Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||Mplex, WB, PIA, ChIP-seq, DB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys 4) Antibody|
|Presentation||100μl of immunoaffinity purified rabbit IgG in a buffer with 0.1M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4 and 0.15M NaCl, and containing 0.05% sodium azide and 30% glycerol|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||1 year at -20°C from date of shipment|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys 4) - 26747||26747|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys4) - 2116017||2116017|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys4) - 2430455||2430455|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys4) - 2044181||2044181|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys4) - 2168341||2168341|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys4) - 2277860||2277860|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys4) - JBC1900827||JBC1900827|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys4) - NG1951652||NG1951652|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys4) -2508919||2508919|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys4) -2739296||2739296|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Hierarchical clustering of breast cancer methylomes revealed differentially methylated and expressed breast cancer genes. |
Lin, IH; Chen, DT; Chang, YF; Lee, YL; Su, CH; Cheng, C; Tsai, YC; Ng, SC; Chen, HT; Lee, MC; Chen, HW; Suen, SH; Chen, YC; Liu, TT; Chang, CH; Hsu, MT
PloS one 10 e0118453 2015
Oncogenic transformation of normal cells often involves epigenetic alterations, including histone modification and DNA methylation. We conducted whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to determine the DNA methylomes of normal breast, fibroadenoma, invasive ductal carcinomas and MCF7. The emergence, disappearance, expansion and contraction of kilobase-sized hypomethylated regions (HMRs) and the hypomethylation of the megabase-sized partially methylated domains (PMDs) are the major forms of methylation changes observed in breast tumor samples. Hierarchical clustering of HMR revealed tumor-specific hypermethylated clusters and differential methylated enhancers specific to normal or breast cancer cell lines. Joint analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation data of normal breast and breast cancer cells identified differentially methylated and expressed genes associated with breast and/or ovarian cancers in cancer-specific HMR clusters. Furthermore, aberrant patterns of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) was found in breast cancer cell lines as well as breast tumor samples in the TCGA BRCA (breast invasive carcinoma) dataset. They were characterized with differentially hypermethylated XIST promoter, reduced expression of XIST, and over-expression of hypomethylated X-linked genes. High expressions of these genes were significantly associated with lower survival rates in breast cancer patients. Comprehensive analysis of the normal and breast tumor methylomes suggests selective targeting of DNA methylation changes during breast cancer progression. The weak causal relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression observed in this study is evident of more complex role of DNA methylation in the regulation of gene expression in human epigenetics that deserves further investigation.
|Insulin-response epigenetic activation of Egr-1 and JunB genes at the nuclear periphery by A-type lamin-associated pY19-Caveolin-2 in the inner nuclear membrane. |
Jeong, K; Kwon, H; Lee, J; Jang, D; Pak, Y
Nucleic acids research 43 3114-27 2015
Insulin controls transcription to sustain its physiologic effects for the organism to adapt to environmental changes added to genetic predisposition. Nevertheless, insulin-induced transcriptional regulation by epigenetic factors and in defined nuclear territory remains elusive. Here we show that inner nuclear membrane (INM)-integrated caveolin-2 (Cav-2) regulates insulin-response epigenetic activation of Egr-1 and JunB genes at the nuclear periphery. INM-targeted pY19-Cav-2 in response to insulin associates specifically with the A-type lamin, disengages the repressed Egr-1 and JunB promoters from lamin A/C through disassembly of H3K9me3, and facilitates assembly of H3K9ac, H3K18ac and H3K27ac by recruitment of GCN5 and p300 and the subsequent enrichment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) on the promoters at the nuclear periphery. Our findings show that Cav-2 is an epigenetic regulator of histone H3 modifications, and provide novel mechanisms of insulin-response epigenetic activation at the nuclear periphery.
|Dynamic chromatin modification sustains epithelial-mesenchymal transition following inducible expression of Snail-1. |
Javaid, S; Zhang, J; Anderssen, E; Black, JC; Wittner, BS; Tajima, K; Ting, DT; Smolen, GA; Zubrowski, M; Desai, R; Maheswaran, S; Ramaswamy, S; Whetstine, JR; Haber, DA
Cell reports 5 1679-89 2013
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to contribute to cancer metastasis, but its underlying mechanisms are not well understood. To define early steps in this cellular transformation, we analyzed human mammary epithelial cells with tightly regulated expression of Snail-1, a master regulator of EMT. After Snail-1 induction, epithelial markers were repressed within 6 hr, and mesenchymal genes were induced at 24 hr. Snail-1 binding to its target promoters was transient (6-48 hr) despite continued protein expression, and it was followed by both transient and long-lasting chromatin changes. Pharmacological inhibition of selected histone acetylation and demethylation pathways suppressed the induction as well as the maintenance of Snail-1-mediated EMT. Thus, EMT involves an epigenetic switch that may be prevented or reversed with the use of small-molecule inhibitors of chromatin modifiers.
|Oral administration of the pimelic diphenylamide HDAC inhibitor HDACi 4b is unsuitable for chronic inhibition of HDAC activity in the CNS in vivo. |
Beconi, M; Aziz, O; Matthews, K; Moumné, L; O'Connell, C; Yates, D; Clifton, S; Pett, H; Vann, J; Crowley, L; Haughan, AF; Smith, DL; Woodman, B; Bates, GP; Brookfield, F; Bürli, RW; McAllister, G; Dominguez, C; Munoz-Sanjuan, I; Beaumont, V
PloS one 7 e44498 2012
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have received considerable attention as potential therapeutics for a variety of cancers and neurological disorders. Recent publications on a class of pimelic diphenylamide HDAC inhibitors have highlighted their promise in the treatment of the neurodegenerative diseases Friedreich's ataxia and Huntington's disease, based on efficacy in cell and mouse models. These studies' authors have proposed that the unique action of these compounds compared to hydroxamic acid-based HDAC inhibitors results from their unusual slow-on/slow-off kinetics of binding, preferentially to HDAC3, resulting in a distinctive pharmacological profile and reduced toxicity. Here, we evaluate the HDAC subtype selectivity, cellular activity, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) properties, as well as the central pharmacodynamic profile of one such compound, HDACi 4b, previously described to show efficacy in vivo in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease. Based on our data reported here, we conclude that while the in vitro selectivity and binding mode are largely in agreement with previous reports, the physicochemical properties, metabolic and p-glycoprotein (Pgp) substrate liability of HDACi 4b render this compound suboptimal to investigate central Class I HDAC inhibition in vivo in mouse per oral administration. A drug administration regimen using HDACi 4b dissolved in drinking water was used in the previous proof of concept study, casting doubt on the validation of CNS HDAC3 inhibition as a target for the treatment of Huntington's disease. We highlight physicochemical stability and metabolic issues with 4b that are likely intrinsic liabilities of the benzamide chemotype in general.
|H3 lysine 4 is acetylated at active gene promoters and is regulated by H3 lysine 4 methylation. |
Guillemette, B; Drogaris, P; Lin, HH; Armstrong, H; Hiragami-Hamada, K; Imhof, A; Bonneil, E; Thibault, P; Verreault, A; Festenstein, RJ
PLoS genetics 7 e1001354 2011
Methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me) is an evolutionarily conserved modification whose role in the regulation of gene expression has been extensively studied. In contrast, the function of H3K4 acetylation (H3K4ac) has received little attention because of a lack of tools to separate its function from that of H3K4me. Here we show that, in addition to being methylated, H3K4 is also acetylated in budding yeast. Genetic studies reveal that the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) Gcn5 and Rtt109 contribute to H3K4 acetylation in vivo. Whilst removal of H3K4ac from euchromatin mainly requires the histone deacetylase (HDAC) Hst1, Sir2 is needed for H3K4 deacetylation in heterochomatin. Using genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we show that H3K4ac is enriched at promoters of actively transcribed genes and located just upstream of H3K4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3), a pattern that has been conserved in human cells. We find that the Set1-containing complex (COMPASS), which promotes H3K4me2 and -me3, also serves to limit the abundance of H3K4ac at gene promoters. In addition, we identify a group of genes that have high levels of H3K4ac in their promoters and are inadequately expressed in H3-K4R, but not in set1Δ mutant strains, suggesting that H3K4ac plays a positive role in transcription. Our results reveal a novel regulatory feature of promoter-proximal chromatin, involving mutually exclusive histone modifications of the same histone residue (H3K4ac and H3K4me).
|The new low-toxic histone deacetylase inhibitor S-(2) induces apoptosis in various acute myeloid leukemia cells. |
Cellai, C, et al.
Journal of cellular and molecular medicine, (2011) 2011
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) induce tumor cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis, and some of them are currently used in cancer therapy. Recently, we described a series of powerful HDACi characterized by a 1,4-benzodiazepine (BDZ) ring hybridized with a linear alkyl chain bearing a hydroxamate function as Zn(++) -chelating group. Here, we explored the anti-leukemic properties of three novel hybrids, namely the chiral compounds (S)-2 and (R)-2, and their non-chiral analog 4, which were first comparatively tested in promyelocytic NB4 cells. (S)-2 and partially 4- but not (R)-2 - caused G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest by up-regulating cyclin G2 and p21 expression and down-regulating cyclin D2 expression, and also apoptosis as assessed by cell morphology and cytofluorimetric assay, histone H2AX phosphorylation and PARP cleavage. Notably, these events were partly prevented by an anti-oxidant. Moreover, novel HDACi prompted p53 and α-tubulin acetylation and, consistently, inhibited HDAC1 and 6 activity. The rank order of potency was (S)-2 > 4 > (R)-2, reflecting that of other biological assays and addressing (S)-2 as the most effective compound capable of triggering apoptosis in various acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines and blasts from patients with different AML subtypes. Importantly, (S)-2 was safe in mice (up to 150 mg/kg/week) as determined by liver, spleen, kidney and bone marrow histopathology; and displayed negligible affinity for peripheral/central BDZ-receptors. Overall, the BDZ-hydroxamate (S)-2 showed to be a low-toxic HDACi with powerful anti-proliferative and pro-apototic activities towards different cultured and primary AML cells, and therefore of clinical interest to support conventional anti-leukemic therapy.
|A highly specific mechanism of histone H3-K4 recognition by histone demethylase LSD1 |
Forneris, Federico, et al
J Biol Chem, 281:35289-95 (2006) 2006