|ΔF508 CFTR surface stability is regulated by DAB2 and CHIP-mediated ubiquitination in post-endocytic compartments. |
Fu, L; Rab, A; Tang, Lp; Bebok, Z; Rowe, SM; Bartoszewski, R; Collawn, JF
The ΔF508 mutant form of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (ΔF508 CFTR) that is normally degraded by the ER-associated degradative pathway can be rescued to the cell surface through low-temperature (27°C) culture or small molecular corrector treatment. However, it is unstable on the cell surface, and rapidly internalized and targeted to the lysosomal compartment for degradation. To understand the mechanism of this rapid turnover, we examined the role of two adaptor complexes (AP-2 and Dab2) and three E3 ubiquitin ligases (c-Cbl, CHIP, and Nedd4-2) on low-temperature rescued ΔF508 CFTR endocytosis and degradation in human airway epithelial cells. Our results demonstrate that siRNA depletion of either AP-2 or Dab2 inhibits ΔF508 CFTR endocytosis by 69% and 83%, respectively. AP-2 or Dab2 depletion also increases the rescued protein half-life of ΔF508 CFTR by ~18% and ~91%, respectively. In contrast, the depletion of each of the E3 ligases had no effect on ΔF508 CFTR endocytosis, whereas CHIP depletion significantly increased the surface half-life of ΔF508 CFTR. To determine where and when the ubiquitination occurs during ΔF508 CFTR turnover, we monitored the ubiquitination of rescued ΔF508 CFTR during the time course of CFTR endocytosis. Our results indicate that ubiquitination of the surface pool of ΔF508 CFTR begins to increase 15 min after internalization, suggesting that CFTR is ubiquitinated in a post-endocytic compartment. This post-endocytic ubiquination of ΔF508 CFTR could be blocked by either inhibiting endocytosis, by siRNA knockdown of CHIP, or by treating cells with the CFTR corrector, VX-809. Our results indicate that the post-endocytic ubiquitination of CFTR by CHIP is a critical step in the peripheral quality control of cell surface ΔF508 CFTR.
|Ubiquitin conjugate immunoreactivity in the brains of scrapie infected mice. |
Lowe, J, et al.
J. Pathol., 162: 61-6 (1990)
Sections of brain from normal mice or clinically-ill mice infected with either the 87V or the ME7 strains of sheep scrapie were immunostained to show the localization of ubiquitin-protein conjugates or a specific marker of disease, the scrapie-associated fibril protein (PrP). In both scrapie models immunoreactive ubiquitin-protein conjugates were seen in thread-like structures found throughout the neuropil, in inclusion bodies within vacuolated neurones, and in areas surrounding anti-PrP positive amyloid plaques. The PrP protein was visualized in diffuse deposits in highly vacuolated parts of the scrapie-affected brain, and focally in amyloid plaques, microglia and neuronal processes. The ubiquitin-protein conjugate staining of scrapie amyloid plaques is very similar to that seen in the plaques of Alzheimer's disease. The ubiquitinated intraneuronal inclusion bodies seen in scrapie resemble the granulovacuolar lesions also seen in Alzheimer's disease, but appear much larger and possibly correspond to material in giant autophagic vacuoles. We suggest that these inclusions may be the result of ubiquitinated abnormal proteins being directed to the lysosomal system, and that scrapie and Alzheimer's disease share at least some common processes of neurodegeneration.