Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, Vrt, Yeast (S. cerevisiae)||WB, Mplex, ChIP-seq, ChIP||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Antiserum containing 0.35% sodium azide and 30% glycerol.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at -20°C from date of receipt. For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the vial prior to removing the cap.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys9) Antibody SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Fission yeast Cactin restricts telomere transcription and elongation by controlling Rap1 levels.|
Lorenzi, LE; Bah, A; Wischnewski, H; Shchepachev, V; Soneson, C; Santagostino, M; Azzalin, CM
The EMBO journal 34 115-29 2015
The telomeric transcriptome comprises multiple long non-coding RNAs generated by transcription of linear chromosome ends. In a screening performed in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we identified factors modulating the cellular levels of the telomeric transcriptome. Among these factors, Cay1 is the fission yeast member of the conserved family of Cactins, uncharacterized proteins crucial for cell growth and survival. In cay1∆ mutants, the cellular levels of the telomeric factor Rap1 are drastically diminished due to defects in rap1+ pre-mRNA splicing and Rap1 protein stability. cay1∆ cells accumulate histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9 at telomeres, which become transcriptionally desilenced, are over-elongated by telomerase and cause chromosomal aberrations in the cold. Overexpressing Rap1 in cay1+ deleted cells significantly reverts all telomeric defects. Additionally, cay1∆ mutants accumulate unprocessed Tf2 retrotransposon RNA through Rap1-independent mechanisms. Thus, Cay1 plays crucial roles in cells by ultimately harmonizing expression of transcripts originating from seemingly unrelated genomic loci.
|The Epigenome of Schistosoma mansoni Provides Insight about How Cercariae Poise Transcription until Infection.|
Roquis, D; Lepesant, JM; Picard, MA; Freitag, M; Parrinello, H; Groth, M; Emans, R; Cosseau, C; Grunau, C
PLoS neglected tropical diseases 9 e0003853 2015
Chromatin structure can control gene expression and can define specific transcription states. For example, bivalent methylation of histone H3K4 and H3K27 is linked to poised transcription in vertebrate embryonic stem cells (ESC). It allows them to rapidly engage specific developmental pathways. We reasoned that non-vertebrate metazoans that encounter a similar developmental constraint (i.e. to quickly start development into a new phenotype) might use a similar system. Schistosomes are parasitic platyhelminthes that are characterized by passage through two hosts: a mollusk as intermediate host and humans or rodents as definitive host. During its development, the parasite undergoes drastic changes, most notable immediately after infection of the definitive host, i.e. during the transition from the free-swimming cercariae into adult worms.We used Chromatin Immunoprecipitation followed by massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to analyze genome-wide chromatin structure of S. mansoni on the level of histone modifications (H3K4me3, H3K27me3, H3K9me3, and H3K9ac) in cercariae, schistosomula and adults (available at http://genome.univ-perp.fr). We saw striking differences in chromatin structure between the developmental stages, but most importantly we found that cercariae possess a specific combination of marks at the transcription start sites (TSS) that has similarities to a structure found in ESC. We demonstrate that in cercariae no transcription occurs, and we provide evidences that cercariae do not possess large numbers of canonical stem cells.We describe here a broad view on the epigenome of a metazoan parasite. Most notably, we find bivalent histone H3 methylation in cercariae. Methylation of H3K27 is removed during transformation into schistosomula (and stays absent in adults) and transcription is activated. In addition, shifts of H3K9 methylation and acetylation occur towards upstream and downstream of the transcriptional start site (TSS). We conclude that specific H3 modifications are a phylogenetically older and probably more general mechanism, i.e. not restricted to stem cells, to poise transcription. Since adult couples must form to cause the disease symptoms, changes in histone modifications appear to be crucial for pathogenesis and represent therefore a therapeutic target.
|The methyltransferase Setdb2 mediates virus-induced susceptibility to bacterial superinfection.|
Schliehe, C; Flynn, EK; Vilagos, B; Richson, U; Swaminathan, S; Bosnjak, B; Bauer, L; Kandasamy, RK; Griesshammer, IM; Kosack, L; Schmitz, F; Litvak, V; Sissons, J; Lercher, A; Bhattacharya, A; Khamina, K; Trivett, AL; Tessarollo, L; Mesteri, I; Hladik, A; Merkler, D; Kubicek, S; Knapp, S; Epstein, MM; Symer, DE; Aderem, A; Bergthaler, A
Nature immunology 16 67-74 2015
Immune responses are tightly regulated to ensure efficient pathogen clearance while avoiding tissue damage. Here we report that Setdb2 was the only protein lysine methyltransferase induced during infection with influenza virus. Setdb2 expression depended on signaling via type I interferons, and Setdb2 repressed expression of the gene encoding the neutrophil attractant CXCL1 and other genes that are targets of the transcription factor NF-κB. This coincided with occupancy by Setdb2 at the Cxcl1 promoter, which in the absence of Setdb2 displayed diminished trimethylation of histone H3 Lys9 (H3K9me3). Mice with a hypomorphic gene-trap construct of Setdb2 exhibited increased infiltration of neutrophils during sterile lung inflammation and were less sensitive to bacterial superinfection after infection with influenza virus. This suggested that a Setdb2-mediated regulatory crosstalk between the type I interferons and NF-κB pathways represents an important mechanism for virus-induced susceptibility to bacterial superinfection.
|Dose-dependent alcohol-induced alterations in chromatin structure persist beyond the window of exposure and correlate with fetal alcohol syndrome birth defects.|
Veazey, KJ; Parnell, SE; Miranda, RC; Golding, MC
Epigenetics & chromatin 8 39 2015
In recent years, we have come to recognize that a multitude of in utero exposures have the capacity to induce the development of congenital and metabolic defects. As most of these encounters manifest their effects beyond the window of exposure, deciphering the mechanisms of teratogenesis is incredibly difficult. For many agents, altered epigenetic programming has become suspect in transmitting the lasting signature of exposure leading to dysgenesis. However, while several chemicals can perturb chromatin structure acutely, for many agents (particularly alcohol) it remains unclear if these modifications represent transient responses to exposure or heritable lesions leading to pathology.Here, we report that mice encountering an acute exposure to alcohol on gestational Day-7 exhibit significant alterations in chromatin structure (histone 3 lysine 9 dimethylation, lysine 9 acetylation, and lysine 27 trimethylation) at Day-17, and that these changes strongly correlate with the development of craniofacial and central nervous system defects. Using a neural cortical stem cell model, we find that the epigenetic changes arising as a consequence of alcohol exposure are heavily dependent on the gene under investigation, the dose of alcohol encountered, and that the signatures arising acutely differ significantly from those observed after a 4-day recovery period. Importantly, the changes observed post-recovery are consistent with those modeled in vivo, and associate with alterations in transcripts encoding multiple homeobox genes directing neurogenesis. Unexpectedly, we do not observe a correlation between alcohol-induced changes in chromatin structure and alterations in transcription. Interestingly, the majority of epigenetic changes observed occur in marks associated with repressive chromatin structure, and we identify correlative disruptions in transcripts encoding Dnmt1, Eed, Ehmt2 (G9a), EzH2, Kdm1a, Kdm4c, Setdb1, Sod3, Tet1 and Uhrf1.These observations suggest that the immediate and long-term impacts of alcohol exposure on chromatin structure are distinct, and hint at the existence of a possible coordinated epigenetic response to ethanol during development. Collectively, our results indicate that alcohol-induced modifications to chromatin structure persist beyond the window of exposure, and likely contribute to the development of fetal alcohol syndrome-associated congenital abnormalities.
|Chromatin-Remodelling Complex NURF Is Essential for Differentiation of Adult Melanocyte Stem Cells.|
Koludrovic, D; Laurette, P; Strub, T; Keime, C; Le Coz, M; Coassolo, S; Mengus, G; Larue, L; Davidson, I
PLoS genetics 11 e1005555 2015
MIcrophthalmia-associated Transcription Factor (MITF) regulates melanocyte and melanoma physiology. We show that MITF associates the NURF chromatin-remodelling factor in melanoma cells. ShRNA-mediated silencing of the NURF subunit BPTF revealed its essential role in several melanoma cell lines and in untransformed melanocytes in vitro. Comparative RNA-seq shows that MITF and BPTF co-regulate overlapping gene expression programs in cell lines in vitro. Somatic and specific inactivation of Bptf in developing murine melanoblasts in vivo shows that Bptf regulates their proliferation, migration and morphology. Once born, Bptf-mutant mice display premature greying where the second post-natal coat is white. This second coat is normally pigmented by differentiated melanocytes derived from the adult melanocyte stem cell (MSC) population that is stimulated to proliferate and differentiate at anagen. An MSC population is established and maintained throughout the life of the Bptf-mutant mice, but these MSCs are abnormal and at anagen, give rise to reduced numbers of transient amplifying cells (TACs) that do not express melanocyte markers and fail to differentiate into mature melanin producing melanocytes. MSCs display a transcriptionally repressed chromatin state and Bptf is essential for reactivation of the melanocyte gene expression program at anagen, the subsequent normal proliferation of TACs and their differentiation into mature melanocytes.
|Identification of and Molecular Basis for SIRT6 Loss-of-Function Point Mutations in Cancer.|
Kugel, S; Feldman, JL; Klein, MA; Silberman, DM; Sebastián, C; Mermel, C; Dobersch, S; Clark, AR; Getz, G; Denu, JM; Mostoslavsky, R
Cell reports 13 479-88 2015
Chromatin factors have emerged as the most frequently dysregulated family of proteins in cancer. We have previously identified the histone deacetylase SIRT6 as a key tumor suppressor, yet whether point mutations are selected for in cancer remains unclear. In this manuscript, we characterized naturally occurring patient-derived SIRT6 mutations. Strikingly, all the mutations significantly affected either stability or catalytic activity of SIRT6, indicating that these mutations were selected for in these tumors. Further, the mutant proteins failed to rescue sirt6 knockout (SIRT6 KO) cells, as measured by the levels of histone acetylation at glycolytic genes and their inability to rescue the tumorigenic potential of these cells. Notably, the main activity affected in the mutants was histone deacetylation rather than demyristoylation, pointing to the former as the main tumor-suppressive function for SIRT6. Our results identified cancer-associated point mutations in SIRT6, cementing its function as a tumor suppressor in human cancer.
|Genome wide mapping of UBF binding-sites in mouse and human cell lines.|
Diesch, J; Hannan, RD; Sanij, E
Genomics data 3 103-5 2015
The upstream binding transcription factor (UBTF, also called UBF) is thought to function exclusively in RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-specific transcription of the ribosomal genes. We recently reported in Sanij et al. (2014)  that the two isoforms of UBF (UBF1/2) are enriched at Pol II-transcribed genes throughout the mouse and human genomes. By using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) of UBF1/2, Pol I, Pol II, H3K9me3, H3K4me4, H3K9ac and H4 hyperacetylation, we reported a correlation of UBF1/2 binding with enrichments in Pol II and markers of active chromatin. In addition, we examined a functional role for UBF1/2 in mediating Pol II transcription by performing expression array analysis in control and UBF1/2 depleted NIH3T3 cells. Our data demonstrate that UBF1/2 bind highly active Pol II-transcribed genes and mediate their expression without recruiting Pol I. Furthermore, we reported ChIP-sequencing analysis of UBF1/2 in immortalized human epithelial cells and their isogenically matched transformed counterparts. Here we report the experimental design and the description of the ChIP-sequencing and microarray expression datasets uploaded to NCBI Sequence Research Archive (SRA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO).
|Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of ethanol consumption in mice.|
Qiang, M; Li, JG; Denny, AD; Yao, JM; Lieu, M; Zhang, K; Carreon, S
The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP) 18 2015
Repeated alcohol exposure is known to increase subsequent ethanol consumption in mice. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. One postulated mechanism involves epigenetic modifications, including histone modifications and DNA methylation of relevant genes such as NR2B or BDNF.To investigate the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the development of alcohol drinking behavior, an established chronic intermittent ethanol exposure reinforced ethanol drinking mouse model with vapor inhalation over two 9-day treatment regimens was used. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-azacytidine or the histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A was administered (intraperitoneally) to C57BL/6 mice 30 min before daily exposure to chronic intermittent ethanol. Changes in ethanol consumption were measured using the 2-bottle choice test.The results indicated that systemic administration of Trichostatin A (2.5 µg/g) facilitated chronic intermittent ethanol-induced ethanol drinking, but systemic administration of 5-azacytidine (2 µg/g) did not cause the same effect. However, when 5-azacytidine was administered by intracerebroventricular injection, it facilitated chronic intermittent ethanol-induced ethanol drinking. Furthermore, the increased drinking caused by chronic intermittent ethanol was prevented by injection of a methyl donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine. To provide evidence that chronic intermittent ethanol- or Trichostatin A-induced DNA demethylation and histone modifications of the NR2B promoter may underlie the altered ethanol consumption, we examined epigenetic modifications and NR2B expression in the prefrontal cortex of these mice. Chronic intermittent ethanol or Trichostatin A decreased DNA methylation and increased histone acetylation in the NR2B gene promoter, as well as mRNA levels of NR2B in these mice.Taken together, these results indicate that epigenetic modifications are involved in regulating ethanol drinking behavior, partially through altering NR2B expression.
|Genome-wide targeting of the epigenetic regulatory protein CTCF to gene promoters by the transcription factor TFII-I.|
Peña-Hernández, R; Marques, M; Hilmi, K; Zhao, T; Saad, A; Alaoui-Jamali, MA; del Rincon, SV; Ashworth, T; Roy, AL; Emerson, BM; Witcher, M
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112 E677-86 2015
CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a key regulator of nuclear chromatin structure and gene regulation. The impact of CTCF on transcriptional output is highly varied, ranging from repression to transcriptional pausing and transactivation. The multifunctional nature of CTCF may be directed solely through remodeling chromatin architecture. However, another hypothesis is that the multifunctional nature of CTCF is mediated, in part, through differential association with protein partners having unique functions. Consistent with this hypothesis, our mass spectrometry analyses of CTCF interacting partners reveal a previously undefined association with the transcription factor general transcription factor II-I (TFII-I). Biochemical fractionation of CTCF indicates that a distinct CTCF complex incorporating TFII-I is assembled on DNA. Unexpectedly, we found that the interaction between CTCF and TFII-I is essential for directing CTCF to the promoter proximal regulatory regions of target genes across the genome, particularly at genes involved in metabolism. At genes coregulated by CTCF and TFII-I, we find knockdown of TFII-I results in diminished CTCF binding, lack of cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) recruitment, and an attenuation of RNA polymerase II phosphorylation at serine 5. Phenotypically, knockdown of TFII-I alters the cellular response to metabolic stress. Our data indicate that TFII-I directs CTCF binding to target genes, and in turn the two proteins cooperate to recruit CDK8 and enhance transcription initiation.
|Evaluation of the synuclein-γ (SNCG) gene as a PPARγ target in murine adipocytes, dorsal root ganglia somatosensory neurons, and human adipose tissue.|
Dunn, TN; Akiyama, T; Lee, HW; Kim, JB; Knotts, TA; Smith, SR; Sears, DD; Carstens, E; Adams, SH
PloS one 10 e0115830 2015
Recent evidence in adipocytes points to a role for synuclein-γ in metabolism and lipid droplet dynamics, but interestingly this factor is also robustly expressed in peripheral neurons. Specific regulation of the synuclein-γ gene (Sncg) by PPARγ requires further evaluation, especially in peripheral neurons, prompting us to test if Sncg is a bona fide PPARγ target in murine adipocytes and peripheral somatosensory neurons derived from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Sncg mRNA was decreased in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (~68%) by rosiglitazone, and this effect was diminished by the PPARγ antagonist T0070907. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed PPARγ protein binding at two promoter sequences of Sncg during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. Rosiglitazone did not affect Sncg mRNA expression in murine cultured DRG neurons. In subcutaneous human WAT samples from two cohorts treated with pioglitazone (greater than 11 wks), SNCG mRNA expression was reduced, albeit highly variable and most evident in type 2 diabetes. Leptin (Lep) expression, thought to be coordinately-regulated with Sncg based on correlations in human adipose tissue, was also reduced in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by rosiglitazone. However, Lep was unaffected by PPARγ antagonist, and the LXR agonist T0901317 significantly reduced Lep expression (~64%) while not impacting Sncg. The results support the concept that synuclein-γ shares some, but not all, gene regulators with leptin and is a PPARγ target in adipocytes but not DRG neurons. Regulation of synuclein-γ by cues such as PPARγ agonism in adipocytes is logical based on recent evidence for an important role for synuclein-γ in the maintenance and dynamics of adipocyte lipid droplets.