at 12 and 24 h PE. Microarray results indicated that at 4 h PE the transcript levels of seven different genes were significantly overrepresented in the testes of MAA-exposed animals. One gene (histone H1 zero [H1f0]) was significantly overrepresented in MAA-treated samples at 4, 8, and 12 h PE. Because expression of this gene has been associated with increased acetylation of core histones, we examined MAA-induced changes in the acetylation of histones H4 (HISTH4) and H3 (HISTH3) in testis nuclear protein. Western blots of acid-extracted testis nuclei indicated that the levels of tetraacetyl histone H4 (4acHIST1H4) and of diacetyl histone H3 (2acHIST1H3) were elevated by MAA treatment at 4, 8, and 12 h PE. Using the same antibodies, 4acHIST1H4 and 2acHIST1H3 were localized primarily to elongating spermatids in testis sections from control animals. At 4 h PE, staining for either histone modification was dramatically increased in spermatogonia and all primary spermatocyte populations except for dividing spermatocytes. MAA treatment of testis nuclear protein extracts from unexposed animals caused both a significant increase in histone acetyltransferase activity and a significant inhibition of histone deacetylase activity, suggesting that increased core histone acetylation results from a combination of these complementary modes of action. Our results indicate that exposure to MAA causes increased acetylation of core histones in several testis germ cell populations, including those in prophase of meiosis, a large proportion of which die rapidly following this treatment.
|Regulation of the MAD1 promoter by G-CSF. |
Jiang, K; Hein, N; Eckert, K; Lüscher-Firzlaff, J; Lüscher, B
Nucleic acids research 36 1517-31 2008
MAD family proteins are transcriptional repressors that antagonize the functions of MYC oncoproteins. In particular, MAD1 has been demonstrated to interfere with MYC-induced proliferation, transformation and apoptosis. The MAD1 gene is expressed in distinct patterns, mainly associated with differentiation and quiescence. We observed that MAD1 is directly activated by G-CSF in promyelocytic cell lines. To investigate the transcriptional regulation of the human MAD1 gene, we have cloned and characterized its promoter. A region of high homology between the MAD1 orthologs of human, mouse and rat contains the core promoter, marked by open chromatin, high GC content and the lack of a TATA box. Using deletion constructs we identified two CCAAT-boxes occupied by C/EBPalpha and beta in the homology region that mediate responsiveness to G-CSF receptor signaling. The necessary signals include the activation of STAT3 and the RAS/RAF/ERK pathway. STAT3 does not bind directly to promoter DNA, but is recruited by C/EBPbeta. In summary, our studies provide a first analysis of the MAD1 promoter and suggest STAT3 functions as a C/EBPbeta cofactor in the regulation of the MAD1 gene. Our findings provide the base for the characterization of additional signal transduction pathways that control the expression of MAD1.
|Epigenetic silencing of O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase gene in NiS-transformed cells. |
Ji, W; Yang, L; Yu, L; Yuan, J; Hu, D; Zhang, W; Yang, J; Pang, Y; Li, W; Lu, J; Fu, J; Chen, J; Lin, Z; Chen, W; Zhuang, Z
Carcinogenesis 29 1267-75 2008
Nickel (Ni) compounds are potent carcinogens and can induce malignant transformation of rodent and human cells. To uncover the molecular mechanisms of nickel sulfide (NiS)-induced cell transformation, we investigated epigenetic alterations in a set of DNA repair genes. The silencing of the O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene locus and upregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) expression was specifically detected in NiS-transformed human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells. In addition, we noted epigenetic alterations including DNA hypermethylation, reduced histone H4 acetylation and a decrease in the ratio of Lys-9 acetylated/methylated histone H3 at the MGMT CpG island in NiS-transformed 16HBE cells. Meanwhile, we identified concurrent binding of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2, methylated DNA-binding domain protein 2 and DNMT1 to the CpG island of the MGMT promoter, demonstrating that these components collaborate to maintain MGMT methylation in NiS-transformed cells. Moreover, depletion of DNMT1 by introduction of a small hairpin RNA construct into NiS-transformed cells resulted in a 30% inhibition of cell proliferation and led to increased MGMT gene expression by reversion of the epigenetic modifications at the MGMT promoter region. MGMT suppression and hypermethylation at the CpG island of the MGMT promoter occurred 6 days after NiS treatment, indicating that epigenetic modifications of MGMT might be an early event in tumorigenesis. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that epigenetic silencing of MGMT is associated with DNA hypermethylation, histone modifications and DNMT1 upregulation, which contribute to NiS-induced malignant transformation.
|Highly conserved non-coding sequences and the 18q critical region for short stature: a common mechanism of disease? |
Rizzolio, F; Bione, S; Sala, C; Tribioli, C; Ciccone, R; Zuffardi, O; di Iorgi, N; Maghnie, M; Toniolo, D
PloS one 3 e1460 2008
Isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD) are heterogeneous disorders with several different etiologies and they are responsible for most cases of short stature. Mutations in different genes have been identified but still many patients did not present mutations in any of the known genes. Chromosomal rearrangements may also be involved in short stature and, among others, deletions of 18q23 defined a critical region for the disorder. No gene was yet identified.We now report a balanced translocation X;18 in a patient presenting a breakpoint in 18q23 that was surprisingly mapped about 500 Kb distal from the short stature critical region. It separated from the flanking SALL3 gene a region enriched in highly conserved non-coding elements (HCNE) that appeared to be regulatory sequences, active as enhancers or silencers during embryonic development.We propose that, during pituitary development, the 18q rearrangement may alter expression of 18q genes or of X chromosome genes that are translocated next to the HCNEs. Alteration of expression of developmentally regulated genes by translocation of HCNEs may represent a common mechanism for disorders associated to isolated chromosomal rearrangements.Full Text Article
|Aberrant epigenetic changes and gene expression in cloned cattle dying around birth. |
Lin, L; Li, Q; Zhang, L; Zhao, D; Dai, Y; Li, N
BMC developmental biology 8 14 2008
Aberrant reprogramming of donor somatic cell nuclei may result in many severe problems in animal cloning. To assess the extent of abnormal epigenetic modifications and gene expression in clones, we simultaneously examined DNA methylation, histone H4 acetylation and expression of six genes (beta-actin, VEGF, oct4, TERT, H19 and Igf2) and a repetitive sequence (art2) in five organs (heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney) from two cloned cattle groups that had died at different stages. In the ED group (early death, n = 3), the cloned cattle died in the perinatal period. The cattle in the LD group (late death, n = 3) died after the perinatal period. Normally reproduced cattle served as a control group (n = 3).Aberrant DNA methylation, histone H4 acetylation and gene expression were observed in both cloned groups. The ED group showed relatively fewer severe DNA methylation abnormalities (p less than 0.05) but more abnormal histone H4 acetylations (p less than 0.05) and more abnormal expression (p less than 0.05) of the selected genes compared to the LD group. However, our data also suggest no widespread gene expression abnormalities in the organs of the dead clones.Deaths of clones may be ascribed to abnormal expression of a very limited number of genes.
|Epigenetic inactivation of protein kinase D1 in gastric cancer and its role in gastric cancer cell migration and invasion. |
Kim, M; Jang, HR; Kim, JH; Noh, SM; Song, KS; Cho, JS; Jeong, HY; Norman, JC; Caswell, PT; Kang, GH; Kim, SY; Yoo, HS; Kim, YS
Carcinogenesis 29 629-37 2008
Protein kinase D (PKD) 1 influences cell migration by mediating both trans-Golgi vesicle fission and integrin recycling to the cell surface. Using restriction landmark genomic scanning methods, we found that the promoter region of PKD1 was aberrantly methylated in gastric cancer cell lines. Silencing of PKD1 expression was detected in 72.7% of gastric cancer cell lines examined, and the silencing was associated with CpG hypermethylation in the promoter region of PKD1. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A partially reversed PKD1 methylation and restored gene expression in PKD1-silenced cell lines. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of 96 paired clinical primary gastric cancer samples revealed that 59% of the analyzed tumors had a greater than 2-fold decrease in PKD1 expression compared with each normal-appearing tissue and that this downregulation of PKD1 expression was significantly correlated with increased methylation. We also observed a gradual increase in the level of promoter methylation of PKD1 in aging, normal-appearing mucosal tissues, suggesting that PKD1 methylation may be one of the earliest events that predispose an individual to gastric cancer. PKD1 expression was required for directional migration of gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, knock down of PKD1 by RNA interference promoted the invasiveness of cell lines that expressed PKD1 at relatively high levels. Based on these results, we propose that PKD1 is frequently silenced by epigenetic regulation, which plays a role in cell migration and metastasis in gastric cancer.
|A role for Myc in facilitating transcription activation by E2F1. |
Leung, JY; Ehmann, GL; Giangrande, PH; Nevins, JR
Oncogene 27 4172-9 2008
Previous work has demonstrated that E2F proteins regulate the expression of various genes encoding proteins essential for DNA replication and cell-cycle progression. E2F1 in particular is required for the initial entry to the cell cycle from a quiescent state and is required for the activation of other E2F genes. Other work has demonstrated a role for the Myc transcription factor in the activation of a large number of genes associated with cell growth, including E2F genes. We now show that Myc is required to allow the interaction of the E2F1 protein with the E2F gene promoters. As such, Myc thus provides a link between the development of a growth-competent state during the initial stage of G(1) and the activation of genes essential for DNA replication at G(1)/S.
|HDAC inhibitors stimulate viral transcription by multiple mechanisms. |
Balakrishnan, L; Milavetz, B
Virology journal 5 43 2008
The effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) treatment on SV40 transcription and replication were determined by monitoring the levels of early and late expression, the extent of replication, and the percentage of SV40 minichromosomes capable of transcription and replication following treatment with sodium butyrate (NaBu) and trichostatin A (TSA).The HDACi treatment was found to maximally stimulate early transcription at early times and late transcription at late times through increased numbers of minichromosomes which carry RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription complexes and increased occupancy of the transcribing minichromosomes by RNAPII. HDACi treatment also partially relieved the normal down-regulation of early transcription by T-antigen seen later in infection. The increased recruitment of transcribing minichromosomes at late times was correlated to a corresponding reduction in SV40 replication and the percentage of minichromosomes capable of replication.These results suggest that histone deacetylation plays a critical role in the regulation of many aspects of an SV40 lytic infection.
|CHD8 is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factor that regulates beta-catenin target genes. |
Thompson, BA; Tremblay, V; Lin, G; Bochar, DA
Molecular and cellular biology 28 3894-904 2008
ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling by the CHD family of proteins plays an important role in the regulation of gene transcription. Here we report that full-length CHD8 interacts directly with beta-catenin and that CHD8 is also recruited specifically to the promoter regions of several beta-catenin-responsive genes. Our results indicate that CHD8 negatively regulates beta-catenin-targeted gene expression, since short hairpin RNA against CHD8 results in the activation of several beta-catenin target genes. This regulation is also conserved through evolution; RNA interference against kismet, the apparent Drosophila ortholog of CHD8, results in a similar activation of beta-catenin target genes. We also report the first demonstration of chromatin remodeling activity for a member of the CHD6-9 family of proteins, suggesting that CHD8 functions in transcription through the ATP-dependent modulation of chromatin structure.Full Text Article
|The double bromodomain proteins Brd2 and Brd3 couple histone acetylation to transcription. |
LeRoy, G; Rickards, B; Flint, SJ
Molecular cell 30 51-60 2008
Posttranslational histone modifications are crucial for the modulation of chromatin structure and regulation of transcription. Bromodomains present in many chromatin-associated proteins recognize acetylated lysines in the unstructured N-terminal regions of histones. Here, we report that the double bromodomain proteins Brd2 and Brd3 associate preferentially in vivo with hyperacetylated chromatin along the entire lengths of transcribed genes. Brd2- and Brd3-associated chromatin is significantly enriched in H4K5, H4K12, and H3K14 acetylation and contains relatively little dimethylated H3K9. Both Brd2 and Brd3 allowed RNA polymerase II to transcribe through nucleosomes in a defined transcription system. Such activity depended on specific histone H4 modifications known to be recognized by the Brd proteins. We also demonstrate that Brd2 has intrinsic histone chaperone activity and is required for transcription of the cyclin D1 gene in vivo. These data identify proteins that render nucleosomes marked by acetylation permissive to the passage of elongating RNA polymerase II.
|Foxp3 inhibits RORgammat-mediated IL-17A mRNA transcription through direct interaction with RORgammat. |
Ichiyama, K; Yoshida, H; Wakabayashi, Y; Chinen, T; Saeki, K; Nakaya, M; Takaesu, G; Hori, S; Yoshimura, A; Kobayashi, T
The Journal of biological chemistry 283 17003-8 2008
The cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), converts naive T cells into regulatory T cells that prevent autoimmunity. However, in the presence of interleukin (IL)-6, TGF-beta1 has also been found to promote differentiation into IL-17-producing helper T (Th17) cells that are deeply involved in autoimmunity and inflammation. However, it has not been clarified how TGF-beta1 and IL-6 determine such a distinct fate. Here we found that a master regulator for Th17, retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gammat (RORgammat), was rapidly induced by TGF-beta1 regardless of the presence of IL-6. IL-6 reduced Foxp3 expression, and overexpression of Foxp3 in a T cell line resulted in a strong reduction of IL-17A expression. We have characterized the IL-17A promoter and found that RORgammat binding is sufficient for activation of the minimum promoter in the HEK 293T cells. RORgammat-mediated IL-17A promoter activation was suppressed by forced expression of Foxp3. Foxp3 directly interacted with RORgammat through exon 2 region of Foxp3. The exon 2 region and forkhead (FKH) domain of Foxp3 were necessary for the suppression of RORgammat-mediated IL-17A promoter activation. We propose that induction of Foxp3 is the mechanism for the suppression of Th17 and polarization into inducible Treg.
|Coordinate regulation of Fanconi anemia gene expression occurs through the Rb/E2F pathway. |
Hoskins, EE; Gunawardena, RW; Habash, KB; Wise-Draper, TM; Jansen, M; Knudsen, ES; Wells, SI
Oncogene 27 4798-808 2008
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genome instability syndrome that is characterized by progressive bone marrow failure and a high risk of cancer. FA patients are particularly susceptible to leukemia as well as squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the head and neck, anogenital region and skin. Thirteen complementation groups and the corresponding FA genes have been identified, and their protein products assemble into nuclear core complexes during DNA-damage responses. Much progress has been made in our understanding of post-translational FA protein modifications and physical interactions. By contrast, little is known about the control of protein availability at the level of transcription. We report here that multiple FA proteins were downregulated during the proliferative arrest of primary human keratinocytes and HeLa cells, and that the observed regulation was at a transcriptional level. Proliferative stimuli such as expression of HPV16 E7 as well as E2F1 overexpression in primary cells resulted in coordinate FA upregulation. To define the underlying mechanism, we examined the endogenous FANCD2 promoter, and detected regulated binding of members of the E2F/Rb family in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Finally, a 1 kb promoter fragment was sufficient to confer E2F/Rb regulation in reporter assays. Taken together, our data demonstrate FA gene co-regulation in synchrony with the cell cycle and suggest that deregulated expression of individual FA genes-in addition to FA gene mutation-may promote FA-related human cancer.
|c-Jun controls histone modifications, NF-kappaB recruitment, and RNA polymerase II function to activate the ccl2 gene. |
Wolter, S; Doerrie, A; Weber, A; Schneider, H; Hoffmann, E; von der Ohe, J; Bakiri, L; Wagner, EF; Resch, K; Kracht, M
Molecular and cellular biology 28 4407-23 2008
Interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced mRNA expression of ccl2 (also called MCP-1), a prototypic highly regulated inflammatory gene, is severely suppressed in cells lacking c-Jun or Jun N-terminal protein kinase 1 (JNK1)/JNK2 genes and is only partially restored in cells expressing a c-Jun(SS63/73AA) mutant protein. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation to identify three c-Jun-binding sites located in the far 5' region close to the transcriptional start site and in the far 3' region of murine and human ccl2 genes. Mutational analysis revealed that the latter two sites contribute to ccl2 transcription in response to the presence of IL-1 or of ectopically expressed c-Jun-ATF-2 dimers. Further experiments comparing wild-type and c-Jun-deficient cells revealed that c-Jun regulates Ser10 phosphorylation of histone H3, acetylation of histones H3 and H4, and recruitment of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), NF-kappaB subunits, and RNA polymerase II across the ccl2 locus. c-Jun also coimmunoprecipitated with p65 NF-kappaB and HDAC3. Based on DNA microarray analysis, c-Jun was required for full expression of 133 out of 162 IL-1-induced genes. For inflammatory genes, these data support the idea of an activator function of c-Jun that is executed by multiple mechanisms, including phosphorylation-dependent interaction with p65 NF-kappaB and HDAC3 at the level of chromatin.
|Rhythmic E-box binding by CLK-CYC controls daily cycles in per and tim transcription and chromatin modifications. |
Taylor, P; Hardin, PE
Molecular and cellular biology 28 4642-52 2008
The Drosophila melanogaster circadian oscillator comprises interlocked per/tim and Clk transcriptional feedback loops. In the per/tim loop, CLK-CYC-dependent transcriptional activation is rhythmically repressed by PER or PER-TIM to control circadian gene expression that peaks around dusk. Here we show that rhythmic transcription of per and tim involves time-of-day-specific binding of CLK-CYC and associated cycles in chromatin modifications. Activation of per and tim transcription occurs in concert with CLK-CYC binding to upstream and/or intronic E-boxes, acetylation of histone H3-K9, and trimethylation of histone H3-K4. These events are associated with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) binding to the tim promoter and transcriptional elongation by Pol II that is constitutively bound to the per promoter. Repression of per and tim transcription is associated with PER-dependent reversal of these events. Rhythms in H3-K9 acetylation and H3-K4 trimethylation are also associated with CLOCK-BMAL1-dependent transcription in mammals, indicating that the mechanism that controls rhythmic transcription is a conserved feature of the circadian clock even though feedback repression is mediated by different proteins.
|Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha is a central transactivator of the mouse Ntcp gene. |
Geier, A; Martin, IV; Dietrich, CG; Balasubramaniyan, N; Strauch, S; Suchy, FJ; Gartung, C; Trautwein, C; Ananthanarayanan, M
American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 295 G226-33 2008
Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) is the major uptake system for conjugated bile acids. Deletions of hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1alpha and retinoid X receptor-alpha:retinoic acid receptor-alpha binding sites in the mouse 5'-flanking region corresponding to putatively central regulatory elements of rat Ntcp do not significantly reduce promoter activity. We hypothesized that HNF-4alpha, which is increasingly recognized as a central regulator of hepatocyte function, may directly transactivate mouse (mNtcp). A 1.1-kb 5'-upstream region including the mouse Ntcp promoter was cloned and compared with the rat promoter. In contrast to a moderate 3.5-fold activation of mNtcp by HNF-1alpha, HNF-4alpha cotransfection led to a robust 20-fold activation. Deletion analysis of mouse and rat Ntcp promoters mapped a conserved HNF-4alpha consensus site at -345/-326 and -335/-316 bp, respectively. p-475bpmNtcpLUC is not transactivated by HNF-1alpha but shows a 50-fold enhanced activity upon cotransfection with HNF-4alpha. Gel mobility shift assays demonstrated a complex of the HNF-4alpha-element formed with liver nuclear extracts that was blocked by an HNF-4alpha specific antibody. HNF-4alpha binding was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Using Hepa 1-6 cells, HNF-4alpha-knockdown resulted in a significant 95% reduction in NTCP mRNA. In conclusion, mouse Ntcp is regulated by HNF-4alpha via a conserved distal cis-element independently of HNF-1alpha.
|Myc-mediated transcriptional repression by recruitment of histone deacetylase. |
Kurland, JF; Tansey, WP
Cancer research 68 3624-9 2008
Myc is a transcription factor that features prominently in cancer. The oncogenicity of Myc stems from its ability to regulate expression of genes required for cell growth and proliferation. Although the mechanisms through which Myc activates transcription have been extensively studied, less is known about how Myc represses transcription. Recently, we reported that a conserved element within Myc-MbIII- is important for transcriptional repression. Here, we investigate the mechanism through which MbIII contributes to repression. We show that Myc represses transcription of target genes Id2 and Gadd153 by a process that involves histone deacetylation. We show that MbIII is important for repression of these genes and present evidence that this element contributes to repression by recruiting the histone deacetylase HDAC3 to the Id2 and Gadd153 promoters. These results describe a mechanistic role for MbIII in transcription, and reveal that recruitment of HDAC3 is a process by which Myc represses gene activity.
|NFX1 interacts with mSin3A/histone deacetylase to repress hTERT transcription in keratinocytes. |
Xu, M; Luo, W; Elzi, DJ; Grandori, C; Galloway, DA
Molecular and cellular biology 28 4819-28 2008
Transcription of the catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT) in keratinocytes can be induced by human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E6/E6AP ubiquitin ligase through degradation of the repressor, NFX1-91. Here, we demonstrate that NFX1-91 interacts with the corepressor complex mSin3A/histone deacetylase (HDAC) at the hTERT promoter. By degrading NFX1-91, E6/E6AP changes the chromatin structure at the hTERT promoter as indicated by enhanced acetylation of histones H3 and H4 as well as dimethylation of H3K4. Knockdown of NFX1-91 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) mimics the effect of E6 and leads to acetylation of histones H3 and H4. Conversely, knockdown of E6AP by shRNA suppresses histone acetylation at the hTERT promoter. These data demonstrate that targeted degradation of NFX1-91 by E6/E6AP dissociates the mSin3A/HDAC complex from the hTERT promoter and induces hTERT transcription.
|Expression-based screening identifies the combination of histone deacetylase inhibitors and retinoids for neuroblastoma differentiation. |
Hahn, CK; Ross, KN; Warrington, IM; Mazitschek, R; Kanegai, CM; Wright, RD; Kung, AL; Golub, TR; Stegmaier, K
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 9751-6 2008
The discovery of new small molecules and their testing in rational combination poses an ongoing problem for rare diseases, in particular, for pediatric cancers such as neuroblastoma. Despite maximal cytotoxic therapy with double autologous stem cell transplantation, outcome remains poor for children with high-stage disease. Because differentiation is aberrant in this malignancy, compounds that modulate transcription, such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, are of particular interest. However, as single agents, HDAC inhibitors have had limited efficacy. In the present study, we use an HDAC inhibitor as an enhancer to screen a small-molecule library for compounds inducing neuroblastoma maturation. To quantify differentiation, we use an enabling gene expression-based screening strategy. The top hit identified in the screen was all-trans-retinoic acid. Secondary assays confirmed greater neuroblastoma differentiation with the combination of an HDAC inhibitor and a retinoid versus either alone. Furthermore, effects of combination therapy were synergistic with respect to inhibition of cellular viability and induction of apoptosis. In a xenograft model of neuroblastoma, animals treated with combination therapy had the longest survival. This work suggests that testing of an HDAC inhibitor and retinoid in combination is warranted for children with neuroblastoma and demonstrates the success of a signature-based screening approach to prioritize compound combinations for testing in rare diseases.
|Allyl mercaptan, a garlic-derived organosulfur compound, inhibits histone deacetylase and enhances Sp3 binding on the P21WAF1 promoter. |
Nian, H; Delage, B; Pinto, JT; Dashwood, RH
Carcinogenesis 29 1816-24 2008
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have the potential to derepress epigenetically silenced genes in cancer cells, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In the present study, we screened several garlic-derived small organosulfur compounds for their ability to inhibit HDAC activity in vitro. Among the organosulfur compounds examined, allyl mercaptan (AM) was the most potent HDAC inhibitor. Molecular modeling, structure activity and enzyme kinetics studies with purified human HDAC8 provided evidence for a competitive mechanism (K(i) = 24 microM AM). In AM-treated human colon cancer cells, HDAC inhibition was accompanied by a rapid and sustained accumulation of acetylated histones in total cellular chromatin. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the presence of hyperacetylated histone H3 on the P21WAF1 gene promoter within 4 h of AM exposure, and there was increased binding of the transcription factor Sp3. At a later time, 24 h after AM treatment, there was enhanced binding of p53 in the distal enhancer region of the P21WAF1 gene promoter. These findings suggest a primary role for Sp3 in driving P21 gene expression after HDAC inhibition by AM, followed by the subsequent recruitment of p53. Induction of p21Waf1 protein expression was detected at time points between 3 and 72 h after AM treatment and coincided with growth arrest in G(1) of the cell cycle. The results are discussed in the context of other anticarcinogenic mechanisms ascribed to garlic organosulfur compounds and the metabolic conversion of such compounds to potential HDAC inhibitors in situ.
|Histone deacetylases control neurogenesis in embryonic brain by inhibition of BMP2/4 signaling. |
Shakèd, M; Weissmüller, K; Svoboda, H; Hortschansky, P; Nishino, N; Wölfl, S; Tucker, KL
PloS one 3 e2668 2008
Histone-modifying enzymes are essential for a wide variety of cellular processes dependent upon changes in gene expression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) lead to the compaction of chromatin and subsequent silencing of gene transcription, and they have recently been implicated in a diversity of functions and dysfunctions in the postnatal and adult brain including ocular dominance plasticity, memory consolidation, drug addiction, and depression. Here we investigate the role of HDACs in the generation of neurons and astrocytes in the embryonic brain.As a variety of HDACs are expressed in differentiating neural progenitor cells, we have taken a pharmacological approach to inhibit multiple family members. Inhibition of class I and II HDACs in developing mouse embryos with trichostatin A resulted in a dramatic reduction in neurogenesis in the ganglionic eminences and a modest increase in neurogenesis in the cortex. An identical effect was observed upon pharmacological inhibition of HDACs in in vitro-differentiating neural precursors derived from the same brain regions. A reduction in neurogenesis in ganglionic eminence-derived neural precursors was accompanied by an increase in the production of immature astrocytes. We show that HDACs control neurogenesis by inhibition of the bone morphogenetic protein BMP2/4 signaling pathway in radial glial cells. HDACs function at the transcriptional level by inhibiting and promoting, respectively, the expression of Bmp2 and Smad7, an intracellular inhibitor of BMP signaling. Inhibition of the BMP2/4 signaling pathway restored normal levels of neurogenesis and astrogliogenesis to both ganglionic eminence- and cortex-derived cultures in which HDACs were inhibited.Our results demonstrate a transcriptionally-based regulation of BMP2/4 signaling by HDACs both in vivo and in vitro that is critical for neurogenesis in the ganglionic eminences and that modulates cortical neurogenesis. The results also suggest that HDACs may regulate the developmental switch from neurogenesis to astrogliogenesis that occurs in late gestation.
|A large deletion in the human alpha-globin cluster caused by a replication error is associated with an unexpectedly mild phenotype. |
Rugless, MJ; Fisher, CA; Old, JM; Sloane-Stanley, J; Ayyub, H; Higgs, DR; Garrick, D
Human molecular genetics 17 3084-93 2008
We have characterized a newly identified 16.6 kb deletion which removes a significant proportion of the human alpha-globin cluster including the psizeta1, alpha(D), psialpha1 and alpha2-globin genes but leaves the duplicated alpha1 gene intact. This complicated rearrangement results from a combination of slippage and strand switching at sites of microhomology during replication. Functional analysis shows that expression of the remaining alpha1 gene is increased, rather than down-regulated by this deletion. This could be related to its proximity to the remote upstream alpha-globin regulatory elements or reduced competition for these elements in the absence of the dominant alpha2-globin gene. The finding of a very mild phenotype associated with such an extensive deletion in the alpha-globin cluster implies that much of the DNA removed by the deletion is likely to be functionally unimportant. These findings suggest that other than the upstream regulatory elements and promoter proximal elements there are unlikely to be additional positive cis-acting sequences in the alpha-globin cluster.
|CpG methylation in exon 1 of transcription factor 4 increases with age in normal gastric mucosa and is associated with gene silencing in intestinal-type gastric cancers. |
Kim, SK; Jang, HR; Kim, JH; Kim, M; Noh, SM; Song, KS; Kang, GH; Kim, HJ; Kim, SY; Yoo, HS; Kim, YS
Carcinogenesis 29 1623-31 2008
Transcriptional factor 4 (TCF4), encoding a basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional factor, has recently been demonstrated as a causative gene for Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disease. Examination of gastric cancers using the restriction landmark genomic scanning technique revealed methylation at a NotI enzyme site in TCF4 intron 8 and further identified CpG dinucleotide hypermethylation in TCF4 exon 1, strongly associated with gene silencing in gastric cancer cell lines. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or trichostatin A restored TCF4 expression in TCF4-silenced gastric cancer cell lines. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of 77 paired primary gastric tumor samples revealed that 38% of analyzed tumors had a greater than 2-fold decrease in TCF4 expression compared with adjacent normal-appearing tissue, and the decrease significantly correlated with increased CpG methylation in TCF4 exon 1. Clinicopathologic data showed that decreased TCF4 expression occurred significantly more frequently in intestinal-type (22/37, 59%) than in diffuse-type (7/37, 19%) gastric cancers (P = 0.0004) and likewise more frequently in early (12/18, 67%) than in advanced (17/59, 29%) gastric cancers (P = 0.004). CpG methylation markedly increased with patient age among normal-appearing tissues, suggesting that CpG methylation in gastric mucosa may be one of the earliest events in carcinogenesis of intestinal-type gastric cancers. Furthermore, ectopic expression of TCF4 decreased cell growth in a gastric cancer cell line, and the knock down of TCF4 using small interfering RNA increased cell migration. Based on these results, we propose that the observed frequent epigenetic-mediated TCF4 silencing plays a role in tumor formation and progression.
|Chromatin profiling across the human tumour necrosis factor gene locus reveals a complex, cell type-specific landscape with novel regulatory elements. |
Taylor, JM; Wicks, K; Vandiedonck, C; Knight, JC
Nucleic acids research 36 4845-62 2008
The TNF locus on chromosome 6p21 encodes a family of proteins with key roles in the immune response whose dysregulation leads to severe disease. Transcriptional regulation is important, with cell type and stimulus-specific enhancer complexes involving the proximal TNF promoter. We show how quantitative chromatin profiling across a 34 kb region spanning the TNF locus has allowed us to identify a number of novel DNase hypersensitive sites and characterize more distant regulatory elements. We demonstrate DNase hypersensitive sites corresponding to the lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) promoter regions, a CpG island in exon 4 of lymphotoxin beta (LTB), the 3' end of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor-like 1 (NFKBIL1) and 3.4 kb upstream of LTA. These sites co-localize to highly conserved DNA sequences and show evidence of cell type specificity when lymphoblastoid, Jurkat, U937, HeLa and HEK293T cell lines are analysed using Southern blotting. For Jurkat T cells, we define histone modifications across the locus. Peaks of acetylated histone H3 and H4, together with tri-methyl K4 of histone H3, correspond to hypersensitive sites, notably in exon 4 of LTB. We provide evidence of a functional role for an intergenic DNase I hypersensitive site distal to LTA in Jurkat cells based on reporter gene analysis, with evidence of recruitment of upstream stimulatory factors (USF) transcription factors.
|Despite increased ATF4 binding at the C/EBP-ATF composite site following activation of the unfolded protein response, system A transporter 2 (SNAT2) transcription activity is repressed in HepG2 cells. |
Gjymishka, A; Palii, SS; Shan, J; Kilberg, MS
The Journal of biological chemistry 283 27736-47 2008
The activated amino acid response (AAR) and unfolded protein response (UPR) stress signaling pathways converge at the phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2alpha. This eIF2alpha modification suppresses global protein synthesis but enhances translation of selected mRNAs such as that for activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). An ATF4 target gene, SNAT2 (system A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter 2), contains a C/EBP-ATF site that binds ATF4 and triggers increased transcription during the AAR. However, the present studies show that despite increased ATF4 binding to the SNAT2 gene during UPR activation in HepG2 human hepatoma cells, transcription activity was not enhanced. Hyperacetylation of histone H3 and recruitment of the general transcription factors at the HepG2 SNAT2 promoter occurred in response to the AAR but not the UPR. In contrast, the UPR did enhance transcription from a plasmid-based reporter gene driven by a SNAT2 genomic fragment containing the C/EBP-ATF site. Simultaneous activation of the AAR and the UPR pathways revealed that the UPR actually suppressed the increased SNAT2 transcription by the AAR pathway, demonstrating that the UPR pathway generates a repressive signal that acts downstream of ATF4 binding.
|Bypassing Sir2 and O-acetyl-ADP-ribose in transcriptional silencing. |
Chou, CC; Li, YC; Gartenberg, MR
Molecular cell 31 650-9 2008
The yeast Sir2/3/4 complex forms a heterochromatin-like structure that represses transcription. The proteins nucleate at silencers and spread distally, utilizing the Sir2 NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase activity and the affinity of Sir3/4 for deacetylated histone tails. A by-product of the Sir2 reaction, O-acetyl-ADP-ribose (OAADPr), is thought to aid spreading by binding one of the Sir proteins. We developed a protein chimera approach to reexamine the contributions of Sir2. We show that a Sir3 chimera-bearing Hos3, an unrelated NAD(+)-independent histone deacetylase, substitutes for Sir2 in silencing. Sir3-Hos3 operates within the Sir pathway, spreading while deacetylating histones. Moreover, the chimera represses HM loci in strains lacking all five OAADPr-producing deacetylases, indicating that OAADPr is not necessary for silencing. Repression by a Hos3 hybrid bearing the targeting motifs of Sir2 shows that targeting doesn't require the Sir2 reaction. Together, these data demonstrate that protein deacetylation is the only essential function of Sir2 in creating silenced chromatin.
|Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene (NAG-1/GDF15) expression is increased by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. |
Yoshioka, H; Kamitani, H; Watanabe, T; Eling, TE
The Journal of biological chemistry 283 33129-37 2008
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene (NAG-1) is a putative tumor suppressor whose expression can be increased by drug treatment. Glioblastoma is the most common central nervous system tumor, is associated with high morbidity and mortality, and responds poorly to surgical, chemical, and radiation therapy. The histone deacetylase inhibitors are under current consideration as therapeutic agents in treating glioblastoma. We investigated whether trichostatin A (TSA) would alter the expression of NAG-1 in glioblastoma cells. The DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-dC did not increase NAG-1 expression, but TSA up-regulated NAG-1 expression and acted synergistically with 5-aza-dC to induce NAG-1 expression. TSA indirectly increases NAG-1 promoter activity and increases NAG-1 mRNA and protein expression in the T98G human glioblastoma cell line. TSA also increases the expression of transcription factors Sp-1 and Egr-1. Small interfering RNA experiments link NAG-1 expression to apoptosis induced by TSA. Reporter gene assays, specific inhibition by small interfering RNA transfections, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicate that Egr-1 and Sp-1 mediate TSA-induced NAG-1 expression. TSA also increases the stability of NAG-1 mRNA. TSA-induced NAG-1 expression involves multiple mechanisms at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.
|Selective use of multiple vitamin D response elements underlies the 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-mediated negative regulation of the human CYP27B1 gene. |
Turunen, MM; Dunlop, TW; Carlberg, C; Väisänen, S
Nucleic acids research 35 2734-47 2007
The human 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) 1alpha-hydroxylase, which is encoded by the CYP27B1 gene, catalyzes the metabolic activation of the 25(OH)D3 into 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1alpha,25(OH)2D3), the most biologically potent vitamin D3 metabolite. The most important regulator of CYP27B1 gene activity is 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 itself, which down-regulates the gene. The down-regulation of the CYP27B1 gene has been proposed to involve a negative vitamin D response element (nVDRE) that is located approximately 500 bp upstream from transcription start site (TSS). In this study, we reveal the existence of two new VDR-binding regions in the distal promoter, 2.6 and 3.2 kb upstream from the TSS, that bind vitamin D receptor-retinoid X receptor complexes. Since the down regulation of the CYP27B1 gene is tissue- and cell-type selective, a comparative study was done for the new 1alpha,25(OH)2D3-responsive regions in HEK-293 human embryonic kidney and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells that reflect tissues that, respectively, are permissive and non-permissive to the phenomenon of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3-mediated down-regulation of this gene. We found significant differences in the composition of protein complexes associated with these CYP27B1 promoter regions in the different cell lines, some of which reflect the capability of transcriptional repression of the CYP27B1 gene in these different cells. In addition, chromatin architecture differed with respect to chromatin looping in the two cell lines, as the new distal regions were differentially connected with the proximal promoter. This data explains, in part, why the human CYP27B1 gene is repressed in HEK-293 but not in MCF-7 cells.
|Induction of altered epigenetic regulation of the hepatic glucocorticoid receptor in the offspring of rats fed a protein-restricted diet during pregnancy suggests that reduced DNA methyltransferase-1 expression is involved in impaired DNA methylation and changes in histone modifications. |
Lillycrop, KA; Slater-Jefferies, JL; Hanson, MA; Godfrey, KM; Jackson, AA; Burdge, GC
The British journal of nutrition 97 1064-73 2007
Prenatal nutritional constraint induces an altered metabolic phenotype in the offspring which in humans confers an increased risk of non-communicable disease. Feeding a protein-restricted (PR) diet to pregnant rats causes hypomethylation of specific gene promoters in the offspring and alters the phenotype. We investigated how altered epigenetic regulation of the hepatic glucocorticoid receptor (GR) 1(10) promoter is induced in the offspring. Rats were fed a control (180 g casein/kg) or a PR (90 g casein/kg) diet throughout pregnancy, and chow during lactation. Offspring were killed at postnatal day 34 (n 5 per maternal dietary group). Methylation-sensitive PCR showed that GR1(10) promoter methylation was 33 % lower (P less than 0.001) and GR expression 84 % higher (P less than 0.05) in the PR offspring. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that DNA methyltransferase-1 (Dnmt1) expression was 17 % lower (P less than 0.05) in PR offspring, while Dnmt3a/b and methyl binding domain protein-2 expression was not altered. Thus hypomethylation of the GR110 promoter may result from lower capacity to methylate hemimethylated DNA during mitosis. Histone modifications which facilitate transcription were increased at the GR1(10) promoter (147-921 %, P less than 0.001), while those that suppress methylation were decreased (54 %, P less than 0.01) or similar to controls. In human umbilical cord (n 15), there was a 2-fold difference between the highest and lowest level of GR1-CTotal promoter methylation. Dnmt1, but not Dnmt3a, expression predicted 49 % (P = 0.003) of the variation in GR1-CTotal promoter methylation. These findings suggest that induction in the offspring of altered epigenetic regulation of the hepatic GR1(10) promoter, and hence metabolic phenotype, may be due to reduced Dnmt1 expression.
|Evidence of endogenous mu opioid receptor regulation by epigenetic control of the promoters. |
Hwang, CK; Song, KY; Kim, CS; Choi, HS; Guo, XH; Law, PY; Wei, LN; Loh, HH
Molecular and cellular biology 27 4720-36 2007
The pharmacological effect of morphine as a painkiller is mediated mainly via the mu opioid receptor (MOR) and is dependent on the number of MORs in the cell surface membrane. While several studies have reported that the MOR gene is regulated by various cis- and trans-acting factors, many questions remain unanswered regarding in vivo regulation. The present study shows that epigenetic silencing and activation of the MOR gene are achieved through coordinated regulation at both the histone and DNA levels. In P19 mouse embryonal carcinoma cells, expression of the MOR was greatly increased after neuronal differentiation. MOR expression could also be induced by a demethylating agent (5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) or histone deacetylase inhibitors in the P19 cells, suggesting involvement of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation for MOR gene silencing. Analysis of CpG DNA methylation revealed that the proximal promoter region was unmethylated in differentiated cells compared to its hypermethylation in undifferentiated cells. In contrast, the methylation of other regions was not changed in either cell type. Similar methylation patterns were observed in the mouse brain. In vitro methylation of the MOR promoters suppressed promoter activity in the reporter assay. Upon differentiation, the in vivo interaction of MeCP2 was reduced in the MOR promoter region, coincident with histone modifications that are relevant to active transcription. When MeCP2 was disrupted using MeCP2 small interfering RNA, the endogenous MOR gene was increased. These data suggest that DNA methylation is closely linked to the MeCP2-mediated chromatin structure of the MOR gene. Here, we propose that an epigenetic mechanism consisting of DNA methylation and chromatin modification underlies the cell stage-specific mechanism of MOR gene expression.
|Maize histone deacetylase hda101 is involved in plant development, gene transcription, and sequence-specific modulation of histone modification of genes and repeats. |
Rossi, V; Locatelli, S; Varotto, S; Donn, G; Pirona, R; Henderson, DA; Hartings, H; Motto, M
The Plant cell 19 1145-62 2007
Enzymes catalyzing histone acetylation and deacetylation contribute to the modulation of chromatin structure, thus playing an important role in regulating gene and genome activity. We showed that downregulation and overexpression of the maize (Zea mays) Rpd3-type hda101 histone deacetylase gene induced morphological and developmental defects. Total levels of acetylated histones and histone acetylation of both repetitive and nonrepetitive sequences were affected in hda101 transgenic mutants. However, only transcript levels of genes but not repeats were altered. In particular, hda101 transgenic mutants showed differential expression of genes involved in vegetative-to-reproductive transition, such as liguleless2 and knotted-like genes and their repressor rough sheath2, which are required for meristem initiation and maintenance. Perturbation of hda101 expression also affected histone modifications other than acetylation, including histone H3 dimethylation at Lys-4 and Lys-9 and phosphorylation at Ser-10. Our results indicate that hda101 affects gene transcription and provide evidence of its involvement in setting the histone code, thus mediating developmental programs. Possible functional differences between maize hda101 and its Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog HDA19 are discussed.Full Text Article
|Hyperfluidization-coupled membrane microdomain reorganization is linked to activation of the heat shock response in a murine melanoma cell line. |
Nagy, E; Balogi, Z; Gombos, I; Akerfelt, M; Björkbom, A; Balogh, G; Török, Z; Maslyanko, A; Fiszer-Kierzkowska, A; Lisowska, K; Slotte, PJ; Sistonen, L; Horváth, I; Vígh, L
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 7945-50 2007
Targeting of the Hsp function in tumor cells is currently being assessed as potential anticancer therapy. An improved understanding of the molecular signals that trigger or attenuate the stress protein response is essential for advances to be made in this field. The present study provides evidence that the membrane fluidizer benzyl alcohol (BA), a documented nondenaturant, acts as a chaperone inducer in B16(F10) melanoma cells. It is demonstrated that this effect relies basically on heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) activation. Under the conditions tested, the BA-induced Hsp response involves the up-regulation of a subset of hsp genes. It is shown that the same level of membrane fluidization (estimated in the core membrane region) attained with the closely analogous phenethyl alcohol (PhA) does not generate a stress protein signal. BA, at a concentration that activates heat shock genes, exerts a profound effect on the melting of raft-like cholesterol-sphingomyelin domains in vitro, whereas PhA, at a concentration equipotent with BA in membrane fluidization, has no such effect. Furthermore, through the in vivo labeling of melanoma cells with a fluorescein labeled probe that inserts into the cholesterol-rich membrane domains [fluorescein ester of polyethylene glycol-derivatized cholesterol (fPEG-Chol)], we found that, similarly to heat stress per se, BA, but not PhA, initiates profound alterations in the plasma membrane microdomain structure. We suggest that, apart from membrane hyperfluidization in the deep hydrophobic region, a distinct reorganization of cholesterol-rich microdomains may also be required for the generation and transmission of stress signals to activate hsp genes.
|Transcription-coupled deposition of histone modifications during MHC class II gene activation. |
Rybtsova, N; Leimgruber, E; Seguin-Estévez, Q; Dunand-Sauthier, I; Krawczyk, M; Reith, W
Nucleic acids research 35 3431-41 2007
Posttranslational histone modifications associated with actively expressed genes are generally believed to be introduced primarily by histone-modifying enzymes that are recruited by transcription factors or their associated co-activators. We have performed a comprehensive spatial and temporal analyses of the histone modifications that are deposited upon activation of the MHC class II gene HLA-DRA by the co-activator CIITA. We find that transcription-associated histone modifications are introduced during two sequential phases. The first phase precedes transcription initiation and is characterized exclusively by a rapid increase in histone H4 acetylation over a large upstream domain. All other modifications examined, including the acetylation and methylation of several residues in histone H3, are restricted to short regions situated at or within the 5' end of the gene and are established during a second phase that is concomitant with ongoing transcription. This second phase is completely abrogated when elongation by RNA polymerase II is blocked. These results provide strong evidence that transcription elongation can play a decisive role in the deposition of histone modification patterns associated with inducible gene activation.Full Text Article
|Identification of the imprinted KLF14 transcription factor undergoing human-specific accelerated evolution. |
Parker-Katiraee, L; Carson, AR; Yamada, T; Arnaud, P; Feil, R; Abu-Amero, SN; Moore, GE; Kaneda, M; Perry, GH; Stone, AC; Lee, C; Meguro-Horike, M; Sasaki, H; Kobayashi, K; Nakabayashi, K; Scherer, SW
PLoS genetics 3 e65 2007
Imprinted genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin manner and are located in clusters throughout the genome. Aberrations in the expression of imprinted genes on human Chromosome 7 have been suggested to play a role in the etiologies of Russell-Silver Syndrome and autism. We describe the imprinting of KLF14, an intronless member of the Krüppel-like family of transcription factors located at Chromosome 7q32. We show that it has monoallelic maternal expression in all embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues studied, in both human and mouse. We examine epigenetic modifications in the KLF14 CpG island in both species and find this region to be hypomethylated. In addition, we perform chromatin immunoprecipitation and find that the murine Klf14 CpG island lacks allele-specific histone modifications. Despite the absence of these defining features, our analysis of Klf14 in offspring from DNA methyltransferase 3a conditional knockout mice reveals that the gene's expression is dependent upon a maternally methylated region. Due to the intronless nature of Klf14 and its homology to Klf16, we suggest that the gene is an ancient retrotransposed copy of Klf16. By sequence analysis of numerous species, we place the timing of this event after the divergence of Marsupialia, yet prior to the divergence of the Xenarthra superclade. We identify a large number of sequence variants in KLF14 and, using several measures of diversity, we determine that there is greater variability in the human lineage with a significantly increased number of nonsynonymous changes, suggesting human-specific accelerated evolution. Thus, KLF14 may be the first example of an imprinted transcript undergoing accelerated evolution in the human lineage.
|Exploring cellular memory molecules marking competent and active transcriptions. |
Xin, L; Zhou, GL; Song, W; Wu, XS; Wei, GH; Hao, DL; Lv, X; Liu, DP; Liang, CC
BMC molecular biology 8 31 2007
Development in higher eukaryotes involves programmed gene expression. Cell type-specific gene expression is established during this process and is inherited in succeeding cell cycles. Higher eukaryotes have evolved elegant mechanisms by which committed gene-expression states are transmitted through numerous cell divisions. Previous studies have shown that both DNase I-sensitive sites and the basal transcription factor TFIID remain on silenced mitotic chromosomes, suggesting that certain trans-factors might act as bookmarks, maintaining the information and transmitting it to the next generation.We used the mouse globin gene clusters as a model system to examine the retention of active information on M-phase chromosomes and its contribution to the persistence of transcriptional competence of these gene clusters in murine erythroleukemia cells. In cells arrested in mitosis, the erythroid-specific activator NF-E2p45 remained associated with its binding sites on the globin gene loci, while the other major erythroid factor, GATA-1, was removed from chromosome. Moreover, despite mitotic chromatin condensation, the distant regulatory regions and promoters of transcriptionally competent globin gene loci are marked by a preserved histone code consisting in active histone modifications such as H3 acetylation, H3-K4 dimethylation and K79 dimethylation. Further analysis showed that other active genes are also locally marked by the preserved active histone code throughout mitotic inactivation of transcription.Our results imply that certain kinds of specific protein factors and active histone modifications function as cellular memory markers for both competent and active genes during mitosis, and serve as a reactivated core for the resumption of transcription when the cells exit mitosis.
|SWI/SNF activity is required for the repression of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate metabolic enzymes via the recruitment of mSin3B. |
Gunawardena, RW; Fox, SR; Siddiqui, H; Knudsen, ES
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 20116-23 2007
The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex plays a critical role in the coordination of gene expression with physiological stimuli. The synthetic enzymes ribonucleotide reductase, dihydrofolate reductase, and thymidylate synthase are coordinately regulated to ensure appropriate deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate levels. Particularly, these enzymes are actively repressed as cells exit the cell cycle through the action of E2F transcription factors and the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor/p107/p130 family of pocket proteins. This process is found to be highly dependent on SWI/SNF activity as cells deficient in BRG-1 and Brm subunits fail to repress these genes with activation of pocket proteins, and this deficit in repression can be complemented, via the ectopic expression of BRG-1. The failure to repress transcription does not involve a blockade in the association of E2F or pocket proteins p107 and p130 with promoter elements. Rather, the deficit in repression is due to a failure to mediate histone deacetylation of ribonucleotide reductase, dihydrofolate reductase, and thymidylate synthase promoters in the absence of SWI/SNF activity. The basis for this is found to be a failure to recruit mSin3B and histone deacetylase proteins to promoters. Thus, the coordinate repression of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate metabolic enzymes is dependent on the action of SWI/SNF in facilitating the assembly of repressor complexes at the promoter.
|Epigenetic regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha. |
Sullivan, KE; Reddy, AB; Dietzmann, K; Suriano, AR; Kocieda, VP; Stewart, M; Bhatia, M
Molecular and cellular biology 27 5147-60 2007
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent cytokine which regulates inflammation via the induction of adhesion molecules and chemokine expression. Its expression is known to be regulated in a complex manner with transcription, message turnover, message splicing, translation, and protein cleavage from the cell surface all being independently regulated. This study examined both cell lines and primary cells to understand the developmental regulation of epigenetic changes at the TNF-alpha locus. We demonstrate that epigenetic modifications of the TNF-alpha locus occur both developmentally and in response to acute stimulation and, importantly, that they actively regulate expression. DNA demethylates early in development, beginning with the hematopoietic stem cell. The TNF-alpha locus migrates from heterochromatin to euchromatin in a progressive fashion, reaching euchromatin slightly later in differentiation. Finally, histone modifications characteristic of a transcriptionally competent gene occur with myeloid differentiation and progress with differentiation. Additional histone modifications characteristic of active gene expression are acquired with stimulation. In each case, manipulation of these epigenetic variables altered the ability of the cell to express TNF-alpha. These studies demonstrate the importance of epigenetic regulation in the control of TNF-alpha expression. These findings may have relevance for inflammatory disorders in which TNF-alpha is overproduced.Full Text Article
|The locus control region activates serpin gene expression through recruitment of liver-specific transcription factors and RNA polymerase II. |
Zhao, H; Friedman, RD; Fournier, RE
Molecular and cellular biology 27 5286-95 2007
The human serine protease inhibitor (serpin) gene cluster at 14q32.1 comprises 11 serpin genes, many of which are expressed specifically in hepatic cells. Previous studies identified a locus control region (LCR) upstream of the human alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1AT) gene that is required for gene activation, chromatin remodeling, and histone acetylation throughout the proximal serpin subcluster. Here we show that the LCR interacts with multiple liver-specific transcription factors, including hepatocyte nuclear factor 3beta (HNF-3beta), HNF-6alpha, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha), and C/EBPbeta. RNA polymerase II is also recruited to the locus through the LCR. Nongenic transcription at both the LCR and an upstream regulatory region was detected, but the deletion of the LCR abolished transcription at both sites. The deletion of HNF-3 and HNF-6 binding sites within the LCR reduced histone acetylation at both the LCR and the upstream regulatory region and decreased the transcription of the alpha1AT, corticosteroid binding globulin, and protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor genes. These results suggest that the LCR activates genes in the proximal serpin subcluster by recruiting liver-specific transcription factors and components of the general transcription machinery to regulatory regions upstream of the alpha1AT gene.
|Inducible XIST-dependent X-chromosome inactivation in human somatic cells is reversible. |
Chow, JC; Hall, LL; Baldry, SE; Thorogood, NP; Lawrence, JB; Brown, CJ
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 10104-9 2007
During embryogenesis, the XIST RNA is expressed from and localizes to one X chromosome in females and induces chromosome-wide silencing. Although many changes to inactive X heterochromatin are known, the functional relationships between different modifications are not well understood, and studies of the initiation of X-inactivation have been largely confined to mouse. We now present a model system for human XIST RNA function in which induction of an XIST cDNA in somatic cells results in localized XIST RNA and transcriptional silencing. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry shows that this silencing need only be accompanied by a subset of heterochromatic marks and that these can differ between integration sites. Surprisingly, silencing is XIST-dependent, remaining reversible over extended periods. Deletion analysis demonstrates that the first exon of human XIST is sufficient for both transcript localization and the induction of silencing and that, unlike the situation in mice, the conserved repeat region is essential for both functions. In addition to providing mechanistic insights into chromosome regulation and formation of facultative heterochromatin, this work provides a tractable model system for the study of chromosome silencing and suggests key differences from mouse embryonic X-inactivation.
|Notch activation stimulates transient and selective binding of Su(H)/CSL to target enhancers. |
Krejcí, A; Bray, S
Genes & development 21 1322-7 2007
The CSL [CBF1/Su(H)/Lag2] proteins [Su(H) in Drosophila] are implicated in repression and activation of Notch target loci. Prevailing models imply a static association of these DNA-binding transcription factors with their target enhancers. Our analysis of Su(H) binding and chromatin-associated features at 11 E(spl) Notch target genes before and after Notch revealed large differences in Su(H) occupancy at target loci that correlated with the presence of polymerase II and other marks of transcriptional activity. Unexpectedly, Su(H) occupancy was significantly and transiently increased following Notch activation, suggesting a more dynamic interaction with targets than hitherto proposed.
|Characterizing early events associated with the activation of target genes by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in mouse kidney and intestine in vivo. |
Meyer, MB; Zella, LA; Nerenz, RD; Pike, JW
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 22344-52 2007
In this report, we explore the interaction of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) at regulatory sites within both the Cyp24a1 and the Trpv6 genes using chromatin immunoprecipitation techniques in a mouse model in vivo. We show that exogenous 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) induces rapid VDR and RXR (retinoid X receptor) binding to the Cyp24a1 gene in both the kidney and the intestine and to the Trpv6 gene in the intestine. Separate studies of Trpv6 in vitro suggest that VDR binding occurs directly to VDR response elements located -2 and -4 kb upstream of the TSS. VDR binding is dose-dependent, demonstrating EC(50) values that are comparable with those for the induction of both Cyp24a1 and Trpv6 mRNA. Importantly, interaction of the VDR with these targets results in rapid changes in histone 4 acetylation as well as the recruitment of RNA polymerase II. The presence of both VDR and RNA polymerase II at these sites declines between 3-6 h, whereas the changes observed in acetylation decrease more slowly. Finally, we show that whereas mediator protein 1 is recruited to the Cyp24a1 promoter in the intestine, this coactivator is apparently not required for Trpv6 activation. These studies provide the first evidence for 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-induced VDR interaction at key target genes in vivo, revealing the consequences of that interaction on the Cyp24a1 and Trpv6 genes.
|The landscape of histone modifications across 1% of the human genome in five human cell lines. |
Koch, CM; Andrews, RM; Flicek, P; Dillon, SC; Karaöz, U; Clelland, GK; Wilcox, S; Beare, DM; Fowler, JC; Couttet, P; James, KD; Lefebvre, GC; Bruce, AW; Dovey, OM; Ellis, PD; Dhami, P; Langford, CF; Weng, Z; Birney, E; Carter, NP; Vetrie, D; Dunham, I
Genome research 17 691-707 2007
We generated high-resolution maps of histone H3 lysine 9/14 acetylation (H3ac), histone H4 lysine 5/8/12/16 acetylation (H4ac), and histone H3 at lysine 4 mono-, di-, and trimethylation (H3K4me1, H3K4me2, H3K4me3, respectively) across the ENCODE regions. Studying each modification in five human cell lines including the ENCODE Consortium common cell lines GM06990 (lymphoblastoid) and HeLa-S3, as well as K562, HFL-1, and MOLT4, we identified clear patterns of histone modification profiles with respect to genomic features. H3K4me3, H3K4me2, and H3ac modifications are tightly associated with the transcriptional start sites (TSSs) of genes, while H3K4me1 and H4ac have more widespread distributions. TSSs reveal characteristic patterns of both types of modification present and the position relative to TSSs. These patterns differ between active and inactive genes and in particular the state of H3K4me3 and H3ac modifications is highly predictive of gene activity. Away from TSSs, modification sites are enriched in H3K4me1 and relatively depleted in H3K4me3 and H3ac. Comparison between cell lines identified differences in the histone modification profiles associated with transcriptional differences between the cell lines. These results provide an overview of the functional relationship among histone modifications and gene expression in human cells.
|Butyrate mediates decrease of histone acetylation centered on transcription start sites and down-regulation of associated genes. |
Rada-Iglesias, A; Enroth, S; Ameur, A; Koch, CM; Clelland, GK; Respuela-Alonso, P; Wilcox, S; Dovey, OM; Ellis, PD; Langford, CF; Dunham, I; Komorowski, J; Wadelius, C
Genome research 17 708-19 2007
Butyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) with anti-neoplastic properties, which theoretically reactivates epigenetically silenced genes by increasing global histone acetylation. However, recent studies indicate that a similar number or even more genes are down-regulated than up-regulated by this drug. We treated hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells with butyrate and characterized the levels of acetylation at DNA-bound histones H3 and H4 by ChIP-chip along the ENCODE regions. In contrast to the global increases of histone acetylation, many genomic regions close to transcription start sites were deacetylated after butyrate exposure. In order to validate these findings, we found that both butyrate and trichostatin A treatment resulted in histone deacetylation at selected regions, while nucleosome loss or changes in histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) did not occur in such locations. Furthermore, similar histone deacetylation events were observed when colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells were treated with butyrate. In addition, genes with deacetylated promoters were down-regulated by butyrate, and this was mediated at the transcriptional level by affecting RNA polymerase II (POLR2A) initiation/elongation. Finally, the global increase in acetylated histones was preferentially localized to the nuclear periphery, indicating that it might not be associated to euchromatin. Our results are significant for the evaluation of HDACi as anti-tumourogenic drugs, suggesting that previous models of action might need to be revised, and provides an explanation for the frequently observed repression of many genes during HDACi treatment.
|C/EBPbeta activates E2F-regulated genes in vivo via recruitment of the coactivator CREB-binding protein/P300. |
Wang, H; Larris, B; Peiris, TH; Zhang, L; Le Lay, J; Gao, Y; Greenbaum, LE
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 24679-88 2007
The E2F transcription factors play an essential role in regulating the G(1)- to S-phase transition of the cell cycle. Previous studies have identified the importance of interactions between E2Fs and other transcription factors as a mechanism for transcriptional control of a subset of E2F regulated target genes. However, the mechanisms responsible for E2F target gene specificity remain incompletely understood. Here we report that in a mammalian in vivo model of synchronized proliferation, C/EBPbeta occupancy on the promoters of E2F-regulated growth-related genes increases as a function of cell cycle progression. C/EPBbeta binding to these promoters is associated with recruitment of the coactivator CBP/p300, histone H4 acetylation, and maximal activation of E2F target genes. Moreover, binding of CBP/p300 to E2F targets is markedly reduced in C/EBPbeta null mice, resulting in reduced expression of E2F regulated genes. These findings identify C/EBPbeta as a direct activator of E2F target genes in mammalian cell cycle progression through a mechanism that involves recruitment of CBP/p300. The demonstration of a functional link between C/EBPbeta and CBP/p300 for E2F target gene activation provides a potential mechanism for how coactivators such as CBP/p300 can be selectively recruited to E2F target genes in response to tissue-specific growth stimuli.
|Epigenetic characterization of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation using miniChIP and bisulfite sequencing analysis. |
Attema, JL; Papathanasiou, P; Forsberg, EC; Xu, J; Smale, ST; Weissman, IL
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 12371-6 2007
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) produce all blood cell lineages by virtue of their capacity to self-renew and differentiate into progenitors with decreasing cellular potential. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in controlling stem cell potency and cell fate decisions. To investigate this hypothesis in HSC, we have modified the conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation assay allowing for the analysis of 50,000 prospectively purified stem and progenitor cells. Together with bisulfite sequencing analysis, we found that methylated H3K4 and AcH3 and unmethylated CpG dinucleotides colocalize across defined regulatory regions of lineage-affiliated genes in HSC. These active epigenetic histone modifications either accumulated or were replaced by increased DNA methylation and H3K27 trimethylation in committed progenitors consistent with gene expression. We also observed bivalent histone modifications at a lymphoid-affiliated gene in HSC and downstream transit-amplifying progenitors. Together, these data support a model in which epigenetic modifications serve as an important mechanism to control HSC multipotency.
|Progressive loss of estrogen receptor alpha cofactor recruitment in endocrine resistance. |
Naughton, C; MacLeod, K; Kuske, B; Clarke, R; Cameron, DA; Langdon, SP
Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 21 2615-26 2007
Differential expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) cofactors has been implicated in endocrine resistance in breast cancer. Using a three-stage MCF-7 cell-based model that emulates the clinical manifestation of acquired endocrine resistant breast cancer we now show, using a combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA interference, that there is a progressive loss of ERalpha cofactor recruitment to the estrogen-dependent pS2 gene and reduced requirement for cofactor expression. Maximal estrogen induced pS2 induction requires ERalpha and cofactor recruitment in MCF-7 cells, but in the progression to endocrine resistance these requirements are altered and expression has become less dependent on cofactors. Additionally, in estrogen-resistant MCF-7 cells there is a global loss of requirement of individual cofactors for proliferative cell growth indicating that other genes have lost the need for transcriptional cofactors. This loss of the requirement for cofactors may represent an important mechanism for gene misregulation in cancer.
|Histone modifications induced by a family of bacterial toxins. |
Hamon, MA; Batsché, E; Régnault, B; Tham, TN; Seveau, S; Muchardt, C; Cossart, P
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 13467-72 2007
Upon infection, pathogens reprogram host gene expression. In eukaryotic cells, genetic reprogramming is induced by the concerted activation/repression of transcription factors and various histone modifications that control DNA accessibility in chromatin. We report here that the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes induces a dramatic dephosphorylation of histone H3 as well as a deacetylation of histone H4 during early phases of infection. This effect is mediated by the major listerial toxin listeriolysin O in a pore-forming-independent manner. Strikingly, a similar effect also is observed with other toxins of the same family, such as Clostridium perfringens perfringolysin and Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumolysin. The decreased levels of histone modifications correlate with a reduced transcriptional activity of a subset of host genes, including key immunity genes. Thus, control of epigenetic regulation emerges here as an unsuspected function shared by several bacterial toxins, highlighting a common strategy used by intracellular and extracellular pathogens to modulate the host response early during infection.
|Protection against telomeric position effects by the chicken cHS4 beta-globin insulator. |
Rincón-Arano, H; Furlan-Magaril, M; Recillas-Targa, F
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 14044-9 2007
Epigenetic silencing of genes relocated near telomeres, termed telomeric position effect, has been extensively studied in yeast and more recently in vertebrates. However, protection of a transgene against telomeric position effects by chromatin insulators has not yet been addressed. In this work we investigated the capacity of the chicken beta-globin insulator cHS4 to shield a transgene against silencing by telomeric heterochromatin. Using telomeric repeats, we targeted transgene integration into telomeres of the chicken cell line HD3. When the chicken cHS4 insulator is incorporated to the transgene, we observe a sustained gene expression of single-copy integrants that can be maintained for greater than 100 days of continuous culture. However, uninsulated single-copy clones showed an accelerated gene expression extinction profile. Unexpectedly, telomeric silencing was not reversed with trichostatin A or nicotidamine. In contrast, significant reactivation was obtained with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, consistent with the subtelomeric DNA methylation status. Strikingly, insulated transgenes integrated into telomeric regions were enriched in histone methylation, such as H3K4me2 and H3K79me2, but not in histone acetylation. Furthermore, the cHS4 insulator counteracts telomeric position effects in an upstream stimulatory factor-independent manner. Our results suggest that this insulator has the capacity to adapt to different chromatin propagation signals in distinct insertional epigenome environments.
|Tissue-specific histone modification and transcription factor binding in alpha globin gene expression. |
De Gobbi, M; Anguita, E; Hughes, J; Sloane-Stanley, JA; Sharpe, JA; Koch, CM; Dunham, I; Gibbons, RJ; Wood, WG; Higgs, DR
Blood 110 4503-10 2007
To address the mechanism by which the human globin genes are activated during erythropoiesis, we have used a tiled microarray to analyze the pattern of transcription factor binding and associated histone modifications across the telomeric region of human chromosome 16 in primary erythroid and nonerythroid cells. This 220-kb region includes the alpha globin genes and 9 widely expressed genes flanking the alpha globin locus. This un-biased, comprehensive analysis of transcription factor binding and histone modifications (acetylation and methylation) described here not only identified all known cis-acting regulatory elements in the human alpha globin cluster but also demonstrated that there are no additional erythroid-specific regulatory elements in the 220-kb region tested. In addition, the pattern of histone modification distinguished promoter elements from potential enhancer elements across this region. Finally, comparison of the human and mouse orthologous regions in a unique mouse model, with both regions coexpressed in the same animal, showed significant differences that may explain how these 2 clusters are regulated differently in vivo.
|An intronic locus control region plays an essential role in the establishment of an autonomous hepatic chromatin domain for the human vitamin D-binding protein gene. |
Hiroki, T; Liebhaber, SA; Cooke, NE
Molecular and cellular biology 27 7365-80 2007
The human vitamin D-binding protein (hDBP) gene exists in a cluster of four liver-expressed genes. A minimal hDBP transgene, containing a defined set of liver-specific DNase I hypersensitive sites (HSs), is robustly expressed in mouse liver in a copy-number-dependent manner. Here we evaluate these HSs for function. Deletion of HSI, located 5' to the promoter (kb -2.1) had no significant effect on hDBP expression. In contrast, deletion of HSIV and HSV from intron 1 repressed hDBP expression and eliminated copy number dependency without a loss of liver specificity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed peaks of histone H3 and H4 acetylation coincident with HSIV in the intact hDBP locus. This region contains a conserved array of binding sites for the liver-enriched transcription factor C/EBP. In vitro studies revealed selective binding of C/EBPalpha to HSIV. In vivo occupancy of C/EBPalpha at HSIV was demonstrated in hepatic chromatin, and depletion of C/EBPalpha in a hepatic cell line decreased hDBP expression. A nonredundant role for C/EBPalpha was confirmed in vivo by demonstrating a reduction of hDBP expression in C/EBPalpha-null mice. Parallel studies revealed in vivo occupancy of the liver-enriched factor HNF1alpha at HSIII (at kb 0.13) within the hDBP promoter. These data demonstrate a critical role for elements within intron 1 in the establishment of an autonomous and productive hDBP chromatin locus and suggest that this function is dependent upon C/EBPalpha. Cooperative interactions between these intronic complexes and liver-restricted complexes within the target promoter are likely to underlie the consistency and liver specificity of the hDBP activation.
|Chenodeoxycholic acid suppresses the activation of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase-alpha gene transcription by the liver X receptor agonist T0-901317. |
Talukdar, S; Bhatnagar, S; Dridi, S; Hillgartner, FB
Journal of lipid research 48 2647-63 2007
The therapeutic utility of liver X receptor (LXR) agonists in treating atherosclerosis is limited by an undesired accumulation of triglycerides in the blood and liver. This effect is caused by an increase in the transcription of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis. Here, we show that the primary bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), antagonizes the stimulatory effect of the synthetic LXR agonist, T0-901317, on the expression of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase-alpha (ACCalpha) and other lipogenic enzymes in chick embryo hepatocyte cultures. CDCA inhibits T0-901317-induced ACCalpha transcription by suppressing the enhancer activity of a LXR response unit (-101 to -71 bp) that binds LXR and sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). We also demonstrate that CDCA decreases the expression of SREBP-1 in the nucleus and the acetylation of histone H3 and H4 at the ACCalpha LXR response unit. The CDCA-mediated reduction in ACCalpha expression is associated with a decrease in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and small heterodimer partner and an increase in the expression of fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF-19). Ectopic expression of FGF-19 decreases T0-901317-induced ACCalpha expression. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and/or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) suppresses the effects of CDCA on the expression of ACCalpha, SREBP-1, PGC-1alpha, and FGF-19. These results demonstrate that CDCA inhibits T0-901317-induced ACCalpha transcription by suppressing the activity of LXR and SREBP-1. We postulate that p38 MAPK, ERK, PGC-1alpha, and FGF-19 are components of the signaling pathway(s) mediating the regulation of ACCalpha gene transcription by CDCA.
|ANCCA, an estrogen-regulated AAA+ ATPase coactivator for ERalpha, is required for coregulator occupancy and chromatin modification. |
Zou, JX; Revenko, AS; Li, LB; Gemo, AT; Chen, HW
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 18067-72 2007
AAA+ proteins play crucial roles in diverse biological processes via their ATPase-driven remodeling of macromolecular complexes. Here we report our identification of an evolutionarily conserved AAA+ protein, ANCCA/pro2000, endowed with a bromodomain that is strongly induced by estrogen in human breast cancer cells and is a direct target of protooncogene ACTR/AIB1/SRC-3. We found that ANCCA associates directly with estrogen-bound estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and ACTR. It is selectively recruited, upon estrogen stimulation, to a subset of ERalpha target genes including cyclin D1, c-myc, and E2F1 and is required for their estrogen-induced expression as well as breast cancer cell proliferation. Further studies indicate that ANCCA binds and hydrolyzes ATP and is critical for recruitment of coregulator CBP and histone hyperacetylation at the ER target chromatin. Moreover, mutations at the ATP binding motifs rendered ANCCA defective as a coactivator in mediating estrogen induction of gene expression. Together, our findings reveal an unexpected layer of regulatory mechanism in hormone signaling mediated by ANCCA and suggest that hormone-induced assembly of transcriptional coregulator complexes at chromatin is a process facilitated by AAA+ ATPase proteins.
|R306465 is a novel potent inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases with broad-spectrum antitumoral activity against solid and haematological malignancies. |
Arts, J; Angibaud, P; Mariën, A; Floren, W; Janssens, B; King, P; van Dun, J; Janssen, L; Geerts, T; Tuman, RW; Johnson, DL; Andries, L; Jung, M; Janicot, M; van Emelen, K
British journal of cancer 97 1344-53 2007
R306465 is a novel hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor with broad-spectrum antitumour activity against solid and haematological malignancies in preclinical models. R306465 was found to be a potent inhibitor of HDAC1 and -8 (class I) in vitro. It rapidly induced histone 3 (H3) acetylation and strongly upregulated expression of p21waf1,cip1, a downstream component of HDAC1 signalling, in A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells. R306465 showed class I HDAC isotype selectivity as evidenced by poor inhibition of HDAC6 (class IIb) confirmed by the absence of downregulation of Hsp90 chaperone c-raf protein expression and tubulin acetylation. This distinguished it from other HDAC inhibitors currently in clinical development that were either more potent towards HDAC6 (e.g. vorinostat) or had a broader HDAC inhibition spectrum (e.g. panobinostat). R306465 potently inhibited cell proliferation of all main solid tumour indications, including ovarian, lung, colon, breast and prostate cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 30 to 300 nM. Haematological cell lines, including acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic lymphoblastic leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma, were potently inhibited at a similar concentration range. R306465 induced apoptosis and inhibited angiogenesis in cell-based assays and had potent oral in vivo antitumoral activity in xenograft models. Once-daily oral administration of R306465 at well-tolerated doses inhibited the growth of A2780 ovarian, H460 lung and HCT116 colon carcinomas in immunodeficient mice. The high activity of R306465 in cell-based assays and in vivo after oral administration makes R306465 a promising novel antitumoral agent with potential applicability in a broad spectrum of human malignancies.
|Tip60 functions as a potential corepressor of KLF4 in regulation of HDC promoter activity. |
Ai, W; Zheng, H; Yang, X; Liu, Y; Wang, TC
Nucleic acids research 35 6137-49 2007
KLF4 is a transcription factor that is highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. Previously we have demonstrated that KLF4 represses HDC promoter activity in a gastric cell line through both an upstream Sp1 binding GC box and downstream gastrin responsive elements. However, the mechanism by which KLF4 inhibits HDC promoter is not well defined. In the current study, by using yeast two-hybrid screening, Tip60 was identified as a KLF4 interacting protein. Further coimmunoprecipitation and functional reporter assays support the interaction between these two proteins. In addition, Tip60 and HDAC7, previously shown to interact with each other and repress transcription, inhibited HDC promoter activity in a dose-dependent fashion. Consistently, knock down of Tip60 or HDAC7 gene expression by specific shRNA increased endogenous HDC mRNA level. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that HDAC7 was pulled down by KLF4 and Tip60, suggesting that these three proteins form a repressive complex. Further chromatin immuno-precipitation indicated that all three proteins associated with HDC promoter. Two-hour gastrin treatment, known to activate HDC gene expression, significantly decreased the association of KLF4, Tip60 and HDAC7 with HDC promoter, suggesting that gastrin activates HDC gene expression at least partly by decreasing the formation of KLF4/Tip60/HDAC7 repressive complexes at the HDC promoter.
|TRRAP and GCN5 are used by c-Myc to activate RNA polymerase III transcription. |
Kenneth, NS; Ramsbottom, BA; Gomez-Roman, N; Marshall, L; Cole, PA; White, RJ
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 14917-22 2007
Activation of RNA polymerase (pol) II transcription by c-Myc generally involves recruitment of histone acetyltransferases and acetylation of histones H3 and H4. Here, we describe the mechanism used by c-Myc to activate pol III transcription of tRNA and 5S rRNA genes. Within 2 h of its induction, c-Myc appears at these genes along with the histone acetyltransferase GCN5 and the cofactor TRRAP. At the same time, occupancy of the pol III-specific factor TFIIIB increases and histone H3 becomes hyperacetylated, but increased histone H4 acetylation is not detected at these genes. The rapid acetylation of histone H3 and promoter assembly of TFIIIB, c-Myc, GCN5, and TRRAP are followed by recruitment of pol III and transcriptional induction. The selective acetylation of histone H3 distinguishes pol III activation by c-Myc from mechanisms observed in other systems.
|ChIP on SNP-chip for genome-wide analysis of human histone H4 hyperacetylation. |
McCann, JA; Muro, EM; Palmer, C; Palidwor, G; Porter, CJ; Andrade-Navarro, MA; Rudnicki, MA
BMC genomics 8 322 2007
SNP microarrays are designed to genotype Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). These microarrays report hybridization of DNA fragments and therefore can be used for the purpose of detecting genomic fragments.Here, we demonstrate that a SNP microarray can be effectively used in this way to perform chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) on chip as an alternative to tiling microarrays. We illustrate this novel application by mapping whole genome histone H4 hyperacetylation in human myoblasts and myotubes. We detect clusters of hyperacetylated histone H4, often spanning across up to 300 kilobases of genomic sequence. Using complementary genome-wide analyses of gene expression by DNA microarray we demonstrate that these clusters of hyperacetylated histone H4 tend to be associated with expressed genes.The use of a SNP array for a ChIP-on-chip application (ChIP on SNP-chip) will be of great value to laboratories whose interest is the determination of general rules regarding the relationship of specific chromatin modifications to transcriptional status throughout the genome and to examine the asymmetric modification of chromatin at heterozygous loci.
|Mechanism of the divergent effects of estrogen on the cell proliferation of human umbilical endothelial versus aortic smooth muscle cells. |
Kawagoe, J; Ohmichi, M; Tsutsumi, S; Ohta, T; Takahashi, K; Kurachi, H
Endocrinology 148 6092-9 2007
Diverse estrogen actions are controlled via estrogen receptors (ERs). Mechanisms of action of ERs are modulated by various factors such as ER subtypes, conformation of the ER-ligand complex, and recruitment of coregulator complexes to a target gene promoter. Estrogen exerts divergent actions on vascular cells; namely it increases endothelial cell and inhibits smooth muscle cell growth, resulting in a vasoprotective action. We particularly focused on these divergent effects and examined the mechanisms. The effects of raloxifene, which shows estrogen-like vasoprotective actions, were also examined. To examine the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) and raloxifene on human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs), we evaluated the effect of E(2) and raloxifene on transcriptional activity, recruitment of the coregulator complex to a target gene promoter, and acetylation of histone of both the IGF-I and COX-2 genes. Treatment with E(2) or raloxifene increased both IGF-I and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 mRNA expression in HUVECs, whereas they attenuated the serum-induced increase of these genes in HASMCs. Treatment by E(2) and raloxifene induced recruitment of coactivator complex and histone acetylation at both the IGF-I and COX-2 gene promoter in HUVECs. In contrast, in HASMCs, E(2), and raloxifene attenuated the serum-induced recruitment of coactivator complexes and histone acetylation at both the IGF-I and COX-2 gene promoters. Estrogen and raloxifene exert divergent transcriptional regulation on both mRNA expression and the remodeling of IGF-I and COX-2 gene promoters in HUVECs vs. HASMCs.
|Chromatin structure regulates gene conversion. |
Cummings, WJ; Yabuki, M; Ordinario, EC; Bednarski, DW; Quay, S; Maizels, N
PLoS biology 5 e246 2007
Homology-directed repair is a powerful mechanism for maintaining and altering genomic structure. We asked how chromatin structure contributes to the use of homologous sequences as donors for repair using the chicken B cell line DT40 as a model. In DT40, immunoglobulin genes undergo regulated sequence diversification by gene conversion templated by pseudogene donors. We found that the immunoglobulin Vlambda pseudogene array is characterized by histone modifications associated with active chromatin. We directly demonstrated the importance of chromatin structure for gene conversion, using a regulatable experimental system in which the heterochromatin protein HP1 (Drosophila melanogaster Su[var]205), expressed as a fusion to Escherichia coli lactose repressor, is tethered to polymerized lactose operators integrated within the pseudo-Vlambda donor array. Tethered HP1 diminished histone acetylation within the pseudo-Vlambda array, and altered the outcome of Vlambda diversification, so that nontemplated mutations rather than templated mutations predominated. Thus, chromatin structure regulates homology-directed repair. These results suggest that histone modifications may contribute to maintaining genomic stability by preventing recombination between repetitive sequences.
|Major and essential role for the DNA methylation mark in mouse embryogenesis and stable association of DNMT1 with newly replicated regions. |
Takebayashi, S; Tamura, T; Matsuoka, C; Okano, M
Molecular and cellular biology 27 8243-58 2007
DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) plays an important role in the inheritance of genomic DNA methylation, which is coupled to the DNA replication process. Early embryonic lethality in DNMT1-null mutant (Dnmt1(c)) mice indicates that DNA methylation is essential for mammalian development. DNMT1, however, interacts with a number of transcriptional regulators and has a transcriptional repressor activity independent of its catalytic activity. To examine the roles of the catalytic activity of DNMT1 in vivo, we generated a Dnmt1(ps) allele that expresses a point-mutated protein that lacks catalytic activity (DNMT1-C1229S). Dnmt1(ps) mutant mice showed developmental arrest shortly after gastrulation, near-complete loss of DNA methylation, and an altered distribution of repressive chromatin markers in the nuclei; these phenotypes are quite similar to those of the Dnmt1(c) mutant. The mutant DNMT1 protein failed to associate with replication foci in Dnmt1(ps) cells. Reconstitution experiments and replication labeling in Dnmt1-/- Dnmt3a-/- Dnmt3b-/- (i.e., unmethylated) embryonic stem cells revealed that preexisting DNA methylation is a major determinant for the cell cycle-dependent localization of DNMT1. The C-terminal catalytic domain of DNMT1 inhibited its stable association with unmethylated chromatin. Our results reveal essential roles for the DNA methylation mark in mammalian development and in DNMT1 localization.
|Pax-6 and c-Maf functionally interact with the alpha-cell-specific DNA element G1 in vivo to promote glucagon gene expression. |
Gosmain, Y; Avril, I; Mamin, A; Philippe, J
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 35024-34 2007
Specific expression of the glucagon gene in the rat pancreas requires the presence of the G1 element localized at -100/-49 base pairs on the promoter. Although it is known that multiple transcription factors such as Pax-6, Cdx-2/3, c-Maf, Maf-B, and Brain-4 can activate the glucagon gene promoter through G1, their relative importance in vivo is unknown. We first studied the expression of Maf-B, c-Maf, and Cdx-2/3 in the developing and adult mouse pancreas. Although Maf-B was detectable in a progressively increasing number of alpha-cells throughout development and in adulthood, c-Maf and Cdx-2/3 were expressed at low and very low levels, respectively. However, c-Maf but not Cdx-2/3 was detectable in adult islets by Western blot analyses. We then demonstrated the in vivo interactions of Pax-6, Cdx-2/3, Maf-B, and c-Maf but not Brain-4 with the glucagon gene promoter in glucagon-producing cells. Although Pax-6, Cdx-2/3, Maf-B, and c-Maf were all able to bind G1 by themselves, we showed that Pax-6 could interact with Maf-B, c-Maf, and Cdx-2/3 and activate transcription of the glucagon gene promoter. Overexpression of dominant negative forms of Cdx-2/3 and Mafs in alpha-cell lines indicated that Cdx-2/3 and the Maf proteins interact on an overlapping site within G1 and that this binding site is critical in the activation of the glucagon gene promoter. Finally, we show that specific inhibition of Pax-6 and c-Maf but not Cdx-2/3 or Maf-B led to decreases in endogenous glucagon gene expression and that c-Maf binds the glucagon gene promoter in mouse islets. We conclude that Pax-6 and c-Maf interact with G1 to activate basal expression of the glucagon gene.
|Activation of the G2/M-specific gene CLB2 requires multiple cell cycle signals. |
Veis, J; Klug, H; Koranda, M; Ammerer, G
Molecular and cellular biology 27 8364-73 2007
In budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the periodic expression of the G2/M-specific gene CLB2 depends on a DNA binding complex that mediates its repression during G1 and activation from the S phase to the exit of mitosis. The switch from low to high expression levels depends on the transcriptional activator Ndd1. We show that the inactivation of the Sin3 histone deacetylase complex bypasses the essential role of Ndd1 in cell cycle progression. Sin3 and its catalytic subunit Rpd3 associate with the CLB2 promoter during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Both proteins dissociate from the promoter at the onset of the S phase and reassociate during G2 phase. Sin3 removal coincides with a transient increase in histone H4 acetylation followed by the expulsion of at least one nucleosome from the promoter region. Whereas the first step depends on Cdc28/Cln1 activity, Ndd1 function is required for the second step. Since the removal of Sin3 is independent of Ndd1 recruitment and Cdc28/Clb activity it represents a unique regulatory step which is distinct from transcriptional activation.
|Comparing active and repressed expression states of genes controlled by the Polycomb/Trithorax group proteins. |
Beisel, C; Buness, A; Roustan-Espinosa, IM; Koch, B; Schmitt, S; Haas, SA; Hild, M; Katsuyama, T; Paro, R
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 16615-20 2007
Drosophila Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) proteins are responsible for the maintenance of stable transcription patterns of many developmental regulators, such as the homeotic genes. We have used ChIP-on-chip to compare the distribution of several PcG/TrxG proteins, as well as histone modifications in active and repressed genes across the two homeotic complexes ANT-C and BX-C. Our data indicate the colocalization of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) with Trx and the DNA binding protein Pleiohomeotic (Pho) at discrete sequence elements as well as significant chromatin assembly differences in active and inactive regions. Trx binds to the promoters of active genes and noncoding transcripts. Most strikingly, in the active state, Pho covers extended chromatin domains over many kilobases. This feature of Pho, observed on many polytene chromosome puffs, reflects a previously undescribed function. At the hsp70 gene, we demonstrate in mutants that Pho is required for transcriptional recovery after heat shock. Besides its presumptive function in recruiting PcG complexes to their site of action, our results now uncover that Pho plays an additional role in the repression of already induced genes.
|Drug-induced epigenetic changes produce drug tolerance. |
Wang, Y; Krishnan, HR; Ghezzi, A; Yin, JC; Atkinson, NS
PLoS biology 5 e265 2007
Tolerance to drugs that affect neural activity is mediated, in part, by adaptive mechanisms that attempt to restore normal neural excitability. Changes in the expression of ion channel genes are thought to play an important role in these neural adaptations. The slo gene encodes the pore-forming subunit of BK-type Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, which regulate many aspects of neural activity. Given that induction of slo gene expression plays an important role in the acquisition of tolerance to sedating drugs, we investigated the molecular mechanism of gene induction. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by real-time PCR, we show that a single brief sedation with the anesthetic benzyl alcohol generates a spatiotemporal pattern of histone H4 acetylation across the slo promoter region. Inducing histone acetylation with a histone deacetylase inhibitor yields a similar pattern of changes in histone acetylation, up-regulates slo expression, and phenocopies tolerance in a slo-dependent manner. The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is an important transcription factor mediating experience-based neuroadaptations. The slo promoter region contains putative binding sites for the CREB transcription factor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that benzyl alcohol sedation enhances CREB binding within the slo promoter region. Furthermore, activation of a CREB dominant-negative transgene blocks benzyl alcohol-induced changes in histone acetylation within the slo promoter region, slo induction, and behavioral tolerance caused by benzyl alcohol sedation. These findings provide unique evidence that links molecular epigenetic histone modifications and transcriptional induction of an ion channel gene with a single behavioral event.
|Valproate induces widespread epigenetic reprogramming which involves demethylation of specific genes. |
Milutinovic, S; D'Alessio, AC; Detich, N; Szyf, M
Carcinogenesis 28 560-71 2007
Valproate (VPA)(1) has been used for decades in the treatment of epilepsy, and is also effective as a mood stabilizer and in migraine therapy. It has been shown that VPA is also a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. We have previously shown that VPA could trigger active demethylation of ectopically methylated transiently transfected DNA in HEK 293 cells. We therefore tested whether VPA treatment could bring about stable changes in the epigenome by causing changes in the state of DNA methylation of genomic DNA. Using a microarray gene expression analysis we identified the genes whose expression is induced by VPA treatment in HEK 293 cells. We found that a subset of these genes could also be induced by the classical DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxy-cytidine (5-aza-CdR) suggesting that VPA can alter the state of expression of genes, which are stably suppressed by DNA methylation. We mapped the state of methylation of three of these genes, MELANOMA ANTIGEN B2 GENE (MAGEB2), METALLOPROTEINASE 2 (MMP2) and WIF1, which are involved in tumor growth and metastasis. A chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that VPA treatment caused as expected a change in the state of acetylation of these genes. Our data supports the concept that chromatin acetylation and DNA methylation are found in a dynamic interrelation and that the consequences of HDAC inhibitors are not limited to changes in histone acetylation but that they also bring about a change in the state of modification of DNA. The implications of our results on the future therapeutic utilities of VPA in cancer will be discussed.
|Transcriptional control of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand by the protein kinase A activator forskolin and the transmembrane glycoprotein 130-activating cytokine, oncostatin M, is exerted through multiple distal enhancers. |
Kim, S; Yamazaki, M; Shevde, NK; Pike, JW
Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 21 197-214 2007
Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RankL) is a potent osteoclastogenic cytokine the expression of which is regulated at the transcriptional level by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3], protein kinase A (PKA) activators such as PTH and transmembrane glycoprotein 130 (gp130)-activating cytokines such as oncostatin M. We recently identified five highly conserved chromatin domains located significant distances upstream of the RankL transcriptional start site that contribute to the ability of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and its receptor to enhance RankL gene output. We therefore screened these five common regulatory regions for their potential ability to mediate the actions of PKA- and gp130-activators using a directed chromatin immunoprecipitation approach employing antibodies to the PKA target cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and the gp130 target signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. CREB was identified at each of the upstream regulatory regions; signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, in contrast, was associated with only a subset. Interestingly, only the most distal of these regions demonstrated CREB- and oncostatin M-regulated transcriptional activity in a heterologous transfection system. Mapping studies pointed to two highly conserved cAMP response elements as well as an adjacent regulatory site that bound Runt transcription factor 2 and was able to influence both basal as well as hormone-inducible RankL activity. Surprisingly, PKA and gp130 activation prompted recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the five distal enhancers as well as to the RankL transcriptional start site. Activation was also accompanied by a significant and location-selective rise in histone 4 acetylation. This study demonstrates that the activation of RankL gene expression by PKA- and gp130-inducers is mediated via common regulatory domains that also served to facilitate the activity of 1,25-(OH)2D3.
|E2f1, E2f2, and E2f3 control E2F target expression and cellular proliferation via a p53-dependent negative feedback loop. |
Timmers, C; Sharma, N; Opavsky, R; Maiti, B; Wu, L; Wu, J; Orringer, D; Trikha, P; Saavedra, HI; Leone, G
Molecular and cellular biology 27 65-78 2007
E2F-mediated control of gene expression is believed to have an essential role in the control of cellular proliferation. Using a conditional gene-targeting approach, we show that the targeted disruption of the entire E2F activator subclass composed of E2f1, E2f2, and E2f3 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts leads to the activation of p53 and the induction of p53 target genes, including p21(CIP1). Consequently, cyclin-dependent kinase activity and retinoblastoma (Rb) phosphorylation are dramatically inhibited, leading to Rb/E2F-mediated repression of E2F target gene expression and a severe block in cellular proliferation. Inactivation of p53 in E2f1-, E2f2-, and E2f3-deficient cells, either by spontaneous mutation or by conditional gene ablation, prevented the induction of p21(CIP1) and many other p53 target genes. As a result, cyclin-dependent kinase activity, Rb phosphorylation, and E2F target gene expression were restored to nearly normal levels, rendering cells responsive to normal growth signals. These findings suggest that a critical function of the E2F1, E2F2, and E2F3 activators is in the control of a p53-dependent axis that indirectly regulates E2F-mediated transcriptional repression and cellular proliferation.
|DNA methylation immediately adjacent to active histone marking does not silence transcription. |
Brinkman, AB; Pennings, SW; Braliou, GG; Rietveld, LE; Stunnenberg, HG
Nucleic acids research 35 801-11 2007
Active promoters generally contain histone H3/H4 hyperacetylation and tri-methylation at H3 lysine 4, whereas repressed promoters are associated with DNA methylation. Here we show that the repressed erythroid-specific carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) promoter has active histone modifications localized around the transcription start, while high levels of CpG methylation are present directly upstream from these active marks. Despite the presence of active histone modifications, the repressed promoter requires hormone-induced activation for efficient preinitiation complex assembly. Transient and positional changes in histone H3/H4 acetylation and local changes in nucleosome density are evident during activation, but the bipartite epigenetic code is stably maintained. Our results suggest that active histone modifications may prevent spreading of CpG methylation towards the promoter and show that repressive DNA methylation immediately adjacent to a promoter does not necessarily repress transcription.
|The role of histone acetylation in regulating early gene expression patterns during early embryonic stem cell differentiation. |
McCool, KW; Xu, X; Singer, DB; Murdoch, FE; Fritsch, MK
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 6696-706 2007
We have examined the role of histone acetylation in the very earliest steps of differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells in response to withdrawal of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) as a differentiation signal. The cells undergo dramatic changes in morphology and an ordered program of gene expression changes representing differentiation to all three germ layers over the first 3-5 days of LIF withdrawal. We observed a global increase in acetylation on histone H4 and to a lesser extent on histone H3 over this time period. Treatment of the cells with trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, induced changes in morphology, gene expression, and histone acetylation that mimicked differentiation induced by withdrawal of LIF. We examined localized histone acetylation in the regulatory regions of genes that were transcriptionally either active in undifferentiated cells, induced during differentiation, or inactive under all treatments. There was striking concordance in the histone acetylation patterns of specific genes induced by both TSA and LIF withdrawal. Increased histone acetylation in local regions correlated best with induction of gene expression. Finally, TSA treatment did not support the maintenance or progression of differentiation. Upon removal of TSA, the cells reverted to the undifferentiated phenotype. We concluded that increased histone acetylation at specific genes played a role in their expression, but additional events are required for maintenance of differentiated gene expression and loss of the pluripotent state.
|Direct role for the Rpd3 complex in transcriptional induction of the anaerobic DAN/TIR genes in yeast. |
Sertil, O; Vemula, A; Salmon, SL; Morse, RH; Lowry, CV
Molecular and cellular biology 27 2037-47 2007
Saccharomyces cerevisiae adapts to hypoxia by expressing a large group of "anaerobic" genes. Among these, the eight DAN/TIR genes are regulated by the repressors Rox1 and Mot3 and the activator Upc2/Mox4. In attempting to identify factors recruited by the DNA binding repressor Mot3 to enhance repression of the DAN/TIR genes, we found that the histone deacetylase and global repressor complex, Rpd3-Sin3-Sap30, was not required for repression. Strikingly, the complex was instead required for activation. In addition, the histone H3 and H4 amino termini, which are targets of Rpd3, were also required for DAN1 expression. Epistasis tests demonstrated that the Rpd3 complex is not required in the absence of the repressor Mot3. Furthermore, the Rpd3 complex was required for normal function and stable binding of the activator Upc2 at the DAN1 promoter. Moreover, the Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complex was strongly required for activation of DAN1, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed an Rpd3-dependent reduction in DAN1 promoter-associated nucleosomes upon induction. Taken together, these data provide evidence that during anaerobiosis, the Rpd3 complex acts at the DAN1 promoter to antagonize the chromatin-mediated repression caused by Mot3 and Rox1 and that chromatin remodeling by Swi/Snf is necessary for normal expression.
|Heat shock factor 2 (HSF2) contributes to inducible expression of hsp genes through interplay with HSF1. |
Ostling, P; Björk, JK; Roos-Mattjus, P; Mezger, V; Sistonen, L
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 7077-86 2007
The heat shock response is a defense reaction activated by proteotoxic damage induced by physiological or environmental stress. Cells respond to the proteotoxic damage by elevated expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) that function as molecular chaperones and maintain the vital homeostasis of protein folds. Heat shock factors (HSFs) are the main transcriptional regulators of the stress-induced expression of hsp genes. Mammalian HSF1 was originally identified as the transcriptional regulator of the heat shock response, whereas HSF2 has not been implicated a role in the stress response. Previously, we and others have demonstrated that HSF1 and HSF2 interact through their trimerization domains, but the functional consequence of this interaction remained unclear. We have now demonstrated on chromatin that both HSF1 and HSF2 were able to bind the hsp70 promoter not only in response to heat shock but also during hemin-induced differentiation of K562 erythroleukemia cells. In both cases an intact HSF1 was required in order to reach maximal levels of promoter occupancy, suggesting that HSF1 influences the DNA binding activity of HSF2. The functional consequence of the HSF1-HSF2 interplay was demonstrated by real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses, which showed that HSF2 was able to modulate the HSF1-mediated expression of major hsp genes. Our results reveal, contrary to the predominant model, that HSF2 indeed participates in the transcriptional regulation of the heat shock response.
|Glucocorticoid and growth factor synergism requirement for Notch4 chromatin domain activation. |
Wu, J; Bresnick, EH
Molecular and cellular biology 27 2411-22 2007
The Notch signaling pathway modulates cell fate in diverse contexts, including vascular development. Notch4 is selectively expressed in vascular endothelium and regulates vascular remodeling. The signal-dependent transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) activates Notch4 transcription in endothelial cells, but other factors/signals that regulate Notch4 are largely unknown. We demonstrate that, unlike the established transrepression mechanism in which the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonizes AP-1, AP-1 and GR synergistically activated Notch4 transcription in endothelial cells. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and cortisol induced AP-1 and GR occupancy, respectively, at a Notch4 promoter composite response element consisting of an imperfect half-glucocorticoid response element and an AP-1 motif, which mediated signal-dependent activation. Analysis of Notch4 promoter complex assembly provided evidence that GR and AP-1 independently occupy the composite response element, but AP-1 stabilizes GR occupancy. In multipotent 10T1/2 cells, FGF-2 and cortisol induced a histone modification pattern at the Notch4 locus mimicking that present in endothelial cells and reprogrammed Notch4 from a repressed to an active state. These results establish the molecular basis for a novel AP-1/GR-Notch4 axis in vascular endothelium.
|hDREF regulates cell proliferation and expression of ribosomal protein genes. |
Yamashita, D; Sano, Y; Adachi, Y; Okamoto, Y; Osada, H; Takahashi, T; Yamaguchi, T; Osumi, T; Hirose, F
Molecular and cellular biology 27 2003-13 2007
Although ribosomal proteins (RPs) are essential cellular constituents in all living organisms, mechanisms underlying regulation of their gene expression in mammals remain unclear. We have established that 22 out of 79 human RP genes contain sequences similar to the human DREF (DNA replication-related element-binding factor; hDREF) binding sequence (hDRE) within 200-bp regions upstream of their transcriptional start sites. Electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that hDREF binds to hDRE-like sequences in the RP genes both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, transient luciferase assays revealed that hDRE-like sequences act as positive elements for RP gene transcription and cotransfection of an hDREF-expressing plasmid was found to stimulate RP gene promoter activity. Like that of hDREF, expression of RP genes is increased during the late G(1) to S phases, and depletion of hDREF using short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown decreased RP gene expression and cell proliferation in normal human fibroblasts. Knockdown of the RPS6 gene also resulted in impairment of cell proliferation. These data suggest that hDREF is an important transcription factor for cell proliferation which plays roles in cell cycle-dependent regulation of a number of RP genes.
|ATF2 is required for amino acid-regulated transcription by orchestrating specific histone acetylation. |
Bruhat, A; Chérasse, Y; Maurin, AC; Breitwieser, W; Parry, L; Deval, C; Jones, N; Jousse, C; Fafournoux, P
Nucleic acids research 35 1312-21 2007
The transcriptional activation of CHOP (a CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-related gene) by amino acid deprivation involves the activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) and the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) binding the amino acid response element (AARE) within the promoter. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation approach, we report that in vivo binding of phospho-ATF2 and ATF4 to CHOP AARE are associated with acetylation of histones H4 and H2B in response to amino acid starvation. A time course analysis reveals that ATF2 phosphorylation precedes histone acetylation, ATF4 binding and the increase in CHOP mRNA. We also show that ATF4 binding and histone acetylation are two independent events that are required for the CHOP induction upon amino acid starvation. Using ATF2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we demonstrate that ATF2 is essential in the acetylation of histone H4 and H2B in vivo. The role of ATF2 on histone H4 acetylation is dependent on its binding to the AARE and can be extended to other amino acid regulated genes. Thus, ATF2 is involved in promoting the modification of the chromatin structure to enhance the transcription of a number of amino acid-regulated genes.
|Chromatin remodeling by SWI/SNF results in nucleosome mobilization to preferential positions in the rat osteocalcin gene promoter. |
Gutiérrez, J; Paredes, R; Cruzat, F; Hill, DA; van Wijnen, AJ; Lian, JB; Stein, GS; Stein, JL; Imbalzano, AN; Montecino, M
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 9445-57 2007
Changes in local chromatin structure accompany transcriptional activation of eukaryotic genes. In vivo these changes in chromatin organization can be catalyzed by ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes, such as SWI/SNF. These complexes alter the tight wrapping of DNA in the nucleosomes and can facilitate the mobilization of the histone octamer to adjacent DNA segments, leaving promoter regulatory elements exposed for transcription factor binding. To gain understanding of how the activity of SWI/SNF complexes may be modulated by the different DNA sequences within a natural promoter, we have reconstituted nucleosomes containing promoter segments of the transcriptionally active cell type-specific osteocalcin (OC) gene and determined how they affect the directional movements of the nucleosomes. Our results indicate that SWI/SNF complexes induce octamer sliding to preferential positions in the OC promoter, leading to a nucleosomal organization that resembles that described in intact cells expressing the OC gene. Our studies demonstrate that the position of the histone octamer is primarily determined by sequences within the OC promoter that include or exclude nucleosomes. We propose that these sequences are critical components of the regulatory mechanisms that mediate expression of this tissue-specific gene.
|Histone deacetylases and ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 are involved in the establishment of polarity in leaves of Arabidopsis. |
Ueno, Y; Ishikawa, T; Watanabe, K; Terakura, S; Iwakawa, H; Okada, K; Machida, C; Machida, Y
The Plant cell 19 445-57 2007
We show that two Arabidopsis thaliana genes for histone deacetylases (HDACs), HDT1/HD2A and HDT2/HD2B, are required to establish leaf polarity in the presence of mutant ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2) or AS1. Treatment of as1 or as2 plants with inhibitors of HDACs resulted in abaxialized filamentous leaves and aberrant distribution of microRNA165 and/or microRNA166 (miR165/166) in leaves. Knockdown mutations of these two HDACs by RNA interference resulted in phenotypes like those observed in the as2 background. Nuclear localization of overproduced AS2 resulted in decreased levels of mature miR165/166 in leaves. This abnormality was abolished by HDAC inhibitors, suggesting that HDACs are required for AS2 action. A loss-of-function mutation in HASTY, encoding a positive regulator of miRNA levels, and a gain-of-function mutation in PHABULOSA, encoding a determinant of adaxialization, suppressed the generation of abaxialized filamentous leaves by inhibition of HDACs in the as1 or as2 background. AS2 and AS1 were colocalized in subnuclear bodies adjacent to the nucleolus where HDT1/HD2A and HDT2/HD2B were also found. Our results suggest that these HDACs and both AS2 and AS1 act independently to control levels and/or patterns of miR165/166 distribution and the development of adaxial-abaxial leaf polarity and that there may be interactions between HDACs and AS2 (AS1) in the generation of those miRNAs.
|Epigenetic control of the foxp3 locus in regulatory T cells. |
Floess, S; Freyer, J; Siewert, C; Baron, U; Olek, S; Polansky, J; Schlawe, K; Chang, HD; Bopp, T; Schmitt, E; Klein-Hessling, S; Serfling, E; Hamann, A; Huehn, J
PLoS biology 5 e38 2007
Compelling evidence suggests that the transcription factor Foxp3 acts as a master switch governing the development and function of CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, whether transcriptional control of Foxp3 expression itself contributes to the development of a stable Treg lineage has thus far not been investigated. We here identified an evolutionarily conserved region within the foxp3 locus upstream of exon-1 possessing transcriptional activity. Bisulphite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed complete demethylation of CpG motifs as well as histone modifications within the conserved region in ex vivo isolated Foxp3(+)CD25(+)CD4(+) Tregs, but not in naïve CD25(-)CD4(+) T cells. Partial DNA demethylation is already found within developing Foxp3(+) thymocytes; however, Tregs induced by TGF-beta in vitro display only incomplete demethylation despite high Foxp3 expression. In contrast to natural Tregs, these TGF-beta-induced Foxp3(+) Tregs lose both Foxp3 expression and suppressive activity upon restimulation in the absence of TGF-beta. Our data suggest that expression of Foxp3 must be stabilized by epigenetic modification to allow the development of a permanent suppressor cell lineage, a finding of significant importance for therapeutic applications involving induction or transfer of Tregs and for the understanding of long-term cell lineage decisions.
|TAK1 represses transcription of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene. |
Fujiki, T; Miura, T; Maura, M; Shiraishi, H; Nishimura, S; Imada, Y; Uehara, N; Tashiro, K; Shirahata, S; Katakura, Y
Oncogene 26 5258-66 2007
In human cells, telomerase activity is tightly regulated by the expression of its catalytic subunit, namely, the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of hTERT expression have not been completely clarified. We have previously reported that transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) represses the expression of the hTERT gene. In the present study, we demonstrated that TGF-beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), originally identified as a mitogen-activated kinase kinase kinase, represses the hTERT core promoter activity in an E-box-independent manner, and it also represses the transcription of the hTERT gene in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549 cells. This TAK1-induced repression was found to be caused by the recruitment of histone deacetylase to Sp1 at the hTERT promoter and a consequent reduction in the amount of acetylated histone H4 at the hTERT promoter. Finally, we demonstrated that TAK1 induces cellular senescence programs in normal human diploid cells. Thus, we assume that TAK1 triggers the repression mechanisms of the hTERT gene as a result of evoking cellular senescence programs. Considered together, TAK1 is thought to play a causative role in the determination of a finite replicative lifespan of normal and cancer cells.
|TRB3 inhibits the transcriptional activation of stress-regulated genes by a negative feedback on the ATF4 pathway. |
Jousse, C; Deval, C; Maurin, AC; Parry, L; Chérasse, Y; Chaveroux, C; Lefloch, R; Lenormand, P; Bruhat, A; Fafournoux, P
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 15851-61 2007
The integrated stress response (ISR) is defined as a highly conserved response to several stresses that converge to the induction of the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Because an uncontrolled response may have deleterious effects, cells have elaborated several negative feedback loops that attenuate the ISR. In the present study, we describe how induction of the human homolog of Drosophila tribbles (TRB3) attenuates the ISR by a negative feedback mechanism. To investigate the role of TRB3 in the control of the ISR, we used the regulation of gene expression by amino acid limitation as a model. The enhanced production of ATF4 upon amino acid starvation results in the induction of a large number of target genes like CHOP (CAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein), asparagine synthetase (ASNS), or TRB3. We demonstrate that TRB3 overexpression inhibits the transcriptional induction of CHOP and ASNS whereas TRB3 silencing induces the expression of these genes both under normal and stressed conditions. In addition, transcriptional profiling experiments show that TRB3 affects the expression of many ISR-regulated genes. Our results also suggest that TRB3 and ATF4 belong to the same protein complex bound to the sequence involved in the ATF4-dependent regulation of gene expression by amino acid limitation. Collectively, our data identify TRB3 as a negative feedback regulator of the ATF4-dependent transcription and participates to the fine regulation of the ISR.
|Suppression of viral gene expression in bovine leukemia virus-associated B-cell malignancy: interplay of epigenetic modifications leading to chromatin with a repressive histone code. |
Merimi, M; Klener, P; Szynal, M; Cleuter, Y; Kerkhofs, P; Burny, A; Martiat, P; Van den Broeke, A
Journal of virology 81 5929-39 2007
Ovine leukemia/lymphoma resulting from bovine leukemia virus infection of sheep offers a large animal model for studying mechanisms underlying leukemogenesis. Silencing of viral information including Tax, the major contributor to the oncogenic potential of the virus, is critical if not mandatory for tumor progression. In this study, we have identified epigenetic mechanisms that govern the complete suppression of viral expression, using a lymphoma-derived B-cell clone carrying a silent provirus. Silencing was not relieved by injection of the malignant B cells into sheep. However, exogenous expression of Tax or treatment with either the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5'azacytidine or the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A rescued viral expression, as demonstrated by in vivo infectivity trials. Comparing silent and reactivated provirus, we found mechanistic connections between chromatin conformation and tumor-associated transcriptional repression. Silencing is associated with DNA methylation and decreased accessibility of promoter sequences. HDAC1 and the transcriptional corepressor mSin3A are associated with the inactive but not the reactivated promoter. Silencing correlates with a repressed chromatin structure marked by histone H3 and H4 hypoacetylation, a loss of methylation at H3 lysine 4, and an increase of H3 lysine 9 methylation. These observations point to the critical role of epigenetic mechanisms in tumor-specific virus/oncogene silencing, a potential strategy to evade immune response and favor the propagation of the transformed cell.
|Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha is required for expression but dispensable for histone acetylation of the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase gene in vivo. |
Bosse, T; van Wering, HM; Gielen, M; Dowling, LN; Fialkovich, JJ; Piaseckyj, CM; Gonzalez, FJ; Akiyama, TE; Montgomery, RK; Grand, RJ; Krasinski, SD
American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 290 G1016-24 2006
Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha) is a modified homeodomain-containing transcription factor that has been implicated in the regulation of intestinal genes. To define the importance and underlying mechanism of HNF-1alpha for the regulation of intestinal gene expression in vivo, we analyzed the expression of the intestinal differentiation markers and putative HNF-1alpha targets lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) in hnf1alpha null mice. We found that in adult jejunum, LPH mRNA in hnf1alpha(-/-) mice was reduced 95% compared with wild-type controls (P less than 0.01, n = 4), whereas SI mRNA was virtually identical to that in wild-type mice. Furthermore, SI mRNA abundance was unchanged in the absence of HNF-1alpha along the length of the adult mouse small intestine as well as in newborn jejunum. We found that HNF-1alpha occupies the promoters of both the LPH and SI genes in vivo. However, in contrast to liver and pancreas, where HNF-1alpha regulates target genes by recruitment of histone acetyl transferase activity to the promoter, the histone acetylation state of the LPH and SI promoters was not affected by the presence or absence of HNF-1alpha. Finally, we showed that a subset of hypothesized intestinal target genes is regulated by HNF-1alpha in vivo and that this regulation occurs in a defined tissue-specific and developmental context. These data indicate that HNF-1alpha is an activator of a subset of intestinal genes and induces these genes through an alternative mechanism in which it is dispensable for chromatin remodeling.
|DNA damage promotes histone deacetylase 4 nuclear localization and repression of G2/M promoters, via p53 C-terminal lysines. |
Basile, V; Mantovani, R; Imbriano, C
The Journal of biological chemistry 281 2347-57 2006
Repression of G(2)/M promoters after DNA damage is an active mechanism that requires the p53 tumor suppressor. We have recently found that histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is recruited on NF-Y-dependent repressed promoters. In this report, we describe the relationship between p53 and HDAC4 recruitment following DNA damage using immunofluorescence, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and transfection experiments. HDAC4 shuttles from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, following DNA damage, independently of the activation of p53 and becomes associated with promoters through a p53-dependent mechanism. The C-terminal lysines of p53, which are acetylated and methylated, are required for HDAC4 recruitment and transcriptional repression. Trichostatin treatment, but not HDAC4 functional inactivation, relieves the adriamycin-mediated repression of G(2)/M promoters. Our results indicate that HDAC4 is a component of the DNA damage response and that post-translational modifications of p53 are important for repression of G(2)/M genes.
|Cell cycle requirements in assembling silent chromatin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. |
Kirchmaier, AL; Rine, J
Molecular and cellular biology 26 852-62 2006
The establishment of silencing at the silent mating-type locus, HMR, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires that yeast pass through S phase of the cell cycle, yet requires neither the initiation of DNA replication at the locus destined to become silenced nor the passage of a replication fork through that locus. We tested whether this S-phase requirement reflects a window within the cell cycle permissive for recruitment of Sir proteins to HMR. The S-phase-restricted event necessary for silencing occurred after recruitment of Sir proteins to HMR. Moreover, cells arrested in early S phase formed silent chromatin at HMR, provided HMR was on a nonreplicating template. Replicating templates required a later step for silencing. These results provide temporal resolution of discrete steps in the formation of silent chromatin and suggest that more than one cell cycle-regulated event may be necessary for the establishment of silencing.
|Pro-proliferative function of the long isoform of PML-RARalpha involved in acute promyelocytic leukemia. |
Tussié-Luna, MI; Rozo, L; Roy, AL
Oncogene 25 3375-86 2006
The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) gene codes for a tumor suppressor protein that is associated with distinct subnuclear macromolecular structures called the PML bodies. The PML gene is frequently involved in the t(15;17) chromosomal translocation of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The translocation results in a fusion gene product, PML-RARalpha, in which the PML gene fuses to the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) gene. PML-RARalpha has been shown to promote transcriptional repression of genes involved in myeloid terminal differentiation and to disrupt the architecture of PML bodies, a phenotype reversed by treatment with all trans retinoic acid (ATRA). However, there are several alternatively spliced isoforms of PML-RARalpha. Here, we addressed the differences between the short and the long isoforms of PML-RARalpha (L and S) since both are associated with APL. We demonstrate that PML-RARalphaL, but not PML-RARalphaS, can directly promote cell growth by transcriptionally activating the pro-proliferative gene, c-fos, in response to mitogenic stimulation. The activity of the PML-RARalphaL is completely sensitive to ATRA. We further show that this activation is not via direct recruitment of the protein to the c-fos promoter but indirectly by altering the chromosomal environment of the c-fos gene, thereby rendering it more accessible to the signal induced transcriptional activators. Our results suggest that in addition to antagonizing the PML-tumor suppressor or the PML-pro-apoptotic activity, PML-RARalpha proteins can also directly promote cell growth by activating c-fos.
|S100A2 gene is a direct transcriptional target of p53 homologues during keratinocyte differentiation. |
Lapi, E; Iovino, A; Fontemaggi, G; Soliera, AR; Iacovelli, S; Sacchi, A; Rechavi, G; Givol, D; Blandino, G; Strano, S
Oncogene 25 3628-37 2006
The p53 paralogues p73, p63 and their respective truncated isoforms have been shown to be critical regulators of developmental and differentiation processes. Indeed, both p73- and p63-deficient mice exhibit severe developmental defects. Here, we show that S100A2 gene, whose transcript and protein are induced during keratinocyte differentiation of HaCaT cells, is a direct transcriptional target of p73beta and DeltaNp63alpha and is required for proper keratinocyte differentiation. Transactivation assays reveal that p73beta and DeltaNp63alpha exert opposite transcriptional effects on S100A2 gene. While DeltaNp63alpha is found in vivo onto S100A2 regulatory regions predominantly in proliferating cells, p73beta is recruited in differentiating cells. Silencing of p73 impairs the induction of S100A2 during the differentiation of HaCaT cells. Moreover, silencing of p73 or S100A2 impairs the proper expression of keratinocyte differentiation markers. Of note, p53 family members do not trigger S100A2 gene expression in response to apoptotic doses of cisplatin and doxorubicin.
|A role for gcn5-mediated global histone acetylation in transcriptional regulation. |
Imoberdorf, RM; Topalidou, I; Strubin, M
Molecular and cellular biology 26 1610-6 2006
Transcriptional activators often require histone acetyltransferases (HATs) for full activity. The common explanation is that activators directly recruit HATs to gene promoters to locally hyperacetylate histones and thereby facilitate transcription complex formation. However, in addition to being targeted to specific loci, HATs such as Gcn5 also modify histones genome-wide. Here we provide evidence for a role of this global HAT activity in regulated transcription. We show that activation by direct recruitment of the transcriptional machinery neither recruits Gcn5 nor induces changes in histone acetylation yet can strongly depend on Gcn5 at promoters showing a high basal state of Gcn5-mediated histone acetylation. We also show that Gcn5 dependency varies among core promoters and is influenced by the strength of interaction used to recruit the machinery and by the affinity of the latter for the core promoter. These data support a role for global Gcn5 HAT activity in modulating transcription independently of its known coactivator function.
|Negative regulation of CD8 expression via Cd8 enhancer-mediated recruitment of the zinc finger protein MAZR. |
Bilic, I; Koesters, C; Unger, B; Sekimata, M; Hertweck, A; Maschek, R; Wilson, CB; Ellmeier, W
Nature immunology 7 392-400 2006
Coreceptor expression is tightly regulated during thymocyte development. Deletion of specific Cd8 enhancers leads to variegated expression of CD8alphabeta heterodimers in double-positive thymocytes. Here we show CD8 variegation is correlated with an epigenetic 'off' state, linking Cd8 enhancer function with chromatin remodeling of the adjacent genes Cd8a and Cd8b1 (Cd8). The zinc finger protein MAZR bound the Cd8 enhancer and interacted with the nuclear receptor corepressor N-CoR complex in double-negative thymocytes. MAZR was downregulated in double-positive and CD8 single-positive thymocytes. 'Enforced' expression of MAZR led to impaired Cd8 activation and variegated CD8 expression. Our results demonstrate epigenetic control of the Cd8 loci and identify MAZR as an important regulator of Cd8 expression.
|Enhancers located within two introns of the vitamin D receptor gene mediate transcriptional autoregulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. |
Zella, LA; Kim, S; Shevde, NK; Pike, JW
Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 20 1231-47 2006
The biological actions of 1,25-(OH)2D3 are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a protein that binds to target genes and alters their expression. 1,25-(OH)2D3 is also capable of inducing transcription of the VDR gene itself. In the present study, we explored both the capacity of 1,25-(OH)2D3 to induce VDR gene expression in bone cells and the mechanism instrumental to this up-regulation. After establishing the ability of 1,25-(OH)2D3 to stimulate VDR mRNA up-regulation both in bone in vivo and in osteoblastic cells, we screened the mouse VDR gene locus from 20 kb upstream of the gene's transcriptional start site (TSS) to 10 kb downstream of the final exon to identify VDR binding sites using chromatin immunoprecipitation-DNA microarray (ChIP-chip) analysis. Three conserved regions were identified 20, 27, and 29 kb downstream of the TSS. VDR binding to these sites in response to 1,25-(OH)2D3 was confirmed by ChIP analysis and was accompanied by differential localization of retinoid X receptor, histone acetylation, and RNA polymerase II recruitment. One of these regions was able to confer 1,25-(OH)2D3 regulation to downstream promoters, thereby permitting identification and characterization of the regulatory element located within. Importantly, a highly conserved region within the human VDR gene analogous to that discovered in the mouse was also capable of mediating 1,25-(OH)2D3 response. Our results demonstrate that 1,25-(OH)2D3 and its receptor autoregulate the expression of the VDR gene. The location of these regulatory regions and their apparent distances from the TSS are consistent with new findings suggesting the emerging relevance of distant enhancers.
|Tax-dependent displacement of nucleosomes during transcriptional activation of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. |
Lemasson, I; Polakowski, NJ; Laybourn, PJ; Nyborg, JK
The Journal of biological chemistry 281 13075-82 2006
The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is integrated into the host cell DNA and assembled into nucleosomes. Within the repressive chromatin environment, the virally encoded Tax protein mediates the recruitment of the coactivators CREB-binding protein/p300 to the HTLV-1 promoter, located within the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of the provirus. These proteins carry acetyltransferase activity that is essential for strong transcriptional activation of the virus in the context of chromatin. Consistent with this, the amino-terminal tails of nucleosomal histones at the viral promoter are acetylated in Tax-expressing cells. We have developed a system in which we transfect Tax into cells carrying integrated copies of the HTLV-1 LTR driving the luciferase gene to analyze changes in "activating" histone modifications at the LTR. Unexpectedly, Tax transactivation led to an apparent reduction of these modifications at the HTLV-1 promoter and downstream region that correlates with a similar reduction in histone H3 and linker histone H1. Micrococcal nuclease protection analysis showed that less LTR-luciferase DNA is nucleosomal in Tax-expressing cells. Furthermore, nucleosome depletion correlated with RNA polymerase II recruitment and loss of SWI/SNF. The M47 Tax mutant, deficient in HTLV-1 transcriptional activation, was also defective for nucleosome depletion. Although this mutant formed complexes with CREB and p300 at the HTLV-1 promoter in vivo, it was unable to mediate RNA polymerase II recruitment or SWI/SNF displacement. These results support a model in which nucleosomes are depleted from the LTR and transcribed region during Tax-mediated transcriptional activation and correlate RNA polymerase II recruitment with nucleosome depletion.
|BMI1 is a target gene of E2F-1 and is strongly expressed in primary neuroblastomas. |
Nowak, K; Kerl, K; Fehr, D; Kramps, C; Gessner, C; Killmer, K; Samans, B; Berwanger, B; Christiansen, H; Lutz, W
Nucleic acids research 34 1745-54 2006
The oncogene BMI1 encodes a polycomb group transcription factor that is required for embryonic development and self-renewal of stem cells. Despite these important functions little is known about the regulation of BMI1 expression. A cDNA microarray based search for target genes of E2F-1 in neuroblastoma cells expressing a 4-OHT-regulated E2F-1-ER fusion protein identified many hitherto unknown E2F-1 regulated genes. A total of 10% of these genes, including BMI1, encode proteins that function primarily in the regulation of gene expression. The BMI1 promoter contains a putative E2F binding site that was required for the activation of a BMI1 promoter-dependent reporter construct by E2F-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed 4-OHT-dependent binding of E2F-1-ER and binding of endogenous E2F-1 to the BMI1 promoter in tumor cells. We have previously shown activation of the oncogene MYCN by E2F. Thus, in neuroblastomas deregulated E2F-1 can activate two oncogenes, MYCN and BMI1 that are known to co-operate in tumor formation. Consistent with a role of Bmi1 in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis we found strong Bmi1 expression in primary neuroblastomas. Our results reveal a novel link between E2F and polycomb transcription factors and suggest a role of Bmi1 in neuroblastomas.
|Active transcription of the human FASL/CD95L/TNFSF6 promoter region in T lymphocytes involves chromatin remodeling: role of DNA methylation and protein acetylation suggest distinct mechanisms of transcriptional repression. |
Castellano, R; Vire, B; Pion, M; Quivy, V; Olive, D; Hirsch, I; Van Lint, C; Collette, Y
The Journal of biological chemistry 281 14719-28 2006
Fas ligand (FasL/CD95L/TNFSF6), a member of the tumor necrosis factor family, initiates apoptosis in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues by binding to its receptor Fas (CD95/TNFRSF6). Although the transcriptional control of TNFSF6 gene expression is subjected to intense study, the role of its chromatin organization and accessibility to the transcriptional machinery is not known. Here, we determined the chromatin organization of TNFSF6 gene 5' regulatory regions. Using the indirect end-labeling technique, a unique region named HSS1 and encompassing nucleotides -189 to +185 according to the transcriptional start site, was identified throughout a 20-kilobase nucleosomal DNA domain surrounding the promoter. The HSS1 region displayed hypersensitivity to in vivo DNase I digestion in TNFSF6-expressing cells only, including upon T cell activation. Hypersensitivity to micrococcal nuclease digestion and to specific restriction enzyme digestion suggested the precise positioning of two nucleosomes across the transcription start site and minimal promoter region, likely interfering with TNFSF6 active transcription in T lymphocytes. Indeed, HSS1 hypersensitivity to nuclease digestion strictly correlated with TNFSF6 transcription, including in primary and leukemia T cells. HSS1 chromatin remodeling preceded detectable TNFSF6 mRNA accumulation and was blocked by cycloheximide that also prevented TNFSF6 transcription. However, DNA methylation levels of the TNFSF6 HSS1 region did not correlate with transcriptional activation. Induction of global protein acetylation by treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors was not accompanied by HSS1 chromatin remodeling and/or TNFSF6 transcription. We conclude that chromatin remodeling is a primary event in the activation of TNFSF6 expression in primary and leukemia T cells and that mechanisms independent of protein deacetylation and of DNA methylation of the TNFSF6 promoter region are involved in the repression of TNFSF6 gene expression.
|Histone modifications silence the GATA transcription factor genes in ovarian cancer. |
Caslini, C; Capo-chichi, CD; Roland, IH; Nicolas, E; Yeung, AT; Xu, XX
Oncogene 25 5446-61 2006
Altered expression of GATA factors was found and proposed as the underlying mechanism for dedifferentiation in ovarian carcinogenesis. In particular, GATA6 is lost or excluded from the nucleus in 85% of ovarian tumors and GATA4 expression is absent in majority of ovarian cancer cell lines. Here, we evaluated their DNA and histone epigenetic modifications in five ovarian epithelial and carcinoma cell lines (human 'immortalized' ovarian surface epithelium (HIO)-117, HIO-114, A2780, SKOV3 and ES2). GATA4 and GATA6 gene silencing was found to correlate with hypoacetylation of histones H3 and H4 and loss of histone H3/lysine K4 tri-methylation at their promoters in all lines. Conversely, histone H3/lysine K9 di-methylation and HP1gamma association were not observed, excluding reorganization of GATA genes into heterochromatic structures. The histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, but not the DNA methylation inhibitor 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, re-established the expression of GATA4 and/or GATA6 in A2780 and HIO-114 cells, correlating with increased histone H3 and H4 acetylation, histone H3 lysine K4 methylation and DNase I sensitivity at the promoters. Therefore, altered histone modification of the promoter loci is one mechanism responsible for the silencing of GATA transcription factors and the subsequent loss of a target gene, the tumor suppressor Disabled-2, in ovarian carcinogenesis.
|1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 regulates the expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 via deoxyribonucleic acid sequence elements located downstream of the start site of transcription. |
Fretz, JA; Zella, LA; Kim, S; Shevde, NK; Pike, JW
Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 20 2215-30 2006
The skeleton is a direct target of vitamin D action, where the hormone modulates the proliferation of osteoblast precursors, their differentiation into mature osteoblasts, and their functional activity. Some of these effects of vitamin D are reminiscent of those orchestrated by the Wnt signaling pathway wherein stimulation of the membrane receptor Frizzled and its coreceptor LRP5 leads to activation of beta-catenin and subsequent transcription-mediated changes in osteoblast biology. Indeed, LRP5 is now known to play a particularly important role in bone formation such that the loss of this component results in a reduction in osteoblast number, a delay in mineralization, and a reduction in peak bone mineral density. Interestingly, we discovered during the course of a vitamin D receptor (VDR) chromatin immunoprecipitation/DNA microarray analysis that 1,25-(OH)2D3 could induce binding of the VDR to sites within the Lrp5 gene locus. VDR and retinoid X receptor binding was evident both in primary osteoblasts as well as in osteoblasts of cell line origin. Importantly, this interaction between 1,25-(OH)2D3-activated VDR and the Lrp5 gene led to both a modification in chromatin structure within the Lrp5 locus and the induction of Lrp5 mRNA transcripts in vivo as well as in vitro. One of these sites within the Lrp5 locus was discovered to confer vitamin D response to a heterologous promoter when introduced into osteoblastic cells, permitting both the identification and characterization of the vitamin D response element located within. Interestingly, additional studies revealed that whereas the regulatory region in the mouse Lrp5 gene was highly conserved in the human genome, the vitamin D response element was not. Our studies show that 1,25-(OH)2D3 can enhance the expression of a critical component of the Wnt signaling pathway that is known to impact osteogenesis.
|Down-regulation of the tumor suppressor gene retinoic acid receptor beta2 through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. |
Lefebvre, B; Brand, C; Flajollet, S; Lefebvre, P
Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 20 2109-21 2006
The retinoic acid receptor beta2 (RARbeta2) is a potent, retinoid-inducible tumor suppressor gene, which is a critical molecular relay for retinoid actions in cells. Its down-regulation, or loss of expression, leads to resistance of cancer cells to retinoid treatment. Up to now, no primary mechanism underlying the repression of the RARbeta2 gene expression, hence affecting cellular retinoid sensitivity, has been identified. Here, we demonstrate that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway affects cellular retinoid sensitivity, by regulating corepressor recruitment to the RARbeta2 promoter. Through direct phosphorylation of the corepressor silencing mediator for retinoic and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT), Akt stabilized RAR/SMRT interaction, leading to an increased tethering of SMRT to the RARbeta2 promoter, decreased histone acetylation, down-regulation of the RARbeta2 expression, and impaired cellular differentiation in response to retinoid. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway, an important modulator of cellular survival, has thus a direct impact on cellular retinoid sensitivity, and its deregulation may be the triggering event in retinoid resistance of cancer cells.
|Large-scale analysis of mRNA translation states during sucrose starvation in arabidopsis cells identifies cell proliferation and chromatin structure as targets of translational control. |
Nicolaï, M; Roncato, MA; Canoy, AS; Rouquié, D; Sarda, X; Freyssinet, G; Robaglia, C
Plant physiology 141 663-73 2006
Sucrose starvation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cell culture was used to identify translationally regulated genes by DNA microarray analysis. Cells were starved by subculture without sucrose, and total and polysomal RNA was extracted between 6 and 48 h. Probes were derived from both RNA populations and used to screen oligonucleotide microarrays. Out of 25,607 screened genes, 224 were found to be differentially accumulated in polysomal RNA following starvation and 21 were found to be invariant in polysomal RNA while their total RNA abundance was modified. Most of the mRNA appears to be translationally repressed (183/245 genes), which is consistent with a general decrease in metabolic activities during starvation. The parallel transcriptional analysis identifies 268 regulated genes. Comparison of transcriptional and translational gene lists highlights the importance of translational regulation (mostly repression) affecting genes involved in cell cycle and cell growth, these being overrepresented in translationally regulated genes, providing a molecular framework for the arrest of cell proliferation following starvation. Starvation-induced translational control also affects chromatin regulation genes, such as the HD1 histone deacetylase, and the level of histone H4 acetylation was found to increase during starvation. This suggests that regulation of the global nuclear transcriptional activity might be linked to cytoplasmic translational regulations.
|The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor requires SWI/SNF enzymes to activate melanocyte-specific genes. |
de la Serna, IL; Ohkawa, Y; Higashi, C; Dutta, C; Osias, J; Kommajosyula, N; Tachibana, T; Imbalzano, AN
The Journal of biological chemistry 281 20233-41 2006
The microphthalmia transcription factor (Mitf) activates melanocyte-specific gene expression, is critical for survival and proliferation of melanocytes during development, and has been described as an oncogene in malignant melanoma. SWI/SNF complexes are ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling enzymes that play a role in many developmental processes. To determine the requirement for SWI/SNF enzymes in melanocyte differentiation, we introduced Mitf into fibroblasts that inducibly express dominant negative versions of the SWI/SNF ATPases, Brahma or Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1). These dominant negative SWI/SNF components have been shown to inhibit gene activation events that normally require SWI/SNF enzymes. We found that Mitf-mediated activation of a subset of endogenous melanocyte-specific genes required SWI/SNF enzymes but that cell-cycle regulation occurred independently of SWI/SNF function. Activation of tyrosinase-related protein 1, a melanocyte-specific gene, correlated with SWI/SNF-dependent changes in chromatin accessibility at the endogenous locus. Both BRG1 and Mitf could be localized to the tyrosinase-related protein 1 and tyrosinase promoters by chromatin immunoprecipitation, whereas immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that Mitf and BRG1 co-localized in the nucleus and physically interacted. Together these results suggest that Mitf can recruit SWI/SNF enzymes to melanocyte-specific promoters for the activation of gene expression via induced changes in chromatin structure at endogenous loci.
|Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS)||16648630|
|Illumination is necessary and sufficient to induce histone acetylation independent of transcriptional activity at the C4-specific phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase promoter in maize. |
Offermann, S; Danker, T; Dreymüller, D; Kalamajka, R; Töpsch, S; Weyand, K; Peterhänsel, C
Plant physiology 141 1078-88 2006
Expression of the C4-specific phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (C4-PEPC) gene in maize (Zea mays) is regulated in a tissue-specific manner, but affected by light and nutrient availability. We manipulated these stimuli in a combinatorial manner and analyzed concomitant changes in histone acetylation of the nucleosomes associated with the C4-PEPC gene in relation to transcriptional activity and steady-state mRNA levels. Whereas the transition from the lowest activity to an intermediate activity was observed in the absence of histone acetylation, the light-induced boost to full activity was associated with strong enhancement of the acetylation of both histones H3 and H4 limited to the gene region. Once activated by light, prolonged darkness was necessary to reduce both transcription and, in parallel, histone acetylation. Unexpectedly, histone acetylation was also induced in bundle sheath cells, although the transcriptional activity did not respond to illumination in this tissue. Furthermore, we were able to down-regulate the promoter by nitrogen depletion in the light without any decrease in the hyperacetylation of histone H4. When plants kept in prolonged darkness were nitrogen depleted and then exposed to light, transcription was not induced, but the promoter chromatin became hyperacetylated. We suggest a model where inhibition of a histone deacetylase in the light triggers H4 hyperacetylation at the C4-PEPC gene promoter regardless of the transcriptional activity of the gene. Our data indicate that an understanding of the interplay between histone modification and transcription requires analysis of signal integration on promoters in vivo.
|DNA methylation supports intrinsic epigenetic memory in mammalian cells. |
Feng, YQ; Desprat, R; Fu, H; Olivier, E; Lin, CM; Lobell, A; Gowda, SN; Aladjem, MI; Bouhassira, EE
PLoS genetics 2 e65 2006
We have investigated the role of DNA methylation in the initiation and maintenance of silenced chromatin in somatic mammalian cells. We found that a mutated transgene, in which all the CpG dinucleotides have been eliminated, underwent transcriptional silencing to the same extent as the unmodified transgene. These observations demonstrate that DNA methylation is not required for silencing. The silenced CpG-free transgene exhibited all the features of heterochromatin, including silencing of transcriptional activity, delayed DNA replication, lack of histone H3 and H4 acetylation, lack of H3-K4 methylation, and enrichment in tri-methyl-H3-K9. In contrast, when we tested for transgene reactivation using a Cre recombinase-mediated inversion assay, we observed a marked difference between a CpG-free and an unmodified transgene: the CpG-free transgene resumed transcription and did not exhibit markers of heterochromatin whereas the unmodified transgene remained silenced. These data indicate that methylation of CpG residues conferred epigenetic memory in this system. These results also suggest that replication delay, lack of histone H3 and H4 acetylation, H3-K4 methylation, and enrichment in tri-methyl-H3-K9 are not sufficient to confer epigenetic memory. We propose that DNA methylation within transgenes serves as an intrinsic epigenetic memory to permanently silence transgenes and prevent their reactivation.