Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R, M, Fe, Ft, Sqd, Dr, Ml||ELISA, IF, IHC, IH(P), IP, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain frozen at -20ºC to -70ºC in undiluted aliquots for up to 6 months after date of receipt. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles. Do not store in a self defrosting freezer.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase - 2115918||2115918|
|Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase - 2388829||2388829|
|Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase - 2392225||2392225|
|Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase - 2426518||2426518|
|Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase - 2458991||2458991|
|Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase - 1951919||1951919|
|Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase - 1994651||1994651|
|Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase - 2021194||2021194|
|Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase - 2038257||2038257|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Localization of reelin signaling pathway components in murine midbrain and striatum.|
Sharaf, A; Rahhal, B; Spittau, B; Roussa, E
Cell and tissue research 359 393-407 2015
We investigated the distribution patterns of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin and of crucial Reelin signaling components in murine midbrain and striatum. The cellular distribution of the Reelin receptors VLDLr and ApoER2, the intracellular downstream mediator Dab1, and the alternative Reelin receptor APP were analyzed at embryonic day 16, at postnatal stage 15 (P15), and in 3-month-old mice. Reelin was expressed intracellularly and extracellularly in midbrain mesencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons of newborns. In the striatum, Calbindin D-28k(+) neurons exhibited Reelin intracellularly at E16 and extracellularly at P15 and 3 months. ApoER2 and VLDLr were expressed in mDA neurons at E16 and P15 and in oligodendrocytes at 3 months, whereas Dab1 and APP immunoreactivity was observed in mDA at all stages analyzed. In the striatum, Calbindin D-28k(+)/GAD67(+) inhibitory neurons expressed VLDLr, ApoER2, and Dab1 at P15, but only Dab1 at E16 and 3 months. APP was always expressed in mouse striatum in which it colocalized with Calbindin D-28k. Our data underline the importance of Reelin signalling during embryonic development and early postnatal maturation of the mesostriatal and mesocorticolimbic system, and suggest that the striatum and not the midbrain is the primary source of Reelin for midbrain neurons. The loss of ApoER2 and VLDLr expression in the mature midbrain and striatum implies that Reelin functions are restricted to migratory events and early postnatal maturation and are dispensable for the maintenance of dopaminergic neurons.
|Rac1 plays an essential role in axon growth and guidance and in neuronal survival in the central and peripheral nervous systems.|
Hua, ZL; Emiliani, FE; Nathans, J
Neural development 10 21 2015
Rac1 is a critical regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics in multiple cell types. In the nervous system, it has been implicated in the control of cell proliferation, neuronal migration, and axon development.To systematically investigate the role of Rac1 in axon growth and guidance in the developing nervous system, we have examined the phenotypes associated with deleting Rac1 in the embryonic mouse forebrain, in cranial and spinal motor neurons, in cranial sensory and dorsal root ganglion neurons, and in the retina. We observe a widespread requirement for Rac1 in axon growth and guidance and a cell-autonomous defect in axon growth in Rac1 (-/-) motor neurons in culture. Neuronal death, presumably a secondary consequence of the axon growth and/or guidance defects, was observed in multiple locations. Following deletion of Rac1 in the forebrain, thalamocortical axons were misrouted inferiorly, with the majority projecting to the contralateral thalamus and a minority projecting ipsilaterally to the ventral cortex, a pattern of misrouting that is indistinguishable from the pattern previously observed in Frizzled3 (-/-) and Celsr3 (-/-) forebrains. In the limbs, motor-neuron-specific deletion of Rac1 produced a distinctive stalling of axons within the dorsal nerve of the hindlimb but a much milder loss of axons in the ventral hindlimb and forelimb nerves, a pattern that is virtually identical to the one previously observed in Frizzled3 (-/-) limbs.The similarities in axon growth and guidance phenotypes caused by Rac1, Frizzled3, and Celsr3 loss-of-function mutations suggest a mechanistic connection between tissue polarity/planar cell polarity signaling and Rac1-dependent cytoskeletal regulation.
|The Progressive BSSG Rat Model of Parkinson's: Recapitulating Multiple Key Features of the Human Disease.|
Van Kampen, JM; Baranowski, DC; Robertson, HA; Shaw, CA; Kay, DG
PloS one 10 e0139694 2015
The development of effective neuroprotective therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) has been severely hindered by the notable lack of an appropriate animal model for preclinical screening. Indeed, most models currently available are either acute in nature or fail to recapitulate all characteristic features of the disease. Here, we present a novel progressive model of PD, with behavioural and cellular features that closely approximate those observed in patients. Chronic exposure to dietary phytosterol glucosides has been found to be neurotoxic. When fed to rats, β-sitosterol β-d-glucoside (BSSG) triggers the progressive development of parkinsonism, with clinical signs and histopathology beginning to appear following cessation of exposure to the neurotoxic insult and continuing to develop over several months. Here, we characterize the progressive nature of this model, its non-motor features, the anatomical spread of synucleinopathy, and response to levodopa administration. In Sprague Dawley rats, chronic BSSG feeding for 4 months triggered the progressive development of a parkinsonian phenotype and pathological events that evolved slowly over time, with neuronal loss beginning only after toxin exposure was terminated. At approximately 3 months following initiation of BSSG exposure, animals displayed the early emergence of an olfactory deficit, in the absence of significant dopaminergic nigral cell loss or locomotor deficits. Locomotor deficits developed gradually over time, initially appearing as locomotor asymmetry and developing into akinesia/bradykinesia, which was reversed by levodopa treatment. Late-stage cognitive impairment was observed in the form of spatial working memory deficits, as assessed by the radial arm maze. In addition to the progressive loss of TH+ cells in the substantia nigra, the appearance of proteinase K-resistant intracellular α-synuclein aggregates was also observed to develop progressively, appearing first in the olfactory bulb, then the striatum, the substantia nigra and, finally, hippocampal and cortical regions. The slowly progressive nature of this model, together with its construct, face and predictive validity, make it ideal for the screening of potential neuroprotective therapies for the treatment of PD.
|Sexual dimorphism in the hypophysiotropic tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the preoptic area of the teleost, Clarias batrachus.|
Saha, S; Patil, S; Singh, U; Singh, O; Singru, PS
Biology of sex differences 6 23 2015
Dopamine (DA) neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) in the preoptic area (POA) of mammals express estrogen receptors, regulate luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, and show distinct sexual dimorphism. In teleosts, hypophysiotropic DA neurons of the nucleus preopticus periventricularis (NPP), located in the anteroventral POA, express estrogen receptors, innervate LH cells, and emerged as a neuroanatomical substrate for inhibiting LH cells. Interestingly, the NPP and AVPV seem to share several similarities. Whether DAergic neurons in the NPP show sexual dimorphism is, however, not known. Based on the proposed homology to AVPV and previous studies showing greater tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA and enzyme activity levels in the brain of female catfish, we hypothesize that females have greater number of DAergic neurons in the NPP and correspondingly more TH-immunoreactive fiber innervation of the pituitary.Adult, male and female Clarias batrachus collected during the prespawning phase of their reproductive cycle were used. Fish were anesthetized and perfused transcardially with phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4) and 4 % paraformaldehyde in phosphate buffer. Sections through the rostro-caudal extent of the POA and pituitary were processed for TH immunofluorescence. Using double immunofluorescence, the association between TH-immunoreactive fibers and LH cells in the pituitary was explored. Sections were analyzed using semiquantitative analysis.NPP in POA of C. batrachus has two distinct subdivisions, viz, anterior (NPPa) and posterior (NPPp), and TH neurons were observed in both the subdivisions. Compared to that in the males, a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) number of TH neurons was consistently observed in the NPPa of females. TH neurons in NPPp, however, showed no difference in the number or immunoreactivity. Since DA neurons in NPPa are hypophysiotropic, we compared TH-fiber innervation of the pituitary in both sexes. Compared to males, proximal pars distalis and LH cells in this region of the pituitary in females were densely innervated by TH fibers.Neurons of NPPa and their innervation to the pituitary seem to be a distinct sexually dimorphic DAergic system in C. batrachus. The DAergic system may serve as a component of the neural mechanisms controlling the sexually dimorphic LH surge in teleosts. Given the similarities shared by NPPa and AVPV, homology between these two nuclei is suggested.
|Prenatal exposure to methylphenidate affects the dopamine system and the reactivity to natural reward in adulthood in rats.|
Lepelletier, FX; Tauber, C; Nicolas, C; Solinas, M; Castelnau, P; Belzung, C; Emond, P; Cortese, S; Faraone, SV; Chalon, S; Galineau, L
The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP) 18 2015
Methylphenidate (MPH) is a commonly-used medication for the treatment of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD). However, its prescription to adults with ADHD and narcolepsy raises the question of how the brain is impacted by MPH exposure during pregnancy. The goal of this study was to elucidate the long-term neurobiological consequences of prenatal exposure to MPH using a rat model.We focused on the effects of such treatment on the adult dopamine (DA) system and on the reactivity of animals to natural rewards.This study shows that adult male rats prenatally exposed to MPH display elevated expression of presynaptic DA markers in the DA cell bodies and the striatum. Our results also suggest that MPH-treated animals could exhibit increased tonic DA activity in the mesolimbic pathway, altered signal-to-noise ratio after a pharmacological stimulation, and decreased reactivity to the locomotor effects of cocaine. Finally, we demonstrated that MPH rats display a decreased preference and motivation for sucrose.This is the first preclinical study reporting long-lasting neurobiological alterations of DA networks as well as alterations in motivational behaviors for natural rewards after a prenatal exposure to MPH. These results raise concerns about the possible neurobiological consequences of MPH treatment during pregnancy.
|Biochemical, histopathological and morphological profiling of a rat model of early immune stimulation: relation to psychopathology.|
Kubesova, A; Tejkalova, H; Syslova, K; Kacer, P; Vondrousova, J; Tyls, F; Fujakova, M; Palenicek, T; Horacek, J
PloS one 10 e0115439 2015
Perinatal immune challenge leads to neurodevelopmental dysfunction, permanent immune dysregulation and abnormal behaviour, which have been shown to have translational validity to findings in human neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders, autism, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease). The aim of this animal study was to elucidate the influence of early immune stimulation triggered by systemic postnatal lipopolysaccharide administration on biochemical, histopathological and morphological measures, which may be relevant to the neurobiology of human psychopathology. In the present study of adult male Wistar rats we examined the brain and plasma levels of monoamines (dopamine, serotonin), their metabolites, the levels of the main excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid and the levels of tryptophan and its metabolites from the kynurenine catabolic pathway. Further, we focused on histopathological and morphological markers related to pathogenesis of brain diseases--glial cell activation, neurodegeneration, hippocampal volume reduction and dopaminergic synthesis in the substantia nigra. Our results show that early immune stimulation in adult animals alters the levels of neurotransmitters and their metabolites, activates the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism and leads to astrogliosis, hippocampal volume reduction and a decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra. These findings support the crucial pathophysiological role of early immune stimulation in the above mentioned neuropsychiatric disorders.
|Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure is associated with increased risky choice and decreased dopaminergic and cholinergic neuron markers in adult rats.|
Boutros, N; Semenova, S; Liu, W; Crews, FT; Markou, A
The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP) 18 2015
Binge drinking is prevalent during adolescence and may have effects on the adult brain and behavior. The present study investigated whether adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure alters adult risky choice and prefrontal dopaminergic and forebrain cholinergic neuronal marker levels in male Wistar rats.Adolescent (postnatal day 28-53) rats were administered 5 g/kg of 25% (vol/vol) ethanol 3 times/d in a 2-days-on/2-days-off exposure pattern. In adulthood, risky choice was assessed in the probability discounting task with descending and ascending series of large reward probabilities and after acute ethanol challenge. Immunohistochemical analyses assessed tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of dopamine and norepinephrine in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortices, and choline acetyltransferase, a marker of cholinergic neurons, in the basal forebrain.All of the rats preferred the large reward when it was delivered with high probability. When the large reward became unlikely, control rats preferred the smaller, safe reward, whereas adolescent intermittent ethanol-exposed rats continued to prefer the risky alternative. Acute ethanol had no effect on risky choice in either group of rats. Tyrosine hydroxylase (prelimbic cortex only) and choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity levels were decreased in adolescent intermittent ethanol-exposed rats compared with controls. Risky choice was negatively correlated with choline acetyltransferase, implicating decreased forebrain cholinergic activity in risky choice.The decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase and choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity suggest that adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure has enduring neural effects that may lead to altered adult behaviors, such as increased risky decision making. In humans, increased risky decision making could lead to maladaptive, potentially harmful consequences.
|A distinct subtype of dopaminergic interneuron displays inverted structural plasticity at the axon initial segment.|
Chand, AN; Galliano, E; Chesters, RA; Grubb, MS
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 35 1573-90 2015
The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized structure near the start of the axon that is a site of neuronal plasticity. Changes in activity levels in vitro and in vivo can produce structural AIS changes in excitatory cells that have been linked to alterations in excitability, but these effects have never been described in inhibitory interneurons. In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), dopaminergic interneurons are particularly plastic, undergoing constitutive turnover throughout life and regulating tyrosine hydroxylase expression in an activity-dependent manner. Here we used dissociated cultures of rat and mouse OB to show that a subset of bulbar dopaminergic neurons possess an AIS and that these AIS-positive cells are morphologically and functionally distinct from their AIS-negative counterparts. Under baseline conditions, OB dopaminergic AISs were short and located distally along the axon but, in response to chronic 24 h depolarization, lengthened and relocated proximally toward the soma. These activity-dependent changes were in the opposite direction to both those we saw in non-GABAergic OB neurons and those reported previously for excitatory cell types. Inverted AIS plasticity in OB dopaminergic cells was bidirectional, involved all major components of the structure, was dependent on the activity of L-type CaV1 calcium channels but not on the activity of the calcium-activated phosphatase calcineurin, and was opposed by the actions of cyclin-dependent kinase 5. Such distinct forms of AIS plasticity in inhibitory interneurons and excitatory projection neurons may allow considerable flexibility when neuronal networks must adapt to perturbations in their ongoing activity.
|Dopaminergic and glutamatergic microdomains in a subset of rodent mesoaccumbens axons.|
Zhang, S; Qi, J; Li, X; Wang, HL; Britt, JP; Hoffman, AF; Bonci, A; Lupica, CR; Morales, M
Nature neuroscience 18 386-92 2015
Mesoaccumbens fibers are thought to co-release dopamine and glutamate. However, the mechanism is unclear, and co-release by mesoaccumbens fibers has not been documented. Using electron microcopy, we found that some mesoaccumbens fibers have vesicular transporters for dopamine (VMAT2) in axon segments that are continuous with axon terminals that lack VMAT2, but contain vesicular glutamate transporters type 2 (VGluT2). In vivo overexpression of VMAT2 did not change the segregation of the two vesicular types, suggesting the existence of highly regulated mechanisms for maintaining this segregation. The mesoaccumbens axon terminals containing VGluT2 vesicles make asymmetric synapses, commonly associated with excitatory signaling. Using optogenetics, we found that dopamine and glutamate were released from the same mesoaccumbens fibers. These findings reveal a complex type of signaling by mesoaccumbens fibers in which dopamine and glutamate can be released from the same axons, but are not normally released at the same site or from the same synaptic vesicles.
|A method for combining RNAscope in situ hybridization with immunohistochemistry in thick free-floating brain sections and primary neuronal cultures.|
Grabinski, TM; Kneynsberg, A; Manfredsson, FP; Kanaan, NM
PloS one 10 e0120120 2015
In situ hybridization (ISH) is an extremely useful tool for localizing gene expression and changes in expression to specific cell populations in tissue samples across numerous research fields. Typically, a research group will put forth significant effort to design, generate, validate and then utilize in situ probes in thin or ultrathin paraffin embedded tissue sections. While combining ISH and IHC is an established technique, the combination of RNAscope ISH, a commercially available ISH assay with single transcript sensitivity, and IHC in thick free-floating tissue sections has not been described. Here, we provide a protocol that combines RNAscope ISH with IHC in thick free-floating tissue sections from the brain and allows simultaneous co-localization of genes and proteins in individual cells. This approach works well with a number of ISH probes (e.g. small proline-rich repeat 1a, βIII-tubulin, tau, and β-actin) and IHC antibody stains (e.g. tyrosine hydroxylase, βIII-tubulin, NeuN, and glial fibrillary acidic protein) in rat brain sections. In addition, we provide examples of combining ISH-IHC dual staining in primary neuron cultures and double-ISH labeling in thick free-floating tissue sections from the brain. Finally, we highlight the ability of RNAscope to detect ectopic DNA in neurons transduced with viral vectors. RNAscope ISH is a commercially available technology that utilizes a branched or "tree" in situ method to obtain ultrasensitive, single transcript detection. Immunohistochemistry is a tried and true method for identifying specific protein in cell populations. The combination of a sensitive and versatile oligonucleotide detection method with an established and versatile protein assay is a significant advancement in studies using free-floating tissue sections.
|SNAP i.d. 2.0 System Brochure|
|Millipore Tools for Characterizing Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells|
|Dopamine Selectively Predisposes Dopaminergic Neurons In Primary Mesencephalic Cultures To Damage By An Oxidative Insult|