Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|B, Ch, Qu, R||IHC, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 6 months at 2-8ºC in undiluted aliquots from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||40 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Patterns of Brain Activation and Meal Reduction Induced by Abdominal Surgery in Mice and Modulation by Rikkunshito.|
Wang, L; Mogami, S; Yakabi, S; Karasawa, H; Yamada, C; Yakabi, K; Hattori, T; Taché, Y
PloS one 10 e0139325 2015
Abdominal surgery inhibits food intake and induces c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic and medullary nuclei in rats. Rikkunshito (RKT), a Kampo medicine improves anorexia. We assessed the alterations in meal microstructure and c-Fos expression in brain nuclei induced by abdominal surgery and the modulation by RKT in mice. RKT or vehicle was gavaged daily for 1 week. On day 8 mice had no access to food for 6-7 h and were treated twice with RKT or vehicle. Abdominal surgery (laparotomy-cecum palpation) was performed 1-2 h before the dark phase. The food intake and meal structures were monitored using an automated monitoring system for mice. Brain sections were processed for c-Fos immunoreactivity (ir) 2-h after abdominal surgery. Abdominal surgery significantly reduced bouts, meal frequency, size and duration, and time spent on meals, and increased inter-meal interval and satiety ratio resulting in 92-86% suppression of food intake at 2-24 h post-surgery compared with control group (no surgery). RKT significantly increased bouts, meal duration and the cumulative 12-h food intake by 11%. Abdominal surgery increased c-Fos in the prelimbic, cingulate and insular cortexes, and autonomic nuclei, such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central amygdala, hypothalamic supraoptic (SON), paraventricular and arcuate nuclei, Edinger-Westphal nucleus (E-W), lateral periaqueduct gray (PAG), lateral parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus, ventrolateral medulla and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). RKT induced a small increase in c-Fos-ir neurons in the SON and E-W of control mice, and in mice with surgery there was an increase in the lateral PAG and a decrease in the NTS. These findings indicate that abdominal surgery inhibits food intake by increasing both satiation (meal duration) and satiety (meal interval) and activates brain circuits involved in pain, feeding behavior and stress that may underlie the alterations of meal pattern and food intake inhibition. RKT improves food consumption post-surgically that may involve modulation of pain pathway.
|A role for nonapeptides and dopamine in nest-building behaviour.|
Hall, ZJ; Healy, SD; Meddle, SL
Journal of neuroendocrinology 27 158-65 2015
During nest building in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), several regions in the social behaviour network and the dopaminergic reward system, which are two neural circuits involved in social behaviour, appear to be active in male and female nest-building finches. Because the nonapeptides, mesotocin and vasotocin and the neurotransmitter, dopamine, play important roles in avian social behaviour, we tested the hypothesis that mesotocinergic-vasotocinergic and dopaminergic neuronal populations in the social behaviour network and dopaminergic reward system, respectively, are active during nest building. We combined immunohistochemistry for Fos (an indirect marker of neuronal activity) and vasotocin, mesotocin or tyrosine hydroxylase on brain tissue from nest-building and non-nest-building male and female zebra finches and compared Fos immunoreactivity in these neuronal populations with the variation in nest-building behaviour. Fos immunoreactivity in all three types of neuronal populations increased with some aspect of nest building: (i) higher immunoreactivity in a mesotocinergic neuronal population of nest-building finches compared to controls; (ii) increased immunoreactivity in the vasotocinergic neuronal populations in relation to the amount of material picked up by nest-building males and the length of time that a male spent in the nest with his mate; and (iii) increased immunoreactivity in a dopaminergic neuronal population in relation to the length of time that a male nest-building finch spent in the nest with his mate. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for a role of the mesotocinergic-vasotocinergic and dopaminergic systems in avian nest building.
|Chronic nicotine activates stress/reward-related brain regions and facilitates the transition to compulsive alcohol drinking.|
Leão, RM; Cruz, FC; Vendruscolo, LF; de Guglielmo, G; Logrip, ML; Planeta, CS; Hope, BT; Koob, GF; George, O
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 35 6241-53 2015
Alcohol and nicotine are the two most co-abused drugs in the world. Previous studies have shown that nicotine can increase alcohol drinking in nondependent rats, yet it is unknown whether nicotine facilitates the transition to alcohol dependence. We tested the hypothesis that chronic nicotine will speed up the escalation of alcohol drinking in rats and that this effect will be accompanied by activation of sparsely distributed neurons (neuronal ensembles) throughout the brain that are specifically recruited by the combination of nicotine and alcohol. Rats were trained to respond for alcohol and made dependent using chronic, intermittent exposure to alcohol vapor, while receiving daily nicotine (0.8 mg/kg) injections. Identification of neuronal ensembles was performed after the last operant session, using immunohistochemistry. Nicotine produced an early escalation of alcohol drinking associated with compulsive alcohol drinking in dependent, but not in nondependent rats (air exposed), as measured by increased progressive-ratio responding and increased responding despite adverse consequences. The combination of nicotine and alcohol produced the recruitment of discrete and phenotype-specific neuronal ensembles (∼4-13% of total neuronal population) in the nucleus accumbens core, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, central nucleus of the amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, and posterior ventral tegmental area. Blockade of nicotinic receptors using mecamylamine (1 mg/kg) prevented both the behavioral and neuronal effects of nicotine in dependent rats. These results demonstrate that nicotine and activation of nicotinic receptors are critical factors in the development of alcohol dependence through the dysregulation of a set of interconnected neuronal ensembles throughout the brain.
|Ultrastructural localization of tyrosine hydroxylase in tree shrew nucleus accumbens core and shell.|
McCollum, LA; Roberts, RC
Neuroscience 271 23-34 2014
Many behavioral, physiological, and anatomical studies utilize animal models to investigate human striatal pathologies. Although commonly used, rodent striatum may not present the optimal animal model for certain studies due to a lesser morphological complexity than that of non-human primates, which are increasingly restricted in research. As an alternative, the tree shrew could provide a beneficial animal model for studies of the striatum. The gross morphology of the tree shrew striatum resembles that of primates, with separation of the caudate and putamen by the internal capsule. The neurochemical anatomy of the ventral striatum, specifically the nucleus accumbens, has never been examined. This major region of the limbic system plays a role in normal physiological functioning and is also an area of interest for human striatal disorders. The current study uses immunohistochemistry of calbindin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) to determine the ultrastructural organization of the nucleus accumbens core and shell of the tree shrew (Tupaia glis belangeri). Stereology was used to quantify the ultrastructural localization of TH, which displays weaker immunoreactivity in the core and denser immunoreactivity in the shell. In both regions, synapses with TH-immunoreactive axon terminals were primarily symmetric and showed no preference for targeting dendrites versus dendritic spines. The results were compared to previous ultrastructural studies of TH and dopamine in rat and monkey nucleus accumbens. Tree shrews and monkeys show no preference for the postsynaptic target in the shell, in contrast to rats which show a preference for synapsing with dendrites. Tree shrews have a ratio of asymmetric to symmetric synapses formed by TH-immunoreactive terminals that is intermediate between rats and monkeys. The findings from this study support the tree shrew as an alternative model for studies of human striatal pathologies.
|A population of glomerular glutamatergic neurons controls sensory information transfer in the mouse olfactory bulb.|
Tatti, R; Bhaukaurally, K; Gschwend, O; Seal, RP; Edwards, RH; Rodriguez, I; Carleton, A
Nature communications 5 3791 2014
In sensory systems, peripheral organs convey sensory inputs to relay networks where information is shaped by local microcircuits before being transmitted to cortical areas. In the olfactory system, odorants evoke specific patterns of sensory neuron activity that are transmitted to output neurons in olfactory bulb (OB) glomeruli. How sensory information is transferred and shaped at this level remains still unclear. Here we employ mouse genetics, 2-photon microscopy, electrophysiology and optogenetics, to identify a novel population of glutamatergic neurons (VGLUT3+) in the glomerular layer of the adult mouse OB as well as several of their synaptic targets. Both peripheral and serotoninergic inputs control VGLUT3+ neurons firing. Furthermore, we show that VGLUT3+ neuron photostimulation in vivo strongly suppresses both spontaneous and odour-evoked firing of bulbar output neurons. In conclusion, we identify and characterize here a microcircuit controlling the transfer of sensory information at an early stage of the olfactory pathway.
|Development of attenuated baroreflexes in obese Zucker rats coincides with impaired activation of nucleus tractus solitarius.|
Guimaraes, PS; Huber, DA; Campagnole-Santos, MJ; Schreihofer, AM
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 306 R681-92 2014
Adult obese Zucker rats (OZR; greater than 12 wk) develop elevated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) with impaired baroreflexes compared with adult lean Zucker rats (LZR) and juvenile OZR (6-7 wk). In adult OZR, baroreceptor afferent nerves respond normally to changes in MAP, whereas electrical stimulation of baroreceptor afferent fibers produces smaller reductions in SNA and MAP compared with LZR. We hypothesized that impaired baroreflexes in OZR are linked to reduced activation of brain stem sites that mediate baroreflexes. In conscious adult rats, a hydralazine (HDZ)-induced reduction in MAP evoked tachycardia that was initially blunted in OZR, but equivalent to LZR within 5 min. In agreement, HDZ-induced expression of c-Fos in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) was comparable between groups. In contrast, phenylephrine (PE)-induced rise in MAP evoked markedly attenuated bradycardia with dramatically reduced c-Fos expression in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of adult OZR compared with LZR. However, in juvenile rats, PE-induced hypertension evoked comparable bradycardia in OZR and LZR with similar or augmented c-Fos expression in NTS of the OZR. In urethane-anesthetized rats, microinjections of glutamate into NTS evoked equivalent decreases in SNA, heart rate (HR), and MAP in juvenile OZR and LZR, but attenuated decreases in SNA and MAP in adult OZR. In contrast, microinjections of glutamate into the caudal ventrolateral medulla, a target of barosensitive NTS neurons, evoked comparable decreases in SNA, HR, and MAP in adult OZR and LZR. These data suggest that OZR develop impaired glutamatergic activation of the NTS, which likely contributes to attenuated baroreflexes in adult OZR.
|Mapping of reinforcing and analgesic effects of the mu opioid agonist Endomorphin-1 in the ventral midbrain of the rat.|
Thomas C Jhou,Sheng-Ping Xu,Mary R Lee,Courtney L Gallen,Satoshi Ikemoto
Psychopharmacology 224 2012
Agonists at the mu opioid receptor (MOR) are widely recognized for their effects on reward and pain. Although prior studies have attributed some of these effects to MORs on GABA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), recent studies have identified a region of particularly strong MOR immunostaining residing caudal to the VTA, in a region denoted the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg).
|Stress stimulates production of catecholamines in rat adipocytes.|
R Kvetnansky,J Ukropec,M Laukova,B Manz,K Pacak,P Vargovic
Cellular and molecular neurobiology 32 2012
The sympathoadrenal system is the main source of catecholamines (CAs) in adipose tissues and therefore plays the key role in the regulation of adipose tissue metabolism. We recently reported existence of an alternative CA-producing system directly in adipose tissue cells, and here we investigated effect of various stressors-physical (cold) and emotional stress (immobilization) on dynamics of this system. Acute or chronic cold exposure increased intracellular norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) concentration in isolated rat mesenteric adipocytes. Gene expression of CA biosynthetic enzymes did not change in adipocytes but was increased in stromal vascular fraction (SVF) after 28 day cold. Exposure of rats to a single IMO stress caused increases in NE and EPI levels, and also gene expression of CA biosynthetic enzymes in adipocytes. In SVF changes were similar but more pronounced. Animals adapted to a long-term cold exposure (28 days, 4°C) did not show those responses found after a single IMO stress either in adipocytes or SVF. Our data indicate that gene machinery accommodated in adipocytes, which is able to synthesize NE and EPI de novo, is significantly activated by stress. Cold-adapted animals keep their adaptation even after an exposure to a novel stressor. These findings suggest the functionality of CAs produced endogenously in adipocytes. Taken together, the newly discovered CA synthesizing system in adipocytes is activated in stress situations and might significantly contribute to regulation of lipolysis and other metabolic or thermogenetic processes.
|Disease-specific phenotypes in dopamine neurons from human iPS-based models of genetic and sporadic Parkinson's disease.|
Sánchez-Danés, A; Richaud-Patin, Y; Carballo-Carbajal, I; Jiménez-Delgado, S; Caig, C; Mora, S; Di Guglielmo, C; Ezquerra, M; Patel, B; Giralt, A; Canals, JM; Memo, M; Alberch, J; López-Barneo, J; Vila, M; Cuervo, AM; Tolosa, E; Consiglio, A; Raya, A
EMBO molecular medicine 4 380-95 2012
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) offer an unprecedented opportunity to model human disease in relevant cell types, but it is unclear whether they could successfully model age-related diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we generated iPSC lines from seven patients with idiopathic PD (ID-PD), four patients with familial PD associated to the G2019S mutation in the Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene (LRRK2-PD) and four age- and sex-matched healthy individuals (Ctrl). Over long-time culture, dopaminergic neurons (DAn) differentiated from either ID-PD- or LRRK2-PD-iPSC showed morphological alterations, including reduced numbers of neurites and neurite arborization, as well as accumulation of autophagic vacuoles, which were not evident in DAn differentiated from Ctrl-iPSC. Further induction of autophagy and/or inhibition of lysosomal proteolysis greatly exacerbated the DAn morphological alterations, indicating autophagic compromise in DAn from ID-PD- and LRRK2-PD-iPSC, which we demonstrate occurs at the level of autophagosome clearance. Our study provides an iPSC-based in vitro model that captures the patients' genetic complexity and allows investigation of the pathogenesis of both sporadic and familial PD cases in a disease-relevant cell type.
|Dopamine pathology in schizophrenia: analysis of total and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase in the substantia nigra.|
Perez-Costas, E; Melendez-Ferro, M; Rice, MW; Conley, RR; Roberts, RC
Frontiers in psychiatry 3 31 2012
Despite the importance of dopamine neurotransmission in schizophrenia, very few studies have addressed anomalies in the mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA). Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the production of dopamine, and a possible contributor to the anomalies in the dopaminergic neurotransmission observed in schizophrenia.In this study, we had three objectives: (1) Compare TH expression (mRNA and protein) in the SN/VTA of schizophrenia and control postmortem samples. (2) Assess the effect of antipsychotic medications on the expression of TH in the SN/VTA. (3) Examine possible regional differences in TH expression anomalies within the SN/VTA.To achieve these objectives three independent studies were conducted: (1) A pilot study to compare TH mRNA and TH protein levels in the SN/VTA of postmortem samples from schizophrenia and controls. (2) A chronic treatment study was performed in rodents to assess the effect of antipsychotic medications in TH protein levels in the SN/VTA. (3) A second postmortem study was performed to assess TH and phosphorylated TH protein levels in two types of samples: schizophrenia and control samples containing the entire rostro-caudal extent of the SN/VTA, and schizophrenia and control samples containing only mid-caudal regions of the SN/VTA.Our studies showed impairment in the dopaminergic system in schizophrenia that could be mainly (or exclusively) located in the rostral region of the SN/VTA. Our studies also showed that TH protein levels were significantly abnormal in schizophrenia, while mRNA expression levels were not affected, indicating that TH pathology in this region may occur posttranscriptionally. Lastly, our antipsychotic animal treatment study showed that TH protein levels were not significantly affected by antipsychotic treatment, indicating that these anomalies are an intrinsic pathology rather than a treatment effect.
|Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase, clone 2/40/15 - Data Sheet|