Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Am, B, Ca, Ch, H, Mk||ELISA, IF, IH(P), WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Vimentin Antibody, clone VIM 3B4|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at 2–8°C for up to 12 months from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||50 µg|
References | 17 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Skin fibroblasts from patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) can be chemically transdifferentiated into insulin-expressing clusters: a transgene-free approach. |
Pereyra-Bonnet, F; Gimeno, ML; Argumedo, NR; Ielpi, M; Cardozo, JA; Giménez, CA; Hyon, SH; Balzaretti, M; Loresi, M; Fainstein-Day, P; Litwak, LE; Argibay, PF
PloS one 9 e100369 2014
The conversion of differentiated cells into insulin-producing cells is a promising approach for the autologous replacement of pancreatic cells in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). At present, cellular reprogramming strategies encompass ethical problems, epigenetic failure or teratoma formation, which has prompted the development of new approaches. Here, we report a novel technique for the conversion of skin fibroblasts from T1D patients into insulin-expressing clusters using only drug-based induction. Our results demonstrate that skin fibroblasts from diabetic patients have pancreatic differentiation capacities and avoid the necessity of using transgenic strategies, stem cell sources or global demethylation steps. These findings open new possibilities for studying diabetes mechanisms, drug screenings and ultimately autologous transgenic-free regenerative medicine therapies in patients with T1D.
|Elevated Orai1 expression mediates tumor-promoting intracellular Ca2+ oscillations in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. |
Zhu, H; Zhang, H; Jin, F; Fang, M; Huang, M; Yang, CS; Chen, T; Fu, L; Pan, Z
Oncotarget 5 3455-71 2014
Effective treatment as well as prognostic biomarker for malignant esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is urgently needed. The present study was aimed at identifying oncogenic genes involving dysregulated intracellular Ca2+ signaling, which is known to function importantly in cellular proliferation and migration. Tumors from patients with ESCC were found to display elevated expression of Orai1, a store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) channel, and the high expression of Orai1 was associated with poor overall and recurrence-free survival. In contrast to the quiescent nature of non-tumorigenic epithelial cells, human ESCC cells exhibited strikingly hyperactive in intracellular Ca2+ oscillations, which were sensitive to treatments with Orai1 channel blockers and to orai1 silencing. Moreover, pharmacologic inhibition of Orai1 activity or reduction of Orai1 expression suppressed proliferation and migration of ESCC in vitro and slowed tumor formation and growth in in vivo xenografted mice. Combined, these findings provide the first evidence to imply Orai1 as a novel biomarker for ESCC prognostic stratification and also highlight Orai1-mediated Ca2+ signaling pathway as a potential target for treatment of this deadly disease.
|Dynamic expression and localization of c-MET isoforms in the developing rat pancreas. |
Wu, Y; Cheng, M; Shi, Z; Feng, Z; Guan, X
International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 7 8563-72 2014
Pancreata from Sprague Dawley rats of different developmental stages were studied to determine the expression and cellular localization of different c-MET isoforms in the developing rat pancreas. Pancreatic mRNA and protein expression levels of c-MET at different developmental stages from embryo to adult were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and by western blotting. To identify the cellular localization of c-MET protein in the developing rat pancreas, double immunofluorescent staining was performed using antibodies for cell type-specific markers and for c-MET. The expression of two isoforms of c-MET (190 kDa and 170 kDa) coincided with the development of the pancreas. The 190 kDa isoform of c-MET is expressed during embryonic stages, and its expression is replaced by the expression of the 170 kDa isoform as the pancreas develops. Only the 170 kDa isoform is expressed in the adult rat pancreas. Throughout all stages of pancreatic development, c-MET is expressed by vimentin-positive cells. In contrast, c-MET staining was stronger in rat pancreata from newborn to adult stages and overlapped with insulin-positive beta-cells. The dynamic expression and localization of different c-MET isoforms in the rat pancreas during different developmental stages indicates that distinct c-MET isoform might be involved in different aspects of pancreatic development.
|Recrudescence mechanisms and gene expression profile of the reproductive tracts from chickens during the molting period. |
Jeong, W; Lim, W; Ahn, SE; Lim, CH; Lee, JY; Bae, SM; Kim, J; Bazer, FW; Song, G
PloS one 8 e76784 2013
The reproductive system of chickens undergoes dynamic morphological and functional tissue remodeling during the molting period. The present study identified global gene expression profiles following oviductal tissue regression and regeneration in laying hens in which molting was induced by feeding high levels of zinc in the diet. During the molting and recrudescence processes, progressive morphological and physiological changes included regression and re-growth of reproductive organs and fluctuations in concentrations of testosterone, progesterone, estradiol and corticosterone in blood. The cDNA microarray analysis of oviductal tissues revealed the biological significance of gene expression-based modulation in oviductal tissue during its remodeling. Based on the gene expression profiles, expression patterns of selected genes such as, TF, ANGPTL3, p20K, PTN, AvBD11 and SERPINB3 exhibited similar patterns in expression with gradual decreases during regression of the oviduct and sequential increases during resurrection of the functional oviduct. Also, miR-1689* inhibited expression of Sp1, while miR-17-3p, miR-22* and miR-1764 inhibited expression of STAT1. Similarly, chicken miR-1562 and miR-138 reduced the expression of ANGPTL3 and p20K, respectively. These results suggest that these differentially regulated genes are closely correlated with the molecular mechanism(s) for development and tissue remodeling of the avian female reproductive tract, and that miRNA-mediated regulation of key genes likely contributes to remodeling of the avian reproductive tract by controlling expression of those genes post-transcriptionally. The discovered global gene profiles provide new molecular candidates responsible for regulating morphological and functional recrudescence of the avian reproductive tract, and provide novel insights into understanding the remodeling process at the genomic and epigenomic levels.
|Dynamic epigenetic regulation of the microRNA-200 family mediates epithelial and mesenchymal transitions in human tumorigenesis. |
V Davalos,C Moutinho,A Villanueva,R Boque,P Silva,F Carneiro,M Esteller
Oncogene 31 2012
Epithelial-mesenchymal (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial (MET) transitions occur in the development of human tumorigenesis and are part of the natural history of the process to adapt to the changing microenvironment. In this setting, the miR-200 family is recognized as a master regulator of the epithelial phenotype by targeting ZEB1 and ZEB2, two important transcriptional repressors of the cell adherence (E-cadherin) and polarity (CRB3 and LGL2) genes. Recently, the putative DNA methylation associated inactivation of various miR-200 members has been described in cancer. Herein, we show that the miR-200ba429 and miR-200c141 transcripts undergo a dynamic epigenetic regulation linked to EMT or MET phenotypes in tumor progression. The 5'-CpG islands of both miR-200 loci were found unmethylated and coupled to the expression of the corresponding miRNAs in human cancer cell lines with epithelial features, such as low levels of ZEB1/ZEB2 and high expression of E-cadherin, CRB3 and LGL2, while CpG island hypermethylation-associated silencing was observed in transformed cells with mesenchymal characteristics. The recovery of miR-200ba429 and miR-200c141 expression by stable transfection in the hypermethylated cells restored the epithelial markers and inhibited migration in cell culture and tumoral growth and metastasis formation in nude mice. We also discovered, using both cell culture and animal models, that the miR-200 epigenetic silencing is not an static and fixed process but it can be shifted to hypermethylated or unmethylated 5'-CpG island status corresponding to the EMT and MET phenotypes, respectively. In fact, careful laser microdissection in human primary colorectal tumorigenesis unveiled that in normal colon mucosa crypts (epithelia) and stroma (mesenchyma) already are unmethylated and methylated at these loci, respectively; and that the colorectal tumors undergo selective miR-200 hypermethylation of their epithelial component. These findings indicate that the epigenetic silencing plasticity of the miR-200 family contributes to the evolving and adapting phenotypes of human tumors.
|Sites of origin and developmental dynamics of the neurons in the core and shell regions of torus semicircularis in the Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis). |
Chao Xi,Qiong Chen,Shao-Ju Zeng,Yu-Tao Lin,Yu-Fang Huang,Yu Liu,Xin-Wen Zhang,Ming-Xue Zuo
The Journal of comparative neurology 519 2011
To know the embryogenesis of the core and shell regions of the midbrain auditory nucleus, a single dose of [(3)H]-thymidine was injected into the turtle embryos at peak stages of neurogenesis in the shell and core of the torus semicircularis. Following sequential survival times, labeled neurons and the dynamics of cell proliferation were examined. The expression of vimentin (VM), reelin, calbindin, parvalbumin, and substance P were also studied. The results showed that: 1) progenitor cells for the core and shell regions were generated in different sites of the ventricular zone; 2) the length of the cell cycle or S-phase for the shell region were both longer than those for the core region (4.7 and 3.2 hours longer, respectively), suggesting that mitotic activity in the core region is higher than it is in the shell region; 3) the elongated cell bodies of the labeled core and shell cells had close apposition to VM fibers, suggesting that the migration of these cells is guided by VM fibers; 4) the germinal sites of the core and shell constructed by projecting the orientation of radial VM fibers back to the ventricular zone was consistent with those obtained by short and sequential survival [(3)H]-thymidine radiography; and 5) the beginning of positive staining for parvalbumin in the core region was interposed between those for calbindin and substance P in the shell regions. This study contributes to the understanding of how auditory nuclei are organized and how their components developed and evolved.
|α-fetoprotein involvement during glucocorticoid-induced precocious maturation in rat colon. |
Chen M, Sun P, Liu XY, Dong D, Du J, Gu L, Ge YB
World journal of gastroenterology : WJG 17 2933-40. 2011
Full Text Article
|Expression and location of alpha-fetoprotein during rat colon development. |
Xiao-Yan Liu, Dan Dong, Peng Sun, Jun Du, Luo Gu, Ying-Bin Ge, Xiao-Yan Liu, Dan Dong, Peng Sun, Jun Du, Luo Gu, Ying-Bin Ge, Xiao-Yan Liu, Dan Dong, Peng Sun, Jun Du, Luo Gu, Ying-Bin Ge, Xiao-Yan Liu, Dan Dong, Peng Sun, Jun Du, Luo Gu, Ying-Bin Ge
World journal of gastroenterology : WJG 15 1738-43 2009
AIM: To investigate the expression of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a cancer-associated fetal glycoprotein, and its involvement during rat colon development. METHODS: Colons from Sprague-Dawley rat fetuses, young and adult (8 wk old) animals were used in this study. Expression levels of AFP in colons of different development stage were detected by reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. To identify the cell location of AFP in the developing rat colons, double-immunofluorescent staining was performed using antibodies to specific cell markers and AFP, respectively. RESULTS: The highest levels of AFP mRNA were detected in colons of rats at embryonic day 18.5 (e18.5). Compared to e18.5 d, the AFP expression was significantly decreased during rat development [85% for e20.5, P 0.05, 58% for postnatal day 0.5 (P0.5), P 0.05, 37% for P7, P 0.05, 24% for P14, P 0.05, and 11% for P21, P 0.05] and undetected in adult rats. Only the 72-kDa isoform of AFP was detected by Western blotting, the expression pattern was similar to AFP mRNA and conformed to the results of mRNA expression. The AFP positive staining was identical to different distribution patterns in fetuses, young and adult animals and positive staining for both AFP and vimentin was overlapped in mesenchymal cells at each stage tested. CONCLUSION: This study has for the first time demonstrated that AFP is localized in the mesenchyme of rat colon from the embryo to the weaning stage by immunofluorescence and presents 72-kDa isoform in the developing rat colons by Western blotting. The dynamic expression of AFP in the various developmental stages of the colon indicates that AFP might be involved in many aspects of colon development.Full Text Article
|Phenotypic plasticity of neoplastic ovarian epithelium: unique cadherin profiles in tumor progression. |
Hudson, LG; Zeineldin, R; Stack, MS
Clinical & experimental metastasis 25 643-55 2008
The mesodermally derived normal ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) displays both epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics and exhibits remarkable phenotypic plasticity during post-ovulatory repair. The majority of epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC) are derived from the OSE and represent the most lethal of all gynecological malignancies, as most patients (approximately 70%) present at diagnosis with disseminated intra-abdominal metastasis. The predominant pattern of EOC metastasis involves pelvic dissemination rather than lymphatic or hematologic spread, distinguishing EOC from other solid tumors. Acquisition of the metastatic phenotype involves a complex series of interrelated cellular events leading to dissociation (shedding) and dispersal of malignant cells. A key event in this process is disruption of cell-cell contacts via modulation of intercellular junctional components. In contrast to most carcinomas that downregulate E-cadherin expression during tumor progression, a unique feature of primary well-differentiated ovarian cancers is a gain of epithelial features, characterized by an increase in expression of E-cadherin. Subsequent reacquisition of mesenchymal features is observed in more advanced tumors with concomitant loss of E-cadherin expression and/or function during progression to metastasis. The functional consequences of this remarkable phenotypic plasticity are not fully understood, but may play a role in modulation of cell survival in suspension (ascites), chemoresistance, and intraperitoneal anchoring of metastatic lesions.Full Text Article
|Expression and localization of mesothelin in developing rat pancreas. |
Liang-Qin Hou, Yin-He Wang, Li-Jie Liu, Jing Guo, Li-Ping Teng, Li-Hua Cao, Hui Shi, Li Yuan, Wei De, Liang-Qin Hou, Yin-He Wang, Li-Jie Liu, Jing Guo, Li-Ping Teng, Li-Hua Cao, Hui Shi, Li Yuan, Wei De, Liang-Qin Hou, Yin-He Wang, Li-Jie Liu, Jing Guo, Li-Ping Teng, Li-Hua Cao, Hui Shi, Li Yuan, Wei De
Development, growth differentiation 50 531-41 2008
To define a genetic network that regulates development of the pancreas, we used high-density microarray (Affymetrix) to generate transcriptional profiles of rat pancreas from five biologically significant stages of development: embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5), E15.5, E18.5, postnatal day 0 (P0) and adult. Many genes were notably highly expressed in the later gestation when islet architecture and function are gradually forming. The expression and localization of mesothelin, one of these genes, was further examined. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis revealed that mRNA and protein levels of mesothelin were high from later gestation to 2-3 weeks after birth, and with relatively low but detectable expression levels in adult rat pancreas. Immunolocalization indicated that mesothelin localized not only in islet beta-cells but also in the mesenchyme of developing rat pancreas. Transient mesothelin expression was concomitant with the development of islets architecture formation, remodeling and maturation. These findings indicate that mesothelin is dynamically expressed in the developing rat pancreas and that mesothelin might be involved in some developmental events during development of rat pancreas.
|Alpha-fetoprotein is dynamically expressed in rat pancreas during development. |
Lijie Liu, Jing Guo, Li Yuan, Mei Cheng, Lihua Cao, Hui Shi, Hui Tong, Ning Wang, Wei De
Development, growth differentiation 49 669-81 2007
To identify proteins involved in pancreatic development, we used a differential proteomics approach by comparing pancreatic extracts from four biologically significant stages of development: embryonic day (E) 15.5, E18.5, postnatal (P) days 0 and adult. By two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-E) and MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry) following database searching and protein annotation, 15 proteins were identified as being differently expressed in the pancreas between the four phases. The expression pattern and the localization of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), one of significant changed proteins observed, were further determined. Four isoforms of AFP (72 kDa, 60 kDa, 48 kDa and 37 kDa) were found by Western blotting in the pancreas tested, most of them showed a stronger signal in E18.5 followed by a steady decrease and only a 60-kDa isoform was detected in the adult pancreas. Immunolocalization for AFP revealed that a positive reactivity was detectable at E15.5 pancreas, became stronger in the cytoplasm of mesenchyme cells at E18.5, and declined after birth to a nearly undetectable level in adults. The dynamic expression of AFP in rat pancreas from different stages indicates that AFP might be involved in some aspects of pancreatic development.
|Identification of differentially expressed genes in fetal rat forebrain exposed to a teratogen by cDNA microarray analysis. |
S T Dheen,A J Hao,J Fu,P Gopalakrishnakone,E A Ling
Histology and histopathology 22 2007
In an attempt to understand the molecular basis underlying the neural tube defects induced by the teratogen, cyclophosphamide (CP), cDNA microarray analysis was carried out in neural tubes of embryos derived from normal and CP-treated rats. Genes found to have altered expression levels in CP-treated group were clustered into groups on the basis of their biological functions. The expression profile of different genes involved in transcription of molecules related to cell adhesion, inflammation, metabolism and neurotrophic factors pathways as well as in still undefined processes was differentially affected by the teratogen treatment. The most remarkable change was the up-regulation of genes related to an inflammatory process dominated by the fetal brain macrophages viz. amoeboid microglia. Amoeboid microglia/brain macrophage expansion, based on gene expression and histological analysis, was found to be vigorous at the subventricular region. The present results suggest that a vigorous inflammatory response involving amoeboid microglia/brain macrophages primarily is an important component in CP-induced prenatal development disorder.
|Truncation mutagenesis of the non-alpha-helical carboxyterminal tail domain of vimentin reveals contributions to cellular localization but not to filament assembly. |
Rogers, K R, et al.
Eur. J. Cell Biol., 66: 136-50 (1995) 1995
We have investigated the effect of stepwise truncating the carboxyterminal domain ("tail") of the intermediate filament (IF) protein vimentin of the clawed toad, Xenopus laevis, on filament assembly in vitro and, using cell transfection, in vivo and also on the cellular topology of the structures formed. All truncations examined, except the minimal one missing the last 11 amino acids which made the protein more sensitive to changes of ionic strength, did not significantly alter IF assembly in vitro, as judged by electron microscopy, viscometry and determination of viscoelastic properties with a laser-operated torsion pendulum. Stable transfections of vimentin-free mammalian cells with cDNAs encoding these mutations resulted at 28 degrees C, i.e. the permissive temperature for assembly of Xenopus vimentin, in the formation of extended IF bundle arrays. At 37 degrees C, however, the mutants lacking more than the last 35 amino acids could leave the cytoplasm and accumulated in the nucleus, indicating a certain topogenic element is located in the tail and directs cytoplasmic restriction in the wild-type protein although this does not form IFs under these conditions. Transfer to the nucleus is, however, abolished if the IF-consensus motif at the end of the rod domain is removed, suggesting that this part of the molecule also contributes to nuclear location. Similar results were obtained with human vimentin: While the rod entered the nucleus, headless vimentin, unable to form IFs, remained restricted to the cytoplasm owing to its tail domain. In contrast, tailless human vimentin and tailless mouse desmin, which are fully assembly-competent in vitro, both formed extensive IF arrays in the cytoplasm but did not accumulate in the nucleus. We conclude that in class III IF proteins stepwise deletions in the tail, while not considerably altering IF assembly in vitro, can change the topogenesis of IF proteins and structures in the living cell.
|Species-specific recognition patterns of monoclonal antibodies directed against vimentin. |
Bohn, W, et al.
Exp. Cell Res., 201: 1-7 (1992) 1992
|Cell type heterogeneity of intermediate filament expression in epithelia of the human pituitary gland. |
Kasper, M, et al.
Histochemistry, 93: 93-103 (1989) 1989
In the present study we have localized immunohistochemically the intermediate filament proteins of the human pituitary gland (adenohypophysis, pars intermedia and pars tuberalis) by an indirect immunoperoxidase technique or by double immunofluorescence methods and analysed the individual cytokeratin polypeptides using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. We found that the expression of cytokeratins in different epithelial cells of the human anterior pituitary gland was heterogeneous. Whereas the endocrine cells only expressed cytokeratins 8 and 18, the folliculo-stellate cells exhibited a reactivity for cytokeratins 7, 8, 18 and 19 as well as for GFAP and vimentin. The squamous epithelial cells of the pars tuberalis and the Ratke's cysts showed a more complex cytokeratin pattern of both squamous and simple type. Whereas in may cystic epithelial cells including the "pseudo-follicles" a triple expression of cytokeratin, vimentin and GFAP could be observed, only some basal cells of squamous epithelial nests coexpressed cytokeratin and vimentin. The differences in the intermediate filament protein distribution are discussed in the light of embryological relationships of the different parts of the human pituitary gland.
|Patterns of expression of trichocytic and epithelial cytokeratins in mammalian tissues. I. Human and bovine hair follicles. |
Heid, H W, et al.
Differentiation, 37: 137-57 (1988) 1988
The cytokeratin family of intermediate filament (IF) proteins can be grouped into the epithelial polypeptides ("soft alpha-keratins"), of which at least 19 exist in the various human epithelia, and the hair-type cytokeratins ("hard alpha-keratins"), which are typical of trichocytes, i.e., the living hair-forming cells. We have recently shown  that the hair follicles from diverse mammalian species contain a set of eight major cytokeratin polypeptides, four each of the acidic (type I) and the basic (type II) subfamily, which are different from all known epithelial cytokeratins. In addition, we have identified two new minor trichocytic cytokeratin polypeptides, designated Hax (type I) and Hbx (type II). Antibodies against trichocytic cytokeratins that do not crossreact with any of the epithelial cytokeratins have enabled us to study the expression of both kinds of cytokeratin in the various cell types of human and bovine hair follicles. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we have observed intense reactions of trichocytic cytokeratins only in cells contributing to the forming hairs, i.e., hair shaft, medulla and cuticle, whereas immunostaining of the peribulbar matrix cells was weaker, if at all detectable. In contrast, epithelial cytokeratins were localized in both the inner and outer root sheath epithelia but, surprisingly, also in certain portions of the trichocyte column, notably cells of the cuticle, certain medullary cells, and trichocytes of the basalmost peripapillary cell layers. Cells coexpressing trichocytic and epithelial cytokeratins have been identified by double-label immunofluorescence microscopy. Epithelial cytokeratins of the inner and outer root sheath epithelia include, most remarkably, "simple-epithelium-type" cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19; these occur in certain peribulbar regions, in distinct patterns, but with variable frequencies. The occurrence of simple epithelial cytokeratins in hair follicles has also been confirmed by high-sensitivity immunoblotting of follicular polypeptides separated by gel electrophoresis. Vimentin-positive cells were abundantly interspersed (in some follicles, but not in all) between the trichocytes of the peripapillary cone, most of them probably being melanocytes. The cell-type complexity of the hair follicle and the different patterns of cytoskeletal protein expression in the various hair follicle cells are discussed in relation to the development and growth of this organ.
|Cytoskeletal components of lymphoid organs. I. Synthesis of cytokeratins 8 and 18 and desmin in subpopulations of extrafollicular reticulum cells of human lymph nodes, tonsils, and spleen. |
Franke, W W and Moll, R
Differentiation, 36: 145-63 (1987) 1987
Using light and electron microscopic immunolocalization with antibodies to cytoskeletal proteins, we have characterized the nonlymphoid cells of various human lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen). In all these tissues, the lymphoid follicles contain a three-dimensional meshwork of "dendritic reticulum cells" which are characterized by the presence of desmosomal junctions, as demonstrated by positive punctate staining with antibodies to the desmosome-specific proteins desmoplakin I and desmoglein, and by intermediate-sized filaments (IFs) of the vimentin type only. In contrast, the extrafollicular regions are characterized by an extended meshwork of other types of reticulum cells, which also contain vimentin IFs but lack desmosomal proteins. In addition, a considerable, although variable proportion of these extrafollicular reticulum cells forms IFs containing cytokeratins 8 and 18 and/or desmin-containing IFs. The occurrence of cytokeratins 8 and 18 in lymph nodes has also been shown by gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Results of double-label immunolocalization indicate that some of the extrafollicular reticulum cells coexpress all three kinds of IF protein. A large proportion of these cells also synthesizes another marker of myogenic differentiation, i.e., the isoform of alpha-actin specific for smooth muscle. This proportion includes some cells that are negative for desmin. Comparison of the distribution of cells expressing cytokeratins and/or desmin with that of reticulum cells showing strong alkaline phosphatase activity (as a marker for the so-called "fiber-associated (fibroblastic) reticulum cells") suggests that the former represent a subset of the latter. The biological meaning of these different patterns of expression in reticulum cells and of the resulting cell-type heterogeneity as well as possible implications of these observations for tumor diagnosis, notably of lymph-node metastases and lymphomas, are discussed.
|MOUSE ANTI-HUMAN VIMENTIN|