Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|B, Ca, Ch, Fe, H, Mk, Po, R||ICC, IHC, IH(P), WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG1 presented in 0.02 M Phosphate buffer, 0.25 M NaCl with 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||40 µg|
|Anti-Vimentin, clone V9 - 2373398||2373398|
|Anti-Vimentin, clone V9 - 1945579||1945579|
|Anti-Vimentin, clone V9 - 1983686||1983686|
|Anti-Vimentin, clone V9 - 2062311||2062311|
|Anti-Vimentin, clone V9 - 2216878||2216878|
|Anti-Vimentin, clone V9 - LV1506369||LV1506369|
|Anti-Vimentin, clone V9 - LV1594097||LV1594097|
|Anti-Vimentin, clone V9 - LV1700725||LV1700725|
|Anti-Vimentin, clone V9 - LV1777812||LV1777812|
|Anti-Vimentin, clone V9 - NG1878288||NG1878288|
|Anti-Vimentin, clone V9 -2488952||2488952|
|Anti-Vimentin, clone V9 -2515015||2515015|
|Anti-Vimentin, clone V9 -2570217||2570217|
|Anti-Vimentin, clone V9 -2583352||2583352|
|Anti-Vimentin, clone V9 -2586466||2586466|
|Anti-Vimentin, clone V9 -2618486||2618486|
|Anti-Vimentin, clone V9 -2664464||2664464|
|Anti-Vimentin, clone V9 -2710697||2710697|
|Anti-Vimentin, clone V9 -2762323||2762323|
References | 39 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Platelets enhance tissue factor protein and metastasis initiating cell markers, and act as chemoattractants increasing the migration of ovarian cancer cells. |
Orellana, R; Kato, S; Erices, R; Bravo, ML; Gonzalez, P; Oliva, B; Cubillos, S; Valdivia, A; Ibañez, C; Brañes, J; Barriga, MI; Bravo, E; Alonso, C; Bustamente, E; Castellon, E; Hidalgo, P; Trigo, C; Panes, O; Pereira, J; Mezzano, D; Cuello, MA; Owen, GI
BMC cancer 15 290 2015
An increase in circulating platelets, or thrombocytosis, is recognized as an independent risk factor of bad prognosis and metastasis in patients with ovarian cancer; however the complex role of platelets in tumor progression has not been fully elucidated. Platelet activation has been associated with an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), while Tissue Factor (TF) protein expression by cancer cells has been shown to correlate with hypercoagulable state and metastasis. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of platelet-cancer cell interaction on TF and "Metastasis Initiating Cell (MIC)" marker levels and migration in ovarian cancer cell lines and cancer cells isolated from the ascetic fluid of ovarian cancer patients.With informed patient consent, ascitic fluid isolated ovarian cancer cells, cell lines and ovarian cancer spheres were co-cultivated with human platelets. TF, EMT and stem cell marker levels were determined by Western blotting, flow cytometry and RT-PCR. Cancer cell migration was determined by Boyden chambers and the scratch assay.The co-culture of patient-derived ovarian cancer cells with platelets causes: 1) a phenotypic change in cancer cells, 2) chemoattraction and cancer cell migration, 3) induced MIC markers (EMT/stemness), 3) increased sphere formation and 4) increased TF protein levels and activity.We present the first evidence that platelets act as chemoattractants to cancer cells. Furthermore, platelets promote the formation of ovarian cancer spheres that express MIC markers and the metastatic protein TF. Our results suggest that platelet-cancer cell interaction plays a role in the formation of metastatic foci.
|Neurosteroids are endogenous neuroprotectants in an ex vivo glaucoma model. |
Ishikawa, M; Yoshitomi, T; Zorumski, CF; Izumi, Y
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 55 8531-41 2014
Allopregnanolone is a neurosteroid and powerful modulator of neuronal excitability. The neuroprotective effects of allopregnanolone involve potentiation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibitory responses. Although glutamate excitotoxicity contributes to ganglion cell death in glaucoma, the role of GABA in glaucoma remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine whether allopregnanolone synthesis is induced by high pressure in the retina and whether allopregnanolone modulates pressure-mediated toxicity.Ex vivo rat retinas were exposed to hydrostatic pressure (10, 35, and 75 mm Hg) for 24 hours. Endogenous allopregnanolone production was determined by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and immunochemistry. We also examined the effects of allopregnanolone, finasteride, and dutasteride (inhibitors of 5α-reductase), picrotoxin (a GABA(A) receptor antagonist), and D-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV, a broad-spectrum N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor [NMDAR] antagonist).Pressure loading at 75 mm Hg significantly increased allopregnanolone levels as measured by LC-MS/MS. Elevated hydrostatic pressure also increased neurosteroid immunofluorescence, especially in the ganglion cell layer and inner nuclear layers. Staining was negligible at lower pressures. Enhanced allopregnanolone levels and immunostaining were substantially blocked by finasteride, but more effectively inhibited by dutasteride and APV. Administration of exogenous allopregnanolone suppressed pressure-induced axonal swelling in a concentration-dependent manner, while picrotoxin overcame these neuroprotective effects.These results indicate that the synthesis of allopregnanolone is enhanced mainly via NMDARs in the pressure-loaded retina, and that allopregnanolone diminishes pressure-mediated retinal degeneration via GABAA receptors. Allopregnanolone and other related neurosteroids may serve as potential novel therapeutic targets for the prevention of pressure-induced retinal damage in glaucoma.
|An image-based, dual fluorescence reporter assay to evaluate the efficacy of shRNA for gene silencing at the single-cell level. |
Kojima, S; Borisy, GG
F1000Research 3 60 2014
RNA interference (RNAi) is widely used to suppress gene expression in a specific manner. The efficacy of RNAi is mainly dependent on the sequence of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in relation to the target mRNA. Although several algorithms have been developed for the design of siRNA, it is still difficult to choose a really effective siRNA from among multiple candidates. In this article, we report the development of an image-based, quantitative, ratiometric fluorescence reporter assay to evaluate the efficacy of RNAi at the single-cell level. Two fluorescence reporter constructs are used. One expresses the candidate small hairpin RNA (shRNA) together with an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP); the other expresses a 19-nt target sequence inserted into a cassette expressing a red fluorescent protein (either DsRed or mCherry). Effectiveness of the candidate shRNA is evaluated as the extent to which it knocks down expression of the red fluorescent protein. Thus, the red-to-green fluorescence intensity ratio (appropriately normalized to controls) is used as the read-out for quantifying the siRNA efficacy at the individual cell level. We tested this dual fluorescence assay and compared predictions to actual endogenous knockdown levels for three different genes (vimentin, lamin A/C and Arp3) and twenty different shRNAs. For each of the genes, our assay successfully predicted the target sequences for effective RNAi. To further facilitate testing of RNAi efficacy, we developed a negative selection marker ( ccdB) method for construction of shRNA and red fluorescent reporter plasmids that allowed us to purify these plasmids directly from transformed bacteria without the need for colony selection and DNA sequencing verification.
|Distal renal tubules are deficient in aggresome formation and autophagy upon aldosterone administration. |
Cheema, MU; Damkier, HH; Nielsen, J; Poulsen, ET; Enghild, JJ; Fenton, RA; Praetorius, J
PloS one 9 e101258 2014
Prolonged elevations of plasma aldosterone levels are associated with renal pathogenesis. We hypothesized that renal distress could be imposed by an augmented aldosterone-induced protein turnover challenging cellular protein degradation systems of the renal tubular cells. Cellular accumulation of specific protein aggregates in rat kidneys was assessed after 7 days of aldosterone administration. Aldosterone induced intracellular accumulation of 60 s ribosomal protein L22 in protein aggregates, specifically in the distal convoluted tubules. The mineralocorticoid receptor inhibitor spironolactone abolished aldosterone-induced accumulation of these aggregates. The aldosterone-induced protein aggregates also contained proteasome 20 s subunits. The partial de-ubiquitinase ataxin-3 was not localized to the distal renal tubule protein aggregates, and the aggregates only modestly colocalized with aggresome transfer proteins dynactin p62 and histone deacetylase 6. Intracellular protein aggregation in distal renal tubules did not lead to development of classical juxta-nuclear aggresomes or to autophagosome formation. Finally, aldosterone treatment induced foci in renal cortex of epithelial vimentin expression and a loss of E-cadherin expression, as signs of cellular stress. The cellular changes occurred within high, but physiological aldosterone concentrations. We conclude that aldosterone induces protein accumulation in distal renal tubules; these aggregates are not cleared by autophagy that may lead to early renal tubular damage.
|Misfolded polyglutamine, polyalanine, and superoxide dismutase 1 aggregate via distinct pathways in the cell. |
Polling, S; Mok, YF; Ramdzan, YM; Turner, BJ; Yerbury, JJ; Hill, AF; Hatters, DM
The Journal of biological chemistry 289 6669-80 2014
Protein aggregation into intracellular inclusions is a key feature of many neurodegenerative disorders. A common theme has emerged that inappropriate self-aggregation of misfolded or mutant polypeptide sequences is detrimental to cell health. Yet protein quality control mechanisms may also deliberately cluster them together into distinct inclusion subtypes, including the insoluble protein deposit (IPOD) and the juxtanuclear quality control (JUNQ). Here we investigated how the intrinsic oligomeric state of three model systems of disease-relevant mutant protein and peptide sequences relates to the IPOD and JUNQ patterns of aggregation using sedimentation velocity analysis. Two of the models (polyalanine (37A) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutants A4V and G85R) accumulated into the same JUNQ-like inclusion whereas the other, polyglutamine (72Q), formed spatially distinct IPOD-like inclusions. Using flow cytometry pulse shape analysis (PulSA) to separate cells with inclusions from those without revealed the SOD1 mutants and 37A to have abruptly altered oligomeric states with respect to the nonaggregating forms, regardless of whether cells had inclusions or not, whereas 72Q was almost exclusively monomeric until inclusions formed. We propose that mutations leading to JUNQ inclusions induce a constitutively "misfolded" state exposing hydrophobic side chains that attract and ultimately overextend protein quality capacity, which leads to aggregation into JUNQ inclusions. Poly(Q) is not misfolded in this same sense due to universal polar side chains, but is highly prone to forming amyloid fibrils that we propose invoke a different engagement mechanism with quality control.
|Repair of astrocytes, blood vessels, and myelin in the injured brain: possible roles of blood monocytes. |
Jeong, HK; Ji, KM; Kim, J; Jou, I; Joe, EH
Molecular brain 6 28 2013
Inflammation in injured tissue has both repair functions and cytotoxic consequences. However, the issue of whether brain inflammation has a repair function has received little attention. Previously, we demonstrated monocyte infiltration and death of neurons and resident microglia in LPS-injected brains (Glia. 2007. 55:1577; Glia. 2008. 56:1039). Here, we found that astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, myelin, and endothelial cells disappeared in the damage core within 1-3 d and then re-appeared at 7-14 d, providing evidence of repair of the brain microenvironment. Since round Iba-1+/CD45+ monocytes infiltrated before the repair, we examined whether these cells were involved in the repair process. Analysis of mRNA expression profiles showed significant upregulation of repair/resolution-related genes, whereas proinflammatory-related genes were barely detectable at 3 d, a time when monocytes filled injury sites. Moreover, Iba-1+/CD45+ cells highly expressed phagocytic activity markers (e.g., the mannose receptors, CD68 and LAMP2), but not proinflammatory mediators (e.g., iNOS and IL1β). In addition, the distribution of round Iba-1+/CD45+ cells was spatially and temporally correlated with astrocyte recovery. We further found that monocytes in culture attracted astrocytes by releasing soluble factor(s). Together, these results suggest that brain inflammation mediated by monocytes functions to repair the microenvironment of the injured brain.
|Improving outcomes of acute kidney injury using mouse renal progenitor cells alone or in combination with erythropoietin or suramin. |
Han, X; Zhao, L; Lu, G; Ge, J; Zhao, Y; Zu, S; Yuan, M; Liu, Y; Kong, F; Xiao, Z; Zhao, S
Stem cell research & therapy 4 74 2013
So far, no effective therapy is available for acute kidney injury (AKI), a common and serious complication with high morbidity and mortality. Interest has recently been focused on the potential therapeutic effect of mouse adult renal progenitor cells (MRPC), erythropoietin (EPO) and suramin in the recovery of ischemia-induced AKI. The aim of the present study is to compare MRPC with MRPC/EPO or MRPC/suramin concomitantly in the treatment of a mouse model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) AKI.MRPC were isolated from adult C57BL/6-gfp mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (eight-weeks old, n = 72) were used for the I/R AKI model. Serum creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and renal histology were detected in MRPC-, MRPC/EPO-, MRPC/suramin- and PBS-treated I/R AKI mice. E-cadherin, CD34 and GFP protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemical assay.MRPC exhibited characteristics consistent with renal stem cells. The features of MRPC were manifested by Pax-2, Oct-4, vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin positive, and E-cadherin negative, distinguished from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) by expression of CD34 and Sca-1. The plasticity of MRPC was shown by the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts and lipocytes in vitro. Injection of MRPC, especially MRPC/EPO and MRPC/suramin in I/R AKI mice attenuated renal damage with a decrease of the necrotic injury, peak plasma Cr and BUN. Furthermore, seven days after the injury, MRPC/EPO or MRPC/suramin formed more CD34(+) and E-cadherin+ cells than MRPC alone.These results suggest that MRPC, in particular MRPC/EPO or MRPC/suramin, promote renal repair after injury and may be a promising therapeutic strategy.
|Aldosterone and angiotensin II induce protein aggregation in renal proximal tubules. |
Cheema, MU; Poulsen, ET; Enghild, JJ; Hoorn, EJ; Hoorn, E; Fenton, RA; Praetorius, J
Physiological reports 1 e00064 2013
Renal tubules are highly active transporting epithelia and are at risk of protein aggregation due to high protein turnover and/or oxidative stress. We hypothesized that the risk of aggregation was increased upon hormone stimulation and assessed the state of the intracellular protein degradation systems in the kidney from control rats and rats receiving aldosterone or angiotensin II treatment for 7 days. Control rats formed both aggresomes and autophagosomes specifically in the proximal tubules, indicating a need for these structures even under baseline conditions. Fluorescence sorted aggresomes contained various rat keratins known to be expressed in renal tubules as assessed by protein mass spectrometry. Aldosterone administration increased the abundance of the proximal tubular aggresomal protein keratin 5, the ribosomal protein RPL27, ataxin-3, and the chaperone heat shock protein 70-4 with no apparent change in the aggresome-autophagosome markers. Angiotensin II induced aggregation of RPL27 specifically in proximal tubules, again without apparent change in antiaggregating proteins or the aggresome-autophagosome markers. Albumin endocytosis was unaffected by the hormone administration. Taken together, we find that the renal proximal tubules display aggresome formation and autophagy. Despite an increase in aggregation-prone protein load in these tubules during hormone treatment, renal proximal tubules seem to have sufficient capacity for removing protein aggregates from the cells.
|Survival of cancer stem cells under hypoxia and serum depletion via decrease in PP2A activity and activation of p38-MAPKAPK2-Hsp27. |
Lin, SP; Lee, YT; Wang, JY; Miller, SA; Chiou, SH; Hung, MC; Hung, SC
PloS one 7 e49605 2012
Hypoxia and serum depletion are common features of solid tumors that occur upon antiangiogenesis, irradiation and chemotherapy across a wide variety of malignancies. Here we show that tumor cells expressing CD133, a marker for colorectal cancer initiating or stem cells, are enriched and survive under hypoxia and serum depletion conditions, whereas CD133- cells undergo apoptosis. CD133+ tumor cells increase cancer stem cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition properties. Moreover, via screening a panel of tyrosine and serine/threonine kinase pathways, we identified Hsp27 is constitutively activated in CD133+ cells rather than CD133- cell under hypoxia and serum depletion conditions. However, there was no difference in Hsp27 activation between CD133+ and CD133- cells under normal growth condition. Hsp27 activation, which was mediated by the p38MAPK-MAPKAPK2-Hsp27 pathway, is required for CD133+ cells to inhibit caspase 9 and 3 cleavage. In addition, inhibition of Hsp27 signaling sensitizes CD133+ cells to hypoxia and serum depletion -induced apoptosis. Moreover, the antiapoptotic pathway is also activated in spheroid culture-enriched CD133+ cancer stem cells from a variety of solid tumor cells including lung, brain and oral cancer, suggesting it is a common pathway activated in cancer stem cells from multiple tumor types. Thus, activation of PP2A or inactivation of the p38MAPK-MAPKAPK2-Hsp27 pathway may develop new strategies for cancer therapy by suppression of their TIC population.
|Expression of tissue transglutaminase on primary olfactory ensheathing cells cultures exposed to stress conditions. |
Agata Campisi,Michela Spatuzza,Antonella Russo,Giuseppina Raciti,Angelo Vanella,Stefania Stanzani,Rosalia Pellitteri
Neuroscience research 72 2012
Tissue transglutaminase (TG2), a multifunctional enzyme implicated in cellular proliferation and differentiation processes, plays a modulatory role in the cell response to stressors. Herein, we used olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), representing an unusual population of glial cells to promote axonal regeneration and to provide trophic support, as well as to assess whether the effect of some Growth Factors (GFs), NGF, bFGF or GDNF, on TG2 overexpression induced by stress conditions, such as glutamate or lipopolysaccaride (LPS). Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) and vimentin were used as markers of astroglial differentiation and cytoskeleton component, respectively. Glutamate or LPS treatment induced a particular increase of TG2 expression. A pre-treatment of the cells with the GFs restored the levels of the protein to that of untreated ones. Our results demonstrate that the treatment of OECs with the GFs was able to restore the OECs oxidative status as modified by stress, also counteracting TG2 overexpression. It suggests that, in OECs, TG2 modulation or inhibition induced by GFs might represent a therapeutic target to control the excitotoxicity and/or inflammation, which are involved in several acute and chronic brain diseases.
|Platelet-rich plasma favors proliferation of canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in methacrylate-endcapped caprolactone porous scaffold niches. |
Rodríguez-Jiménez, FJ; Valdes-Sánchez, T; Carrillo, JM; Rubio, M; Monleon-Prades, M; García-Cruz, DM; García, M; Cugat, R; Moreno-Manzano, V
Journal of functional biomaterials 3 556-68 2012
Osteoarticular pathologies very often require an implementation therapy to favor regeneration processes of bone, cartilage and/or tendons. Clinical approaches performed on osteoarticular complications in dogs constitute an ideal model for human clinical translational applications. The adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have already been used to accelerate and facilitate the regenerative process. ASCs can be maintained in vitro and they can be differentiated to osteocytes or chondrocytes offering a good tool for cell replacement therapies in human and veterinary medicine. Although ACSs can be easily obtained from adipose tissue, the amplification process is usually performed by a time consuming process of successive passages. In this work, we use canine ASCs obtained by using a Bioreactor device under GMP cell culture conditions that produces a minimum of 30 million cells within 2 weeks. This method provides a rapid and aseptic method for production of sufficient stem cells with potential further use in clinical applications. We show that plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) treatment positively contributes to viability and proliferation of canine ASCs into caprolactone 2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl ester (CLMA) scaffolds. This biomaterial does not need additional modifications for cASCs attachment and proliferation. Here we propose a framework based on a combination of approaches that may contribute to increase the therapeutical capability of stem cells by the use of PRGF and compatible biomaterials for bone and connective tissue regeneration.
|Spontaneous generation of germline characteristics in mouse fibrosarcoma cells. |
Ma, Z; Hu, Y; Jiang, G; Hou, J; Liu, R; Lu, Y; Liu, C
Scientific reports 2 743 2012
Germline/embryonic-specific genes have been found to be activated in somatic tumors. In this study, we further showed that cells functioning as germline could be present in mouse fibrosarcoma cells (L929 cell line). Early germline-like cells spontaneously appeared in L929 cells and further differentiated into oocyte-like cells. These germline-like cells can, in turn, develop into blastocyst-like structures in vitro and cause teratocarcinomas in vivo, which is consistent with natural germ cells in function. Generation of germline-like cells from somatic tumors might provide a novel way to understand why somatic cancer cells have strong features of embryonic/germline development. It is thought that the germline traits of tumors are associated with the central characteristics of malignancy, such as immortalization, invasion, migration and immune evasion. Therefore, germline-like cells in tumors might provide potential targets to tumor biology, diagnosis and therapy.
|Human dermal fibroblasts derived from oculodentodigital dysplasia patients suggest that patients may have wound-healing defects. |
Churko, JM; Shao, Q; Gong, XQ; Swoboda, KJ; Bai, D; Sampson, J; Laird, DW
Human mutation 32 456-66 2011
Oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) is primarily an autosomal dominant human disease caused by any one of over 60 mutations in the GJA1 gene encoding the gap junction protein Cx43. In the present study, wound healing was investigated in a G60S ODDD mutant mouse model and by using dermal fibroblasts isolated from two ODDD patients harboring the p.D3N and p.V216L mutants along with dermal fibroblasts isolated from their respective unaffected relatives. Punch biopsies revealed a delay in wound closure in the G60S mutant mice in comparison to wild-type littermates, and this delay appeared to be due to defects in the dermal fibroblasts. Although both the p.D3N and p.V216L mutants reduced gap junctional intercellular communication in human dermal fibroblasts, immunolocalization studies revealed that Cx43 gap junctions were prevalent at the cell surface of p.D3N expressing fibroblasts but greatly reduced in p.V216L expressing fibroblasts. Mutant expressing fibroblasts were further found to have reduced proliferation and migration capabilities. Finally, in response to TGFβ1, mutant expressing fibroblasts expressed significantly less alpha smooth muscle actin suggesting they were inefficient in their ability to differentiate into myofibroblasts. Collectively, our results suggest that ODDD patients may have subclinical defects in wound healing due to impaired function of dermal fibroblasts.
|Dynamics of neuroinflammation in the macrosphere model of arterio-arterial embolic focal ischemia: an approximation to human stroke patterns. |
Walberer, M; Rueger, MA; Simard, ML; Emig, B; Jander, S; Fink, GR; Schroeter, M
Experimental & translational stroke medicine 2 22 2010
Neuroinflammation evolves as a multi-facetted response to focal cerebral ischemia. It involves activation of resident glia cell populations, recruitment of blood-derived leucocytes as well as humoral responses. Among these processes, phagocyte accumulation has been suggested to be a surrogate marker of neuroinflammation. We previously assessed phagocyte accumulation in human stroke by MRI. We hypothesize that phagocyte accumulation in the macrosphere model may resemble the temporal and spatial patterns observed in human stroke.In a rat model of permanent focal ischemia by embolisation of TiO2-spheres we assessed key features of post-ischemic neuroinflammation by the means of histology, immunocytochemistry of glial activation and influx of hematogeneous cells, and quantitative PCR of TNF-α, IL-1, IL-18, and iNOS mRNA.In the boundary zone of the infarct, a transition of ramified microglia into ameboid phagocytic microglia was accompanied by an up-regulation of MHC class II on the cells after 3 days. By day 7, a hypercellular infiltrate consisting of activated microglia and phagocytic cells formed a thick rim around the ischemic infarct core. Interestingly, in the ischemic core microglia could only be observed at day 7. TNF-α was induced rapidly within hours, IL-1β and iNOS peaked within days, and IL-18 later at around 1 week after ischemia.The macrosphere model closely resembles the characteristical dynamics of postischemic inflammation previously observed in human stroke. We therefore suggest that the macrosphere model is highly appropriate for studying the pathophysiology of stroke in a translational approach from rodent to human.Full Text Article
|Alexander disease mutant glial fibrillary acidic protein compromises glutamate transport in astrocytes. |
Tian, R; Wu, X; Hagemann, TL; Sosunov, AA; Messing, A; McKhann, GM; Goldman, JE
Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology 69 335-45 2010
Alexander disease (AxD) is a leukodystrophy caused by heterozygous mutations in the gene for glial fibrillary acidic protein, an intermediate filament protein expressed by astrocytes. The mutation causes prominent protein aggregates inside astrocytes; there is also loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes and neuronal degeneration. We show that immunohistochemical staining for glutamate transporter 1, the major brain glutamate transporter expressed primarily in astrocytes suggests decreased levels in the hippocampi of infantile AxD patients. A knock-in mouse model of AxD also shows significant reduction of glutamate transporter 1 in the hippocampus. To explore this phenomenon at the cellular level, wild-type and R239C mutant glial fibrillary acidic proteins (the most common mutation) were overexpressed in astrocytes in culture. Western blotting and whole-cell patch clamp recordings demonstrated that the R239C astrocytes exhibited markedly reduced glutamate transporter 1 protein levels; this resulted in attenuated or abolished glutamate-induced inward transporter current. Neurons cocultured with the R239C astrocytes exhibited increased death after glutamate challenge. These results indicate that aberrant astrocytes have decreased glutamate uptake, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of neuronal and oligodendrocyte injury and death in AxD.
|Mouse kidney progenitor cells accelerate renal regeneration and prolong survival after ischemic injury. |
Po-Tsang Lee,Hsi-Hui Lin,Si-Tse Jiang,Pei-Jung Lu,Kang-Ju Chou,Hua-Chang Fang,Yuan-Yow Chiou,Ming-Jer Tang
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 28 2010
Acute tubular necrosis is followed by regeneration of damaged renal tubular epithelial cells, and renal stem cells are supposed to contribute to this process. The purpose of our study is to test the hypothesis that renal stem cells isolated from adult mouse kidney accelerate renal regeneration via participation in the repair process. A unique population of cells exhibiting characteristics consistent with renal stem cells, mouse kidney progenitor cells (MKPC), was isolated from Myh9 targeted mutant mice. Features of these cells include (1) spindle-shaped morphology, (2) self-renewal of more than 100 passages without evidence of senescence, and (3) expression of Oct-4, Pax-2, Wnt-4, WT-1, vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, CD29, and S100A4 but no SSEA-1, c-kit, or other markers of more differentiated cells. MKPC exhibit plasticity as demonstrated by the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells and osteoblasts in vitro and endothelial cells and tubular epithelial cells in vivo. The origin of the isolated MKPC was from the interstitium of medulla and papilla. Importantly, intrarenal injection of MKPC in mice with ischemic injury rescued renal damage, as manifested by decreases in peak serum urea nitrogen, the infarct zone, and the necrotic injury. Seven days after the injury, some MKPC formed vessels with red blood cells inside and some incorporated into renal tubules. In addition, MKPC treatment reduces the mortality in mice after ischemic injury. Our results indicate that MKPC represent a multipotent adult stem cell population, which may contribute to the renal repair and prolong survival after ischemic injury.
|The tumor-suppressive function of Connexin43 in keratinocytes is mediated in part via interaction with caveolin-1. |
Langlois S, Cowan KN, Shao Q, Cowan BJ, Laird DW
Cancer Res 70 4222-32. Epub 2010 Apr 20. 2010
Connexin43 (Cx43) is known to have tumor-suppressive effects, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In keratinocytes, we previously showed that the COOH-terminal domain of Cx43 directly interacts with the tumor suppressor Cav-1. We now show that rat epidermal keratinocytes (REK) that are reduced in Cx43 present features of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and are more invasive than their control counterparts, whereas overexpression of Cx43 inhibited the 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced invasive properties. Carbenoxolone did not alter the inhibitory effect of Cx43 against TPA- and EGF-induced cell invasion, indicating the involvement of a gap junctional intercellular communication-independent mechanism. Interestingly, the association of Cx43 with Cav-1 was found to be reduced after TPA and EGF treatment. Accordingly, the colocalization of Cx43 with Cav-1 was diminished in cells from a human epidermal squamous cell carcinoma, as well as in sections from human keratinocyte tumors, suggesting that Cx43/Cav-1 interaction plays a protective role against keratinocyte transformation. As opposed to cells that overexpress Cx43-GFP, invasion could be induced in rat epidermal keratinocytes that overexpressed a GFP-tagged truncated mutant of Cx43 (Delta244-GFP) that we previously showed not to interact with Cav-1, as well as in cells that overexpressed Cx43-GFP but were reduced in Cav-1. Our data show that Cx43 possesses tumor-suppressive properties in keratinocytes and provide the first evidence that the Cx43/Cav-1 interaction is altered in keratinocyte transformation processes, as well as in human keratinocyte tumors, and that this association might play a role in Cx43-mediated tumor suppression. (c)2010 AACR.
|RAB13 participates in ectoplasmic specialization dynamics in the rat testis. |
Mruk, DD; Lau, AS
Biology of reproduction 80 590-601 2009
During spermatogenesis, leptotene spermatocytes residing in the basal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium must traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) to gain entry into the adluminal compartment for further development. At the same time, these as well as other germ cell types in the epithelium must retain their close association with Sertoli cells via specialized cell junctions. In this study, we demonstrate that RAB13-a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) known to participate in tight junction function in other epithelia-also participates in the dynamics of the ectoplasmic specialization, a testis-specific type of anchoring junction. By immunohistochemistry microscopy, RAB13 localized to the ectoplasmic specialization. Moreover, RAB13 was found to associate with vinculin (VCL) and espin (ESPN), two putative ectoplasmic specialization actin (ACT)-binding proteins, by coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence microscopy experiments. To address the role of RAB13 in ectoplasmic specialization dynamics, an in vivo model was used in which administration of Adjudin induced the disassembly of Sertoli-germ cell anchoring junctions. Following administration of this drug, the RAB13 level decreased steadily when the loss in testicular weight was taken into account. Similarly, the association of RAB13 with VCL decreased but was not completely lost during Adjudin-mediated ectoplasmic specialization restructuring. Taken collectively, these results suggest that RAB13 functions in ectoplasmic specialization dynamics in the testis.
|Tanycyte pyroglutamyl peptidase II contributes to regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis through glial-axonal associations in the median eminence. |
Sánchez, Edith, et al.
Endocrinology, 150: 2283-91 (2009) 2009
Pyroglutamyl peptidase II (PPII), a highly specific membrane-bound metallopeptidase that inactivates TRH in the extracellular space, is tightly regulated by thyroid hormone in cells of the anterior pituitary. Whether PPII has any role in the region where axons containing hypophysiotropic TRH terminate, the median eminence, is unknown. For this purpose, we analyzed the cellular localization and regulation of PPII mRNA in the mediobasal hypothalamus in adult, male rats. PPII mRNA was localized in cells lining the floor and infralateral walls of the third ventricle and coexpressed with vimentin, establishing these cells as tanycytes. PPII mRNA extended in a linear fashion from the tanycyte cell bodies in the base of the third ventricle to its cytoplasmic and end-feet processes in the external zone of the median eminence in close apposition to pro-TRH-containing axon terminals. Compared with vehicle-treated, euthyroid controls, animals made thyrotoxic by the i.p. administration of 10 microg L-T(4) daily for 1-3 d, showed dramatically increased accumulation of silver grains in the mediobasal hypothalamus and an approximately 80% increase in enzymatic activity. PPII inhibition in mediobasal hypothalamic explants increased TRH secretion, whereas i.p. injection of a specific PPII inhibitor increased cold stress- and TRH-induced TSH levels in plasma. We propose that an increase in circulating thyroid hormone up-regulates PPII activity in tanycytes and enhances degradation of extracellular TRH in the median eminence through glial-axonal associations, contributing to the feedback regulation of thyroid hormone on anterior pituitary TSH secretion.
|Intra-operatively obtained human tissue: protocols and techniques for the study of neural stem cells. |
Chaichana, KL; Guerrero-Cazares, H; Capilla-Gonzalez, V; Zamora-Berridi, G; Achanta, P; Gonzalez-Perez, O; Jallo, GI; Garcia-Verdugo, JM; Quiñones-Hinojosa, A
Journal of neuroscience methods 180 116-25 2009
The discoveries of neural (NSCs) and brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) in the adult human brain and in brain tumors, respectively, have led to a new era in neuroscience research. These cells represent novel approaches to studying normal phenomena such as memory and learning, as well as pathological conditions such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, and brain tumors. This new paradigm stresses the importance of understanding how these cells behave in vitro and in vivo. It also stresses the need to use human-derived tissue to study human disease because animal models may not necessarily accurately replicate the processes that occur in humans. An important, but often underused, source of human tissue and, consequently, both NSCs and BTSCs, is the operating room. This study describes in detail both current and newly developed laboratory techniques, which in our experience are used to process and study human NSCs and BTSCs from tissue obtained directly from the operating room.Full Text Article
|Cord blood-derived neurons are originated from CD133+/CD34 stem/progenitor cells in a cell-to-cell contact dependent manner. |
Vincent Zangiacomi,Norbert Balon,Stéphane Maddens,Valérie Lapierre,Pierre Tiberghien,Remy Schlichter,Claudine Versaux-Botteri,Frédéric Deschaseaux
Stem cells and development 17 2008
Previous studies described that neurons could be generated in vitro from human umbilical cord blood cells. However, there are few data concerning their origin. Notably, cells generating neurons are not well characterized. The present study deals with the origin of cord blood cells generating neurons and mechanisms allowing the neuronal differentiation. We studied neuronal markers of both total fractions of cord blood and stem/progenitor cord blood cells before and after selections and cultures. We also compared neuronal commitment of cord blood cells to that observed for the neuronal cell line SK-N-BE(2). Before cultures, neuronal markers are found within the total fraction of cord blood cells. In CD133+ stem/progenitor cell fraction only immature neuronal markers are detected. However, CD133+ cells are unable to give rise to neurons in cultures, whereas this is achieved when total fraction of cord blood cells is used. In fact, mature functional neurons can be generated from CD133+ cells only in cell-to-cell close contact with either CD133- fraction or a neurogenic epithelium. Furthermore, since CD133+ fraction is heterogenous, we used several selections to precisely identify the phenotype of cord blood-derived neuronal stem/progenitor cells. Results reveal that only CD34- cells from CD133+ fraction possess neuronal potential. These data show the phenotype of cord blood neuronal stem/progenitor cells and the crucial role of direct cell-to-cell contact to achieve their commitment. Identifying the neuron supporting factors may be beneficial to the use of cord blood neuronal stem/progenitor cells for regenerative medicine.
|Myelin abnormalities without oligodendrocyte loss in periventricular leukomalacia. |
Saraid S Billiards,Robin L Haynes,Rebecca D Folkerth,Natalia S Borenstein,Felicia L Trachtenberg,David H Rowitch,Keith L Ligon,Joseph J Volpe,Hannah C Kinney
Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland) 18 2008
The cellular basis of myelin deficits detected by neuroimaging in long-term survivors of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that oligodendrocyte lineage (OL) cell density is reduced in PVL, thereby contributing to subsequent myelin deficits. Using computer-based methods, we determined OL cell density in sections from 18 PVL and 18 age-adjusted control cases, immunostained with the OL-lineage marker Olig2. Myelination was assessed with myelin basic protein (MBP) immunostaining. We found no significant difference between PVL and control cases in Olig2 cell density in the periventricular or intragyral white matter. We did find, however, a significant increase in Olig2 cell density at the necrotic foci, compared with distant areas. Although no significant difference was found in the degree of MBP immunostaining, we observed qualitative abnormalities of MBP immunostaining in both the diffuse and necrotic components of PVL. Abnormal MBP immunostaining in PVL despite preserved Olig2 cell density may be secondary to arrested OL maturation, damage to OL processes, and/or impaired axonal-OL signaling. OL migration toward the core of injury may occur to replenish OL cell number. This study provides new insight into the cellular basis of the myelin deficits observed in survivors of PVL.Full Text Article
|Transcripts of enriched germ cells responding to heat shock as potential markers for porcine semen quality. |
B-H Gau, I-M Chu, M-C Huang, K-T Yang, S-H Chiou, Y-H Fan, M-Y Chen, J-H Lin, C-K Chuang, S-Y Huang, W-C Lee
Theriogenology 69 758-66 2008
A cDNA microarray-assisted experiment was conducted to survey genes that respond early to heat shock in enriched immature porcine germ cells; the 5'-UTR flanking the highest upregulated gene, heat shock 105/110 kDa protein 1 (Hsph1 or Hsp105), in response to heat shock was also investigated. We established a porcine testis cDNA microarray with 9944 transcripts from two libraries constructed from the testes of mature boars, with or without heat shock. After a mild heat shock treatment (39 degrees C for 1h and recovered at 34 degrees C for 2h), 380 transcripts demonstrated significant gene expression in enriched immature germ cells; 326 were upregulated and 54 were downregulated. Ten transcripts of interest exhibiting significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) scores higher than the median were subjected to quantitative real-time PCR; three (Hsp105, Hspa4l and Thap4) were upregulated >1.5-fold. The sequence of the 5'-UTR of Hsp105, the highest upregulated transcript, was cloned and analyzed. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was found at position -762 (C or T) upstream of the translational start site (ATG codon). Only two genotypes (CC or TC) were found in the mature boars that were studied (n=31). A heterozygous genotype (TC) at this SNP site revealed an elevated percentage of morphologically normal sperm during hot and cold seasons; this SNP may be a useful marker for semen quality in boars. Furthermore, the cell-model established from enriched primitive germ cells has potential for the study of reproduction in mature animals.
|A novel eGFP-expressing immunodeficient mouse model to study tumor-host interactions. |
Niclou, SP; Danzeisen, C; Eikesdal, HP; Wiig, H; Brons, NH; Poli, AM; Svendsen, A; Torsvik, A; Enger, PØ; Terzis, JA; Bjerkvig, R
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 22 3120-8 2008
A NOD/Scid mouse expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) is described, in which human and mouse tumors marked with red fluorescent protein can be established in vivo, both at subcutaneous and orthotopic locations. Using light microscopy as well as multiphoton confocal microscopy techniques, we visualized in detail the intricate colocalization of tumor and host cells in situ. Moreover, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), we were able to completely separate the host cells from the tumor cells, thus providing a system for detailed cellular and molecular analysis of tumor-host cell interactions. The fact that tumor and host cells can be reliably identified also allowed us to detect double-positive cells, possibly arising from cell fusion events or horizontal gene transfer. Similarly, the model can be applied for the detection of circulating metastatic cells and for detailed studies on the vascular compartments within tumors, including vasculogenic mimicry. Thus, the model described should provide significant insight into how tumor cells communicate with their microenvironment.Full Text Article
|Growth factors and steroid mediated regulation of cytoskeletal protein expression in serum-deprived primary astrocyte cultures. |
Vincenzo Bramanti,Daniela Bronzi,Daniele Tomassoni,Antonino Costa,Giuseppina Raciti,Marcello Avitabile,Francesco Amenta,Roberto Avola
Neurochemical research 33 2008
In this research we aimed to investigate the interactions between growth factors (GFs) and dexamethasone (DEX) on cytoskeletal proteins GFAP and vimentin (VIM) expression under different experimental conditions. Condition I: 24 h pretreatment with bFGF, subsequent 72 h switching in serum-free medium (SFM) and final addition of GFs, alone or by two in the last 24 h, after a prolonged (60 h) DEX treatment. Condition II: 36 h pretreatment with DEX (with bFGF in the last 24 h), followed by SFM for 60 h and final addition for 24 h with growth factors alone or two of them together. Western blot analysis data showed a marked GFAP expression in cultures submitted to Condition I comparing results to untreated or treated controls. VIM expression was instead significantly reduced after GFs addition in the last 24 h of 60 h DEX treatment, respect to control DEX-pretreated ones. Referring data to untreated controls, VIM expression was significantly enhanced after GFs addition. GFAP showed also a significant increase in astrocytes submitted to Condition II, respect to untreated or treated control cultures. VIM expression was up and down regulated under Condition II. Collectively, our findings evidence an interactive dialogue between GFs and DEX in astroglial cultures, co-pretreated with DEX and bFGF, regulating cytoskeletal network under stressful conditions.
|The glutamate transporter EAAT2 is transiently expressed in developing human cerebral white matter. |
Tara M Desilva,Hannah C Kinney,Natalia S Borenstein,Felicia L Trachtenberg,Nina Irwin,Joseph J Volpe,Paul A Rosenberg
The Journal of comparative neurology 501 2007
The major brain abnormality underlying cerebral palsy in premature infants is periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), a lesion of the immature cerebral white matter. Oligodendrocyte precursors (pre-OLs; O4(+)O1(-)) predominate in human cerebral white matter during the peak time frame for PVL (24-32 gestational weeks) and are vulnerable to excitotoxicity. We hypothesize that PVL reflects, in part, excitotoxicity to pre-OLs resulting from cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Reversal of glutamate transport in the setting of energy failure is a major source of pathologic accumulation of extracellular glutamate. Here, we identify and localize the glutamate transporters in human cerebral white matter during the age range of PVL. In situ hybridization was performed with digoxigenin-labeled probes directed against the full-length coding regions of EAAT1, EAAT2, and EAAT3. EAAT2 mRNA was abundant in human fetal white matter during the period of peak incidence of PVL and virtually disappeared by 2 postnatal months. Its developmental profile differed significantly from that of both EAAT1 and EAAT3 mRNA. Immunoblotting demonstrated that EAAT2 protein was highly expressed in early development relative to adult values. Double-label immunocytochemistry detected EAAT2 in OLs but not astrocytes or axons in the human fetal white matter. We conclude that transient expression of EAAT2 occurs during the window of peak vulnerability for PVL, suggesting that this developmentally up-regulated transporter may be a major source of extracellular glutamate in ischemic injury to the cerebral white matter of the preterm infant.
|Fusion of microglia with pyramidal neurons after retroviral infection. |
Ackman, JB; Siddiqi, F; Walikonis, RS; LoTurco, JJ
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 26 11413-22 2006
The neurogenic potential of the postnatal neocortex has not been tested previously with a combination of both retroviral and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling. Here we report that injections of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) retrovirus into 134 postnatal rats resulted in GFP labeling of 642 pyramidal neurons in neocortex. GFP-labeled neocortical pyramidal neurons, however, unlike GFP-labeled glia, did not incorporate BrdU. Closer inspection of retrovirally labeled neurons revealed microglia fused to the apical dendrites of labeled pyramidal neurons. Retroviral infection of mixed cultures of cortical neurons and glia confirmed the presence of specific neuronal-microglial fusions. Microglia did not fuse to other glial cell types, and cultures not treated with retrovirus lacked microglial-neuronal fusion. Furthermore, activation of microglia by lipopolysaccharide greatly increased the virally induced fusion of microglia to neurons in culture. These results indicate a novel form of specific cell fusion between neuronal dendrites and microglia and further illustrate the need for caution when interpreting evidence for neuronogenesis in the postnatal brain.
|Vimentin binding to phosphorylated Erk sterically hinders enzymatic dephosphorylation of the kinase. |
Eran Perlson, Izhak Michaelevski, Noga Kowalsman, Keren Ben-Yaakov, Maya Shaked, Rony Seger, Miriam Eisenstein, Mike Fainzilber
Journal of molecular biology 364 938-44 2006
Cleavage fragments of de novo synthesized vimentin were recently reported to interact with phosphorylated Erk1 and Erk2 MAP kinases (pErk) in injured sciatic nerve, thus linking pErk to a signaling complex retrogradely transported on importins and dynein. Here we clarify the structural basis for this interaction, which explains how pErk is protected from dephosphorylation while bound to vimentin. Pull-down and ELISA experiments revealed robust calcium-dependent binding of pErk to the second coiled-coil domain of vimentin, with observed affinities of binding increasing from 180 nM at 0.1 microM calcium to 15 nM at 10 microM calcium. In contrast there was little or no binding of non-phosphorylated Erk to vimentin under these conditions. Geometric and electrostatic complementarity docking generated a number of solutions wherein vimentin binding to pErk occludes the lip containing the phosphorylated residues in the kinase. Binding competition experiments with Erk peptides confirmed a solution in which vimentin covers the phosphorylation lip in pErk, interacting with residues above and below the lip. The same peptides inhibited pErk binding to the dynein complex in sciatic nerve axoplasm, and interfered with protection from phosphatases by vimentin. Thus, a soluble intermediate filament fragment interacts with a signaling kinase and protects it from dephosphorylation by calcium-dependent steric hindrance.
|Two-photon imaging of cortical surface microvessels reveals a robust redistribution in blood flow after vascular occlusion. |
Schaffer, CB; Friedman, B; Nishimura, N; Schroeder, LF; Tsai, PS; Ebner, FF; Lyden, PD; Kleinfeld, D
PLoS biology 4 e22 2006
A highly interconnected network of arterioles overlies mammalian cortex to route blood to the cortical mantle. Here we test if this angioarchitecture can ensure that the supply of blood is redistributed after vascular occlusion. We use rodent parietal cortex as a model system and image the flow of red blood cells in individual microvessels. Changes in flow are quantified in response to photothrombotic occlusions to individual pial arterioles as well as to physical occlusions of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), the primary source of blood to this network. We observe that perfusion is rapidly reestablished at the first branch downstream from a photothrombotic occlusion through a reversal in flow in one vessel. More distal downstream arterioles also show reversals in flow. Further, occlusion of the MCA leads to reversals in flow through approximately half of the downstream but distant arterioles. Thus the cortical arteriolar network supports collateral flow that may mitigate the effects of vessel obstruction, as may occur secondary to neurovascular pathology.Full Text Article
|The endocannabinoid system promotes astroglial differentiation by acting on neural progenitor cells. |
Aguado, Tania, et al.
J. Neurosci., 26: 1551-61 (2006) 2006
Endocannabinoids exert an important neuromodulatory role via presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors and may also participate in the control of neural cell death and survival. The function of the endocannabinoid system has been extensively studied in differentiated neurons, but its potential role in neural progenitor cells remains to be elucidated. Here we show that the CB1 receptor and the endocannabinoid-inactivating enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase are expressed, both in vitro and in vivo, in postnatal radial glia (RC2+ cells) and in adult nestin type I (nestin(+)GFAP+) neural progenitor cells. Cell culture experiments show that CB1 receptor activation increases progenitor proliferation and differentiation into astroglial cells in vitro. In vivo analysis evidences that, in postnatal CB1(-/-) mouse brain, progenitor proliferation and astrogliogenesis are impaired. Likewise, in adult CB1-deficient mice, neural progenitor proliferation is decreased but is increased in fatty acid amide hydrolase-deficient mice. In addition, endocannabinoid signaling controls neural progenitor differentiation in the adult brain by promoting astroglial differentiation of newly born cells. These results show a novel physiological role of endocannabinoids, which constitute a new family of signaling cues involved in the regulation of neural progenitor cell function.
|Alterations in cultured myocardial fibroblast function following the development of left ventricular failure. |
English C Flack, Merry L Lindsey, Christina E Squires, Brooke S Kaplan, Robert E Stroud, Leslie L Clark, Patricia G Escobar, William M Yarbrough, Francis G Spinale
Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology 40 474-83 2006
A structural event in the progression of left ventricular (LV) failure is myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. The myocardial fibroblast is a major cell type influencing the ECM, but whether and to what degree specific phenotypic differences in myocardial fibroblasts can be demonstrated to occur in culture with the development of LV failure remains unclear. Adult pigs (25 kg) were used for control myocardial fibroblast preparations (N=5) or following pacing-induced LV failure (N=5; 240 bpm, 3 weeks). LV remodeling occurred with pacing as evidenced by increased LV end diastolic volume (132+/-11 vs. 60+/-4 mL for control; P0.05). Functional parameters including migration, adhesion, collagen and matrix metalloproteinase release were assessed in fibroblast cultures from passages 1-4. The following findings were consistent with each passage and the results were analyzed with control values set to 100%. Migration of LV failure fibroblasts increased by over 170% (P0.05). Adhesion to collagen I, laminin and fibronectin was increased by over 160% in LV failure fibroblasts (P0.05). beta(1) integrin density decreased by 50% in LV failure fibroblasts (P0.05). Fibrillar collagen release increased by over 130% and matrix metalloproteinase-2 increased by 140% in LV failure fibroblasts (P0.05). The unique findings of this study are two-fold. First, after a pathological stimulus in-vivo, adult myocardial fibroblasts maintain a consistent phenotype through early passages in-vivo. Second, a differential release of, and response to ECM components occurred in LV failure fibroblasts. Thus, a phenotypic transformation of the myocardial fibroblast occurs with the development of LV failure, which in turn may contribute to matrix remodeling and presents as a potential cellular therapeutic target.
|Transplantation of multipotent cells extracted from adult skeletal muscles into the subventricular zone of adult rats. |
The Journal of comparative neurology 491 96-108 2005
Stem cells isolated from adult tissues may be useful for autologous cell therapy in the nervous system. In the present study we tested the ability of multipotent stem cells isolated from adult muscle to survive and respond to migratory and differentiating cues when transplanted into the adult subventricular zone (SVZ). Prior to transplantation the cells were grown as spheres that expressed doublecortin, nestin, and betaIII-tubulin, as well as the mRNAs for the receptor EphA4 and the ligands ephrin B1, ephrin B2, but not ephrin B3. Four weeks after transplantation into the anterior part of the SVZ in adult rats, surviving cells were observed along the ventricular wall, in the SVZ, and in the posterior rostral migratory stream (RMS). None of these cells stained for betaIII-tubulin or doublecortin, which are molecules expressed by migrating neuroblasts, and none were present in the more rostral regions of the RMS or the olfactory bulb. However, most surviving transplanted cells were integrated into the wall of the lateral ventricle and expressed vimentin, a marker also expressed by ependymocytes. No tumors were observed 4 weeks posttransplantation. Our results suggest that multipotent stem cells isolated from adult muscle, which can be easily and safely isolated from patients and rapidly expanded ex vivo, may provide autologous vectors for the local delivery of secreted factors to the ventricles or nearby regions.
|Alpha-Gal on bioprostheses: xenograft immune response in cardiac surgery. |
K Z Konakci, B Bohle, R Blumer, W Hoetzenecker, G Roth, B Moser, G Boltz-Nitulescu, M Gorlitzer, W Klepetko, E Wolner, H J Ankersmit
European journal of clinical investigation 35 17-23 2005
BACKGROUND: The alpha-Gal (Galalpha1,3-Galbeta1-4GlcNAc-R) epitope is the major xenoantigen causing hyperacute rejection of pig organs transplanted into primates. Porcine bioprostheses are utilized in cardiac surgery. However, premature degeneration of bioprostheses has limited utilization in younger patients and the immune response remains elusive. We sought to investigate whether a specific alpha-Gal immune response may play a role in this clinical scenario. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the presence of alpha-Gal-epitope on native and fixed porcine valves by means of confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). ELISA was utilized to evidence whether implantation of bioprostheses elicits augmentation of pre-existing cytotoxic anti alpha-Gal IgM antibodies within 10 days of surgery. Patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or mechanical valve replacement served as controls (each group, n = 12). To corroborate the clinical relevance of the alpha-Gal immune response in vivo, we studied serum obtained before and after implantation of bioprostheses and its potency to lyse porcine alpha-Gal-bearing PK15 cells. RESULTS: We found the immunogenic alpha-Gal-epitope on fibrocytes interspersed in the connective tissue of porcine valves as determined by vimentin/IB4 lectin binding. Moreover, patients who were provided with a bioprostheses had developed a significant increase of naturally occurring cytotoxic IgM antibodies directed towards alpha-Gal after surgical intervention as compared with control patients (P 0.0001, respectively). Sera obtained from the patients after the implantation of bioprostheses demonstrated an increased cytotoxicity against alpha-Gal-bearing PK-15 cells as compared with preoperative sera (P 0.001). The specificity of the cytotoxic effects was proven as soluble Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc markedly inhibited cell death of alpha-Gal-bearing PK15 cells (P 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that implantation of bioprostheses in cardiac surgery induces a xenograft-specific immune response. Procedures diminishing the presence of alpha-Gal on bioprostheses, such as utilization of genetically manipulated alpha-Gal-deficient xenograft or pretreatment with alpha-Galactosidase, might diminuate the immune response against bioprostheses and extend durability.
|Vimentin is secreted by activated macrophages. |
Mor-Vaknin, Nirit, et al.
Nat. Cell Biol., 5: 59-63 (2003) 2003
Vimentin is a widely expressed intermediate filament protein thought to be involved mainly in structural processes, such as wound healing. We now demonstrate that activated human macrophages secrete vimentin into the extracellular space. The maturation of blood-derived monocytes into macrophages involves several signalling pathways. We show that secretion of vimentin, which is phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues, is enhanced by the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid and blocked by the specific protein kinase C inhibitor GO6983. These findings are consistent with previous observations that phosphorylation of vimentin affects its intracellular localization and that vimentin is a substrate for protein kinase C (PKC). We also show that the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), which inhibits PKC activity, blocks secretion of vimentin. In contrast, the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) can trigger secretion of vimentin. Finally, we found that extracellular vimentin is involved in bacterial killing and the generation of oxidative metabolites, two important functions of activated macrophages. These data establish that vimentin is secreted by macrophages in response to pro-inflammatory signalling pathways and is probably involved in immune function.
|Reduction of detyrosinated microtubules and Golgi fragmentation are linked to tau-induced degeneration in astrocytes |
Yoshiyama, Y. et al.
J Neuroscience, 23:10662-10671 (2003) 2003
|Maternally administered dexamethasone transiently increases apoptosis in lungs of fetal rats. |
Louis M Scavo, Valerie Newman, Robert Ertsey, Cheryl J Chapin, Joseph A Kitterman, Louis M Scavo, Valerie Newman, Robert Ertsey, Cheryl J Chapin, Joseph A Kitterman
Experimental lung research 29 211-26 2003
In late gestation, morphological maturation of fetal lung includes septal thinning of potential airspaces, a process accelerated by exogenous glucocorticoids. Apoptosis occurs in normal fetal lung. Glucocorticoids increase apoptosis in several tissues. The authors hypothesized that exogenous glucocorticoids would increase apoptosis in fetal lung, primarily in the interstitium. They administered dexamethasone (DEX), 1 mg/kg, or vehicle (Control) to pregnant rats at 19 days of gestation. Fetuses were delivered at 3, 7, 12, or 24 hours post injection. DEX decreased fetal body weight and lung weight, DNA, and protein 12 hours post injection. Using the terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) reaction to label apoptotic cells in lung, they calculated an apoptotic index (AI, apoptotic cells/1000 total cells) for each fetus. Average DEX AI (3.6+/-2.6, mean+/-SD) was greater than Control (1.7+/-0.5) (P.02). All DEX AIs were greater than Control AIs at 3, 7, and 12 hours, but were similar to Controls at 24 hours post injection. Apoptotic cells appeared to be interstitial, based on colocalization with vimentin staining. Presence of apoptotic cells was confirmed by electron microscopy and detection of the nucleosomal ladder pattern on DNA electrophoresis. The authors conclude that maternal administration of dexamethasone increases apoptosis in fetal lung, primarily in the interstitium. They speculate that apoptosis may contribute to morphological fetal lung maturation induced by endogenous glucocorticoids.
|Nestin expression in pancreatic stellate cells and angiogenic endothelial cells |
Lardon, J. et al.
Histochemistry and Cell Biology, 117:535-540 (2002) 2002
|Coexpression of keratin and vimentin in damaged and regenerating tubular epithelia of the kidney |
Grone, H. J. et al.
Am. J. Path., 129:1-8 (1987) 1987
|Monoclonal antibodies specific for vimentin |
Osborn, M. et al.
Eur. J. Cell Biol., 34:137-143 (1984) 1984
|Anti-Vimentin, clone V9 - Data Sheet|
|Reprogramming Cell Fate and Function Novel Strategies for iPSC Generation, Characterization, and Differentiation|