Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||WB, IHC||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Mouse monoclonal in PBS containing 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
References | 40 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Dopaminergic and glutamatergic microdomains in a subset of rodent mesoaccumbens axons. |
Zhang, S; Qi, J; Li, X; Wang, HL; Britt, JP; Hoffman, AF; Bonci, A; Lupica, CR; Morales, M
Nature neuroscience 18 386-92 2015
Mesoaccumbens fibers are thought to co-release dopamine and glutamate. However, the mechanism is unclear, and co-release by mesoaccumbens fibers has not been documented. Using electron microcopy, we found that some mesoaccumbens fibers have vesicular transporters for dopamine (VMAT2) in axon segments that are continuous with axon terminals that lack VMAT2, but contain vesicular glutamate transporters type 2 (VGluT2). In vivo overexpression of VMAT2 did not change the segregation of the two vesicular types, suggesting the existence of highly regulated mechanisms for maintaining this segregation. The mesoaccumbens axon terminals containing VGluT2 vesicles make asymmetric synapses, commonly associated with excitatory signaling. Using optogenetics, we found that dopamine and glutamate were released from the same mesoaccumbens fibers. These findings reveal a complex type of signaling by mesoaccumbens fibers in which dopamine and glutamate can be released from the same axons, but are not normally released at the same site or from the same synaptic vesicles.
|Interplay between glucose and leptin signalling determines the strength of GABAergic synapses at POMC neurons. |
Lee, DK; Jeong, JH; Chun, SK; Chua, S; Jo, YH
Nature communications 6 6618 2015
Regulation of GABAergic inhibitory inputs and alterations in POMC neuron activity by nutrients and adiposity signals regulate energy and glucose homeostasis. Thus, understanding how POMC neurons integrate these two signal molecules at the synaptic level is important. Here we show that leptin's action on GABA release to POMC neurons is influenced by glucose levels. Leptin stimulates the JAK2-PI3K pathway in both presynaptic GABAergic terminals and postsynaptic POMC neurons. Inhibition of AMPK activity in presynaptic terminals decreases GABA release at 10 mM glucose. However, postsynaptic TRPC channel opening by the PI3K-PLC signalling pathway in POMC neurons enhances spontaneous GABA release via activation of presynaptic MC3/4 and mGlu receptors at 2.5 mM glucose. High-fat feeding blunts AMPK-dependent presynaptic inhibition, whereas PLC-mediated GABAergic feedback inhibition remains responsive to leptin. Our data indicate that the interplay between glucose and leptin signalling in glutamatergic POMC neurons is critical for determining the strength of inhibitory tone towards POMC neurons.
|Processing of visually evoked innate fear by a non-canonical thalamic pathway. |
Wei, P; Liu, N; Zhang, Z; Liu, X; Tang, Y; He, X; Wu, B; Zhou, Z; Liu, Y; Li, J; Zhang, Y; Zhou, X; Xu, L; Chen, L; Bi, G; Hu, X; Xu, F; Wang, L
Nature communications 6 6756 2015
The ability of animals to respond to life-threatening stimuli is essential for survival. Although vision provides one of the major sensory inputs for detecting threats across animal species, the circuitry underlying defensive responses to visual stimuli remains poorly defined. Here, we investigate the circuitry underlying innate defensive behaviours elicited by predator-like visual stimuli in mice. Our results demonstrate that neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) are essential for a variety of acute and persistent defensive responses to overhead looming stimuli. Optogenetic mapping revealed that SC projections to the lateral posterior nucleus (LP) of the thalamus, a non-canonical polymodal sensory relay, are sufficient to mimic visually evoked fear responses. In vivo electrophysiology experiments identified a di-synaptic circuit from SC through LP to the lateral amygdale (Amg), and lesions of the Amg blocked the full range of visually evoked defensive responses. Our results reveal a novel collicular-thalamic-Amg circuit important for innate defensive responses to visual threats.
|Cerebellar zonal patterning relies on Purkinje cell neurotransmission. |
White, JJ; Arancillo, M; Stay, TL; George-Jones, NA; Levy, SL; Heck, DH; Sillitoe, RV
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 8231-45 2014
Cerebellar circuits are patterned into an array of topographic parasagittal domains called zones. The proper connectivity of zones is critical for motor coordination and motor learning, and in several neurological diseases cerebellar circuits degenerate in zonal patterns. Despite recent advances in understanding zone function, we still have a limited understanding of how zones are formed. Here, we focused our attention on Purkinje cells to gain a better understanding of their specific role in establishing zonal circuits. We used conditional mouse genetics to test the hypothesis that Purkinje cell neurotransmission is essential for refining prefunctional developmental zones into sharp functional zones. Our results show that inhibitory synaptic transmission in Purkinje cells is necessary for the precise patterning of Purkinje cell zones and the topographic targeting of mossy fiber afferents. As expected, blocking Purkinje cell neurotransmission caused ataxia. Using in vivo electrophysiology, we demonstrate that loss of Purkinje cell communication altered the firing rate and pattern of their target cerebellar nuclear neurons. Analysis of Purkinje cell complex spike firing revealed that feedback in the cerebellar nuclei to inferior olive to Purkinje cell loop is obstructed. Loss of Purkinje neurotransmission also caused ectopic zonal expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, which is only expressed in adult Purkinje cells when calcium is dysregulated and if excitability is altered. Our results suggest that Purkinje cell inhibitory neurotransmission establishes the functional circuitry of the cerebellum by patterning the molecular zones, fine-tuning afferent circuitry, and shaping neuronal activity.
|Histological features of layers and sublayers in cortical visual areas V1 and V2 of chimpanzees, macaque monkeys, and humans. |
Balaram, P; Young, NA; Kaas, JH
Eye and brain 2014 5-18 2014
The layers and sublayers of primary visual cortex, or V1, in primates are easily distinguishable compared to those in other cortical areas, and are especially distinct in anthropoid primates - monkeys, apes, and humans - where they also vary in histological appearance. This variation in primate-specific specialization has led to a longstanding confusion over the identity of layer 4 and its proposed sublayers in V1. As the application of different histological markers relate to the issue of defining and identifying layers and sublayers, we applied four traditional and four more recent histological markers to brain sections of V1 and adjoining secondary visual cortex (V2) in macaque monkeys, chimpanzees, and humans in order to compare identifiable layers and sublayers in both cortical areas across these species. The use of Nissl, neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN), Gallyas myelin, cytochrome oxidase (CO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), nonphosphorylated neurofilament H (SMI-32), parvalbumin (PV), and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) preparations support the conclusion that the most popular scheme of V1 lamination, that of Brodmann, misidentifies sublayers of layer 3 (3Bβ and 3C) as sublayers of layer 4 (4A and 4B), and that the specialized sublayer of layer 3 in monkeys, 3Bβ, is not present in humans. These differences in interpretation are important as they relate to the proposed functions of layer 4 in primate species, where layer 4 of V1 is a layer that receives and processes information from the visual thalamus, and layer 3 is a layer that transforms and distributes information to other cortical areas.
|Purkinje cell ataxin-1 modulates climbing fiber synaptic input in developing and adult mouse cerebellum. |
Ebner, BA; Ingram, MA; Barnes, JA; Duvick, LA; Frisch, JL; Clark, HB; Zoghbi, HY; Ebner, TJ; Orr, HT
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 5806-20 2013
Previous studies indicate that while transgenic mice with ATXN1[30Q]-D776-induced disease share pathological features caused by ATXN1[82Q] having an expanded polyglutamine tract, they fail to manifest the age-related progressive neurodegeneration seen in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1. The shared features include morphological alterations in climbing fiber (CF) innervation of Purkinje cells (PCs). To further investigate the ability of ataxin-1 (ATXN1) to impact CF/PC innervation, this study used morphological and functional approaches to examine CF/PC innervation during postnatal development in ATXN1[30Q]-D776 and ATXN1[82Q] cerebella. Notably, ATXN1[30Q]-D776 induced morphological alterations consistent with the development of the innervation of PCs by CFs being compromised, including a reduction of CF translocation along the PC dendritic tree, and decreased pruning of CF terminals from the PC soma. As previously shown for ATXN1[82Q], ATXN1[30Q]-D776 must enter the nucleus of PCs to induce these alterations. Experiments using conditional ATXN1[30Q]-D776 mice demonstrate that both the levels and specific timing of mutant ATXN1 expression are critical for alteration of the CF-PC synapse. Together these observations suggest that ATXN1, expressed exclusively in PCs, alters expression of a gene(s) in the postsynaptic PC that are critical for its innervation by CFs. To investigate whether ATXN1[30Q]-D776 curbs the progressive disease in ATXN1[82Q]-S776 mice, we crossed ATXN1[30Q]-D776 and ATXN1[82Q]-S776 mice and found that double transgenic mice developed progressive PC atrophy. Thus, the results also show that to develop progressive cerebellar degeneration requires expressing ATXN1 with an expanded polyglutamine tract.
|Establishment of topographic circuit zones in the cerebellum of scrambler mutant mice. |
Reeber, SL; Loeschel, CA; Franklin, A; Sillitoe, RV
Frontiers in neural circuits 7 122 2013
The cerebellum is organized into zonal circuits that are thought to regulate ongoing motor behavior. Recent studies suggest that neuronal birthdates, gene expression patterning, and apoptosis control zone formation. Importantly, developing Purkinje cell zones are thought to provide the framework upon which afferent circuitry is organized. Yet, it is not clear whether altering the final placement of Purkinje cells affects the assembly of circuits into topographic zones. To gain insight into this problem, we examined zonal connectivity in scrambler mice; spontaneous mutants that have severe Purkinje cell ectopia due to the loss of reelin-disabled1 signaling. We used immunohistochemistry and neural tracing to determine whether displacement of Purkinje cell zones into ectopic positions triggers defects in zonal connectivity within sensory-motor circuits. Despite the abnormal placement of more than 95% of Purkinje cells in scrambler mice, the complementary relationship between molecularly distinct Purkinje cell zones is maintained, and consequently, afferents are targeted into topographic circuits. These data suggest that although loss of disabled1 distorts the Purkinje cell map, its absence does not obstruct the formation of zonal circuits. These findings support the hypothesis that Purkinje cell zones play an essential role in establishing afferent topography.
|Reduction of mutant ataxin-7 expression restores motor function and prevents cerebellar synaptic reorganization in a conditional mouse model of SCA7. |
Furrer, SA; Waldherr, SM; Mohanachandran, MS; Baughn, TD; Nguyen, KT; Sopher, BL; Damian, VA; Garden, GA; La Spada, AR
Human molecular genetics 22 890-903 2013
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG - polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat expansion in the ataxin-7 gene. In polyQ disorders, synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration may develop prior to symptom onset. However, conditional expression studies of polyQ disease models demonstrate that suppression of gene expression can yield complete reversal of established behavioral abnormalities. To determine if SCA7 neurological and neurodegenerative phenotypes are reversible, we crossed PrP-floxed-SCA7-92Q BAC transgenic mice with a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase transgenic line, CAGGS-Cre-ER™. PrP-floxed-SCA7-92Q BAC;CAGGS-Cre-ER™ bigenic mice were treated with a single dose of tamoxifen 1 month after the onset of detectable ataxia, which resulted in ~50% reduction of polyQ-ataxin-7 expression. Tamoxifen treatment halted or reversed SCA7 motor symptoms, reduced ataxin-7 aggregation in Purkinje cells (PCs), and prevented loss of climbing fiber (CF)-PC synapses in comparison to vehicle-treated bigenic animals and tamoxifen-treated PrP-floxed-SCA7-92Q BAC single transgenic mice. Despite this phenotype rescue, reduced ataxin-7 expression did not result in full recovery of cerebellar molecular layer thickness or prevent Bergmann glia degeneration. These results demonstrate that suppression of mutant gene expression by only 50% in a polyQ disease model can have a significant impact on disease phenotypes, even when initiated after the onset of detectable behavioral deficits. The findings reported here are consistent with the emerging view that therapies aimed at reducing neurotoxic gene expression hold the potential to halt or reverse disease progression in afflicted patients, even after the onset of neurological disability.
|Torsin A Localization in the Mouse Cerebellar Synaptic Circuitry. |
Puglisi, F; Vanni, V; Ponterio, G; Tassone, A; Sciamanna, G; Bonsi, P; Pisani, A; Mandolesi, G
PloS one 8 e68063 2013
Torsin A (TA) is a ubiquitous protein belonging to the superfamily of proteins called "ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities" (AAA(+) ATPase). To date, a great deal of attention has been focused on neuronal TA since its mutant form causes early-onset (DYT1) torsion dystonia, an inherited movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions and abnormal postures. Interestingly, it has been proposed that TA, by interacting with the cytoskeletal network, may contribute to the control of neurite outgrowth and/or by acting as a chaperone at synapses could affect synaptic vesicle turnover and neurotransmitter release. Accordingly, both its peculiar developmental expression in striatum and cerebellum and evidence from DYT1 knock-in mice suggest that TA may influence dendritic arborization and synaptogenesis in the brain. Therefore, to better understand TA function a detailed description of its localization at synaptic level is required. Here, we characterized by means of rigorous quantitative confocal analysis TA distribution in the mouse cerebellum at postnatal day 14 (P14), when both cerebellar synaptogenesis and TA expression peak. We observed that the protein is broadly distributed both in cerebellar cortex and in the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN). Of note, Purkinje cells (PC) express high levels of TA also in the spines and axonal terminals. In addition, abundant expression of the protein was found in the main GABA-ergic and glutamatergic inputs of the cerebellar cortex. Finally, TA was observed also in glial cells, a cellular population little explored so far. These results extend our knowledge on TA synaptic localization providing a clue to its potential role in synaptic development.
|Multiple knockout mouse models reveal lincRNAs are required for life and brain development. |
Sauvageau, M; Goff, LA; Lodato, S; Bonev, B; Groff, AF; Gerhardinger, C; Sanchez-Gomez, DB; Hacisuleyman, E; Li, E; Spence, M; Liapis, SC; Mallard, W; Morse, M; Swerdel, MR; D'Ecclessis, MF; Moore, JC; Lai, V; Gong, G; Yancopoulos, GD; Frendewey, D; Kellis, M; Hart, RP; Valenzuela, DM; Arlotta, P; Rinn, JL
eLife 2 e01749 2013
Many studies are uncovering functional roles for long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), yet few have been tested for in vivo relevance through genetic ablation in animal models. To investigate the functional relevance of lncRNAs in various physiological conditions, we have developed a collection of 18 lncRNA knockout strains in which the locus is maintained transcriptionally active. Initial characterization revealed peri- and postnatal lethal phenotypes in three mutant strains (Fendrr, Peril, and Mdgt), the latter two exhibiting incomplete penetrance and growth defects in survivors. We also report growth defects for two additional mutant strains (linc-Brn1b and linc-Pint). Further analysis revealed defects in lung, gastrointestinal tract, and heart in Fendrr(-/-) neonates, whereas linc-Brn1b(-/-) mutants displayed distinct abnormalities in the generation of upper layer II-IV neurons in the neocortex. This study demonstrates that lncRNAs play critical roles in vivo and provides a framework and impetus for future larger-scale functional investigation into the roles of lncRNA molecules. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01749.001.
|Morphological and neurochemical comparisons between pulvinar and V1 projections to V2. |
Marion, R; Li, K; Purushothaman, G; Jiang, Y; Casagrande, VA
The Journal of comparative neurology 521 813-32 2013
The flow of visual information is clear at the earliest stages: the retina provides the driving (main signature) activity for the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), which in turn drives the primary visual cortex (V1). These driving pathways can be distinguished anatomically from other modulatory pathways that innervate LGN and V1. The path of visual information after V1, however, is less clear. There are two primary feedforward projections to the secondary visual cortex (V2), one from the lateral/inferior pulvinar and the other from V1. Because both lateral/inferior pulvinar and V2 cannot be driven visually following V1 removal, either or both of these inputs to V2 could be drivers. Retinogeniculate and geniculocortical projections are privileged over modulatory projections by their layer of termination, their bouton size, and the presence of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (Vglut2) or parvalbumin (PV). It has been suggested that such properties might also distinguish drivers from modulators in extrastriate cortex. We tested this hypothesis by comparing lateral pulvinar to V2 and V1 to V2 projections with LGN to V1 projections. We found that V1 and lateral pulvinar projections to V2 are similar in that they target the same layers and lack PV. Projections from pulvinar to V2, however, bear a greater similarity to projections from LGN to V1 because of their larger boutons (measured at the same location in V2) and positive staining for Vglut2. These data lend support to the hypothesis that the pulvinar could act as a driver for V2.
|Estradiol treatment prevents injury induced enhancement in spinal cord dynorphin expression. |
Gupta, DS; Hubscher, CH
Frontiers in physiology 3 28 2012
Administration of the ovarian steroid estradiol in male and female animals has been shown to have neuromodulatory and neuroprotective effects in a variety of experimental models. In the present study, spinal tissues from dermatomes just above (T5-T7, at level) a severe chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) at T8 were analyzed for expression levels of prodynorphin (PRDN) and phospho-(serine 369) κ-opioid receptor (KOR-P) in 17 β estradiol (EB)- and placebo-treated adult male rats. Dynorphin was targeted since (1) it has previously been shown to be elevated post-SCI, (2) intrathecal injection of dynorphin produces several of the same adverse effects seen with a SCI, and (3) its increased expression is known to occur in a variety of different experimental models of central neuropathic pain. A significant elevation of extracellular levels of both PRDN and KOR-P in the placebo-treated SCI group relative to uninjured surgical sham controls was found in spinal tissues above the injury level, indicating increased dynorphin levels. Importantly, the EB-treated SCI group did not show elevations of PRDN levels at 6 weeks post-injury. Immunohistochemical analysis of at level tissues revealed that EB treatment significantly prevented a post-SCI increase in expression of PRDN puncta co-labeling synapsin I, a nerve terminal marker. The dynorphin-containing terminals co-labeled vesicular glutamate receptor-2 (a marker of glutamatergic terminals), a finding consistent with a non-opioid basis for the adverse effects of dynorphin. These results support a beneficial role for EB treatment post-SCI through a reduction in excessive spinal cord levels of dynorphin. Studies manipulating the timing of the EB treatment post-injury along with specific functional assessments will address whether the beneficial effects are due to EB's potential neuromodulatory or neuroprotective action.
|An age-related axon terminal pathology around the first olfactory relay that involves amyloidogenic protein overexpression without plaque formation. |
Y Cai,Z-Q Xue,X-M Zhang,M-B Li,H Wang,X-G Luo,H Cai,X-X Yan
Neuroscience 215 2012
The glomeruli are the first synaptic relay on the olfactory pathway and play a basic role in smell perception. Glomerular degeneration occurs in humans with age and in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The glomeruli heavily express β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), β-secretase (BACE1) and γ-secretase complex. However, extracellular β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) deposition occurs fairly rarely at this location in postmortem pathological studies. We sought to explore age-related glomerular changes that might link to alteration in amyloidogenic proteins and/or plaque pathogenesis in transgenic models of AD and humans. Focally increased BACE1 immunoreactivity (IR) in the glomerular layer was identified in several transgenic models, and characterized systematically in transgenic mice harboring five familiar AD-related mutations (5XFAD). These elements were co-labeled with antibodies against APP N-terminal (22C11) and Aβ N-terminal (3D6, 6E10) and mid-sequence (4G8). They were not co-labeled with two Aβ C-terminal antibodies (Ter40, Ter42), nor associated with extracellular amyloidosis. These profiles were further characterized to be most likely abnormal olfactory nerve terminals. Reduced glomerular area was detected in 6-12-month-old 5XFAD mice relative to non-transgenic controls, and in aged humans relative to young/adult controls, more robust in AD than aged subjects without cerebral amyloid and tau pathologies. The results suggest that olfactory nerve terminals may undergo age-related dystrophic and degenerative changes in AD model mice and humans, which are associated with increased labeling for amyloidogenic proteins but not local extracellular Aβ deposition. The identified axon terminal pathology might affect neuronal signal transmission and integration at the first olfactory synaptic relay.
|Parasagittal compartmentation of cerebellar mossy fibers as revealed by the patterned expression of vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2. |
Samrawit A Gebre,Stacey L Reeber,Roy V Sillitoe
Brain structure & function 217 2012
The cerebellum receives sensory signals from spinocerebellar (lower limbs) and dorsal column nuclei (upper limbs) mossy fibers. In the cerebellum, mossy fibers terminate in bands that are topographically aligned with stripes of Purkinje cells. While much is known about the molecular heterogeneity of Purkinje cell stripes, little is known about whether mossy fiber compartments have distinct molecular profiles. Here, we show that the vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, which mediate glutamate uptake into synaptic vesicles of excitatory neurons, are expressed in complementary bands of mossy fibers in the adult mouse cerebellum. Using a combination of immunohistochemistry and anterograde tracing, we found heavy VGLUT2 and weak VGLUT1 expression in bands of spinocerebellar mossy fibers. The adjacent bands, which are in part comprised of dorsal column nuclei mossy fibers, strongly express VGLUT1 and weakly express VGLUT2. Simultaneous injections of fluorescent tracers into the dorsal column nuclei and lower thoracic-upper lumbar spinal cord revealed that upper and lower limb sensory pathways innervate adjacent VGLUT1/VGLUT2 parasagittal bands. In summary, we demonstrate that VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are differentially expressed by dorsal column nuclei and spinocerebellar mossy fibers, which project to complementary cerebellar bands and respect common compartmental boundaries in the adult mouse cerebellum.
|Projections from the central nucleus of the amygdala to the nucleus pontis oralis in the rat: an anterograde labeling study. |
Jianhua Zhang,Mingchu Xi,Simon J Fung,Sharon Sampogna,Michael H Chase
Neuroscience letters 525 2012
The present study was designed to elucidate the neuronal projections from the amygdala to the nucleus pontis oralis (NPO). We propose that glutamatergic cells in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) activate neurons in the NPO, which is the critical brainstem site that is responsible for the generation and maintenance of active (REM) sleep. Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), an anterograde transported neuronal tracer, was iontophoresed into the CNA of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. After a survival time of 7-8 days, the animals were perfused with a fixative and brain tissue was prepared for histological analysis. Sections of the NPO and CNA, which were immunostained with an antibody against PHA-L, were examined with light microscopy. In addition, in order to identify the phenotype of PHA-L-labeled fibers and terminals in the NPO, a double immunohistochemical technique was employed with antibodies against PHA-L and the vesicular glutamate transporter type 2 (VGluT2). Numerous PHA-L-labeled axons and terminals were found in the NPO ipsilateral to the injection site in the CNA. Within the NPO, the majority of labeled fibers were located in the dorsolateral portion of the caudal part of the nucleus. Double-labeling immunostaining studies revealed that PHA-L-labeled axons and terminals in the NPO were glutamatergic. The present demonstration of direct, excitatory (glutamatergic) projections from the CNA to the NPO provide an anatomical basis for the amygdalar control of active sleep.
|Evidence for Ape and Human Specializations in Geniculostriate Projections from VGLUT2 Immunohistochemistry. |
Katherine L Bryant,Carolyn Suwyn,Katherine M Reding,John F Smiley,Troy A Hackett,Todd M Preuss
Brain, behavior and evolution 80 2012
Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) reuptake glutamate into synaptic vesicles at excitatory synapses. VGLUT2 is localized in the cortical terminals of neuronal somas located in the main sensory nuclei of the thalamus. Thus, immunolabeling of cortex with antibodies to VGLUT2 can reveal geniculostriate terminal distributions in species in which connectivity cannot be studied with tract-tracing techniques, permitting broader comparative studies of cortical specializations. Here, we used VGLUT2 immunohistochemistry to compare the organization of geniculostriate afferents in primary visual cortex in hominid primates (humans, chimpanzees, and an orangutan), Old World monkeys (rhesus macaques and vervets), and New World monkeys (squirrel monkeys). The New and Old World monkeys had a broad, dense band of terminal-like labeling in cortical layer 4C, a narrow band of labeling in layer 4A, and additional labeling in layers 2/3 and 6, consistent with results from conventional tract-tracing studies in these species. By contrast, although the hominid primates had a prominent layer 4C band, labeling of layer 4A was sparse or absent. Labeling was also present in layers 2/3 and 6, although labeling of layer 6 was weaker in hominids and possibly more individually variable than in Old and New World monkeys. These findings are consistent with previous observations from cytochrome oxidase histochemistry and a very small number of connectivity studies, suggesting that the projections from the parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus to layer 4A were strongly reduced or eliminated in humans and apes following their evolutionary divergence from the other anthropoid primates.
|Nitrergic ventro-medial medullary neurons activated during cholinergically induced active (rapid eye movement) sleep in the cat. |
Pose, I; Sampogna, S; Chase, MH; Morales, FR
Neuroscience 172 246-55 2011
The rostral ventro-medial medullary reticular formation is a complex structure that is involved with a variety of motor functions. It contains glycinergic neurons that are activated during active (rapid eye movement (REM)) sleep (AS); these neurons appear to be responsible for the postsynaptic inhibition of motoneurons that occurs during this state. We have reported that neurons in this same region contain nitric oxide (NO) synthase and that they innervate brainstem motor pools. In the present study we examined the c-fos expression of these neurons after carbachol-induced active sleep (C-AS). Three control and four experimental cats were employed to identify c-fos expressing nitrergic neurons using immunocytochemical techniques to detect the Fos protein together with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase activity. The classical neurotransmitter content of the nitrergic cells in this region was examined through the combination of immunocytochemical techniques for the detection of glutamate, glycine, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxilase (TH) or GABA together with nNOS. During C-AS, there was a 1074% increase in the number of nitrergic neurons that expressed c-fos. These neurons did not contain glycine, ChAT, TH or GABA, but a subpopulation (15%) of them displayed glutamate-like immunoreactivity. Therefore, some of these neurons contain both an excitatory neurotransmitter (glutamate) and an excitatory neuromodulator (NO); the neurotransmitter content of the rest of them remains to be determined. Because some of the nitrergic neurons innervate brainstem motoneurons it is possible that they participate in the generation of tonic and excitatory phasic motor events that occur during AS. We also suggest that these nitrergic neurons may be involved in autonomic regulation during this state. In addition, because NO has trophic effects on target neurons, the present findings represent the first, albeit indirect, evidence for a possible trophic function of this nature during AS.
|Cell-poor septa separate representations of digits in the ventroposterior nucleus of the thalamus in monkeys and prosimian galagos. |
Qi, HX; Gharbawie, OA; Wong, P; Kaas, JH
The Journal of comparative neurology 519 738-58 2011
The architectonic features of the ventroposterior nucleus (VP) were visualized in coronal brain sections from two macaque monkeys, two owl monkeys, two squirrel monkeys, and three galagos that were processed for cytochrome oxidase, Nissl bodies, or the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2). The traditional ventroposterior medial (VPM) and ventroposterior lateral (VPL) subnuclei were easily identified, as well as the forelimb and hindlimb compartments of VPL, as they were separated by poorly staining, cell-poor septa. Septa also separated other cell groups within VPM and VPL, specifically in the medial compartment of VPL representing the hand (hand VPL). In one squirrel monkey and one galago we demonstrated that these five groups of cells represent digits 1-5 in a mediolateral sequence by injecting tracers into the cortical representation of single digits, defined by microelectrode recordings, and relating concentrations of labeled neurons to specific cell groups in hand VPL. The results establish the existence of septa that isolate the representation of the five digits in VPL of primates and demonstrate that the isolated cell groups represent digits 1-5 in a mediolateral sequence. The present results show that the septa are especially prominent in brain sections processed for vGluT2, which is expressed in the synaptic terminals of excitatory neurons in most nuclei of the brainstem and thalamus. As vGluT2 is expressed in the synaptic terminations from dorsal columns and trigeminal brainstem nuclei, the effectiveness of vGluT2 preparations in revealing septa in VP likely reflects a lack of synapses using glutamate in the septa.
|Projection neurons from the central nucleus of the amygdala to the nucleus pontis oralis. |
Fung, SJ; Xi, M; Zhang, J; Torterolo, P; Sampogna, S; Morales, FR; Chase, MH
Journal of neuroscience research 89 429-36 2011
The present retrograde labeling study was designed to determine the presence and pattern of projections from individual subdivisions of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) to the nucleus pontis oralis (NPO), which is a critical brainstem site involved in the generation and maintenance of active (REM) sleep. Projections from the CNA were labeled with the retrograde tracer cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB), which was injected, unilaterally, via microiontophoresis, into the NPO. Sections of the amygdala were immunostained in order to identify CTB-labeled CNA neurons and CNA neurons that contained CTB plus the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), which is a marker for glutamatergic neurons. Histological analyses revealed that retrogradely labeled neurons that project to the NPO were localized, ipsilaterally, within the medial, lateral, and capsular subdivisions of the CNA. In addition, a substantial proportion (24%) of all retrogradely labeled CNA neurons also exhibited VGLUT2 immunoreactivity. The present study demonstrates that glutamatergic neurons, which are present within various subdivisions of the CNA, project directly to the NPO. These data lend credence to the hypothesis that NPO neurons that are involved in the control of active sleep are activated by glutamatergic projections from the amygdala.
|Partial loss of Tip60 slows mid-stage neurodegeneration in a spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) mouse model. |
Gehrking, KM; Andresen, JM; Duvick, L; Lough, J; Zoghbi, HY; Orr, HT
Human molecular genetics 20 2204-12 2011
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is one of nine dominantly inherited neurodegenerative diseases caused by polyglutamine tract expansion. In SCA1, the expanded polyglutamine tract is in the ataxin-1 (ATXN1) protein. ATXN1 is part of an in vivo complex with retinoid acid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha (Rora) and the acetyltransferase tat-interactive protein 60 kDa (Tip60). ATXN1 and Tip60 interact directly via the ATXN1 and HMG-box protein 1 (AXH) domain of ATXN1. Moreover, the phospho-mimicking Asp amino acid at position 776, previously shown to enhance pathogenesis, increases the ability of ATXN1 to interact with Tip60. Using a genetic approach, the biological relevance of the ATXN1/Tip60 interaction was assessed by crossing ATXN1[82Q] mice with Tip60(+/-)animals. Partial Tip60 loss increased Rora and Rora-mediated gene expression and delayed ATXN1-mediated cerebellar degeneration during mid-stage disease progression. These results suggested a specific, temporal role for Tip60 during disease progression. We also showed that genetic background modulated ATXN1[82Q]-induced phenotypes. Of interest, these latter studies showed that some phenotypes are enhanced on a mixed background while others are suppressed.
|Abnormalities in the climbing fiber-Purkinje cell circuitry contribute to neuronal dysfunction in ATXN1[82Q] mice. |
Barnes, JA; Ebner, BA; Duvick, LA; Gao, W; Chen, G; Orr, HT; Ebner, TJ
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 12778-89 2011
One fundamental unanswered question in the field of polyglutamine diseases concerns the pathophysiology of neuronal dysfunction. Is there dysfunction in a specific neuronal population or circuit initially that contributes the onset of behavioral abnormalities? This study used a systems-level approach to investigate the functional integrity of the excitatory cerebellar cortical circuitry in vivo from several transgenic ATXN1 mouse lines. We tested the hypotheses that there are functional climbing fiber (CF)-Purkinje cell (PC) and parallel fiber (PF)-PC circuit abnormalities using flavoprotein autofluorescence optical imaging and extracellular field potential recordings. In early-symptomatic and symptomatic animals expressing ATXN1[82Q], there is a marked reduction in PC responsiveness to CF activation. Immunostaining of vesicular glutamate transporter type 2 demonstrated a decrement in CF extension on PC dendrites in symptomatic ATXN1[82Q] mice. In contrast, responses to PF stimulation were relatively normal. Importantly, the deficits in CF-PC synaptic transmission required expression of pathogenic ataxin-1 (ATXN1[82Q]) and for its entrance into the nucleus of PCs. Loss of endogenous mouse Atxn1 had no discernible effects. Furthermore, the abnormalities in CF-PC synaptic transmission were ameliorated when mutant transgene expression was prevented during postnatal cerebellar development. The results demonstrate the preferential susceptibility of the CF-PC circuit to the effects of ATXN1[82Q]. Further, this deficit likely contributes to the abnormal motor phenotype of ATXN1[82Q] mice. For polyglutamine diseases generally, the findings support a model whereby specific neuronal circuits suffer insults that alter function before cell death.
|Vesicular glutamate transporters: spatio-temporal plasticity following hearing loss. |
B Fyk-Kolodziej,T Shimano,T-W Gong,A G Holt
Neuroscience 178 2011
An immunocytochemical comparison of vGluT1 and vGluT3 in the cochlear nucleus (CN) of deafened versus normal hearing rats showed the first example of vGluT3 immunostaining in the dorsal and ventral CN and revealed temporal and spatial changes in vGluT1 localization in the CN after cochlear injury. In normal hearing rats vGluT1 immunostaining was restricted to terminals on CN neurons while vGluT3 immunolabeled the somata of the neurons. This changed in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) 3 days following deafness, where vGluT1 immunostaining was no longer seen in large auditory nerve terminals but was instead found in somata of VCN neurons. In the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), while vGluT1 labeling of terminals decreased, there was no labeling of neuronal somata. Therefore, loss of peripheral excitatory input results in co-localization of vGluT1 and vGluT3 in VCN neuronal somata. Postsynaptic glutamatergic neurons can use retrograde signaling to control their presynaptic inputs and these results suggest vGluTs could play a role in regulating retrograde signaling in the CN under different conditions of excitatory input. Changes in vGluT gene expression in CN neurons were found 3 weeks following deafness using qRT-PCR with significant increases in vGluT1 gene expression in both ventral and dorsal CN while vGluT3 gene expression decreased in VCN but increased in DCN.
|Ultrastructure, synaptic organization, and molecular components of bushy cell networks in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of the rhesus monkey. |
Gómez-Nieto, R; Rubio, ME
Neuroscience 179 188-207 2011
Bushy cells (BCs) process auditory information in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). Yet, most neuroanatomical findings come from studies in cats and rodents, and the ultrastructural morphological features of BCs in humans and higher nonhuman primates are unknown. In this study, we combined histological, immunocytochemical, and ultrastructural methods to examine the morphology and synaptic organization of BCs in the rhesus monkey VCN. We observed that BCs were organized in a complex neural network that appears to interconnect the cells. The fine structure of BC somata and dendrites, as well as their synaptic inputs, are similar to those in other mammals. We found that BCs received numerous endbulb-like VGLUT1- and VGLUT2-immunopositive endings. In addition, they expressed glutamate AMPA (GluR2/3 and GluR4), NMDA (NR1), delta1/2 receptor subunits, and the α1 subunit of the glycine receptor. These receptor types and subunits mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission from the cochlea and inhibitory neurotransmission from noncochlear inputs. Parvalbumin immunostaining and semithin sections showed that BC dendrites are oriented toward neighboring BC somas to form neuronal clusters. Within the cluster, the incoming inputs established multiple, divergent synaptic contacts. Thus, BCs were connected by specialized dendrosomatic and somasomatic membrane junctions. Our results indicate that the cytoarchitectural organization of BCs is well conserved between primates and other mammalian species.Full Text Article
|FGF signalling inhibits neural induction in human embryonic stem cells. |
Greber, B; Coulon, P; Zhang, M; Moritz, S; Frank, S; Müller-Molina, AJ; Araúzo-Bravo, MJ; Han, DW; Pape, HC; Schöler, HR
The EMBO journal 30 4874-84 2011
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can exit the self-renewal programme, through the action of signalling molecules, at any given time and differentiate along the three germ layer lineages. We have systematically investigated the specific roles of three signalling pathways, TGFβ/SMAD2, BMP/SMAD1, and FGF/ERK, in promoting the transition of hESCs into the neuroectoderm lineage. In this context, inhibition of SMAD2 and ERK signalling served to cooperatively promote exit from hESC self-renewal through the rapid downregulation of NANOG and OCT4. In contrast, inhibition of SMAD1 signalling acted to maintain SOX2 expression and prevent non-neural differentiation via HAND1. Inhibition of FGF/ERK upregulated OTX2 that subsequently induced the neuroectodermal fate determinant PAX6, revealing a novel role for FGF2 in indirectly repressing PAX6 in hESCs. Combined inhibition of the three pathways hence resulted in highly efficient neuroectoderm formation within 4 days, and subsequently, FGF/ERK inhibition promoted rapid differentiation into peripheral neurons. Our study assigns a novel, biphasic role to FGF/ERK signalling in the neural induction of hESCs, which may also have utility for applications requiring the rapid and efficient generation of peripheral neurons.
|Fluorescence mapping of afferent topography in three dimensions. |
Stacey L Reeber,Samrawit A Gebre,Roy V Sillitoe
Brain structure & function 216 2011
Neural circuits are organized into complex topographic maps. Although several neuroanatomical and genetic tools are available for studying circuit architecture, a limited number of methods exist for reliably revealing the global patterning of multiple topographic projections. Here we used wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) conjugated to Alexa 555 and 488 for dual color fluorescent mapping of parasagittal spinocerebellar topography in three dimensions. Using tissue section and wholemount imaging we show that WGA-Alexa tracers have three main characteristics that make them ideal tools for analyses of neural projection topography. First, the intense brightness of Alexa fluorophores allows multi-color imaging of patterned afferent projections in wholemount preparations. Second, WGA-Alexa tracers robustly label the entire trajectory of developing and adult projections. Third, long tracts such as the adult spinocerebellar tract can be traced in less than 6 h. Moreover, using WGA-Alexa tracers we resolved a level of complexity in the compartmentalized topography of the spinocerebellar projection map that has never before been appreciated. In summary, we introduce versatile tracers for rapidly labeling multiple topographic projections in three dimensions and uncover wiring complexities in the spinocerebellar map.
|SCA1-like disease in mice expressing wild-type ataxin-1 with a serine to aspartic acid replacement at residue 776. |
Duvick, L; Barnes, J; Ebner, B; Agrawal, S; Andresen, M; Lim, J; Giesler, GJ; Zoghbi, HY; Orr, HT
Neuron 67 929-35 2010
Glutamine tract expansion triggers nine neurodegenerative diseases by conferring toxic properties to the mutant protein. In SCA1, phosphorylation of ATXN1 at Ser776 is thought to be key for pathogenesis. Here, we show that replacing Ser776 with a phosphomimicking Asp converted ATXN1 with a wild-type glutamine tract into a pathogenic protein. ATXN1[30Q]-D776-induced disease in Purkinje cells shared most features with disease caused by ATXN1[82Q] having an expanded polyglutamine tract. However, in contrast to disease induced by ATXN1[82Q] that progresses to cell death, ATXN1[30Q]-D776 failed to induce cell death. These results support a model where pathogenesis involves changes in regions of the protein in addition to the polyglutamine tract. Moreover, disease initiation and progression to neuronal dysfunction are distinct from induction of cell death. Ser776 is critical for the pathway to neuronal dysfunction, while an expanded polyglutamine tract is essential for neuronal death.
|Neuregulin-1 at synapses on phrenic motoneurons. |
Issa, AN; Zhan, WZ; Sieck, GC; Mantilla, CB
The Journal of comparative neurology 518 4213-25 2010
The neuregulin (NRG) family of trophic factors is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems and participates in the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of many different cell types, including motoneurons. NRG1 was first characterized by its role in the formation of the neuromuscular junction, and recently it was shown to play a crucial role in modulating glutamatergic and cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system of adult rats. However, little is known about NRG1's role in adult motor systems. Motoneurons receive dense glutamatergic and cholinergic input. We hypothesized that NRG1 is present at synapses on phrenic motoneurons. Confocal microscopy and 3D reconstruction techniques were used to determine the distribution of NRG1 and its colocalization with these different neurotransmitter systems. We found that NRG1 puncta are present around retrogradely labeled motoneurons and are distributed predominantly at motoneuron somata and primary dendrites. NRG1 is present exclusively at synaptic sites (identified using the presynaptic marker synaptophysin), making up ∼30% of all synapses at phrenic motoneurons. Overall, NRG1 immunoreactivity is found predominantly at cholinergic synapses (75% ± 14% colocalize with the vesicular acetylcholine transporter; VAChT). Nearly all (99% ± 1%) VAChT-immunoreactive synapses expressed NRG1. NRG1 also is present at a subset of glutamatergic synapses expressing the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) type 2 (∼6%) but not those expressing VGLUT type 1. Overall, 26% ± 6% of NRG1 synapses are VGLUT2 immunoreactive. These findings provide the first evidence suggesting that NRG1 may modulate synaptic activity in adult motor systems.
|Co-localization of TRHR1 and LepRb receptors on neurons in the hindbrain of the rat. |
Barnes, MJ; Rogers, RC; Van Meter, MJ; Hermann, GE
Brain research 1355 70-85 2010
We have reported a highly cooperative interaction between leptin and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in the hindbrain to generate thermogenic responses (Hermann et al., 2006) (Rogers et al., 2009). Identifying the locus in the hindbrain where leptin and TRH act synergistically to increase thermogenesis will be necessary before we can determine the mechanism(s) by which this interaction occurs. Here, we performed heat-induced epitope recovery techniques and in situ hybridization to determine if neurons or afferent fibers in the hindbrain possess both TRH type 1 receptor and long-form leptin receptor [TRHR1; LepRb, respectively]. LepRb receptors were highly expressed in the solitary nucleus [NST], dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus [DMN] and catecholaminergic neurons of the ventrolateral medulla [VLM]. All neurons that contained LepRb also contained TRHR1. Fibers in the NST and the raphe pallidus [RP] and obscurrus [RO] that possess LepRb receptors were phenotypically identified as glutamatergic type 2 fibers (vglut2). Fibers in the NST and RP that possess TRHR1 receptors were phenotypically identified as serotonergic [i.e., immunopositive for the serotonin transporter; SERT]. Co-localization of LepRb and TRHR1 was not observed on individual fibers in the hindbrain but these two fiber types co-mingle in these nuclei. These anatomical arrangements may provide a basis for the synergy between leptin and TRH to increase thermogenesis.
|Architectonic subdivisions of neocortex in the Galago (Otolemur garnetti). |
Peiyan Wong,Jon H Kaas
Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007) 293 2010
In the present study, galago brains were sectioned in the coronal, sagittal, or horizontal planes, and sections were processed with several different histochemical and immunohistochemical procedures to reveal the architectonic characteristics of the various cortical areas. The histochemical methods used included the traditional Nissl, cytochrome oxidase, and myelin stains, as well as a zinc stain, which reveals free ionic zinc in the axon terminals of neurons. Immunohistochemical methods include parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin (CB), both calcium-binding proteins, and the vesicle glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2). These different procedures revealed similar boundaries between areas, which suggests that functionally relevant borders were being detected. These results allowed a more precise demarcation of previously identified areas. As thalamocortical terminations lack free ionic zinc, primary cortical areas were most clearly revealed by the zinc stain, because of the poor zinc staining of layer 4. Area 17 was especially prominent, as the broad layer 4 was nearly free of zinc stain. However, this feature was less pronounced in the primary auditory and somatosensory cortex. As VGluT2 is expressed in thalamocortical terminations, layer 4 of primary sensory areas was darkly stained for VGluT2. Primary motor cortex had reduced VGluT2 staining, and increased zinc-enriched terminations in the poorly developed granular layer 4 compared to the adjacent primary somatosensory area. The middle temporal visual (MT) showed increased PV and VGluT2 staining compared to the surrounding cortical areas. The resulting architectonic maps of cortical areas in galagos can usefully guide future studies of cortical organizations and functions.Full Text Article
|Ovarian hormone-induced reorganization of oxytocin-labeled dendrites and synapses lateral to the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus in female rats. |
Gerald D Griffin,Sarah L Ferri-Kolwicz,Beverly A S Reyes,Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele,Loretta M Flanagan-Cato
The Journal of comparative neurology 518 2010
Central oxytocin (OT) modulates many social behaviors, including female rat sexual receptivity, quantified as the copulatory stance known as lordosis. The expression of the lordosis response is modulated by OT action in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), as demonstrated by behavioral pharmacology experiments. However, the subcellular localization of OT in this brain region has been unclear. We tested the hypothesis that ovarian hormones reorganize OT-labeled pre- or postsynaptic elements in the fiber complex lateral to the VMH by using immunoelectron microscopy. OT immunolabeling occurred in axonal boutons identified by the presence of small, clear synaptic vesicles and double labeling with the presynaptic markers synaptophysin and vesicular glutamate transporter 2. OT immunoreactivity also was observed in dendritic profiles, verified with double labeling for the dendrite-specific marker microtubule-associated protein 2. Ovarian hormones did not alter the density of axonal boutons; however, estradiol treatment reduced the density of dendritic profiles by 34%. This effect was reversed when progesterone was given subsequent to estradiol. The effect of estradiol treatment was specific to dendrites that lacked OT immunostaining; the density of OT-labeled dendritic profiles remained constant during estradiol treatment. With the estradiol-induced exit of non-OT-labeled dendritic profiles, the remaining OT-labeled dendritic profiles experienced an increase in their number of synaptic contacts. Thus, hormone treatments that mimic the 4-day rat estrous cycle provoke a chemically coded reorganization of dendrite innervation in the fiber plexus lateral to the VMH that may underlie the hormone-specific effect of OT on reproductive behavior.
|Dopamine neuron glutamate cotransmission: frequency-dependent modulation in the mesoventromedial projection. |
Chuhma, N; Choi, WY; Mingote, S; Rayport, S
Neuroscience 164 1068-83 2009
Mesoventromedial dopamine neurons projecting from the medial ventral tegmental area to the ventromedial shell of the nucleus accumbens play a role in attributing incentive salience to environmental stimuli that predict important events, and appear to be particularly sensitive to the effects of psychostimulant drugs. Despite the observation that these dopamine neurons make up almost the entire complement of neurons in the projection, stimulating their cell bodies evokes a fast glutamatergic response in accumbens neurons. This is apparently due to dopamine neuron glutamate cotransmission, suggested by the extensive coexpression of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) in the neurons. To examine the interplay between the dopamine and glutamate signals, we used acute quasi-horizontal brain slices made from DAT-YFP mice in which the intact mesoventromedial projection can be visualized. Under current clamp, when dopamine neurons were stimulated repeatedly, dopamine neuron glutamate transmission showed dopamine-mediated facilitation, solely at higher, burst-firing frequencies. Facilitation was diminished under voltage clamp and flipped to inhibition by intracellular Cs(+) or GDPbetaS, indicating that it was mediated postsynaptically. Postsynaptic facilitation was D1 mediated, required activation of NMDA receptors and closure of voltage gated K(+)-channels. When postsynaptic facilitation was blocked, D2-mediated presynaptic inhibition became apparent. These counterbalanced pre- and postsynaptic actions determine the frequency dependence of dopamine modulation; at lower firing frequencies dopamine modulation is not apparent, while at burst firing frequency postsynaptic facilitation dominates and dopamine becomes facilitatory. Dopamine neuron glutamate cotransmission may play an important role in encoding the incentive salience value of conditioned stimuli that activate goal-directed behaviors, and may be an important subtract for enduring drug-seeking behaviors.
|Regional and laminar distribution of the vesicular glutamate transporter, VGluT2, in the macaque monkey auditory cortex. |
Troy A Hackett,Lisa A de la Mothe
Journal of chemical neuroanatomy 38 2009
The auditory cortex of primates contains 13 areas distributed among 3 hierarchically connected regions: core, belt, and parabelt. Thalamocortical inputs arise in parallel from four divisions of the medial geniculate complex (MGC), which have regionally distinct projection patterns. These inputs terminate in layers IIIb and/or IV, and are assumed to be glutamatergic, although this has not been verified. In the present study, immunoreactivity (-ir) for the vesicular glutamate transporter, VGluT2, was used to estimate the regional and laminar distribution of the glutamatergic thalamocortical projection in the macaque auditory cortex. Coronal sections containing auditory cortex were processed for VGluT2 and other markers concentrated in the thalamorecipient layers: cytochrome oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, and parvalbumin. Marker expression was studied with wide field and confocal microscopy. The main findings were: (1) VGluT2-ir was highest in the core, intermediate in the belt, and sparse in the parabelt; (2) VGluT2-ir was concentrated in the neuropil of layers IIIb/IV in the core and layer IIIb in the belt; (3) VGluT2-ir matched regional and laminar expression of the other chemoarchitectonic markers. The results indicate that the glutamatergic thalamic projection to auditory cortex, as indexed by VGluT2-ir, varies along the core-belt-parabelt axis in a manner that matches the gradients of other markers. These chemoarchitectonic features are likely to subserve regional differences in neuronal activity between regions of auditory cortex.Full Text Article
|Architectonic subdivisions of neocortex in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri). |
Peiyan Wong,Jon H Kaas
Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007) 292 2009
Tree shrews are small mammals that bear some semblance to squirrels, but are actually close relatives of primates. Thus, they have been extensively studied as a model for the early stages of primate evolution. In this study, subdivisions of cortex were reconstructed from brain sections cut in the coronal, sagittal, or horizontal planes, and processed for parvalbumin, SMI-32-immunopositive neurofilament protein epitopes, vesicle glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2), free ionic zinc, myelin, cytochrome oxidase, and Nissl substance. These different procedures revealed similar boundaries between areas, suggesting the detection of functionally relevant borders and allowed a more precise demarcation of cortical areal boundaries. Primary cortical areas were most clearly revealed by the zinc stain, because of the poor staining of layer 4, as thalamocortical terminations lack free ionic zinc. Area 17 (V1) was especially prominent, as the broad layer 4 was nearly free of zinc stain. However, this feature was less pronounced in primary auditory and somatosensory cortex. In primary sensory areas, thalamocortical terminations in layer 4 densely express VGluT2. Auditory cortex consists of two architectonically distinct subdivisions, a primary core region (Ac), surrounded by a belt region (Ab) that had a slightly less developed koniocellular appearance. Primary motor cortex (M1) was identified by the absence of VGluT2 staining in the poorly developed granular layer 4 and the presence of SMI-32-labeled pyramidal cells in layers 3 and 5. The presence of well-differentiated cortical areas in tree shrews indicates their usefulness in studies of cortical organization and function.Full Text Article
|An architectonic study of the neocortex of the short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). |
Peiyan Wong, Jon H Kaas, Peiyan Wong, Jon H Kaas
Brain, behavior and evolution 73 206-28 2009
Short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica) belong to the branch of marsupial mammals that diverged from eutherian mammals approximately 180 million years ago. They are small in size, lack a marsupial pouch, and may have retained more morphological characteristics of early marsupial neocortex than most other marsupials. In the present study, we used several different histochemical and immunochemical procedures to reveal the architectonic characteristics of cortical areas in short-tailed opossums. Subdivisions of cortex were identified in brain sections cut in the coronal, sagittal, horizontal or tangential planes and processed for a calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV), neurofilament protein epitopes recognized by SMI-32, the vesicle glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2), myelin, cytochrome oxidase (CO), and Nissl substance. These different procedures revealed similar boundaries among areas, suggesting that functionally relevant borders were detected. The results allowed a fuller description and more precise demarcation of previously identified sensory areas, and the delineation of additional subdivisions of cortex. Area 17 (V1) was especially prominent, with a densely populated layer 4, high myelination levels, and dark staining of PV and VGluT2 immunopositive terminations. These architectonic features were present, albeit less pronounced, in somatosensory and auditory cortex. The major findings support the conclusion that short-tailed opossums have fewer cortical areas and their neocortex is less distinctly laminated than most other mammals.
|VGLUT1 and VGAT are sorted to the same population of synaptic vesicles in subsets of cortical axon terminals. |
Giorgia Fattorini,Claudia Verderio,Marcello Melone,Silvia Giovedì,Fabio Benfenati,Michela Matteoli,Fiorenzo Conti
Journal of neurochemistry 110 2009
Glutamate and GABA mediate most of the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission; they are taken up and accumulated in synaptic vesicles by specific vesicular transporters named VGLUT1-3 and VGAT, respectively. Recent studies show that VGLUT2 and VGLUT3 are co-expressed with VGAT. Because of the relevance this information has for our understanding of synaptic physiology and plasticity, we investigated whether VGLUT1 and VGAT are co-expressed in rat cortical neurons. In cortical cultures and layer V cortical terminals we observed a population of terminals expressing VGLUT1 and VGAT. Post-embedding immunogold studies showed that VGLUT1+/VGAT+ terminals formed both symmetric and asymmetric synapses. Triple-labeling studies revealed GABAergic synapses expressing VGLUT1 and glutamatergic synapses expressing VGAT. Immunoisolation studies showed that anti-VGAT immunoisolated vesicles contained VGLUT1 and anti-VGLUT1 immunoisolated vesicles contained VGAT. Finally, vesicles containing VGAT resident in glutamatergic terminals undergo active recycling. In conclusion, we demonstrate that in neocortex VGLUT1 and VGAT are co-expressed in a subset of axon terminals forming both symmetric and asymmetric synapses, that VGLUT1 and VGAT are sorted to the same vesicles and that vesicles at synapses expressing the vesicular heterotransporter participate in the exo-endocytotic cycle.
|A bushy cell network in the rat ventral cochlear nucleus. |
Ricardo Gómez-Nieto,María E Rubio
The Journal of comparative neurology 516 2009
Geometry of the dendritic tree and synaptic organization of afferent inputs are essential factors in determining how synaptic input is integrated by neurons. This information remains elusive for one of the first brainstem neurons involved in processing of the primary auditory signal from the ear, the bushy cells (BCs) of the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). Here, we labeled the BC dendritic trees with retrograde tracing techniques to analyze their geometry and synaptic organization after immunofluorescence for excitatory and inhibitory synaptic markers, electron microscopy, morphometry, double tract-tracing methods, and 3D reconstructions. Our study revealed that BC dendrites provide space for a large number of compartmentalized excitatory and inhibitory synaptic interactions. The dendritic inputs on BCs are of cochlear and noncochlear origin, and their proportion and distribution are dependent on the branching pattern and orientation of the dendritic tree in the VCN. Three-dimensional reconstructions showed that BC dendrites branch and cluster with those of other BCs in the core of the VCN. Within the cluster, incoming synaptic inputs establish divergent multiple-contact synapses (dyads and triads) between BCs. Furthermore, neuron-neuron connections including puncta adherentia, sarcoplasmic junctions, and gap junctions are common between BCs, which suggests that these neurons are electrically coupled. Overall, our study demonstrates the existence of a BC network in the rat VCN. This network may establish the neuroanatomical basis for acoustic information processing by individual BCs as well as for enhanced synchronization of the output signal of the VCN.Full Text Article
|Thalamic connections of architectonic subdivisions of temporal cortex in grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis). |
Wong, P; Gharbawie, OA; Luethke, LE; Kaas, JH
The Journal of comparative neurology 510 440-61 2008
The temporal cortex of grey squirrels contains three architectonically distinct regions. One of these regions, the temporal anterior (Ta) region has been identified in previous physiological and anatomical studies as containing several areas that are largely auditory in function. Consistent with this evidence, Ta has architectonic features that are internally somewhat variable, but overall sensory in nature. In contrast, the caudally adjoining temporal intermediate region (Ti) has architectonic features that suggest higher order and possibly multisensory processing. Finally, the most caudal region, composed of previously defined temporal medial (Tm) and temporal posterior (Tp) fields, again has more of the appearance of sensory cortex. To understand their functional roles better, we injected anatomical tracers into these regions to reveal their thalamic connections. As expected, the dorsal portion of Ta, containing two primary or primary-like auditory areas, received inputs from the ventral and magnocellular divisions of the auditory medial geniculate complex (MGv and MGm). The most caudal region, Tm plus Tp, received inputs from the large visual pulvinar of squirrels, possibly accounting for the sensory architectonic characteristics of this region. However, Tp additionally receives inputs from the magnocellular (MGm) and dorsal (MGd) divisions of the medial geniculate complex, implicating Tp in multisensory processing. Finally, the middle region, Ti, had auditory inputs from MGd and MGm, but not from the visual pulvinar, providing evidence that Ti has higher order auditory functions. The results indicate that the architectonically distinct regions of temporal cortex of squirrels are also functionally distinct. Understanding how temporal cortex is functionally organized in squirrels can guide interpretations of temporal cortex organization in other rodents in which architectonic subdivisions are not as obvious.
|Architectonic subdivisions of neocortex in the gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). |
Wong, P; Kaas, JH
Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007) 291 1301-33 2008
Squirrels are highly visual mammals with an expanded cortical visual system and a number of well-differentiated architectonic fields. To describe and delimit cortical fields, subdivisions of cortex were reconstructed from serial brain sections cut in the coronal, sagittal, or horizontal planes. Architectonic characteristics of cortical areas were visualized after brain sections were processed with immunohistochemical and histochemical procedures for revealing parvalbumin, calbindin, neurofilament protein, vesicle glutamate transporter 2, limbic-associated membrane protein, synaptic zinc, cytochrome oxidase, myelin or Nissl substance. In general, these different procedures revealed similar boundaries between areas, suggesting that functionally relevant borders were being detected. The results allowed a more precise demarcation of previously identified areas as well as the identification of areas that had not been previously described. Primary sensory cortical areas were characterized by sparse zinc staining of layer 4, as thalamocortical terminations lack zinc, as well as by layer 4 terminations rich in parvalbumin and vesicle glutamate transporter 2. Primary areas also expressed higher levels of cytochrome oxidase and myelin. Primary motor cortex was associated with large SMI-32 labeled pyramidal cells in layers 3 and 5. Our proposed organization of cortex in gray squirrels includes both similarities and differences to the proposed of cortex in other rodents such as mice and rats. The presence of a number of well-differentiated cortical areas in squirrels may serve as a guide to the identification of homologous fields in other rodents, as well as a useful guide in further studies of cortical organization and function.
|Impaired cerebellar development and function in mice lacking CAPS2, a protein involved in neurotrophin release. |
Sadakata, T; Kakegawa, W; Mizoguchi, A; Washida, M; Katoh-Semba, R; Shutoh, F; Okamoto, T; Nakashima, H; Kimura, K; Tanaka, M; Sekine, Y; Itohara, S; Yuzaki, M; Nagao, S; Furuichi, T
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27 2472-82 2007
Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2/CADPS2) is a secretory granule-associated protein that is abundant at the parallel fiber terminals of granule cells in the mouse cerebellum and is involved in the release of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), both of which are required for cerebellar development. The human homolog gene on chromosome 7 is located within susceptibility locus 1 of autism, a disease characterized by several cerebellar morphological abnormalities. Here we report that CAPS2 knock-out mice are deficient in the release of NT-3 and BDNF, and they consequently exhibit suppressed phosphorylation of Trk receptors in the cerebellum; these mice exhibit pronounced impairments in cerebellar development and functions, including neuronal survival, differentiation and migration of postmitotic granule cells, dendritogenesis of Purkinje cells, lobulation between lobules VI and VII, structure and vesicular distribution of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses, paired-pulse facilitation at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses, rotarod motor coordination, and eye movement plasticity in optokinetic training. Increased granule cell death of the external granular layer was noted in lobules VI-VII and IX, in which high BDNF and NT-3 levels are specifically localized during cerebellar development. Therefore, the deficiency of CAPS2 indicates that CAPS2-mediated neurotrophin release is indispensable for normal cerebellar development and functions, including neuronal differentiation and survival, morphogenesis, synaptic function, and motor learning/control. The possible involvement of the CAPS2 gene in the cerebellar deficits of autistic patients is discussed.
|Expression of vesicular glutamate transporter-2 in gonadotrope and thyrotrope cells of the rat pituitary. Regulation by estrogen and thyroid hormone status. |
Hrabovszky, Erik, et al.
Endocrinology, 147: 3818-25 (2006) 2006
Immunocytochemical studies of the rat adenohypophysis identified a cell population that exhibits immunoreactivity for type-2 vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT2), a marker for glutamatergic neuronal phenotype. The in situ hybridization detection of VGLUT2 mRNA expression in adenohypophysial cells verified that VGLUT2 immunoreactivity is due to local synthesis of authentic VGLUT2. Dual-immunofluorescent studies of the hypophyses from male rats showed the presence of VGLUT2 in high percentages of LH (93.3 +/- 1.3%)-, FSH (44.7 +/- 3.9%)-, and TSH (70.0 +/- 5.6%)-immunoreactive cells and its much lower incidence in cells of the prolactin, GH, and ACTH phenotypes. Quantitative in situ hybridization studies have established that the administration of a single dose of 17-beta-estradiol (20 microg/kg; sc) to ovariectomized rats significantly elevated VGLUT2 mRNA in the adenohypophysis 16 h postinjection. Thyroid hormone dependence of VGLUT2 expression was addressed by the comparison of hybridization signals in animal models of hypo- and hyperthyroidism to those in euthyroid controls. Although hyperthyroidism had no effect on VGLUT2 mRNA, hypothyroidism increased adenohypophysial VGLUT2 mRNA levels. This coincided with a decreased ratio of VGLUT2-immunoreactive TSH cells, regarded as a sign of enhanced secretion. The presence of the glutamate marker VGLUT2 in gonadotrope and thyrotrope cells, and its up-regulation by estrogen or hypothyroidism, address the possibility that endocrine cells of the adenohypophysis may cosecrete glutamate with peptide hormones in an estrogen- and thyroid status-regulated manner. The exact roles of endogenous glutamate observed primarily in gonadotropes and thyrotropes, including its putative involvement in autocrine/paracrine regulatory mechanisms, will require clarification.
|Anti-Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 2 - Data Sheet|