Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||WB, ChIP||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified from ascites by protein G chromatography. Supplied at 1 mg/ml in 0.1M Tris-Glycine (pH7.4) 150 mM NaCl, 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.
For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the vial prior to removing the cap.
|Material Size||100 µg|
References | 19 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|The histone H2A deubiquitinase Usp16 regulates embryonic stem cell gene expression and lineage commitment. |
Yang, W; Lee, YH; Jones, AE; Woolnough, JL; Zhou, D; Dai, Q; Wu, Q; Giles, KE; Townes, TM; Wang, H
Nature communications 5 3818 2014
Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 and histone H2A ubiquitination (ubH2A) contribute to embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency by repressing lineage-specific gene expression. However, whether active deubiquitination co-regulates ubH2A levels in ESCs and during differentiation is not known. Here we report that Usp16, a histone H2A deubiquitinase, regulates H2A deubiquitination and gene expression in ESCs, and importantly, is required for ESC differentiation. Usp16 knockout is embryonic lethal in mice, but does not affect ESC viability or identity. Usp16 binds to the promoter regions of a large number of genes in ESCs, and Usp16 binding is inversely correlated with ubH2A levels, and positively correlates with gene expression levels. Intriguingly, Usp16(-/-) ESCs fail to differentiate due to ubH2A-mediated repression of lineage-specific genes. Finally, Usp16, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, rescues the differentiation defects of Usp16(-/-) ESCs. Therefore, this study identifies Usp16 and H2A deubiquitination as critical regulators of ESC gene expression and differentiation.
|Loss of Drosophila Ataxin-7, a SAGA subunit, reduces H2B ubiquitination and leads to neural and retinal degeneration. |
Mohan, RD; Dialynas, G; Weake, VM; Liu, J; Martin-Brown, S; Florens, L; Washburn, MP; Workman, JL; Abmayr, SM
Genes & development 28 259-72 2014
The Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA) chromatin-modifying complex possesses acetyltransferase and deubiquitinase activities. Within this modular complex, Ataxin-7 anchors the deubiquitinase activity to the larger complex. Here we identified and characterized Drosophila Ataxin-7 and found that reduction of Ataxin-7 protein results in loss of components from the SAGA complex. In contrast to yeast, where loss of Ataxin-7 inactivates the deubiquitinase and results in increased H2B ubiquitination, loss of Ataxin-7 results in decreased H2B ubiquitination and H3K9 acetylation without affecting other histone marks. Interestingly, the effect on ubiquitination was conserved in human cells, suggesting a novel mechanism regulating histone deubiquitination in higher organisms. Consistent with this mechanism in vivo, we found that a recombinant deubiquitinase module is active in the absence of Ataxin-7 in vitro. When we examined the consequences of reduced Ataxin-7 in vivo, we found that flies exhibited pronounced neural and retinal degeneration, impaired movement, and early lethality.
|Transcription factor Sp3 represses expression of p21CIP¹ via inhibition of productive elongation by RNA polymerase II. |
Valin, A; Ouyang, J; Gill, G
Molecular and cellular biology 33 1582-93 2013
Like that of many protein-coding genes, expression of the p21(CIP1) cell cycle inhibitor is regulated at the level of transcription elongation. While many transcriptional activators have been shown to stimulate elongation, the mechanisms by which promoter-specific repressors regulate pausing and elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNA PolII) are not well described. Here we report that the transcription factor Sp3 inhibits basal p21(CIP1) gene expression by promoter-bound RNA PolII. Knockdown of Sp3 led to increased p21(CIP1) mRNA levels and reduced occupancy of the negative elongation factor (NELF) at the p21(CIP1) promoter, although the level of binding of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) kinase was not increased. Sp3 depletion correlated with increased H3K36me3 and H2Bub1, two histone modifications associated with transcription elongation. Further, Sp3 was shown to promote the binding of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to the p21(CIP1) promoter, leading to reduced H3S10 phosphorylation, a finding consistent with Sp3-dependent regulation of the local balance between kinase and phosphatase activities. Analysis of other targets of Sp3-mediated repression suggests that, in addition to previously described SUMO modification-dependent chromatin-silencing mechanisms, inhibition of the transition of paused RNA PolII to productive elongation, described here for p21(CIP1), is a general mechanism by which transcription factor Sp3 fine-tunes gene expression.
|Histone H2B ubiquitin ligase RNF20 is required for MLL-rearranged leukemia. |
Wang, E; Kawaoka, S; Yu, M; Shi, J; Ni, T; Yang, W; Zhu, J; Roeder, RG; Vakoc, CR
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 3901-6 2013
Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) fusions are potent oncogenes that initiate aggressive forms of acute leukemia. As aberrant transcriptional regulators, MLL-fusion proteins alter gene expression in hematopoietic cells through interactions with the histone H3 lysine 79 (H3K79) methyltransferase DOT1L. Notably, interference with MLL-fusion cofactors like DOT1L is an emerging therapeutic strategy in this disease. Here, we identify the histone H2B E3 ubiquitin ligase ring finger protein 20 (RNF20) as an additional chromatin regulator that is necessary for MLL-fusion-mediated leukemogenesis. Suppressing the expression of Rnf20 in diverse models of MLL-rearranged leukemia leads to inhibition of cell proliferation, under tissue culture conditions as well as in vivo. Rnf20 knockdown leads to reduced expression of MLL-fusion target genes, effects resembling Dot1l inhibition. Using ChIP-seq, we found that H2B ubiquitination is enriched in the body of MLL-fusion target genes, correlating with sites of H3K79 methylation and transcription elongation. Furthermore, Rnf20 is required to maintain local levels of H3K79 methylation by Dot1l at Hoxa9 and Meis1. These findings support a model whereby cotranscriptional recruitment of Rnf20 at MLL-fusion target genes leads to amplification of Dot1l-mediated H3K79 methylation, thereby rendering leukemia cells dependent on Rnf20 to maintain their oncogenic transcriptional program.
|ASH2L regulates ubiquitylation signaling to MLL: trans-regulation of H3 K4 methylation in higher eukaryotes. |
Wu, L; Lee, SY; Zhou, B; Nguyen, UT; Muir, TW; Tan, S; Dou, Y
Molecular cell 49 1108-20 2013
Crosstalk between H2B ubiquitylation (H2Bub) and H3 K4 methylation plays important roles in coordinating functions of diverse cofactors during transcription activation. The underlying mechanism for this trans-tail signaling pathway is poorly defined in higher eukaryotes. Here, we show the following: (1) ASH2L in the MLL complex is essential for H2Bub-dependent H3 K4 methylation. Deleting or mutating K99 of the N-terminal winged helix (WH) motif in ASH2L abrogates H2Bub-dependent regulation. (2) Crosstalk can occur in trans and does not require ubiquitin to be on nucleosomes or histones to exert regulatory effects. (3) trans-regulation by ubiquitin promotes MLL activity for all three methylation states. (4) MLL3, an MLL homolog, does not respond to H2Bub, highlighting regulatory specificity for MLL family histone methyltransferases. Altogether, our results potentially expand the classic histone crosstalk to nonhistone proteins, which broadens the scope of chromatin regulation by ubiquitylation signaling.
|The deubiquitylating enzyme USP44 counteracts the DNA double-strand break response mediated by the RNF8 and RNF168 ubiquitin ligases. |
Mosbech, A; Lukas, C; Bekker-Jensen, S; Mailand, N
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 16579-87 2013
Protein recruitment to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) relies on ubiquitylation of the surrounding chromatin by the RING finger ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168. Flux through this pathway is opposed by several deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs), including OTUB1 and USP3. By analyzing the effect of individually overexpressing the majority of human DUBs on RNF8/RNF168-mediated 53BP1 retention at DSB sites, we found that USP44 and USP29 powerfully inhibited this response at the level of RNF168 accrual. Both USP44 and USP29 promoted efficient deubiquitylation of histone H2A, but unlike USP44, USP29 displayed nonspecific reactivity toward ubiquitylated substrates. Moreover, USP44 but not other H2A DUBs was recruited to RNF168-generated ubiquitylation products at DSB sites. Individual depletion of these DUBs only mildly enhanced accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates and 53BP1 at DSBs, suggesting considerable functional redundancy among cellular DUBs that restrict ubiquitin-dependent protein assembly at DSBs. Our findings implicate USP44 in negative regulation of the RNF8/RNF168 pathway and illustrate the usefulness of DUB overexpression screens for identification of antagonizers of ubiquitin-dependent cellular responses.
|The ZFP-1(AF10)/DOT-1 complex opposes H2B ubiquitination to reduce Pol II transcription. |
Cecere, G; Hoersch, S; Jensen, MB; Dixit, S; Grishok, A
Molecular cell 50 894-907 2013
The inhibition of transcriptional elongation plays an important role in gene regulation in metazoans, including C. elegans. Here, we combine genomic and biochemical approaches to dissect a role of ZFP-1, the C. elegans AF10 homolog, in transcriptional control. We show that ZFP-1 and its interacting partner DOT-1.1 have a global role in negatively modulating the level of polymerase II (Pol II) transcription on essential widely expressed genes. Moreover, the ZFP-1/DOT-1.1 complex contributes to progressive Pol II pausing on essential genes during development and to rapid Pol II pausing during stress response. The slowing down of Pol II transcription by ZFP-1/DOT-1.1 is associated with an increase in H3K79 methylation and a decrease in H2B monoubiquitination, which promotes transcription. We propose a model wherein the recruitment of ZFP-1/DOT-1.1 and deposition of H3K79 methylation at highly expressed genes initiates a negative feedback mechanism for the modulation of their expression.
|USP49 deubiquitinates histone H2B and regulates cotranscriptional pre-mRNA splicing. |
Zhang, Z; Jones, A; Joo, HY; Zhou, D; Cao, Y; Chen, S; Erdjument-Bromage, H; Renfrow, M; He, H; Tempst, P; Townes, TM; Giles, KE; Ma, L; Wang, H
Genes & development 27 1581-95 2013
Post-translational histone modifications play important roles in regulating chromatin structure and function. Histone H2B ubiquitination and deubiquitination have been implicated in transcriptional regulation, but the function of H2B deubiquitination is not well defined, particularly in higher eukaryotes. Here we report the purification of ubiquitin-specific peptidase 49 (USP49) as a histone H2B-specific deubiquitinase and demonstrate that H2B deubiquitination by USP49 is required for efficient cotranscriptional splicing of a large set of exons. USP49 forms a complex with RuvB-like1 (RVB1) and SUG1 and specifically deubiquitinates histone H2B in vitro and in vivo. USP49 knockdown results in small changes in gene expression but affects the abundance of greater than 9000 isoforms. Exons down-regulated in USP49 knockdown cells show both elevated levels of alternative splicing and a general decrease in splicing efficiency. Importantly, USP49 is relatively enriched at this set of exons. USP49 knockdown increased H2B ubiquitination (uH2B) levels at these exons as well as upstream 3' and downstream 5' intronic splicing elements. Change in H2B ubiquitination level, as modulated by USP49, regulates U1A and U2B association with chromatin and binding to nascent pre-mRNA. Although H3 levels are relatively stable after USP49 depletion, H2B levels at these exons are dramatically increased, suggesting that uH2B may enhance nucleosome stability. Therefore, this study identifies USP49 as a histone H2B-specific deubiquitinase and uncovers a critical role for H2B deubiquitination in cotranscriptional pre-mRNA processing events.
|Decreased histone H2B monoubiquitination in malignant gastric carcinoma. |
Wang, ZJ; Yang, JL; Wang, YP; Lou, JY; Chen, J; Liu, C; Guo, LD
World journal of gastroenterology 19 8099-107 2013
To investigate H2B monoubiquitination (uH2B) and H3K4 di- and tri-methylation (H3K4-2me, H3K4-3me) levels and their clinical significance in gastric cancer (GC).Immunohistochemistry (IGC) was used to detect the differential levels of uH2B, H3K4-2me and H3K4-3me modifications in GC specimens from chemo/radiotherapy-naïve patients who underwent potentially curative surgical resection (n = 159) and in a random sampling of non-tumor gastric epithelium specimens (normal controls, n = 20). The immunohistochemistry (IHC)-detected modifications were classified as negative, low-level, or high-level using a dual-rated (staining intensity and percentage of positively-stained cells) semi-quantitative method. The relationships between uH2B modification levels and clinicopathological parameters of GC were assessed by a Wilcoxon rank sum test (pairwise comparisons) and the Kruskal-Wallis H test (multiple comparisons). The correlation between uH2B modification and survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the role of uH2B as an independent prognostic factor for survival was assessed by multivariate Cox regression analysis.The presence and level of H3K4-2me and H3K4-3me IHC staining was similar between the normal controls and GC specimens. In contrast, the level of uH2B was significantly lower in the malignant gastric tissues (vs normal control tissues) and decreased along with increases in dedifferentiation (well differentiated greater than moderately differentiated greater than poorly differentiated). The level of uH2B correlated with tumor differentiation (P less than 0.001), Lauren's diffuse- and intestinal-type classification (P less than 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.049) and tumor-node-metastasis stage (P = 0.005). Patients with uH2B+ staining had higher 5-year survival rates than patients with uH2B-staining (52.692 ± 2.452 vs 23.739 ± 5.207, P less than 0.001). The uH2B level was an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific survival (95%CI: 0.237-0.677, P = 0.001).uH2B displays differential IHC staining patterns corresponding to progressive stages of GC. uH2B may contribute to tumorigenesis and could be a potential therapeutic target.
|The interaction of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor and heterochromatin protein 1. |
Lai, Y; Song, M; Hakala, K; Weintraub, ST; Shiio, Y
Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 518 103-10 2012
Inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor is associated with renal carcinoma, hemangioblastoma and pheochromocytoma. The VHL protein is a component of a ubiquitin ligase complex that ubiquitinates and degrades hypoxia inducible factor-α (HIF-α). Degradation of HIF-α by VHL is proposed to suppress tumorigenesis and tumor angiogenesis. Several lines of evidence also suggest important roles for HIF-independent VHL functions in tumor suppression and other biological processes. Using GST-VHL pull-down experiment and mass spectrometry, we detected an interaction between VHL and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). We identified a conserved HP1-binding motif (PXVXL) in the β domain of VHL, which is disrupted in a renal carcinoma-associated P81S mutant. We show that the VHL P81S mutant displays reduced binding to HP1, yet retains the ability to interact with elongin B, elongin C, and cullin 2 and is fully capable of degrading HIF-α. We also demonstrate that HP1 increases the chromatin association of VHL. These results suggest a role for the VHL-HP1 interaction in VHL chromatin targeting.
|Cyclin-dependent kinase control of the initiation-to-elongation switch of RNA polymerase II. |
Larochelle, S; Amat, R; Glover-Cutter, K; Sansó, M; Zhang, C; Allen, JJ; Shokat, KM; Bentley, DL; Fisher, RP
Nature structural & molecular biology 19 1108-15 2012
Promoter-proximal pausing by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) ensures gene-specific regulation and RNA quality control. Structural considerations suggested a requirement for initiation-factor eviction in elongation-factor engagement and pausing of transcription complexes. Here we show that selective inhibition of Cdk7--part of TFIIH--increases TFIIE retention, prevents DRB sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF) recruitment and attenuates pausing in human cells. Pause release depends on Cdk9-cyclin T1 (P-TEFb); Cdk7 is also required for Cdk9-activating phosphorylation and Cdk9-dependent downstream events--Pol II C-terminal domain Ser2 phosphorylation and histone H2B ubiquitylation--in vivo. Cdk7 inhibition, moreover, impairs Pol II transcript 3'-end formation. Cdk7 thus acts through TFIIE and DSIF to establish, and through P-TEFb to relieve, barriers to elongation: incoherent feedforward that might create a window to recruit RNA-processing machinery. Therefore, cyclin-dependent kinases govern Pol II handoff from initiation to elongation factors and cotranscriptional RNA maturation.
|Identification of core DNA elements that target somatic hypermutation. |
Kohler, KM; McDonald, JJ; Duke, JL; Arakawa, H; Tan, S; Kleinstein, SH; Buerstedde, JM; Schatz, DG
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 189 5314-26 2012
Somatic hypermutation (SHM) diversifies the V region of Ig genes and underlies the process of affinity maturation, in which B lymphocytes producing high-affinity Abs are generated and selected. SHM is triggered in activated B cells by deamination of deoxycytosine residues mediated by activation-induced deaminase (AID). Whereas mistargeting of SHM and AID results in mutations and DNA damage in many non-Ig genes, they act preferentially at Ig loci. The mechanisms responsible for preferential targeting of SHM and AID activity to Ig loci are poorly understood. Using an assay involving an SHM reporter cassette inserted into the Ig L chain locus (IgL) of chicken DT40 B cells, we have identified a 1.9-kb DIVAC (diversification activator) element derived from chicken IgL that supports high levels of AID-dependent mutation activity. Systematic deletion analysis reveals that targeting activity is spread throughout much of the sequence and identifies two core regions that are particularly critical for function: a 200-bp region within the IgL enhancer, and a 350-bp 3' element. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that whereas DIVAC does not alter levels of several epigenetic marks in the mutation cassette, it does increase levels of serine-5 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II in the mutation target region, consistent with an effect on transcriptional elongation/pausing. We propose that multiple, dispersed DNA elements collaborate to recruit and activate the mutational machinery at Ig gene variable regions during SHM.
|Putative molecular mechanism underlying sperm chromatin remodelling is regulated by reproductive hormones. |
Gill-Sharma, MK; Choudhuri, J; Ansari, MA; D'Souza, S
Clinical epigenetics 4 23 2012
The putative regulatory role of the male reproductive hormones in the molecular mechanism underlying chromatin condensation remains poorly understood. In the past decade, we developed two adult male rat models wherein functional deficits of testosterone or FSH, produced after treatments with 20 mg/Kg/d of cyproterone acetate (CPA) per os, for a period of 15 days or 3 mg/Kg/d of fluphenazine decanoate (FD) subcutaneously, for a period of 60 days, respectively, affected the rate of sperm chromatin decondensation in vitro. These rat models have been used in the current study in order to delineate the putative roles of testosterone and FSH in the molecular mechanism underlying remodelling of sperm chromatin.We report that deficits of both testosterone and FSH affected the turnover of polyubiquitylated histones and led to their accumulation in the testis. Functional deficits of testosterone reduced expression of MIWI, the 5-methyl cap binding RNA-binding protein (PIWIlike murine homologue of the Drosophila protein PIWI/P-element induced wimpy testis) containing a PAZ/Piwi-Argonaut-Zwille domain and levels of histone deacetylase1 (HDAC1), ubiquitin ligating enzyme (URE-B1/E3), 20S proteasome α1 concomitant with reduced expression of ubiquitin activating enzyme (ube1), conjugating enzyme (ube2d2), chromodomain Y like protein (cdyl), bromodomain testis specific protein (brdt), hdac6 (histone deacetylase6), androgen-dependent homeobox placentae embryonic protein (pem/RhoX5), histones h2b and th3 (testis-specific h3). Functional deficits of FSH reduced the expression of cdyl and brdt genes in the testis, affected turnover of ubiquitylated histones, stalled the physiological DNA repair mechanism and culminated in spermiation of DNA damaged sperm.We aver that deficits of both testosterone and FSH differentially affected the process of sperm chromatin remodelling through subtle changes in the 'chromatin condensation transcriptome and proteome', thereby stalling the replacement of 'dynamic' histones with 'inert' protamines, and altering the epigenetic state of condensed sperm chromatin. The inappropriately condensed chromatin affected the sperm chromatin cytoarchitecture, evident from subtle ultrastructural changes in the nuclei of immature caput epididymal sperm of CPA- or FD-treated rats, incubated in vitro with dithiothreitol.
|Nucleosomal H2B ubiquitylation with purified factors. |
Kim, J; Roeder, RG
Methods (San Diego, Calif.) 54 331-8 2011
Diverse histone modifications play important roles in transcriptional regulation throughout eukaryotes, and recent studies have implicated histone H2B ubiquitylation in active transcription. The necessity of at least three enzymes (E1-E3), as well as ongoing transcription events, for efficient H2B ubiquitylation complicates mechanistic studies of H2B ubiquitylation relative to other histone modifications. Here we describe experimental protocols for preparation of human H2B ubiquitylation factors, ubiquitylation substrates and transcription factors, as well as the use of these factors to establish H2B ubiquitylation mechanisms during transcription. The methods include reliable protein interaction and E3 ubiquitylation assays that can be widely applied to confirm cognate E2-E3 pairs in other protein ubiquitylation systems, optimized in vitro ubiquitylation assays for various histone substrates, and a transcription-coupled H2B ubiquitylation assay in a highly purified transcription system. These comprehensive analyses have revealed (i) that RAD6 serves as the cognate E2 for the BRE1 complex in human cells, as previously established in yeast, (ii) that RAD6, through direct interaction with the BRE1 complex, ubiquitylates chromatinized H2B at lysine 120 and (iii) that PAF1 complex-mediated transcription is required for efficient H2B ubiquitylation. This experimental system permits detailed mechanistic analyses of H2B ubiquitylation during transcription by providing information concerning both precise enzyme functions and physical interactions between the transcription and histone modification machineries.
|Post-transcription initiation function of the ubiquitous SAGA complex in tissue-specific gene activation. |
Weake, VM; Dyer, JO; Seidel, C; Box, A; Swanson, SK; Peak, A; Florens, L; Washburn, MP; Abmayr, SM; Workman, JL
Genes & development 25 1499-509 2011
The Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex was discovered from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and has been well characterized as an important transcriptional coactivator that interacts both with sequence-specific transcription factors and the TATA-binding protein TBP. SAGA contains a histone acetyltransferase and a ubiquitin protease. In metazoans, SAGA is essential for development, yet little is known about the function of SAGA in differentiating tissue. We analyzed the composition, interacting proteins, and genomic distribution of SAGA in muscle and neuronal tissue of late stage Drosophila melanogaster embryos. The subunit composition of SAGA was the same in each tissue; however, SAGA was associated with considerably more transcription factors in muscle compared with neurons. Consistent with this finding, SAGA was found to occupy more genes specifically in muscle than in neurons. Strikingly, SAGA occupancy was not limited to enhancers and promoters but primarily colocalized with RNA polymerase II within transcribed sequences. SAGA binding peaks at the site of RNA polymerase pausing at the 5' end of transcribed sequences. In addition, many tissue-specific SAGA-bound genes required its ubiquitin protease activity for full expression. These data indicate that in metazoans SAGA plays a prominent post-transcription initiation role in tissue-specific gene expression.
|Detection and characterization of ubiquitylated H2B in mammalian cells. |
Efrat Shema,Moshe Oren,Neri Minsky
Methods (San Diego, Calif.) 54 2011
Histone H2B ubiquitylation was shown to be associated with actively transcribed genes in mammalian cells and has been suggested to be involved in transcriptional regulation. Despite the limited applicability of genetic tools to analyze H2B ubiquitylation in mammals, several biochemical and immunological approaches have been successfully implemented to study this modification. Here we describe several techniques to detect ubiquitylated H2B in mammalian cells and to dissect its genomic localization.
|Histone H2A and H2B are monoubiquitinated at AID-targeted loci. |
Borchert, GM; Holton, NW; Edwards, KA; Vogel, LA; Larson, ED
PloS one 5 e11641 2010
Somatic hypermutation introduces base substitutions into the rearranged and expressed immunoglobulin (Ig) variable regions to promote immunity. This pathway requires and is initiated by the Activation Induced Deaminase (AID) protein, which deaminates cytidine to produce uracils and UG mismatches at the Ig genes. Subsequent processing of uracil by mismatch repair and base excision repair factors contributes to mutagenesis. While selective for certain genomic targets, the chromatin modifications which distinguish hypermutating from non-hypermutating loci are not defined.Here, we show that AID-targeted loci in mammalian B cells contain ubiquitinated chromatin. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis of a constitutively hypermutating Burkitt's B cell line, Ramos, revealed the presence of monoubiquitinated forms of both histone H2A and H2B at two AID-associated loci, but not at control loci which are expressed but not hypermutated. Similar analysis using LPS activated primary murine splenocytes showed enrichment of the expressed V(H) and Sgamma3 switch regions upon ChIP with antibody specific to AID and to monoubiquitinated H2A and H2B. In the mechanism of mammalian hypermutation, AID may interact with ubiquitinated chromatin because confocal immunofluorescence microscopy visualized AID colocalized with monoubiquitinated H2B within discrete nuclear foci.Our results indicate that monoubiquitinated histones accompany active somatic hypermutation, revealing part of the histone code marking AID-targeted loci. This expands the current view of the chromatin state during hypermutation by identifying a specific nucleosome architecture associated with somatic hypermutation.Full Text Article
|DSIF, the Paf1 complex, and Tat-SF1 have nonredundant, cooperative roles in RNA polymerase II elongation. |
Chen, Y; Yamaguchi, Y; Tsugeno, Y; Yamamoto, J; Yamada, T; Nakamura, M; Hisatake, K; Handa, H
Genes & development 23 2765-77 2009
Transcription elongation factor DSIF/Spt4-Spt5 is capable of promoting and inhibiting RNA polymerase II elongation and is involved in the expression of various genes. While it has been known for many years that DSIF inhibits elongation in collaboration with the negative elongation factor NELF, how DSIF promotes elongation is largely unknown. Here, an activity-based biochemical approach was taken to understand the mechanism of elongation activation by DSIF. We show that the Paf1 complex (Paf1C) and Tat-SF1, two factors implicated previously in elongation control, collaborate with DSIF to facilitate efficient elongation. In human cells, these factors are recruited to the FOS gene in a temporally coordinated manner and contribute to its high-level expression. We also show that elongation activation by these factors depends on P-TEFb-mediated phosphorylation of the Spt5 C-terminal region. A clear conclusion emerging from this study is that a set of elongation factors plays nonredundant, cooperative roles in elongation. This study also shows unambiguously that Paf1C, which is generally thought to have chromatin-related functions, is involve directlyd in elongation control.
|RNF168, a new RING finger, MIU-containing protein that modifies chromatin by ubiquitination of histones H2A and H2AX. |
Pinato, Sabrina, et al.
BMC Mol. Biol., 10: 55 (2009) 2009
BACKGROUND: Modulation of chromatin structure has emerged as a critical molecular device to control gene expression. Histones undergo different post-translational modifications that increase chromatin accessibility to a number of regulatory factors. Among them, histone ubiquitination appears relevant in nuclear processes that govern gene silencing, either by inhibiting or activating transcription, and maintain genome stability, acting as scaffold to properly organize the DNA damage response. Thus, it is of paramount importance the identification and the characterization of new ubiquitin ligases that address histones. RESULTS: We identified and characterized RNF168, a new chromatin-associated RING finger protein. We demonstrated that RNF168 is endowed with ubiquitin ligase activity both in vitro and in vivo, which targets histones H2A and H2AX, but not H2B, forming K63 polyubiquitin chains. We previously described the presence within RNF168 sequence of two MIU domains, responsible for the binding to ubiquitinated proteins. Here we showed that inactivation of the MIUs impairs ubiquitin binding ability in vitro and reduces chromatin association of RNF168 in vivo. Moreover, upon formation of DNA double strand breaks induced by chemical and physical agents, RNF168 is recruited to the DNA damage foci, where it co-localizes with gammaH2AX and 53BP1. The localization of RNF168 at the site of damage highly increases the local concentration of ubiquitinated proteins and determines the prolonged ubiquitination signal. CONCLUSION: The RING finger protein RNF168 is a new ubiquitin ligase that functions as chromatin modifier, through histone ubiquitination. We hypothesize a dual function for RNF168. In normal condition RNF168 modifies chromatin structure by modulating ubiquitination of histone H2A. Upon DNA lesions, RNF168 is recruited to DNA damage response foci where it contributes to increase the amount of ubiquitinated proteins, thereby facilitating the downstream signalling cascade.