Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R, M, Fe, Ft, Sqd, Dr, Ml||ELISA, IF, IHC, IH(P), IP, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain frozen at -20ºC to -70ºC in undiluted aliquots for up to 6 months after date of receipt. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles. Do not store in a self defrosting freezer.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
References | 341 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Localization of reelin signaling pathway components in murine midbrain and striatum. |
Sharaf, A; Rahhal, B; Spittau, B; Roussa, E
Cell and tissue research 359 393-407 2015
We investigated the distribution patterns of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin and of crucial Reelin signaling components in murine midbrain and striatum. The cellular distribution of the Reelin receptors VLDLr and ApoER2, the intracellular downstream mediator Dab1, and the alternative Reelin receptor APP were analyzed at embryonic day 16, at postnatal stage 15 (P15), and in 3-month-old mice. Reelin was expressed intracellularly and extracellularly in midbrain mesencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons of newborns. In the striatum, Calbindin D-28k(+) neurons exhibited Reelin intracellularly at E16 and extracellularly at P15 and 3 months. ApoER2 and VLDLr were expressed in mDA neurons at E16 and P15 and in oligodendrocytes at 3 months, whereas Dab1 and APP immunoreactivity was observed in mDA at all stages analyzed. In the striatum, Calbindin D-28k(+)/GAD67(+) inhibitory neurons expressed VLDLr, ApoER2, and Dab1 at P15, but only Dab1 at E16 and 3 months. APP was always expressed in mouse striatum in which it colocalized with Calbindin D-28k. Our data underline the importance of Reelin signalling during embryonic development and early postnatal maturation of the mesostriatal and mesocorticolimbic system, and suggest that the striatum and not the midbrain is the primary source of Reelin for midbrain neurons. The loss of ApoER2 and VLDLr expression in the mature midbrain and striatum implies that Reelin functions are restricted to migratory events and early postnatal maturation and are dispensable for the maintenance of dopaminergic neurons.
|Rac1 plays an essential role in axon growth and guidance and in neuronal survival in the central and peripheral nervous systems. |
Hua, ZL; Emiliani, FE; Nathans, J
Neural development 10 21 2015
Rac1 is a critical regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics in multiple cell types. In the nervous system, it has been implicated in the control of cell proliferation, neuronal migration, and axon development.To systematically investigate the role of Rac1 in axon growth and guidance in the developing nervous system, we have examined the phenotypes associated with deleting Rac1 in the embryonic mouse forebrain, in cranial and spinal motor neurons, in cranial sensory and dorsal root ganglion neurons, and in the retina. We observe a widespread requirement for Rac1 in axon growth and guidance and a cell-autonomous defect in axon growth in Rac1 (-/-) motor neurons in culture. Neuronal death, presumably a secondary consequence of the axon growth and/or guidance defects, was observed in multiple locations. Following deletion of Rac1 in the forebrain, thalamocortical axons were misrouted inferiorly, with the majority projecting to the contralateral thalamus and a minority projecting ipsilaterally to the ventral cortex, a pattern of misrouting that is indistinguishable from the pattern previously observed in Frizzled3 (-/-) and Celsr3 (-/-) forebrains. In the limbs, motor-neuron-specific deletion of Rac1 produced a distinctive stalling of axons within the dorsal nerve of the hindlimb but a much milder loss of axons in the ventral hindlimb and forelimb nerves, a pattern that is virtually identical to the one previously observed in Frizzled3 (-/-) limbs.The similarities in axon growth and guidance phenotypes caused by Rac1, Frizzled3, and Celsr3 loss-of-function mutations suggest a mechanistic connection between tissue polarity/planar cell polarity signaling and Rac1-dependent cytoskeletal regulation.
|The Progressive BSSG Rat Model of Parkinson's: Recapitulating Multiple Key Features of the Human Disease. |
Van Kampen, JM; Baranowski, DC; Robertson, HA; Shaw, CA; Kay, DG
PloS one 10 e0139694 2015
The development of effective neuroprotective therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) has been severely hindered by the notable lack of an appropriate animal model for preclinical screening. Indeed, most models currently available are either acute in nature or fail to recapitulate all characteristic features of the disease. Here, we present a novel progressive model of PD, with behavioural and cellular features that closely approximate those observed in patients. Chronic exposure to dietary phytosterol glucosides has been found to be neurotoxic. When fed to rats, β-sitosterol β-d-glucoside (BSSG) triggers the progressive development of parkinsonism, with clinical signs and histopathology beginning to appear following cessation of exposure to the neurotoxic insult and continuing to develop over several months. Here, we characterize the progressive nature of this model, its non-motor features, the anatomical spread of synucleinopathy, and response to levodopa administration. In Sprague Dawley rats, chronic BSSG feeding for 4 months triggered the progressive development of a parkinsonian phenotype and pathological events that evolved slowly over time, with neuronal loss beginning only after toxin exposure was terminated. At approximately 3 months following initiation of BSSG exposure, animals displayed the early emergence of an olfactory deficit, in the absence of significant dopaminergic nigral cell loss or locomotor deficits. Locomotor deficits developed gradually over time, initially appearing as locomotor asymmetry and developing into akinesia/bradykinesia, which was reversed by levodopa treatment. Late-stage cognitive impairment was observed in the form of spatial working memory deficits, as assessed by the radial arm maze. In addition to the progressive loss of TH+ cells in the substantia nigra, the appearance of proteinase K-resistant intracellular α-synuclein aggregates was also observed to develop progressively, appearing first in the olfactory bulb, then the striatum, the substantia nigra and, finally, hippocampal and cortical regions. The slowly progressive nature of this model, together with its construct, face and predictive validity, make it ideal for the screening of potential neuroprotective therapies for the treatment of PD.
|Sexual dimorphism in the hypophysiotropic tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the preoptic area of the teleost, Clarias batrachus. |
Saha, S; Patil, S; Singh, U; Singh, O; Singru, PS
Biology of sex differences 6 23 2015
Dopamine (DA) neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) in the preoptic area (POA) of mammals express estrogen receptors, regulate luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, and show distinct sexual dimorphism. In teleosts, hypophysiotropic DA neurons of the nucleus preopticus periventricularis (NPP), located in the anteroventral POA, express estrogen receptors, innervate LH cells, and emerged as a neuroanatomical substrate for inhibiting LH cells. Interestingly, the NPP and AVPV seem to share several similarities. Whether DAergic neurons in the NPP show sexual dimorphism is, however, not known. Based on the proposed homology to AVPV and previous studies showing greater tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA and enzyme activity levels in the brain of female catfish, we hypothesize that females have greater number of DAergic neurons in the NPP and correspondingly more TH-immunoreactive fiber innervation of the pituitary.Adult, male and female Clarias batrachus collected during the prespawning phase of their reproductive cycle were used. Fish were anesthetized and perfused transcardially with phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4) and 4 % paraformaldehyde in phosphate buffer. Sections through the rostro-caudal extent of the POA and pituitary were processed for TH immunofluorescence. Using double immunofluorescence, the association between TH-immunoreactive fibers and LH cells in the pituitary was explored. Sections were analyzed using semiquantitative analysis.NPP in POA of C. batrachus has two distinct subdivisions, viz, anterior (NPPa) and posterior (NPPp), and TH neurons were observed in both the subdivisions. Compared to that in the males, a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) number of TH neurons was consistently observed in the NPPa of females. TH neurons in NPPp, however, showed no difference in the number or immunoreactivity. Since DA neurons in NPPa are hypophysiotropic, we compared TH-fiber innervation of the pituitary in both sexes. Compared to males, proximal pars distalis and LH cells in this region of the pituitary in females were densely innervated by TH fibers.Neurons of NPPa and their innervation to the pituitary seem to be a distinct sexually dimorphic DAergic system in C. batrachus. The DAergic system may serve as a component of the neural mechanisms controlling the sexually dimorphic LH surge in teleosts. Given the similarities shared by NPPa and AVPV, homology between these two nuclei is suggested.
|Prenatal exposure to methylphenidate affects the dopamine system and the reactivity to natural reward in adulthood in rats. |
Lepelletier, FX; Tauber, C; Nicolas, C; Solinas, M; Castelnau, P; Belzung, C; Emond, P; Cortese, S; Faraone, SV; Chalon, S; Galineau, L
The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP) 18 2015
Methylphenidate (MPH) is a commonly-used medication for the treatment of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD). However, its prescription to adults with ADHD and narcolepsy raises the question of how the brain is impacted by MPH exposure during pregnancy. The goal of this study was to elucidate the long-term neurobiological consequences of prenatal exposure to MPH using a rat model.We focused on the effects of such treatment on the adult dopamine (DA) system and on the reactivity of animals to natural rewards.This study shows that adult male rats prenatally exposed to MPH display elevated expression of presynaptic DA markers in the DA cell bodies and the striatum. Our results also suggest that MPH-treated animals could exhibit increased tonic DA activity in the mesolimbic pathway, altered signal-to-noise ratio after a pharmacological stimulation, and decreased reactivity to the locomotor effects of cocaine. Finally, we demonstrated that MPH rats display a decreased preference and motivation for sucrose.This is the first preclinical study reporting long-lasting neurobiological alterations of DA networks as well as alterations in motivational behaviors for natural rewards after a prenatal exposure to MPH. These results raise concerns about the possible neurobiological consequences of MPH treatment during pregnancy.
|Biochemical, histopathological and morphological profiling of a rat model of early immune stimulation: relation to psychopathology. |
Kubesova, A; Tejkalova, H; Syslova, K; Kacer, P; Vondrousova, J; Tyls, F; Fujakova, M; Palenicek, T; Horacek, J
PloS one 10 e0115439 2015
Perinatal immune challenge leads to neurodevelopmental dysfunction, permanent immune dysregulation and abnormal behaviour, which have been shown to have translational validity to findings in human neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders, autism, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease). The aim of this animal study was to elucidate the influence of early immune stimulation triggered by systemic postnatal lipopolysaccharide administration on biochemical, histopathological and morphological measures, which may be relevant to the neurobiology of human psychopathology. In the present study of adult male Wistar rats we examined the brain and plasma levels of monoamines (dopamine, serotonin), their metabolites, the levels of the main excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid and the levels of tryptophan and its metabolites from the kynurenine catabolic pathway. Further, we focused on histopathological and morphological markers related to pathogenesis of brain diseases--glial cell activation, neurodegeneration, hippocampal volume reduction and dopaminergic synthesis in the substantia nigra. Our results show that early immune stimulation in adult animals alters the levels of neurotransmitters and their metabolites, activates the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism and leads to astrogliosis, hippocampal volume reduction and a decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra. These findings support the crucial pathophysiological role of early immune stimulation in the above mentioned neuropsychiatric disorders.
|Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure is associated with increased risky choice and decreased dopaminergic and cholinergic neuron markers in adult rats. |
Boutros, N; Semenova, S; Liu, W; Crews, FT; Markou, A
The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP) 18 2015
Binge drinking is prevalent during adolescence and may have effects on the adult brain and behavior. The present study investigated whether adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure alters adult risky choice and prefrontal dopaminergic and forebrain cholinergic neuronal marker levels in male Wistar rats.Adolescent (postnatal day 28-53) rats were administered 5 g/kg of 25% (vol/vol) ethanol 3 times/d in a 2-days-on/2-days-off exposure pattern. In adulthood, risky choice was assessed in the probability discounting task with descending and ascending series of large reward probabilities and after acute ethanol challenge. Immunohistochemical analyses assessed tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of dopamine and norepinephrine in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortices, and choline acetyltransferase, a marker of cholinergic neurons, in the basal forebrain.All of the rats preferred the large reward when it was delivered with high probability. When the large reward became unlikely, control rats preferred the smaller, safe reward, whereas adolescent intermittent ethanol-exposed rats continued to prefer the risky alternative. Acute ethanol had no effect on risky choice in either group of rats. Tyrosine hydroxylase (prelimbic cortex only) and choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity levels were decreased in adolescent intermittent ethanol-exposed rats compared with controls. Risky choice was negatively correlated with choline acetyltransferase, implicating decreased forebrain cholinergic activity in risky choice.The decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase and choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity suggest that adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure has enduring neural effects that may lead to altered adult behaviors, such as increased risky decision making. In humans, increased risky decision making could lead to maladaptive, potentially harmful consequences.
|A distinct subtype of dopaminergic interneuron displays inverted structural plasticity at the axon initial segment. |
Chand, AN; Galliano, E; Chesters, RA; Grubb, MS
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 35 1573-90 2015
The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized structure near the start of the axon that is a site of neuronal plasticity. Changes in activity levels in vitro and in vivo can produce structural AIS changes in excitatory cells that have been linked to alterations in excitability, but these effects have never been described in inhibitory interneurons. In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), dopaminergic interneurons are particularly plastic, undergoing constitutive turnover throughout life and regulating tyrosine hydroxylase expression in an activity-dependent manner. Here we used dissociated cultures of rat and mouse OB to show that a subset of bulbar dopaminergic neurons possess an AIS and that these AIS-positive cells are morphologically and functionally distinct from their AIS-negative counterparts. Under baseline conditions, OB dopaminergic AISs were short and located distally along the axon but, in response to chronic 24 h depolarization, lengthened and relocated proximally toward the soma. These activity-dependent changes were in the opposite direction to both those we saw in non-GABAergic OB neurons and those reported previously for excitatory cell types. Inverted AIS plasticity in OB dopaminergic cells was bidirectional, involved all major components of the structure, was dependent on the activity of L-type CaV1 calcium channels but not on the activity of the calcium-activated phosphatase calcineurin, and was opposed by the actions of cyclin-dependent kinase 5. Such distinct forms of AIS plasticity in inhibitory interneurons and excitatory projection neurons may allow considerable flexibility when neuronal networks must adapt to perturbations in their ongoing activity.
|Dopaminergic and glutamatergic microdomains in a subset of rodent mesoaccumbens axons. |
Zhang, S; Qi, J; Li, X; Wang, HL; Britt, JP; Hoffman, AF; Bonci, A; Lupica, CR; Morales, M
Nature neuroscience 18 386-92 2015
Mesoaccumbens fibers are thought to co-release dopamine and glutamate. However, the mechanism is unclear, and co-release by mesoaccumbens fibers has not been documented. Using electron microcopy, we found that some mesoaccumbens fibers have vesicular transporters for dopamine (VMAT2) in axon segments that are continuous with axon terminals that lack VMAT2, but contain vesicular glutamate transporters type 2 (VGluT2). In vivo overexpression of VMAT2 did not change the segregation of the two vesicular types, suggesting the existence of highly regulated mechanisms for maintaining this segregation. The mesoaccumbens axon terminals containing VGluT2 vesicles make asymmetric synapses, commonly associated with excitatory signaling. Using optogenetics, we found that dopamine and glutamate were released from the same mesoaccumbens fibers. These findings reveal a complex type of signaling by mesoaccumbens fibers in which dopamine and glutamate can be released from the same axons, but are not normally released at the same site or from the same synaptic vesicles.
|A method for combining RNAscope in situ hybridization with immunohistochemistry in thick free-floating brain sections and primary neuronal cultures. |
Grabinski, TM; Kneynsberg, A; Manfredsson, FP; Kanaan, NM
PloS one 10 e0120120 2015
In situ hybridization (ISH) is an extremely useful tool for localizing gene expression and changes in expression to specific cell populations in tissue samples across numerous research fields. Typically, a research group will put forth significant effort to design, generate, validate and then utilize in situ probes in thin or ultrathin paraffin embedded tissue sections. While combining ISH and IHC is an established technique, the combination of RNAscope ISH, a commercially available ISH assay with single transcript sensitivity, and IHC in thick free-floating tissue sections has not been described. Here, we provide a protocol that combines RNAscope ISH with IHC in thick free-floating tissue sections from the brain and allows simultaneous co-localization of genes and proteins in individual cells. This approach works well with a number of ISH probes (e.g. small proline-rich repeat 1a, βIII-tubulin, tau, and β-actin) and IHC antibody stains (e.g. tyrosine hydroxylase, βIII-tubulin, NeuN, and glial fibrillary acidic protein) in rat brain sections. In addition, we provide examples of combining ISH-IHC dual staining in primary neuron cultures and double-ISH labeling in thick free-floating tissue sections from the brain. Finally, we highlight the ability of RNAscope to detect ectopic DNA in neurons transduced with viral vectors. RNAscope ISH is a commercially available technology that utilizes a branched or "tree" in situ method to obtain ultrasensitive, single transcript detection. Immunohistochemistry is a tried and true method for identifying specific protein in cell populations. The combination of a sensitive and versatile oligonucleotide detection method with an established and versatile protein assay is a significant advancement in studies using free-floating tissue sections.
|Analysing human neural stem cell ontogeny by consecutive isolation of Notch active neural progenitors. |
Edri, R; Yaffe, Y; Ziller, MJ; Mutukula, N; Volkman, R; David, E; Jacob-Hirsch, J; Malcov, H; Levy, C; Rechavi, G; Gat-Viks, I; Meissner, A; Elkabetz, Y
Nature communications 6 6500 2015
Decoding heterogeneity of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived neural progeny is fundamental for revealing the origin of diverse progenitors, for defining their lineages, and for identifying fate determinants driving transition through distinct potencies. Here we have prospectively isolated consecutively appearing PSC-derived primary progenitors based on their Notch activation state. We first isolate early neuroepithelial cells and show their broad Notch-dependent developmental and proliferative potential. Neuroepithelial cells further yield successive Notch-dependent functional primary progenitors, from early and midneurogenic radial glia and their derived basal progenitors, to gliogenic radial glia and adult-like neural progenitors, together recapitulating hallmarks of neural stem cell (NSC) ontogeny. Gene expression profiling reveals dynamic stage-specific transcriptional patterns that may link development of distinct progenitor identities through Notch activation. Our observations provide a platform for characterization and manipulation of distinct progenitor cell types amenable for developing streamlined neural lineage specification paradigms for modelling development in health and disease.
|Properties of neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells of Gaucher disease type 2 patient fibroblasts: potential role in neuropathology. |
Sun, Y; Florer, J; Mayhew, CN; Jia, Z; Zhao, Z; Xu, K; Ran, H; Liou, B; Zhang, W; Setchell, KD; Gu, J; Grabowski, GA
PloS one 10 e0118771 2015
Gaucher disease (GD) is caused by insufficient activity of acid β-glucosidase (GCase) resulting from mutations in GBA1. To understand the pathogenesis of the neuronopathic GD, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from fibroblasts isolated from three GD type 2 (GD2) and 2 unaffected (normal and GD carrier) individuals. The iPSCs were converted to neural precursor cells (NPCs) which were further differentiated into neurons. Parental GD2 fibroblasts as well as iPSCs, NPCs, and neurons had similar degrees of GCase deficiency. Lipid analyses showed increases of glucosylsphingosine and glucosylceramide in the GD2 cells. In addition, GD2 neurons showed increased α-synuclein protein compared to control neurons. Whole cell patch-clamping of the GD2 and control iPSCs-derived neurons demonstrated excitation characteristics of neurons, but intriguingly, those from GD2 exhibited consistently less negative resting membrane potentials with various degree of reduction in action potential amplitudes, sodium and potassium currents. Culture of control neurons in the presence of the GCase inhibitor (conduritol B epoxide) recapitulated these findings, providing a functional link between decreased GCase activity in GD and abnormal neuronal electrophysiological properties. To our knowledge, this study is first to report abnormal electrophysiological properties in GD2 iPSC-derived neurons that may underlie the neuropathic phenotype in Gaucher disease.
|PGC-1α activity in nigral dopamine neurons determines vulnerability to α-synuclein. |
Ciron, C; Zheng, L; Bobela, W; Knott, GW; Leone, TC; Kelly, DP; Schneider, BL
Acta neuropathologica communications 3 16 2015
Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are critical factors in the pathogenesis of age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases. PGC-1α, a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular antioxidant defense, has emerged as a possible therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease, with important roles in the function and survival of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The objective of this study is to determine if the loss of PGC-1α activity contributes to α-synuclein-induced degeneration.We explore the vulnerability of PGC-1α null mice to the accumulation of human α-synuclein in nigral neurons, and assess the neuroprotective effect of AAV-mediated PGC-1α expression in this experimental model. Using neuronal cultures derived from these mice, mitochondrial respiration and production of reactive oxygen species are assessed in conditions of human α-synuclein overexpression. We find ultrastructural evidence for abnormal mitochondria and fragmented endoplasmic reticulum in the nigral dopaminergic neurons of PGC-1α null mice. Furthermore, PGC-1α null nigral neurons are more prone to degenerate following overexpression of human α-synuclein, an effect more apparent in male mice. PGC-1α overexpression restores mitochondrial morphology, oxidative stress detoxification and basal respiration, which is consistent with the observed neuroprotection against α-synuclein toxicity in male PGC-1α null mice.Altogether, our results highlight an important role for PGC-1α in controlling the mitochondrial function of nigral neurons accumulating α-synuclein, which may be critical for gender-dependent vulnerability to Parkinson's disease.
|Small peptide inhibitor of JNK3 protects dopaminergic neurons from MPTP induced injury via inhibiting the ASK1-JNK3 signaling pathway. |
Pan, J; Li, H; Zhang, B; Xiong, R; Zhang, Y; Kang, WY; Chen, W; Zhao, ZB; Chen, SD
PloS one 10 e0119204 2015
The ASK1-JNK3 signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The specific binding of β-arrestin2 to JNK3 is essential for activation of the ASK1-JNK3 cascade, representing a potential therapeutic target for preventing dopaminergic neuronal death in PD. The aim of this study was to identify a novel strategy for the prevention of dopaminergic neuronal death in PD.Based on the specific binding of β-arrestin2 to JNK3, a 21-amino-acid fusion peptide, termed JNK3-N-Tat, was synthesized. We evaluated the ability of this peptide to inhibit the binding of β-arrestin2 to its target domain in JNK3 in vitro and in vivo.The JNK3-N-Tat peptide inhibited activation of the ASK1-JNK3 cascade by disrupting the interaction between β-arrestin2 and JNK3. JNK3-N-Tat exerted beneficial effects through pathways downstream of JNK3 and improved mitochondrial function, resulting in attenuated MPP+/MPTP-induced damage. JNK3-N-Tat protected mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons against MPTP-induced toxicity.JNK3-N-Tat, a JNK3-inhibitory peptide, protects dopaminergic neurons against MPP+/MPTP-induced injury by inhibiting the ASK1-JNK3 signaling pathway.
|Novel fast adapting interneurons mediate cholinergic-induced fast GABAA inhibitory postsynaptic currents in striatal spiny neurons. |
Faust, TW; Assous, M; Shah, F; Tepper, JM; Koós, T
The European journal of neuroscience 42 1764-74 2015
Previous work suggests that neostriatal cholinergic interneurons control the activity of several classes of GABAergic interneurons through fast nicotinic receptor-mediated synaptic inputs. Although indirect evidence has suggested the existence of several classes of interneurons controlled by this mechanism, only one such cell type, the neuropeptide-Y-expressing neurogliaform neuron, has been identified to date. Here we tested the hypothesis that in addition to the neurogliaform neurons that elicit slow GABAergic inhibitory responses, another interneuron type exists in the striatum that receives strong nicotinic cholinergic input and elicits conventional fast GABAergic synaptic responses in projection neurons. We obtained in vitro slice recordings from double transgenic mice in which Channelrhodopsin-2 was natively expressed in cholinergic neurons and a population of serotonin receptor-3a-Cre-expressing GABAergic interneurons were visualized with tdTomato. We show that among the targeted GABAergic interneurons a novel type of interneuron, termed the fast-adapting interneuron, can be identified that is distinct from previously known interneurons based on immunocytochemical and electrophysiological criteria. We show using optogenetic activation of cholinergic inputs that fast-adapting interneurons receive a powerful supra-threshold nicotinic cholinergic input in vitro. Moreover, fast adapting neurons are densely connected to projection neurons and elicit fast, GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic current responses. The nicotinic receptor-mediated activation of fast-adapting interneurons may constitute an important mechanism through which cholinergic interneurons control the activity of projection neurons and perhaps the plasticity of their synaptic inputs when animals encounter reinforcing or otherwise salient stimuli.
|Conditional targeting of medium spiny neurons in the striatal matrix. |
Reinius, B; Blunder, M; Brett, FM; Eriksson, A; Patra, K; Jonsson, J; Jazin, E; Kullander, K
Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience 9 71 2015
The striatum serves as the main input to the basal ganglia, and is key for the regulation of motor behaviors, compulsion, addiction, and various cognitive and emotional states. Its deterioration is associated with degenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease. Despite its apparent anatomical uniformity, it consists of intermingled cell populations, which have precluded straightforward anatomical sub-classifications adhering to functional dissections. Approximately 95% of the striatal neurons are inhibitory projection neurons termed medium spiny neurons (MSNs). They are commonly classified according to their expression of either dopamine receptor D1 or D2, which also determines their axonal projection patterns constituting the direct and indirect pathway in the basal ganglia. Immunohistochemical patterns have further indicated compartmentalization of the striatum to the striosomes and the surrounding matrix, which integrate MSNs of both the D1 and D2 type. Here, we present a transgenic mouse line, Gpr101-Cre, with Cre recombinase activity localized to matrix D1 and D2 MSNs. Using two Gpr101-Cre founder lines with different degrees of expression in the striatum, we conditionally deleted the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT), responsible for storage of GABA and glycine in synaptic vesicles. Partial ablation of VIAAT (in ~36% of MSNs) resulted in elevated locomotor activity compared to control mice, when provoked with the monoamine reuptake inhibitor cocaine. Near complete targeting of matrix MSNs led to profoundly changed motor behaviors, which increased in severity as the mice aged. Moreover, these mice had exaggerated muscle rigidity, retarded growth, increased rate of spontaneous deaths, and defective memory. Therefore, our data provide a link between dysfunctional GABA signaling of matrix MSNs to specific behavioral alterations, which are similar to the symptoms of Huntington's disease.
|Nigral proteasome inhibition in mice leads to motor and non-motor deficits and increased expression of Ser129 phosphorylated α-synuclein. |
Bentea, E; Van der Perren, A; Van Liefferinge, J; El Arfani, A; Albertini, G; Demuyser, T; Merckx, E; Michotte, Y; Smolders, I; Baekelandt, V; Massie, A
Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience 9 68 2015
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and non-motor disturbances. Various pathogenic pathways drive disease progression including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, α-synuclein aggregation and impairment of protein degradation systems. Dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease patients is believed to be one of the causes of protein aggregation and cell death associated with this disorder. Lactacystin, a potent inhibitor of the proteasome, was previously delivered to the nigrostriatal pathway of rodents to model nigrostriatal degeneration. Although lactacystin-treated animals develop parkinsonian motor impairment, it is currently unknown whether they also develop non-motor symptoms characteristic of this disorder. In order to further describe the proteasome inhibition model of Parkinson's disease, we characterized the unilateral lactacystin model, performed by stereotaxic injection of the toxin in the substantia nigra of mice. We studied the degree of neurodegeneration and the behavioral phenotype 1 and 3 weeks after lactacystin lesion both in terms of motor impairment, as well as non-motor symptoms. We report that unilateral administration of 3 μg lactacystin to the substantia nigra of mice leads to partial (~40%) dopaminergic cell loss and concurrent striatal dopamine depletion, accompanied by increased expression of Ser129-phosphorylated α-synuclein. Behavioral characterization of the model revealed parkinsonian motor impairment, as well as signs of non-motor disturbances resembling early stage Parkinson's disease including sensitive and somatosensory deficits, anxiety-like behavior, and perseverative behavior. The consistent finding of good face validity, together with relevant construct validity, warrant a further evaluation of proteasome inhibition models of Parkinson's disease in pre-clinical research and validation of therapeutic targets.
|Activin A protects midbrain neurons in the 6-hydroxydopamine mouse model of Parkinson's disease. |
Stayte, S; Rentsch, P; Li, KM; Vissel, B
PloS one 10 e0124325 2015
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and a subsequent loss of dopamine (DA) within the striatum. Despite advances in the development of pharmacological therapies that are effective at alleviating the symptoms of PD, the search for therapeutic treatments that halt or slow the underlying nigral degeneration remains a particular challenge. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, has been shown to play a role in the neuroprotection of midbrain neurons against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in vitro, suggesting that activin A may offer similar neuroprotective effects in in vivo models of PD. Using robust stereological methods, we found that intrastriatal injections of 6-OHDA results in a significant loss of both TH positive and NeuN positive populations in the SNpc at 1, 2, and 3 weeks post-lesioning in drug naïve mice. Exogenous application of activin A for 7 days, beginning the day prior to 6-OHDA administration, resulted in a significant survival of both dopaminergic and total neuron numbers in the SNpc against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity. However, we found no corresponding protection of striatal DA or dopamine transporter (DAT) expression levels in animals receiving activin A compared to vehicle controls. These results provide the first evidence that activin A exerts potent neuroprotection in a mouse model of PD, however this neuroprotection may be localized to the midbrain.
|Are striatal tyrosine hydroxylase interneurons dopaminergic? |
Xenias, HS; Ibáñez-Sandoval, O; Koós, T; Tepper, JM
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 35 6584-99 2015
Striatal GABAergic interneurons that express the gene for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) have been identified previously by several methods. Although generally assumed to be dopaminergic, possibly serving as a compensatory source of dopamine (DA) in Parkinson's disease, this assumption has never been tested directly. In TH-Cre mice whose nigrostriatal pathway had been eliminated unilaterally with 6-hydroxydopamine, we injected a Cre-dependent virus coding for channelrhodopsin-2 and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein unilaterally into the unlesioned midbrain or bilaterally into the striatum. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in striatal slices revealed that both optical and electrical stimulation readily elicited DA release in control striata but not from contralateral striata when nigrostriatal neurons were transduced. In contrast, neither optical nor electrical stimulation could elicit striatal DA release in either the control or lesioned striata when the virus was injected directly into the striatum transducing only striatal TH interneurons. This demonstrates that striatal TH interneurons do not release DA. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry in enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-TH mice revealed colocalization of DA, l-amino acid decarboxylase, the DA transporter, and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 with EGFP in midbrain dopaminergic neurons but not in any of the striatal EGFP-TH interneurons. Optogenetic activation of striatal EGFP-TH interneurons produced strong GABAergic inhibition in all spiny neurons tested. These results indicate that striatal TH interneurons are not dopaminergic but rather are a type of GABAergic interneuron that expresses TH but none of the other enzymes or transporters necessary to operate as dopaminergic neurons and exert widespread GABAergic inhibition onto direct and indirect spiny neurons.
|Catecholamine metabolism in paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma: similar tumors in different sites? |
Grouzmann, E; Tschopp, O; Triponez, F; Matter, M; Bilz, S; Brändle, M; Drechser, T; Sigrist, S; Zulewski, H; Henzen, C; Fischli, S; Abid, K
PloS one 10 e0125426 2015
Pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and paraganglioma (PGL) are catecholamine-producing neuroendocrine tumors that arise respectively inside or outside the adrenal medulla. Several reports have shown that adrenal glucocorticoids (GC) play an important regulatory role on the genes encoding the main enzymes involved in catecholamine (CAT) synthesis i.e. tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT). To assess the influence of tumor location on CAT metabolism, 66 tissue samples (53 PHEO, 13 PGL) and 73 plasma samples (50 PHEO, 23 PGL) were studied. Western blot and qPCR were performed for TH, DBH and PNMT expression. We found a significantly lower intra-tumoral concentration of CAT and metanephrines (MNs) in PGL along with a downregulation of TH and PNMT at both mRNA and protein level compared with PHEO. However, when PHEO were partitioned into noradrenergic (NorAd) and mixed tumors based on an intra-tumoral CAT ratio (NE/E greater than 90%), PGL and NorAd PHEO sustained similar TH, DBH and PNMT gene and protein expression. CAT concentration and composition were also similar between NorAd PHEO and PGL, excluding the use of CAT or MNs to discriminate between PGL and PHEO on the basis of biochemical tests. We observed an increase of TH mRNA concentration without correlation with TH protein expression in primary cell culture of PHEO and PGL incubated with dexamethasone during 24 hours; no changes were monitored for PNMT and DBH at both mRNA and protein level in PHEO and PGL. Altogether, these results indicate that long term CAT synthesis is not driven by the close environment where the tumor develops and suggest that GC alone is not sufficient to regulate CAT synthesis pathway in PHEO/PGL.
|Tfap2a and 2b act downstream of Ptf1a to promote amacrine cell differentiation during retinogenesis. |
Jin, K; Jiang, H; Xiao, D; Zou, M; Zhu, J; Xiang, M
Molecular brain 8 28 2015
Retinogenesis is a precisely controlled developmental process during which different types of neurons and glial cells are generated under the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Three transcription factors, Foxn4, RORβ1 and their downstream effector Ptf1a, have been shown to be indispensable intrinsic regulators for the differentiation of amacrine and horizontal cells. At present, however, it is unclear how Ptf1a specifies these two cell fates from competent retinal precursors. Here, through combined bioinformatic, molecular and genetic approaches in mouse retinas, we identify the Tfap2a and Tfap2b transcription factors as two major downstream effectors of Ptf1a. RNA-seq and immunolabeling analyses show that the expression of Tfap2a and 2b transcripts and proteins is dramatically downregulated in the Ptf1a null mutant retina. Their overexpression is capable of promoting the differentiation of glycinergic and GABAergic amacrine cells at the expense of photoreceptors much as misexpressed Ptf1a is, whereas their simultaneous knockdown has the opposite effect. Given the demonstrated requirement for Tfap2a and 2b in horizontal cell differentiation, our study thus defines a Foxn4/RORβ1-Ptf1a-Tfap2a/2b transcriptional regulatory cascade that underlies the competence, specification and differentiation of amacrine and horizontal cells during retinal development.
|Hairy/Enhancer-of-Split MEGANE and Proneural MASH1 Factors Cooperate Synergistically in Midbrain GABAergic Neurogenesis. |
Wende, CZ; Zoubaa, S; Blak, A; Echevarria, D; Martinez, S; Guillemot, F; Wurst, W; Guimera, J
PloS one 10 e0127681 2015
GABAergic neurons are the primary inhibitory cell type in the mature brain and their dysfunction is associated with important neurological conditions like schizophrenia and anxiety. We aimed to discover the underlying mechanisms for dorsal/ventral midbrain GABAergic neurogenesis. Previous work by us and others has provided crucial insights into the key function of Mgn and Mash1 genes in determining GABAergic neurotransmitter fate. Induction of dorsal midbrain GABAergic neurons does not take place at any time during development in either of the single mutant mice. However, GABAergic neurons in the ventral midbrain remained unchanged. Thus, the similarities in MB-GABAergic phenotype observed in the Mgn and Mash1 single mutants suggest the existence of other factors that take over the function of MGN and MASH1 in the ventral midbrain or the existence of different molecular mechanisms. We show that this process essentially depends on heterodimers and homodimers formed by MGN and MASH1 and deciphered the in vivo relevance of the interaction by phenotypic analysis of Mgn/Mash1 double knockout and compound mice. Furthermore, the combination of gain- and loss-of-function experiments in the developing midbrain showed co-operative roles for Mgn and Mash1 genes in determining GABAergic identity. Transcription factors belonging to the Enhancer-of-split-related and proneural families have long been believed to counterpart each other's function. This work uncovers a synergistic cooperation between these two families, and provides a novel paradigm for how these two families cooperate for the acquisition of MB-GABAergic neuronal identity. Understanding their molecular mechanisms is essential for cell therapy strategies to amend GABAergic deficits.
|1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium stereotactic infusion completely and specifically ablated the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway in rhesus macaque. |
Lei, X; Li, H; Huang, B; Rizak, J; Li, L; Xu, L; Liu, L; Wu, J; Lü, L; Wang, Z; Hu, Y; Le, W; Deng, X; Li, J; Yao, Y; Xu, L; Hu, X; Zhang, B
PloS one 10 e0127953 2015
Complete and specific ablation of a single dopaminergic (DA) pathway is a critical step to distinguish the roles of DA pathways in vivo. However, this kind of technique has not been reported in non-human primates. This study aimed to establish a lesioning method with a complete and specific ablation.A carefully designed infusion route based on a MRI stereotactic technique was developed to deliver the highly selective dopaminergic toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) unilaterally into multiple sites of compact part of substantia nigra (SNc) and striatum in monkeys. The nigrostriatal DA pathway was selected because lesioning of this pathway may induce symptoms that are suitable for evaluation. The pathological, behavioral, neuropharmacological, and clinical laboratorial data were collected to evaluate the lesioning effects.Pathological examination revealed a complete ablation of tyrosine hydroxylase positive (TH+) neurons in the SNc, while preserving intact TH+ neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) nearby. TH+ projections in the striatum were also unilaterally lost. The monkeys displayed stable (greater than 28 weeks) rotations and symptoms which were expected with loss of DA neurons in the SNc, with rest tremor being an exception. No item implied the presence of a severe side effect caused by the operation or the intracerebral MPP+ infusion. The results suggested that rest tremor may not directly rely on the nigrostriatal pathway.Taken together, in addition to providing a specific nigrostriatal DA lesioned model, this method, combined with brain stimulation or other techniques, can be applied as a powerful tool for the complete lesion of any desired DA pathway in order to study its specific functions in the brain.
|Spatiotemporal expression and transcriptional perturbations by long noncoding RNAs in the mouse brain. |
Goff, LA; Groff, AF; Sauvageau, M; Trayes-Gibson, Z; Sanchez-Gomez, DB; Morse, M; Martin, RD; Elcavage, LE; Liapis, SC; Gonzalez-Celeiro, M; Plana, O; Li, E; Gerhardinger, C; Tomassy, GS; Arlotta, P; Rinn, JL
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112 6855-62 2015
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in numerous cellular processes including brain development. However, the in vivo expression dynamics and molecular pathways regulated by these loci are not well understood. Here, we leveraged a cohort of 13 lncRNAnull mutant mouse models to investigate the spatiotemporal expression of lncRNAs in the developing and adult brain and the transcriptome alterations resulting from the loss of these lncRNA loci. We show that several lncRNAs are differentially expressed both in time and space, with some presenting highly restricted expression in only selected brain regions. We further demonstrate altered regulation of genes for a large variety of cellular pathways and processes upon deletion of the lncRNA loci. Finally, we found that 4 of the 13 lncRNAs significantly affect the expression of several neighboring proteincoding genes in a cis-like manner. By providing insight into the endogenous expression patterns and the transcriptional perturbations caused by deletion of the lncRNA locus in the developing and postnatal mammalian brain, these data provide a resource to facilitate future examination of the specific functional relevance of these genes in neural development, brain function, and disease.
|Forebrain deletion of the dystonia protein torsinA causes dystonic-like movements and loss of striatal cholinergic neurons. |
Pappas, SS; Darr, K; Holley, SM; Cepeda, C; Mabrouk, OS; Wong, JM; LeWitt, TM; Paudel, R; Houlden, H; Kennedy, RT; Levine, MS; Dauer, WT
eLife 4 e08352 2015
Striatal dysfunction plays an important role in dystonia, but the striatal cell types that contribute to abnormal movements are poorly defined. We demonstrate that conditional deletion of the DYT1 dystonia protein torsinA in embryonic progenitors of forebrain cholinergic and GABAergic neurons causes dystonic-like twisting movements that emerge during juvenile CNS maturation. The onset of these movements coincides with selective degeneration of dorsal striatal large cholinergic interneurons (LCI), and surviving LCI exhibit morphological, electrophysiological, and connectivity abnormalities. Consistent with the importance of this LCI pathology, murine dystonic-like movements are reduced significantly with an antimuscarinic agent used clinically, and we identify cholinergic abnormalities in postmortem striatal tissue from DYT1 dystonia patients. These findings demonstrate that dorsal LCI have a unique requirement for torsinA function during striatal maturation, and link abnormalities of these cells to dystonic-like movements in an overtly symptomatic animal model.
|Highly efficient direct conversion of human fibroblasts to neuronal cells by chemical compounds. |
Dai, P; Harada, Y; Takamatsu, T
Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition 56 166-70 2015
Direct conversion of mammalian fibroblasts into induced neuronal (iN) cells has been attained by forced expression of pro-neural transcriptional factors, or by combining defined factors with either microRNAs or small molecules. Here, we show that neuronal cells can be converted from postnatal human fibroblasts into cell populations with neuronal purities of up to greater than 80% using a combination of six chemical compounds. The chemical compound-induced neuronal cells (CiNCs) express neuron-specific proteins and functional neuron markers. The efficiency of CiNCs is unaffected by either the donor's age or cellular senescence (passage number). We propose this chemical direct converting strategy as a potential approach for highly efficient generation of neuronal cells from human fibroblasts for such uses as in neural disease modeling and regenerative medicine.
|shRNA targeting α-synuclein prevents neurodegeneration in a Parkinson's disease model. |
Zharikov, AD; Cannon, JR; Tapias, V; Bai, Q; Horowitz, MP; Shah, V; El Ayadi, A; Hastings, TG; Greenamyre, JT; Burton, EA
The Journal of clinical investigation 125 2721-35 2015
Multiple convergent lines of evidence implicate both α-synuclein (encoded by SCNA) and mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). Occupational exposure to the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone increases PD risk; rotenone-exposed rats show systemic mitochondrial defects but develop specific neuropathology, including α-synuclein aggregation and degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons. Here, we inhibited expression of endogenous α-synuclein in the adult rat substantia nigra by adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting the endogenous rat Snca transcript. Knockdown of α-synuclein by ~35% did not affect motor function or cause degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons in control rats. However, in rotenone-exposed rats, progressive motor deficits were substantially attenuated contralateral to α-synuclein knockdown. Correspondingly, rotenone-induced degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons, their dendrites, and their striatal terminals was decreased ipsilateral to α-synuclein knockdown. These data show that α-synuclein knockdown is neuroprotective in the rotenone model of PD and indicate that endogenous α-synuclein contributes to the specific vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons to systemic mitochondrial inhibition. Our findings are consistent with a model in which genetic variants influencing α-synuclein expression modulate cellular susceptibility to environmental exposures in PD patients. shRNA targeting the SNCA transcript should be further evaluated as a possible neuroprotective therapy in PD.
|Striatal Injury with 6-OHDA Transiently Increases Cerebrospinal GFAP and S100B. |
Batassini, C; Broetto, N; Tortorelli, LS; Borsoi, M; Zanotto, C; Galland, F; Souza, TM; Leite, MC; Gonçalves, CA
Neural plasticity 2015 387028 2015
Both glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100B have been used as markers of astroglial plasticity, particularly in brain injury; however, they do not necessarily change in the same time frame or direction. Herein, we induced a Parkinson's disease (PD) model via a 6-OHDA intrastriatal injection in rats and investigated the changes in GFAP and S100B using ELISA in the substantia nigra (SN), striatum, and cerebrospinal fluid on the 1st, 7th, and 21st days following the injection. The model was validated using measurements of rotational behaviour induced by methylphenidate and tyrosine hydroxylase in the dopaminergic pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first measurement of cerebrospinal fluid S100B and GFAP in the 6-OHDA model of PD. Gliosis (based on a GFAP increase) was identified in the striatum, but not in the SN. We identified a transitory increment of cerebrospinal fluid S100B and GFAP on the 1st and 7th days, respectively. This initial change in cerebrospinal fluid S100B was apparently related to the mechanical lesion. However, the 6-OHDA-induced S100B secretion was confirmed in astrocyte cultures. Current data reinforce the idea that glial changes precede neuronal damage in PD; however, these findings also indicate that caution is necessary regarding the interpretation of data in this PD model.
|Nigral overexpression of alpha-synuclein in the absence of parkin enhances alpha-synuclein phosphorylation but does not modulate dopaminergic neurodegeneration. |
Van Rompuy, AS; Oliveras-Salvá, M; Van der Perren, A; Corti, O; Van den Haute, C; Baekelandt, V
Molecular neurodegeneration 10 23 2015
Alpha-synuclein is a key protein in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Mutations in the parkin gene are the most common cause of early-onset autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease, probably through a loss-of-function mechanism. However, the molecular mechanism by which loss of parkin function leads to the development of the disease and the role of alpha-synuclein in parkin-associated Parkinson's disease is still not elucidated. Conflicting results were reported about the effect of the absence of parkin on alpha-synuclein-mediated neurotoxicity using a transgenic approach. In this study, we investigated the effect of loss of parkin on alpha-synuclein neuropathology and toxicity in adult rodent brain using viral vectors. Therefore, we overexpressed human wild type alpha-synuclein in the substantia nigra of parkin knockout and wild type mice using two different doses of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors.No difference was observed in nigral dopaminergic cell loss between the parkin knockout mice and wild type mice up to 16 weeks after viral vector injection. However, the level of alpha-synuclein phosphorylated at serine residue 129 in the substantia nigra was significantly increased in the parkin knockout mice compared to the wild type mice while the total expression level of alpha-synuclein was similar in both groups. The increased alpha-synuclein phosphorylation was confirmed in a parkin knockdown cell line.These findings support a functional relationship between parkin and alpha-synuclein phosphorylation in rodent brain.
|Phox2B correlates with MYCN and is a prognostic marker for neuroblastoma development. |
Ke, XX; Zhang, D; Zhao, H; Hu, R; Dong, Z; Yang, R; Zhu, S; Xia, Q; Ding, HF; Cui, H
Oncology letters 9 2507-2514 2015
Neuroblastoma is the one of the most common extracranial childhood malignancies, accounting for ∼15% of tumor-associated deaths in children. It is generally considered that neuroblastoma originates from neural crest cells in the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia and the adrenal medulla. However, the mechanism by which neuroblastoma arises during sympathetic neurogenesis and the cellular mechanism that drives neuroblastoma development remains unclear. The present study investigated the cell components during neuroblastoma development in the tyrosine hydroxylase-v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma derived homolog (TH-MYCN) mouse model, a transgenic mouse model of human neuroblastoma. The present study demonstrates that paired-like homeobox 2b (Phox2B)(+) neuronal progenitors are the major cellular population in hyperplastic lesions and primary tumors. In addition, Phox2B(+) neuronal progenitors in hyperplastic lesions or primary tumors were observed to be in an actively proliferative and undifferentiated state. The current study also demonstrated that high expression levels of Phox2B promotes neuroblastoma cell proliferation and xenograft tumor growth. These findings indicate that the proliferation of undifferentiated Phox2B(+) neuronal progenitors is a cellular mechanism that promotes neuroblastoma development and indicates that Phox2B is a critical regulator in neuroblastoma pathogenesis.
|Neurite Mistargeting and Inverse Order of Intraretinal Vascular Plexus Formation Precede Subretinal Vascularization in Vldlr Mutant Mice. |
Johnson, V; Xiang, M; Chen, Z; Junge, HJ
PloS one 10 e0132013 2015
In the retina blood vessels are required to support a high metabolic rate, however, uncontrolled vascular growth can lead to impaired vision and blindness. Subretinal vascularization (SRV), one type of pathological vessel growth, occurs in retinal angiomatous proliferation and proliferative macular telangiectasia. In these diseases SRV originates from blood vessels within the retina. We use mice with a targeted disruption in the Vldl-receptor (Vldlr) gene as a model to study SRV with retinal origin. We find that Vldlr mRNA is strongly expressed in the neuroretina, and we observe both vascular and neuronal phenotypes in Vldlr-/- mice. Unexpectedly, horizontal cell (HC) neurites are mistargeted prior to SRV in this model, and the majority of vascular lesions are associated with mistargeted neurites. In Foxn4-/- mice, which lack HCs and display reduced amacrine cell (AC) numbers, we find severe defects in intraretinal capillary development. However, SRV is not suppressed in Foxn4-/-;Vldlr-/- mice, which reveals that mistargeted HC neurites are not required for vascular lesion formation. In the absence of VLDLR, the intraretinal capillary plexuses form in an inverse order compared to normal development, and subsequent to this early defect, vascular proliferation is increased. We conclude that SRV in the Vldlr-/- model is associated with mistargeted neurites and that SRV is preceded by altered retinal vascular development.
|NMDA receptor GluN2A/GluN2B subunit ratio as synaptic trait of levodopa-induced dyskinesias: from experimental models to patients. |
Mellone, M; Stanic, J; Hernandez, LF; Iglesias, E; Zianni, E; Longhi, A; Prigent, A; Picconi, B; Calabresi, P; Hirsch, EC; Obeso, JA; Di Luca, M; Gardoni, F
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 9 245 2015
Levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) are major complications in the pharmacological management of Parkinson's disease (PD). Abnormal glutamatergic transmission in the striatum is considered a key factor in the development of LIDs. This work aims at: (i) characterizing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor GluN2A/GluN2B subunit ratio as a common synaptic trait in rat and primate models of LIDs as well as in dyskinetic PD patients; and (ii) validating the potential therapeutic effect of a cell-permeable peptide (CPP) interfering with GluN2A synaptic localization on the dyskinetic behavior of these experimental models of LIDs. Here we demonstrate an altered ratio of synaptic GluN2A/GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in the striatum of levodopa-treated dyskinetic rats and monkeys as well as in post-mortem tissue from dyskinetic PD patients. The modulation of synaptic NMDA receptor composition by a cell-permeable peptide interfering with GluN2A subunit interaction with the scaffolding protein postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) leads to a reduction in the dyskinetic motor behavior in the two animal models of LIDs. Our results indicate that targeting synaptic NMDA receptor subunit composition may represent an intriguing therapeutic approach aimed at ameliorating levodopa motor side effects.
|The temporary and accumulated effects of transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease monkeys. |
Li, H; Lei, X; Yan, T; Li, H; Huang, B; Li, L; Xu, L; Liu, L; Chen, N; Lü, L; Ma, Y; Xu, L; Li, J; Wang, Z; Zhang, B; Hu, X
Scientific reports 5 12178 2015
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a useful noninvasive technique of cortical brain stimulation for the treatment of neurological disorders. Clinical research has demonstrated tDCS with anodal stimulation of primary motor cortex (M1) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients significantly improved their motor function. However, few studies have been focused on the optimization of parameters which contributed significantly to the treatment effects of tDCS and exploration of the underline neuronal mechanisms. Here, we used different stimulation parameters of anodal tDCS on M1 for the treatment of aged advanced PD monkeys induced with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration, and then analyzed the temporary and accumulated effects of tDCS treatment. The results indicated anodal tDCS on M1 very significantly improved motor ability temporarily; importantly, the treatment effects of anodal tDCS on M1 were quantitatively correlated to the accumulated stimulation instead of the stimuli intensity or duration respectively. In addition, c-fos staining showed tDCS treatment effects activated the neurons both in M1 and substantia nigra (SN). Therefore, we propose that long time and continue anodal tDCS on M1 is a better strategy to improve the motor symptoms of PD than individual manipulation of stimuli intensity or duration.
|Expression of MYCN in Multipotent Sympathoadrenal Progenitors Induces Proliferation and Neural Differentiation, but Is Not Sufficient for Tumorigenesis. |
Mobley, BC; Kwon, M; Kraemer, BR; Hickman, FE; Qiao, J; Chung, DH; Carter, BD
PloS one 10 e0133897 2015
Neuroblastoma is a pediatric malignancy of the sympathetic ganglia and adrenal glands, hypothesized to originate from progenitors of the developing sympathetic nervous system. Amplification of the MYCN oncogene is a genetic marker of risk in this disease. Understanding the impact of oncogene expression on sympathoadrenal progenitor development may improve our knowledge of neuroblastoma initiation and progression. We isolated sympathoadrenal progenitor cells from the postnatal murine adrenal gland by sphere culture and found them to be multipotent, generating differentiated colonies of neurons, Schwann cells, and myofibroblasts. MYCN overexpression in spheres promoted commitment to the neural lineage, evidenced by an increased frequency of neuron-containing colonies. MYCN promoted proliferation of both sympathoadrenal progenitor spheres and differentiated neurons derived from these spheres, but there was also an increase in apoptosis. The proliferation, apoptosis, and neural lineage commitment induced by MYCN are tumor-like characteristics and thereby support the hypothesis that multipotent adrenal medullary progenitor cells are cells of origin for neuroblastoma. We find, however, that MYCN overexpression is not sufficient for these cells to form tumors in nude mice, suggesting that additional transforming mutations are necessary for tumorigenesis.
|VPS35 pathogenic mutations confer no dominant toxicity but partial loss of function in Drosophila and genetically interact with parkin. |
Malik, BR; Godena, VK; Whitworth, AJ
Human molecular genetics 24 6106-17 2015
Mutations in VPS35 (PARK17) cause autosomal dominant, late onset Parkinson's disease (PD). VPS35 forms a core component of the retromer complex that mediates the retrieval of membrane proteins from endosomes back to either the Golgi or plasma membrane. While aberrant endosomal protein sorting has been linked to several neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms by which VPS35 mutations and retromer function contribute to PD pathogenesis are not clear. To address this, we generated transgenic Drosophila that express variant forms of human VPS35 found in PD cases and the corresponding variants of the Drosophila ortholog. We did not find evidence of dominant toxicity from any variant form including the pathogenic D620N mutation, even with aging. However, assessing the ability of Vps35 variants to rescue multiple vps35-mutant phenotypes, we found that the D620N mutation confers a partial loss of function. Recently, VPS35 has been linked to the formation of mitochondria-derived vesicles, which mediate the degradation of mitochondrial proteins and contribute to mitochondrial quality control. This process is also promoted by two other PD-lined genes parkin (PARK2) and PINK1 (PARK6). We demonstrate here that vps35 genetically interacts with parkin but interestingly not with pink1. Strikingly, Vps35 overexpression is able to rescue several parkin-mutant phenotypes. Together these findings provide in vivo evidence that the D620N mutation likely confers pathogenicity through a partial loss of function mechanism and that this may be linked to other known pathogenic mechanisms such as mitochondrial dysfunction.
|Dopamine in the auditory brainstem and midbrain: co-localization with amino acid neurotransmitters and gene expression following cochlear trauma. |
Fyk-Kolodziej, BE; Shimano, T; Gafoor, D; Mirza, N; Griffith, RD; Gong, TW; Holt, AG
Frontiers in neuroanatomy 9 88 2015
Dopamine (DA) modulates the effects of amino acid neurotransmitters (AANs), including GABA and glutamate, in motor, visual, olfactory, and reward systems (Hnasko et al., 2010; Stuber et al., 2010; Hnasko and Edwards, 2012). The results suggest that DA may play a similar modulatory role in the auditory pathways. Previous studies have shown that deafness results in decreased GABA release, changes in excitatory neurotransmitter levels, and increased spontaneous neuronal activity within brainstem regions related to auditory function. Modulation of the expression and localization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; the rate limiting enzyme in the production of DA) in the IC following cochlear trauma has been previously reported (Tong et al., 2005). In the current study the possibility of co-localization of TH with AANs was examined. Changes in the gene expression of TH were compared with changes in the gene expression of markers for AANs in the cochlear nucleus (CN) and inferior colliculus (IC) to determine whether those deafness related changes occur concurrently. The results indicate that bilateral cochlear ablation significantly reduced TH gene expression in the CN after 2 months while in the IC the reduction in TH was observed at both 3 days and 2 months following ablation. Furthermore, in the CN, glycine transporter 2 (GLYT2) and the GABA transporter (GABAtp) were also significantly reduced only after 2 months. However, in the IC, DA receptor 1 (DRDA1), vesicular glutamate transporters 2 and 3 (VGLUT2, VGLUT3), GABAtp and GAD67 were reduced in expression both at the 3 days and 2 months time points. A close relationship between the distribution of TH and several of the AANs was determined in both the CN and the IC. In addition, GLYT2 and VGLUT3 each co-localized with TH within IC somata and dendrites. Therefore, the results of the current study suggest that DA is spatially well positioned to influence the effects of AANs on auditory neurons.
|A hepatic amino acid/mTOR/S6K-dependent signalling pathway modulates systemic lipid metabolism via neuronal signals. |
Uno, K; Yamada, T; Ishigaki, Y; Imai, J; Hasegawa, Y; Sawada, S; Kaneko, K; Ono, H; Asano, T; Oka, Y; Katagiri, H
Nature communications 6 7940 2015
Metabolism is coordinated among tissues and organs via neuronal signals. Levels of circulating amino acids (AAs), which are elevated in obesity, activate the intracellular target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1)/S6kinase (S6K) pathway in the liver. Here we demonstrate that hepatic AA/mTORC1/S6K signalling modulates systemic lipid metabolism via a mechanism involving neuronal inter-tissue communication. Hepatic expression of an AA transporter, SNAT2, activates the mTORC1/S6K pathway, and markedly elevates serum triglycerides (TGs), while downregulating adipose lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Hepatic Rheb or active-S6K expression have similar metabolic effects, whereas hepatic expression of dominant-negative-S6K inhibits TG elevation in SNAT2 mice. Denervation, pharmacological deafferentation and β-blocker administration suppress obesity-related hypertriglyceridemia with adipose LPL upregulation, suggesting that signals are transduced between liver and adipose tissue via a neuronal pathway consisting of afferent vagal and efferent sympathetic nerves. Thus, the neuronal mechanism uncovered here serves to coordinate amino acid and lipid levels and contributes to the development of obesity-related hypertriglyceridemia.
|Analysis of human embryonic stem cells with regulatable expression of the cell adhesion molecule l1 in regeneration after spinal cord injury. |
Yoo, M; Lee, GA; Park, C; Cohen, RI; Schachner, M
Journal of neurotrauma 31 553-64 2014
Cell replacement therapy is one potential avenue for central nervous system (CNS) repair. However, transplanted stem cells may not contribute to long-term recovery of the damaged CNS unless they are engineered for functional advantage. To fine tune regenerative capabilities, we developed a human neural cell line expressing L1, a regeneration-conducive adhesion molecule, under the control of a doxycycline regulatable Tet-off promoter. Controlled expression of L1 is desired because overexpression after regenerative events may lead to adverse consequences. The regulated system was tested in several cell lines, where doxycycline completely eliminated green fluorescent protein or L1 expression by 3-5 days in vitro. Increased colony formation as well as decreased proliferation were observed in H9NSCs without doxycycline (hL1-on). To test the role of L1 in vivo after acute compression spinal cord injury of immunosuppressed mice, quantum dot labeled hL1-on or hL1-off cells were injected at three sites: lesion; proximal; and caudal. Mice transplanted with hL1-on cells showed a better Basso Mouse Scale score, when compared to those with hL1-off cells. As compared to the hL1-off versus hL1-on cell transplanted mice 6 weeks post-transplantation, expression levels of L1, migration of transplanted cells, and immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase were higher, whereas expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans was lower. Results indicate that L1 expression is regulatable in human stem cells by doxycycline in a nonviral engineering approach. Regulatable expression in a prospective nonleaky Tet-off system could hold promise for therapy, based on the multifunctional roles of L1, including neuronal migration and survival, neuritogenesis, myelination, and synaptic plasticity.
|Region-specific deficits in dopamine, but not norepinephrine, signaling in a novel A30P α-synuclein BAC transgenic mouse. |
Taylor, TN; Potgieter, D; Anwar, S; Senior, SL; Janezic, S; Threlfell, S; Ryan, B; Parkkinen, L; Deltheil, T; Cioroch, M; Livieratos, A; Oliver, PL; Jennings, KA; Davies, KE; Ansorge, O; Bannerman, DM; Cragg, SJ; Wade-Martins, R
Neurobiology of disease 62 193-207 2014
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder classically characterized by the death of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and by intracellular Lewy bodies composed largely of α-synuclein. Approximately 5-10% of PD patients have a familial form of Parkinsonism, including mutations in α-synuclein. To better understand the cell-type specific role of α-synuclein on DA neurotransmission, and the effects of the disease-associated A30P mutation, we generated and studied a novel transgenic model of PD. We expressed the A30P mutant form of human α-synuclein in a spatially-relevant manner from the 111kb SNCA genomic DNA locus on a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) insert on a mouse null (Snca-/-) background. The BAC transgenic mice expressed α-synuclein in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons and expression of either A30P α-synuclein or wildtype α-synuclein restored the sensitivity of DA neurons to MPTP in resistant Snca-/- animals. A30P α-synuclein mice showed no Lewy body-like aggregation, and did not lose catecholamine neurons in substantia nigra or locus coeruleus. However, using cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes we identified a deficit in evoked DA release in the caudate putamen, but not in the nucleus accumbens, of SNCA-A30P Snca-/- mice but no changes to release of another catecholamine, norepinephrine (NE), in the NE-rich ventral bed nucleus of stria terminalis. SNCA-A30P Snca-/- mice had no overt behavioral impairments but exhibited a mild increase in wheel-running. In summary, this refined PD mouse model shows that A30P α-synuclein preferentially perturbs the dopaminergic system in the dorsal striatum, reflecting the region-specific change seen in PD.
|Synaptic dysregulation in a human iPS cell model of mental disorders. |
Wen, Z; Nguyen, HN; Guo, Z; Lalli, MA; Wang, X; Su, Y; Kim, NS; Yoon, KJ; Shin, J; Zhang, C; Makri, G; Nauen, D; Yu, H; Guzman, E; Chiang, CH; Yoritomo, N; Kaibuchi, K; Zou, J; Christian, KM; Cheng, L; Ross, CA; Margolis, RL; Chen, G; Kosik, KS; Song, H; Ming, GL
Dysregulated neurodevelopment with altered structural and functional connectivity is believed to underlie many neuropsychiatric disorders, and 'a disease of synapses' is the major hypothesis for the biological basis of schizophrenia. Although this hypothesis has gained indirect support from human post-mortem brain analyses and genetic studies, little is known about the pathophysiology of synapses in patient neurons and how susceptibility genes for mental disorders could lead to synaptic deficits in humans. Genetics of most psychiatric disorders are extremely complex due to multiple susceptibility variants with low penetrance and variable phenotypes. Rare, multiply affected, large families in which a single genetic locus is probably responsible for conferring susceptibility have proven invaluable for the study of complex disorders. Here we generated induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from four members of a family in which a frameshift mutation of disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) co-segregated with major psychiatric disorders and we further produced different isogenic iPS cell lines via gene editing. We showed that mutant DISC1 causes synaptic vesicle release deficits in iPS-cell-derived forebrain neurons. Mutant DISC1 depletes wild-type DISC1 protein and, furthermore, dysregulates expression of many genes related to synapses and psychiatric disorders in human forebrain neurons. Our study reveals that a psychiatric disorder relevant mutation causes synapse deficits and transcriptional dysregulation in human neurons and our findings provide new insight into the molecular and synaptic etiopathology of psychiatric disorders.
|Surprising behavioral and neurochemical enhancements in mice with combined mutations linked to Parkinson's disease. |
Hennis, MR; Marvin, MA; Taylor, CM; Goldberg, MS
Neurobiology of disease 62 113-23 2014
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder behind Alzheimer's disease. There are currently no therapies proven to halt or slow the progressive neuronal cell loss in PD. A better understanding of the molecular and cellular causes of PD is needed to develop disease-modifying therapies. PD is an age-dependent disease that causes the progressive death of dopamine-producing neurons in the brain. Loss of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons results in locomotor symptoms such as slowness of movement, tremor, rigidity and postural instability. Abnormalities in other neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, may also be involved in both the motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. Most cases of PD are sporadic but many families show a Mendelian pattern of inherited Parkinsonism and causative mutations have been identified in genes such as Parkin, DJ-1, PINK1, alpha-synuclein and leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2). Although the definitive causes of idiopathic PD remain uncertain, the activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1) is reduced in PD brains and has been shown to be a key determinant of vulnerability to dopaminergic neuron loss in PD animal models. Furthermore, Gpx1 activity decreases with age in human substantia nigra but not rodent substantia nigra. Therefore, we crossed mice deficient for both Parkin and DJ-1 with mice deficient for Gpx1 to test the hypothesis that loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 cause PD by increasing vulnerability to Gpx1 deficiency. Surprisingly, mice lacking Parkin, DJ-1 and Gpx1 have increased striatal dopamine levels in the absence of nigral cell loss compared to wild type, Gpx1(-/-), and Parkin(-/-)DJ-1(-/-) mutant mice. Additionally, Parkin(-/-)DJ-1(-/-) mice exhibit improved rotarod performance and have increased serotonin in the striatum and hippocampus. Stereological analysis indicated that the increased serotonin levels were not due to increased serotonergic projections. The results of our behavioral, neurochemical and immunohistochemical analyses reveal that PD-linked mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 cause dysregulation of neurotransmitter systems beyond the nigrostriatal dopaminergic circuit and that loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 lead to adaptive changes in dopamine and serotonin especially in the context of Gpx1 deficiency.
|Noradrenergic sympathetic sprouting and cholinergic reinnervation maintains non-amyloidogenic processing of AβPP. |
Nelson, AR; Kolasa, K; McMahon, LL
Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD 38 867-79 2014
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, hyperphosphorylated tau neurofibrillary tangles, and cholinergic dysfunction. Cholinergic degeneration can be mimicked in rats by lesioning medial septum cholinergic neurons. Hippocampal cholinergic denervation disrupts retrograde nerve growth factor (NGF) transport, leading to its accumulation, which subsequently triggers sprouting of noradrenergic sympathetic fibers from the superior cervical ganglia into hippocampus. Previously we reported that coincident with noradrenergic sprouting is the partial reinnervation of hippocampus with cholinergic fibers and the maintenance of a M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1 mAChR) dependent long-term depression at CA3-CA1 synapses that is lost in the absence of sprouting. These findings suggest that sympathetic sprouting and the accompanying cholinergic reinnervation maintains M1 mAChR function. Importantly, noradrenergic sympathetic and cholinergic sprouting have been demonstrated in human postmortem AD hippocampus. Furthermore, M1 mAChRs are a recent focus as a therapeutic target for AD given their role in cognition and non-amyloidogenic processing of amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP). Here we tested the hypotheses that noradrenergic sympathetic sprouting is triggered by NGF, that sprouting maintains non-amyloidogenic AβPP processing, and that sprouting is prevented by intrahippocampal Aβ42 infusion. We found that NGF stimulates sprouting, that sprouting maintains non-amyloidogenic AβPP processing, and that Aβ42 is not only toxic to central cholinergic fibers innervating hippocampus but it prevents and reverses noradrenergic sympathetic sprouting and the accompanying cholinergic reinnervation. These findings reiterate the clinical implications of sprouting as an innate compensatory mechanism and emphasize the importance of M1 mAChRs as an AD therapeutic target.
|Zonisamide attenuates α-synuclein neurotoxicity by an aggregation-independent mechanism in a rat model of familial Parkinson's disease. |
Arawaka, S; Fukushima, S; Sato, H; Sasaki, A; Koga, K; Koyama, S; Kato, T
PloS one 9 e89076 2014
The anti-epileptic agent zonisamide (ZNS) has been shown to exert protective effects in neurotoxin-based mouse models of Parkinson disease. However, it is unknown whether ZNS can attenuate toxicity of familial Parkinson's disease-causing gene products. In this study, we investigated the effects of ZNS on neurodegeneration induced by expression of A53T α-synuclein in the rat substantia nigra using a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector. Expression of A53T α-synuclein yielded severe loss of nigral dopamine neurons and striatal dopamine nerve terminals from 2 weeks to 4 weeks after viral injection. Oral administration of ZNS (40 mg/kg/day) significantly delayed the pace of degeneration at 4 weeks after viral injection as compared with the vehicle group. This effect lasted until 8 weeks after viral injection, the final point of observation. ZNS treatment had no impact on the survival of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in rats expressing green fluorescent protein. Quantification of striatal Ser129-phosphorylated α-synuclein-positive aggregates showed that these aggregates rapidly formed from 2 weeks to 4 weeks after viral injection. This increase was closely correlated with loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. However, ZNS treatment failed to alter the number of all striatal Ser129-phosphorylated α-synuclein-positive aggregates, including small dot-like and large round structures. The number of these aggregates was almost constant at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after viral injection, although ZNS persistently prevented loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons during this period. Also, ZNS treatment did not affect the number of striatal aggregates larger than 10 µm in diameter. These data show that ZNS attenuates α-synuclein-induced toxicity in a manner that is independent of the formation and maturation of α-synuclein aggregates in an in vivo model of familial Parkinson's disease, suggesting that ZNS may protect nigrostriatal dopamine neurons by modulating cellular damage or a cell death pathway commonly caused by neurotoxins and α-synuclein.
|A glutamatergic reward input from the dorsal raphe to ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. |
Qi, J; Zhang, S; Wang, HL; Wang, H; de Jesus Aceves Buendia, J; Hoffman, AF; Lupica, CR; Seal, RP; Morales, M
Nature communications 5 5390 2014
Electrical stimulation of the dorsal raphe (DR) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) activates the fibres of the same reward pathway but the phenotype of this pathway and the direction of the reward-relevant fibres have not been determined. Here we report rewarding effects following activation of a DR-originating pathway consisting of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGluT3) containing neurons that form asymmetric synapses onto VTA dopamine neurons that project to nucleus accumbens. Optogenetic VTA activation of this projection elicits AMPA-mediated synaptic excitatory currents in VTA mesoaccumbens dopaminergic neurons and causes dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Activation also reinforces instrumental behaviour and establishes conditioned place preferences. These findings indicate that the DR-VGluT3 pathway to VTA utilizes glutamate as a neurotransmitter and is a substrate linking the DR-one of the most sensitive reward sites in the brain--to VTA dopaminergic neurons.
|Dnmt3a in Sim1 neurons is necessary for normal energy homeostasis. |
Kohno, D; Lee, S; Harper, MJ; Kim, KW; Sone, H; Sasaki, T; Kitamura, T; Fan, G; Elmquist, JK
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 15288-96 2014
Obesity rates continue to rise throughout the world. Recent evidence has suggested that environmental factors contribute to altered energy balance regulation. However, the role of epigenetic modifications to the central control of energy homeostasis remains unknown. To investigate the role of DNA methylation in the regulation of energy balance, we investigated the role of the de novo DNA methyltransferase, Dnmt3a, in Single-minded 1 (Sim1) cells, including neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH). Dnmt3a expression levels were decreased in the PVH of high-fat-fed mice. Mice lacking Dnmt3a specifically in the Sim1 neurons, which are expressed in the forebrain, including PVH, became obese with increased amounts of abdominal and subcutaneous fat. The mice were also found to have hyperphagia, decreased energy expenditure, and glucose intolerance with increased serum insulin and leptin. Furthermore, these mice developed hyper-LDL cholesterolemia when fed a high-fat diet. Gene expression profiling and DNA methylation analysis revealed that the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and galanin were highly upregulated in the PVH of Sim1-specific Dnmt3a deletion mice. DNA methylation levels of the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter were decreased in the PVH of the deletion mice. These results suggest that Dnmt3a in the PVH is necessary for the normal control of body weight and energy homeostasis and that tyrosine hydroxylase is a putative target of Dnmt3a in the PVH. These results provide evidence for a role for Dnmt3a in the PVH to link environmental conditions to altered energy homeostasis.
|Transgenic expression of human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor from integration-deficient lentiviral vectors is neuroprotective in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease. |
Lu-Nguyen, NB; Broadstock, M; Schliesser, MG; Bartholomae, CC; von Kalle, C; Schmidt, M; Yáñez-Muñoz, RJ
Human gene therapy 25 631-41 2014
Standard integration-proficient lentiviral vectors (IPLVs) are effective at much lower doses than other vector systems and have shown promise for gene therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD). Their main drawback is the risk of insertional mutagenesis. The novel biosafety-enhanced integration-deficient lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) may offer a significant enhancement in biosafety, but have not been previously tested in a model of a major disease. We have assessed biosafety and transduction efficiency of IDLVs in a rat model of PD, using IPLVs as a reference. Genomic insertion of lentivectors injected into the lesioned striatum was studied by linear amplification-mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by deep sequencing and insertion site analysis, demonstrating lack of significant IDLV integration. Reporter gene expression studies showed efficient, long-lived, and transcriptionally targeted expression from IDLVs injected ahead of lesioning in the rat striatum, although at somewhat lower expression levels than from IPLVs. Transgenic human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (hGDNF) expression from IDLVs was used for a long-term investigation of lentivector-mediated, transcriptionally targeted neuroprotection in this PD rat model. Vectors were injected before striatal lesioning, and the results showed improvements in nigral dopaminergic neuron survival and behavioral tests regardless of lentiviral integration proficiency, although they confirmed lower expression levels of hGDNF from IDLVs. These data demonstrate the effectiveness of IDLVs in a model of a major disease and indicate that these vectors could provide long-term PD treatment at low dose, combining efficacy and biosafety for targeted central nervous system applications.
|VTA CRF neurons mediate the aversive effects of nicotine withdrawal and promote intake escalation. |
Grieder, TE; Herman, MA; Contet, C; Tan, LA; Vargas-Perez, H; Cohen, A; Chwalek, M; Maal-Bared, G; Freiling, J; Schlosburg, JE; Clarke, L; Crawford, E; Koebel, P; Repunte-Canonigo, V; Sanna, PP; Tapper, AR; Roberto, M; Kieffer, BL; Sawchenko, PE; Koob, GF; van der Kooy, D; George, O
Nature neuroscience 17 1751-8 2014
Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are well known for mediating the positive reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse. Here we identify in rodents and humans a population of VTA dopaminergic neurons expressing corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). We provide further evidence in rodents that chronic nicotine exposure upregulates Crh mRNA (encoding CRF) in dopaminergic neurons of the posterior VTA, activates local CRF1 receptors and blocks nicotine-induced activation of transient GABAergic input to dopaminergic neurons. Local downregulation of Crh mRNA and specific pharmacological blockade of CRF1 receptors in the VTA reversed the effect of nicotine on GABAergic input to dopaminergic neurons, prevented the aversive effects of nicotine withdrawal and limited the escalation of nicotine intake. These results link the brain reward and stress systems in the same brain region to signaling of the negative motivational effects of nicotine withdrawal.
|Circadian perinatal photoperiod has enduring effects on retinal dopamine and visual function. |
Jackson, CR; Capozzi, M; Dai, H; McMahon, DG
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 4627-33 2014
Visual system development depends on neural activity, driven by intrinsic and light-sensitive mechanisms. Here, we examined the effects on retinal function due to exposure to summer- and winter-like circadian light cycles during development and adulthood. Retinal light responses, visual behaviors, dopamine content, retinal morphology, and gene expression were assessed in mice reared in seasonal photoperiods consisting of light/dark cycles of 8:16, 16:8, and 12:12 h, respectively. Mice exposed to short, winter-like, light cycles showed enduring deficits in photopic retinal light responses and visual contrast sensitivity, but only transient changes were observed for scotopic measures. Dopamine levels were significantly lower in short photoperiod mice, and dopaminergic agonist treatment rescued the photopic light response deficits. Tyrosine hydroxylase and Early Growth Response factor-1 mRNA expression were reduced in short photoperiod retinas. Therefore, seasonal light cycles experienced during retinal development and maturation have lasting influence on retinal and visual function, likely through developmental programming of retinal dopamine.
|Mammalian-specific sequences in pou3f2 contribute to maternal behavior. |
Nasu, M; Yada, S; Igarashi, A; Sutoo, D; Akiyama, K; Ito, M; Yoshida, N; Ueda, S
Genome biology and evolution 6 1145-56 2014
Various mutations have occurred during evolution among orthologs, genes in different species that diverged from a common ancestral gene by speciation. Here, we report the remarkable deterioration of a characteristic mammalian maternal behavior, pup retrieval, in nonmammalized mice, in which the transcription factor Pou3f2 was replaced with the Xenopus ortholog lacking all of the homopolymeric amino acid repeats of mammalian POU3F2. Most of the pups born to the nonmammalized mice died within days after birth, depending on the dam genotype alone. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis revealed decreases in the rate-limiting enzymes of dopamine and serotonin synthesis in various brain structures. Similar results were obtained in knock-in mice in which all of the homopolymeric amino acid repeats of mammalian POU3F2 were removed. Pup retrieval behavior in mammals is thus strongly related to monoamine neurotransmitter levels via the acquisition of homopolymeric amino acid repeats during mammalian evolution.
|2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is selectively toxic to primary dopaminergic neurons in vitro. |
Griggs, AM; Agim, ZS; Mishra, VR; Tambe, MA; Director-Myska, AE; Turteltaub, KW; McCabe, GP; Rochet, JC; Cannon, JR
Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology 140 179-89 2014
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Much data has linked the etiology of PD to a variety of environmental factors. The majority of cases are thought to arise from a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Chronic exposures to dietary factors, including meat, have been identified as potential risk factors. Although heterocyclic amines that are produced during high-temperature meat cooking are known to be carcinogenic, their effect on the nervous system has yet to be studied in depth. In this study, we investigated neurotoxic effects of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a highly abundant heterocyclic amine in cooked meat, in vitro. We tested toxicity of PhIP and the two major phase I metabolites, N-OH-PhIP and 4'-OH-PhIP, using primary mesencephalic cultures from rat embryos. This culture system contains both dopaminergic and nondopaminergic neurons, which allows specificity of neurotoxicity to be readily examined. We find that exposure to PhIP or N-OH-PhIP is selectively toxic to dopaminergic neurons in primary cultures, resulting in a decreased percentage of dopaminergic neurons. Neurite length is decreased in surviving dopaminergic neurons. Exposure to 4'-OH-PhIP did not produce significant neurotoxicity. PhIP treatment also increased formation of oxidative damage markers, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and 3-nitrotyrosine in dopaminergic neurons. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine was protective. Finally, treatment with blueberry extract, a dietary factor with known antioxidant and other protective mechanisms, prevented PhIP-induced toxicity. Collectively, our study suggests, for the first time, that PhIP is selectively toxic to dopaminergic neurons likely through inducing oxidative stress.
|MHC-I expression renders catecholaminergic neurons susceptible to T-cell-mediated degeneration. |
Cebrián, C; Zucca, FA; Mauri, P; Steinbeck, JA; Studer, L; Scherzer, CR; Kanter, E; Budhu, S; Mandelbaum, J; Vonsattel, JP; Zecca, L; Loike, JD; Sulzer, D
Nature communications 5 3633 2014
Subsets of rodent neurons are reported to express major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), but such expression has not been reported in normal adult human neurons. Here we provide evidence from immunolabel, RNA expression and mass spectrometry analysis of postmortem samples that human catecholaminergic substantia nigra and locus coeruleus neurons express MHC-I, and that this molecule is inducible in human stem cell-derived dopamine (DA) neurons. Catecholamine murine cultured neurons are more responsive to induction of MHC-I by gamma-interferon than other neuronal populations. Neuronal MHC-I is also induced by factors released from microglia activated by neuromelanin or alpha-synuclein, or high cytosolic DA and/or oxidative stress. DA neurons internalize foreign ovalbumin and display antigen derived from this protein by MHC-I, which triggers DA neuronal death in the presence of appropriate cytotoxic T cells. Thus, neuronal MHC-I can trigger antigenic response, and catecholamine neurons may be particularly susceptible to T-cell-mediated cytotoxic attack.
|Rgs6 is required for adult maintenance of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral substantia nigra. |
Bifsha, P; Yang, J; Fisher, RA; Drouin, J
PLoS genetics 10 e1004863 2014
Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by the preferential, but poorly understood, vulnerability to degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in the ventral substantia nigra compacta (vSNc). These sensitive mDA neurons express Pitx3, a transcription factor that is critical for their survival during development. We used this dependence to identify, by flow cytometry and expression profiling, the negative regulator of G-protein signaling Rgs6 for its restricted expression in these neurons. In contrast to Pitx3-/- mDA neurons that die during fetal (vSNc) or post-natal (VTA) period, the vSNc mDA neurons of Rgs6-/- mutant mice begin to exhibit unilateral signs of degeneration at around 6 months of age, and by one year cell loss is observed in a fraction of mice. Unilateral cell loss is accompanied by contralateral degenerating neurons that exhibit smaller cell size, altered morphology and reduced dendritic network. The degenerating neurons have low levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and decreased nuclear Pitx3; accordingly, expression of many Pitx3 target gene products is altered, including Vmat2, Bdnf, Aldh1a1 (Adh2) and Fgf10. These low TH neurons also express markers of increased dopamine signaling, namely increased DAT and phospho-Erk1/2 expression. The late onset degeneration may reflect the protective action of Rgs6 against excessive DA signaling throughout life. Rgs6-dependent protection is thus critical for adult survival and maintenance of the vSNc mDA neurons that are most affected in PD.
|Transcriptional profiling at whole population and single cell levels reveals somatosensory neuron molecular diversity. |
Chiu, IM; Barrett, LB; Williams, EK; Strochlic, DE; Lee, S; Weyer, AD; Lou, S; Bryman, GS; Roberson, DP; Ghasemlou, N; Piccoli, C; Ahat, E; Wang, V; Cobos, EJ; Stucky, CL; Ma, Q; Liberles, SD; Woolf, CJ
eLife 3 2014
The somatosensory nervous system is critical for the organism's ability to respond to mechanical, thermal, and nociceptive stimuli. Somatosensory neurons are functionally and anatomically diverse but their molecular profiles are not well-defined. Here, we used transcriptional profiling to analyze the detailed molecular signatures of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. We used two mouse reporter lines and surface IB4 labeling to purify three major non-overlapping classes of neurons: 1) IB4(+)SNS-Cre/TdTomato(+), 2) IB4(-)SNS-Cre/TdTomato(+), and 3) Parv-Cre/TdTomato(+) cells, encompassing the majority of nociceptive, pruriceptive, and proprioceptive neurons. These neurons displayed distinct expression patterns of ion channels, transcription factors, and GPCRs. Highly parallel qRT-PCR analysis of 334 single neurons selected by membership of the three populations demonstrated further diversity, with unbiased clustering analysis identifying six distinct subgroups. These data significantly increase our knowledge of the molecular identities of known DRG populations and uncover potentially novel subsets, revealing the complexity and diversity of those neurons underlying somatosensation.
|Embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors as non-tumorigenic source for dopaminergic neurons. |
Liao, MC; Diaconu, M; Monecke, S; Collombat, P; Timaeus, C; Kuhlmann, T; Paulus, W; Trenkwalder, C; Dressel, R; Mansouri, A
World journal of stem cells 6 248-55 2014
To find a safe source for dopaminergic neurons, we generated neural progenitor cell lines from human embryonic stem cells.The human embryonic stem (hES) cell line H9 was used to generate human neural progenitor (HNP) cell lines. The resulting HNP cell lines were differentiated into dopaminergic neurons and analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence for the expression of neuronal differentiation markers, including beta-III tubulin (TUJ1) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). To assess the risk of teratoma or other tumor formation, HNP cell lines and mouse neuronal progenitor (MNP) cell lines were injected subcutaneously into immunodeficient SCID/beige mice.We developed a fairly simple and fast protocol to obtain HNP cell lines from hES cells. These cell lines, which can be stored in liquid nitrogen for several years, have the potential to differentiate in vitro into dopaminergic neurons. Following day 30 of differentiation culture, the majority of the cells analyzed expressed the neuronal marker TUJ1 and a high proportion of these cells were positive for TH, indicating differentiation into dopaminergic neurons. In contrast to H9 ES cells, the HNP cell lines did not form tumors in immunodeficient SCID/beige mice within 6 mo after subcutaneous injection. Similarly, no tumors developed after injection of MNP cells. Notably, mouse ES cells or neuronal cells directly differentiated from mouse ES cells formed teratomas in more than 90% of the recipients.Our findings indicate that neural progenitor cell lines can differentiate into dopaminergic neurons and bear no risk of generating teratomas or other tumors in immunodeficient mice.
|Axonal targeting of the serotonin transporter in cultured rat dorsal raphe neurons is specified by SEC24C-dependent export from the endoplasmic reticulum. |
Montgomery, TR; Steinkellner, T; Sucic, S; Koban, F; Schüchner, S; Ogris, E; Sitte, HH; Freissmuth, M
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 6344-51 2014
Export of the serotonin transporter (SERT) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is mediated by the SEC24C isoform of the coatomer protein-II complex. SERT must enter the axonal compartment and reach the presynaptic specialization to perform its function, i.e., the inward transport of serotonin. Refilling of vesicles is contingent on the operation of an efficient relay between SERT and the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2). Here, we visualized the distribution of both endogenously expressed SERT and heterologously expressed variants of human SERT in dissociated rat dorsal raphe neurons to examine the role of SEC24C-dependent ER export in axonal targeting of SERT. We conclude that axonal delivery of SERT is contingent on recruitment of SEC24C in the ER. This conclusion is based on the following observations. (1) Both endogenous and heterologously expressed SERT were delivered to the extensive axonal arborizations and accumulated in bouton-like structures. (2) In contrast, SERT-(607)RI(608)-AA, in which the binding site of SEC24C is disrupted, remained confined to the microtubule-associated protein 2-positive somatodendritic compartment. (3) The overexpression of dominant-negative SEC24C-D(796)V/D(797)N (but not of the corresponding SEC24D mutant) redirected both endogenous SERT and heterologously expressed yellow fluorescent protein-SERT from axons to the somatodendritic region. (4) SERT-K(610)Y, which harbors a mutation converting it into an SEC24D client, was rerouted from the axonal to the somatodendritic compartment by dominant-negative SEC24D. In contrast, axonal targeting of the VMAT2 was disrupted by neither dominant-negative SEC24C nor dominant-negative SEC24D. This suggests that SERT and VMAT2 reach the presynaptic specialization by independent routes.
|The structure of the trabecular meshwork, its connections to the ciliary muscle, and the effect of pilocarpine on outflow facility in mice. |
Overby, DR; Bertrand, J; Schicht, M; Paulsen, F; Stamer, WD; Lütjen-Drecoll, E
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 55 3727-36 2014
To determine the connections between the ciliary muscle (CM), trabecular meshwork (TM), and Schlemm's canal (SC) and their innervations that allows CM contraction (by pilocarpine) to influence conventional outflow in mice.Sequential sections and whole mounts of murine corneoscleral angles were stained for elastin, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Elastic (EL) fibers between the CM, TM, and SC were examined in ultrathin, sequential sections from different planes. The effect of pilocarpine (100 μM) on conventional outflow facility was measured by perfusion of enucleated mouse eyes.The mouse TM contains a three-dimensional (3D) net of EL fibers connecting the inner wall of SC to the cornea anteriorly, the ciliary body (CB) internally and the choroid and CM posteriorly. The CM bifurcates near the posterior TM, extending outer tendons to the juxtacanalicular tissue and inner wall of SC and internal connections to the lamellated TM and CB. Ciliary muscle and lamellated TM cells stain with αSMA and are innervated by VAChT-containing nerve fibers, without TH, VIP, or nNOS. Pilocarpine doubled outflow facility.Mouse eyes resemble primate eyes not only by their well developed SC and TM, but also by their 3D EL net tethering together the TM and SC inner wall and by the tendinous insertion of the CM into this net. The increase in outflow facility following cholinergic stimulation in mice, as in primates, supports using mice for studies of aqueous humor dynamics and glaucoma.
|Midbrain dopamine neurons sustain inhibitory transmission using plasma membrane uptake of GABA, not synthesis. |
Tritsch, NX; Oh, WJ; Gu, C; Sabatini, BL
eLife 3 e01936 2014
Synaptic transmission between midbrain dopamine neurons and target neurons in the striatum is essential for the selection and reinforcement of movements. Recent evidence indicates that nigrostriatal dopamine neurons inhibit striatal projection neurons by releasing a neurotransmitter that activates GABAA receptors. Here, we demonstrate that this phenomenon extends to mesolimbic afferents, and confirm that the released neurotransmitter is GABA. However, the GABA synthetic enzymes GAD65 and GAD67 are not detected in midbrain dopamine neurons. Instead, these cells express the membrane GABA transporters mGAT1 (Slc6a1) and mGAT4 (Slc6a11) and inhibition of these transporters prevents GABA co-release. These findings therefore indicate that GABA co-release is a general feature of midbrain dopaminergic neurons that relies on GABA uptake from the extracellular milieu as opposed to de novo synthesis. This atypical mechanism may confer dopaminergic neurons the flexibility to differentially control GABAergic transmission in a target-dependent manner across their extensive axonal arbors.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01936.001.
|Complete morphologies of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the mouse. |
Wu, H; Williams, J; Nathans, J
eLife 3 e02444 2014
The basal forebrain cholinergic system modulates neuronal excitability and vascular tone throughout the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. This system is severely affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and drug treatment to enhance cholinergic signaling is widely used as symptomatic therapy in AD. Defining the full morphologies of individual basal forebrain cholinergic neurons has, until now, been technically beyond reach due to their large axon arbor sizes. Using genetically-directed sparse labeling, we have characterized the complete morphologies of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the mouse. Individual arbors were observed to span multiple cortical columns, and to have greater than 1000 branch points and total axon lengths up to 50 cm. In an AD model, cholinergic axons were slowly lost and there was an accumulation of axon-derived material in discrete puncta. Calculations based on published morphometric data indicate that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in humans have a mean axon length of ∼100 meters.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02444.001.
|PACAP27 prevents Parkinson-like neuronal loss and motor deficits but not microglia activation induced by prostaglandin J2. |
Shivers, KY; Nikolopoulou, A; Machlovi, SI; Vallabhajosula, S; Figueiredo-Pereira, ME
Biochimica et biophysica acta 1842 1707-19 2014
Neuroinflammation is a major risk factor in Parkinson's disease (PD). Alternative approaches are needed to treat inflammation, as anti-inflammatory drugs such as NSAIDs that inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) can produce devastating side effects, including heart attack and stroke. New therapeutic strategies that target factors downstream of COX-2, such as prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2), hold tremendous promise because they will not alter the homeostatic balance offered by COX-2 derived prostanoids. In the current studies, we report that repeated microinfusion of PGJ2 into the substantia nigra of non-transgenic mice, induces three stages of pathology that mimic the slow-onset cellular and behavioral pathology of PD: mild (one injection) when only motor deficits are detectable, intermediate (two injections) when neuronal and motor deficits as well as microglia activation are detectable, and severe (four injections) when dopaminergic neuronal loss is massive accompanied by microglia activation and motor deficits. Microglia activation was evaluated in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET) with [(11)C](R)PK11195 to provide a regional estimation of brain inflammation. PACAP27 reduced dopaminergic neuronal loss and motor deficits induced by PGJ2, without preventing microglia activation. The latter could be problematic in that persistent microglia activation can exert long-term deleterious effects on neurons and behavior. In conclusion, this PGJ2-induced mouse model that mimics in part chronic inflammation, exhibits slow-onset PD-like pathology and is optimal for testing diagnostic tools such as PET, as well as therapies designed to target the integrated signaling across neurons and microglia, to fully benefit patients with PD.
|Efficient reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts to neuronal cells including dopaminergic neurons. |
Oh, SI; Park, HS; Hwang, I; Park, HK; Choi, KA; Jeong, H; Kim, SW; Hong, S
TheScientificWorldJournal 2014 957548 2014
Somatic cells were directly converted to functional neurons through the use of a combination of transcription factors, including Ascl1, Brn2, and Myt1l. However, a major limitation is the lack of a reliable source of cell-replacement therapy for neurological diseases. Here, we show that a combination of the transcription factors Ascl1 and Nurr1 (AN) and neurotrophic factors including SHH and FGF8b directly reprogrammed embryonic mouse fibroblasts to induced neuronal (iN) cells: pan-neuronal cells and dopaminergic (DA) neurons under our systematic cell culture conditions. Reprogrammed cells showed the morphological properties of neuronal cells. Additionally, cells were analyzed using various markers, including Tuj1 and Map2 for neuronal cells and Lmx1a, Th, Aadc and Vmat2 for DA neurons in our immunostaining and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR experiments. We found that a combination of transcription factors and neurotrophic factors could directly reprogram fibroblasts to neuronal cells including DA neurons. Various types of reprogrammed cells are promising cell sources for cell-based therapy of neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease and spinal cord injury.
|Phasic dopamine neuron activity elicits unique mesofrontal plasticity in adolescence. |
Mastwal, S; Ye, Y; Ren, M; Jimenez, DV; Martinowich, K; Gerfen, CR; Wang, KH
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 9484-96 2014
The mesofrontal dopaminergic circuit, which connects the midbrain motivation center to the cortical executive center, is engaged in control of motivated behaviors. In addition, deficiencies in this circuit are associated with adolescent-onset psychiatric disorders in humans. Developmental studies suggest that the mesofrontal circuit exhibits a protracted maturation through adolescence. However, whether the structure and function of this circuit are modifiable by activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence remains unknown. Using optogenetic stimulation and in vivo two-photon imaging in adolescent mice, we found that phasic, but not tonic, dopamine neuron activity induces the formation of mesofrontal axonal boutons. In contrast, in adult mice, the effect of phasic activity diminishes. Furthermore, our results showed that dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission regulate this axonal plasticity in adolescence and inhibition of dopamine D2-type receptors restores this plasticity in adulthood. Finally, we found that phasic activation of dopamine neurons also induces greater changes in mesofrontal circuit activity and psychomotor response in adolescent mice than in adult mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that the structure and function of the mesofrontal circuit are modifiable by phasic activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence and suggest that the greater plasticity in adolescence may facilitate activity-dependent strengthening of dopaminergic input and improvement in behavioral control.
|Frontal cortical and subcortical projections provide a basis for segmenting the cingulum bundle: implications for neuroimaging and psychiatric disorders. |
Heilbronner, SR; Haber, SN
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 10041-54 2014
The cingulum bundle (CB) is one of the brain's major white matter pathways, linking regions associated with executive function, decision-making, and emotion. Neuroimaging has revealed that abnormalities in particular locations within the CB are associated with specific psychiatric disorders, including depression and bipolar disorder. However, the fibers using each portion of the CB remain unknown. In this study, we used anatomical tract-tracing in nonhuman primates (Macaca nemestrina, Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta) to examine the organization of specific cingulate, noncingulate frontal, and subcortical pathways through the CB. The goals were as follows: (1) to determine connections that use the CB, (2) to establish through which parts of the CB these fibers travel, and (3) to relate the CB fiber pathways to the portions of the CB identified in humans as neurosurgical targets for amelioration of psychiatric disorders. Results indicate that cingulate, noncingulate frontal, and subcortical fibers all travel through the CB to reach both cingulate and noncingulate targets. However, many brain regions send projections through only part, not all, of the CB. For example, amygdala fibers are not present in the caudal portion of the dorsal CB. These results allow segmentation of the CB into four unique zones. We identify the specific connections that are abnormal in psychiatric disorders and affected by neurosurgical interventions, such as deep brain stimulation and cingulotomy.
|Peripheral administration of the selective inhibitor of soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) XPro®1595 attenuates nigral cell loss and glial activation in 6-OHDA hemiparkinsonian rats. |
Barnum, CJ; Chen, X; Chung, J; Chang, J; Williams, M; Grigoryan, N; Tesi, RJ; Tansey, MG
Journal of Parkinson's disease 4 349-60 2014
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex multi-system age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Targeting the ongoing neuroinflammation in PD patients is one strategy postulated to slow down or halt disease progression. Proof-of-concept studies from our group demonstrated that selective inhibition of soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor (solTNF) by intranigral delivery of dominant negative TNF (DN-TNF) inhibitors reduced neuroinflammation and nigral dopamine (DA) neuron loss in endotoxin and neurotoxin rat models of nigral degeneration.As a next step toward human clinical trials, we aimed to determine the extent to which peripherally administered DN-TNF inhibitor XPro®1595 could: i) cross the blood-brain-barrier in therapeutically relevant concentrations, ii) attenuate neuroinflammation (microglia and astrocyte), and iii) mitigate loss of nigral DA neurons in rats receiving a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) striatal lesion.Rats received unilateral 6-OHDA (20 μg into the right striatum). Three or 14 days after lesion, rats were dosed with XPro®1595 (10 mg/kg in saline, subcutaneous) every third day for 35 days. Forelimb asymmetry was used to assess motor deficits after the lesion; brains were harvested 35 days after the lesion for analysis of XPro®1595 levels, glial activation and nigral DA neuron number.Peripheral subcutaneous dosing of XPro®1595 achieved plasma levels of 1-8 microgram/mL and CSF levels of 1-6 ng/mL depending on the time the rats were killed after final XPro®1595 injection. Irrespective of start date, XPro®1595 significantly reduced microglia and astrocyte number in SNpc whereas loss of nigral DA neurons was attenuated when drug was started 3, but not 14 days after the 6-OHDA lesion.Our data suggest that systemically administered XPro®1595 may have disease-modifying potential in PD patients where inflammation is part of their pathology.
|Absence of substance P and the sympathetic nervous system impact on bone structure and chondrocyte differentiation in an adult model of endochondral ossification. |
Niedermair, T; Kuhn, V; Doranehgard, F; Stange, R; Wieskötter, B; Beckmann, J; Salmen, P; Springorum, HR; Straub, RH; Zimmer, A; Grifka, J; Grässel, S
Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology 38 22-35 2014
Sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers (SNF) innervate bone and epiphyseal growth plate. The role of neuronal signals for proper endochondral ossification during skeletal growth is mostly unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of the absence of sensory neurotransmitter substance P (SP) and the removal of SNF on callus differentiation, a model for endochondral ossification in adult animals, and on bone formation.In order to generate callus, tibia fractures were set in the left hind leg of wild type (WT), tachykinin 1-deficient (Tac1-/-) mice (no SP) and animals without SNF. Locomotion was tested in healthy animals and touch sensibility was determined early after fracture. Callus tissue was prepared for immunofluorescence staining for SP, neurokinin1-receptor (NK1R), tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH) and adrenergic receptors α1, α2 and β2. At the fracture site, osteoclasts were stained for TRAP, osteoblasts were stained for RUNX2, and histomorphometric analysis of callus tissue composition was performed. Primary murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMM), osteoclasts, and osteoblasts were tested for differentiation, activity, proliferation and apoptosis in vitro. Femoral fractures were set in the left hind leg of all the three groups for mechanical testing and μCT-analysis.Callus cells stained positive for SP, NK1R, α1d- and α2b adrenoceptors and remained β2-adrenoceptor and TH-negative. Absence of SP and SNF did not change the general locomotion but reduces touch sensitivity after fracture. In mice without SNF, we detected more mesenchymal callus tissue and less cartilaginous tissue 5 days after fracture. At day 13 past fracture, we observed a decrease of the area covered by hypertrophic chondrocytes in Tac1-/- mice and mice without SNF, a lower number of osteoblasts in Tac1-/- mice and an increase of osteoclasts in mineralized callus tissue in mice without SNF. Apoptosis rate and activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts isolated from Tac1-/- and sympathectomized mice were partly altered in vitro. Mechanical testing of fractured- and contralateral legs 21 days after fracture, revealed an overall reduced mechanical bone quality in Tac1-/- mice and mice without SNF. μCT-analysis revealed clear structural alteration in contralateral and fractured legs proximal of the fracture site with respect to trabecular parameters, bone mass and connectivity density. Notably, structural parameters are altered in fractured legs when related to unfractured legs in WT but not in mice without SP and SNF.The absence of SP and SNF reduces pain sensitivity and mechanical stability of the bone in general. The micro-architecture of the bone is profoundly impaired in the absence of intact SNF with a less drastic effect in SP-deficient mice. Both sympathetic and sensory neurotransmitters are indispensable for proper callus differentiation. Importantly, the absence of SP reduces bone formation rate whereas the absence of SNF induces bone resorption rate. Notably, fracture chondrocytes produce SP and its receptor NK1 and are positive for α-adrenoceptors indicating an endogenous callus signaling loop. We propose that sensory and sympathetic neurotransmitters have crucial trophic effects which are essential for proper bone formation in addition to their classical neurological actions.
|Hypothalamic vasotocin and tyrosine hydroxylase levels following maternal care and selection for low mortality in laying hens. |
Hewlett, SE; Zeinstra, EC; van Eerdenburg, FJ; Rodenburg, T; van Kooten, PJ; van der Staay, F; Nordquist, RE
BMC veterinary research 10 167 2014
Feather pecking and cannibalism are major concerns in poultry farming, both in terms of animal welfare and farm economics. Genetic selection and introduction of (aspects of) maternal care have been suggested as potential interventions to reduce feather pecking in laying hens. Altered brain development has been proposed to reflect welfare states in animals, and can provide more insight into the underlying processes involved in feather pecking. Both vasotocin (the avian homologue of vasopressin) and dopaminergic neural circuitry have roles in control of social behaviors as well as in the stress response, and may be linked to feather pecking. Thus, the hypothalamus of adult laying hens selected for low early mortality (LML), which show low feather pecking, was examined and compared with a control line of adult laying hens selected for production characteristics only (CL). The effect of foster hen rearing on the two genetic lines and their hypothalamic morphology was also investigated.We demonstrated an increase in the number of neurons positive for the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine production, tyrosine hydroxylase, in the periventricular area of the hypothalamus in the LML hens compared to CL hens. Hen-reared chicks showed more vasotocin -positive neurons in the medial pre-optic area compared to the hens raised without a hen. No correlations were found between behavior in an open field at 5-6 weeks of age, and the histology of the same hens at adulthood.The hypothalamic dopaminergic and vasotinergic systems are altered in hens following genetic selection or maternal care, indicating a potential role for these systems in feather pecking.
|Modelling of a targeted nanotherapeutic 'stroma' to deliver the cytokine LIF, or XAV939, a potent inhibitor of Wnt-β-catenin signalling, for use in human fetal dopaminergic grafts in Parkinson's disease. |
Zhao, JW; Dyson, SC; Kriegel, C; Tyers, P; He, X; Fahmy, TM; Metcalfe, SM; Barker, RA
Disease models & mechanisms 7 1193-203 2014
The endogenous reparative capacity of the adult human brain is low, and chronic neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system represent one of the greatest areas of unmet clinical need in the developing world. Novel therapeutic strategies to treat them include: (i) growth factor delivery to boost endogenous repair and (ii) replacement cell therapy, including replacing dopaminergic neurons to treat Parkinson's disease (PD). However, these approaches are restricted not only by rapid degradation of growth factors, but also by the limited availability of cells for transplant and the poor survival of implanted cells that lack the necessary stromal support. We therefore hypothesised that provision of a transient artificial stroma for paracrine delivery of pro-survival factors could overcome both of these issues. Using leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) - a proneural, reparative cytokine - formulated as target-specific poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nano-particles (LIF-nano-stroma), we discovered that attachment of LIF-nano-stroma to freshly isolated fetal dopaminergic cells improved their survival fourfold: furthermore, in vivo, the number of surviving human fetal dopaminergic cells tended to be higher at 3 months after grafting into the striatum of nude rats, compared with controls treated with empty nanoparticles. In addition, we also analysed the effect of a novel nano-stroma incorporating XAV939 (XAV), a potent inhibitor of the developmentally important Wnt-β-catenin signalling pathway, to investigate whether it could also promote the survival and differentiation of human fetal dopaminergic precursors; we found that the numbers of both tyrosine-hydroxylase-positive neurons (a marker of dopaminergic neurons) and total neurons were increased. This is the first demonstration that LIF-nano-stroma and XAV-nano-stroma each have pro-survival effects on human dopaminergic neurons, with potential value for target-specific modulation of neurogenic fate in cell-based therapies for PD.
|Nicotinic receptor Alpha7 expression during mouse adrenal gland development. |
Gahring, LC; Myers, E; Palumbos, S; Rogers, SW
PloS one 9 e103861 2014
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 7 (α7) is a ligand-activated ion channel that contributes to a diversity of cellular processes involved in development, neurotransmission and inflammation. In this report the expression of α7 was examined in the mouse developing and adult adrenal gland that expresses a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter as a bi-cistronic extension of the endogenous α7 transcript (α7(G)). At embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) α7(G) expression was associated with the suprarenal ganglion and precursor cells of the adrenal gland. The α7(G) cells are catecholaminergic chromaffin cells as reflected by their progressive increase in the co-expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) that is complete by E18.5. In the adult, α7(G) expression is limited to a subset of chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla that cluster near the border with the adrenal cortex. These chromaffin cells co-express α7(G), TH and DBH, but they lack phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) consistent with only norepinephrine (NE) synthesis. These cell groups appear to be preferentially innervated by pre-ganglionic afferents identified by the neurotrophin receptor p75. No afferents identified by beta-III tubulin, neurofilament proteins or p75 co-expressed α7(G). Occasional α7(G) cells in the pre-E14.5 embryos express neuronal markers consistent with intrinsic ganglion cells and in the adult some α7(G) cells co-express glutamic acid decarboxylase. The transient expression of α7 during adrenal gland development and its prominent co-expression by a subset of NE chromaffin cells in the adult suggests that the α7 receptor contributes to multiple aspects of adrenal gland development and function that persist into adulthood.
|Carotid body denervation prevents fasting hyperglycemia during chronic intermittent hypoxia. |
Shin, MK; Yao, Q; Jun, JC; Bevans-Fonti, S; Yoo, DY; Han, W; Mesarwi, O; Richardson, R; Fu, YY; Pasricha, PJ; Schwartz, AR; Shirahata, M; Polotsky, VY
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 117 765-76 2014
Obstructive sleep apnea causes chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) and is associated with impaired glucose metabolism, but mechanisms are unknown. Carotid bodies orchestrate physiological responses to hypoxemia by activating the sympathetic nervous system. Therefore, we hypothesized that carotid body denervation would abolish glucose intolerance and insulin resistance induced by chronic IH. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent carotid sinus nerve dissection (CSND) or sham surgery and then were exposed to IH or intermittent air (IA) for 4 or 6 wk. Hypoxia was administered by decreasing a fraction of inspired oxygen from 20.9% to 6.5% once per minute, during the 12-h light phase (9 a.m.-9 p.m.). As expected, denervated mice exhibited blunted hypoxic ventilatory responses. In sham-operated mice, IH increased fasting blood glucose, baseline hepatic glucose output (HGO), and expression of a rate-liming hepatic enzyme of gluconeogenesis phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), whereas the whole body glucose flux during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was not changed. IH did not affect glucose tolerance after adjustment for fasting hyperglycemia in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. CSND prevented IH-induced fasting hyperglycemia and increases in baseline HGO and liver PEPCK expression. CSND trended to augment the insulin-stimulated glucose flux and enhanced liver Akt phosphorylation at both hypoxic and normoxic conditions. IH increased serum epinephrine levels and liver sympathetic innervation, and both increases were abolished by CSND. We conclude that chronic IH induces fasting hyperglycemia increasing baseline HGO via the CSN sympathetic output from carotid body chemoreceptors, but does not significantly impair whole body insulin sensitivity.
|A novel efficient feeder-free culture system for the derivation of human induced pluripotent stem cells. |
Nakagawa, M; Taniguchi, Y; Senda, S; Takizawa, N; Ichisaka, T; Asano, K; Morizane, A; Doi, D; Takahashi, J; Nishizawa, M; Yoshida, Y; Toyoda, T; Osafune, K; Sekiguchi, K; Yamanaka, S
Scientific reports 4 3594 2014
In order to apply human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to regenerative medicine, the cells should be produced under restricted conditions conforming to GMP guidelines. Since the conventional culture system has some issues that need to be addressed to achieve this goal, we developed a novel culture system. We found that recombinant laminin-511 E8 fragments are useful matrices for maintaining hESCs and hiPSCs when used in combination with a completely xeno-free (Xf) medium, StemFit™. Using this system, hESCs and hiPSCs can be easily and stably passaged by dissociating the cells into single cells for long periods, without any karyotype abnormalities. Human iPSCs could be generated under feeder-free (Ff) and Xf culture systems from human primary fibroblasts and blood cells, and they possessed differentiation abilities. These results indicate that hiPSCs can be generated and maintained under this novel Ff and Xf culture system.
|Similar roles of substantia nigra and ventral tegmental dopamine neurons in reward and aversion. |
Ilango, A; Kesner, AJ; Keller, KL; Stuber, GD; Bonci, A; Ikemoto, S
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 817-22 2014
Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are implicated in affective functions. However, it is unclear to what extent dopamine neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) play such roles. TH-Cre transgenic mice received adeno-associated viral vectors encoding channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2), halorhodopsin (NpHR), or control vector into the VTA or SNc, resulting in selective expression of these opsins in dopamine neurons. Mice with ChR2 learned instrumental responding to deliver photostimulation into the VTA or SNc and also sought for the compartment where they received photostimulation (i.e., operant place preference). Operant place preference scores were highly correlated with self-stimulation responses. In contrast, mice with NpHR avoided the compartment where they received photostimulation into the VTA, SNc, or dorsal striatum, whereas control mice did not. These observations suggest that the excitation and inhibition of SNc dopamine neurons elicit positive and negative affective effects, respectively, similar to those of VTA dopamine neurons.
|Exuberant sprouting of sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers in nonhealed bone fractures and the generation and maintenance of chronic skeletal pain. |
Chartier, SR; Thompson, ML; Longo, G; Fealk, MN; Majuta, LA; Mantyh, PW
Pain 155 2323-36 2014
Skeletal injury is a leading cause of chronic pain and long-term disability worldwide. While most acute skeletal pain can be effectively managed with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opiates, chronic skeletal pain is more difficult to control using these same therapy regimens. One possibility as to why chronic skeletal pain is more difficult to manage over time is that there may be nerve sprouting in nonhealed areas of the skeleton that normally receive little (mineralized bone) to no (articular cartilage) innervation. If such ectopic sprouting did occur, it could result in normally nonnoxious loading of the skeleton being perceived as noxious and/or the generation of a neuropathic pain state. To explore this possibility, a mouse model of skeletal pain was generated by inducing a closed fracture of the femur. Examined animals had comminuted fractures and did not fully heal even at 90+days post fracture. In all mice with nonhealed fractures, exuberant sensory and sympathetic nerve sprouting, an increase in the density of nerve fibers, and the formation of neuroma-like structures near the fracture site were observed. Additionally, all of these animals exhibited significant pain behaviors upon palpation of the nonhealed fracture site. In contrast, sprouting of sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers or significant palpation-induced pain behaviors was never observed in naïve animals. Understanding what drives this ectopic nerve sprouting and the role it plays in skeletal pain may allow a better understanding and treatment of this currently difficult-to-control pain state.
|Ret rescues mitochondrial morphology and muscle degeneration of Drosophila Pink1 mutants. |
Klein, P; Müller-Rischart, AK; Motori, E; Schönbauer, C; Schnorrer, F; Winklhofer, KF; Klein, R
The EMBO journal 33 341-55 2014
Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated Pink1 and Parkin proteins are believed to function in a common pathway controlling mitochondrial clearance and trafficking. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its signaling receptor Ret are neuroprotective in toxin-based animal models of PD. However, the mechanism by which GDNF/Ret protects cells from degenerating remains unclear. We investigated whether the Drosophila homolog of Ret can rescue Pink1 and park mutant phenotypes. We report that a signaling active version of Ret (Ret(MEN₂B) rescues muscle degeneration, disintegration of mitochondria and ATP content of Pink1 mutants. Interestingly, corresponding phenotypes of park mutants were not rescued, suggesting that the phenotypes of Pink1 and park mutants have partially different origins. In human neuroblastoma cells, GDNF treatment rescues morphological defects of PINK1 knockdown, without inducing mitophagy or Parkin recruitment. GDNF also rescues bioenergetic deficits of PINK knockdown cells. Furthermore, overexpression of Ret(MEN₂B) significantly improves electron transport chain complex I function in Pink1 mutant Drosophila. These results provide a novel mechanism underlying Ret-mediated cell protection in a situation relevant for human PD.
|Oxidation and nitration in dopaminergic areas of the prefrontal cortex from patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. |
Kim, HK; Andreazza, AC; Yeung, PY; Isaacs-Trepanier, C; Young, LT
Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN 39 276-85 2014
Increased oxidative stress is strongly implicated in bipolar disorder (BD), where protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to DNA have been consistently reported. High levels of dopamine (DA) in mania are also well-recognized in patients with BD, and DA produces reactive oxygen species and electron-deficient quinones that can oxidize proteins when it is metabolized.Using immunohistochemistry and acceptor photobleaching Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), we examined oxidation and nitration of areas immunoreactive for the DA transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the postmortem prefrontal cortex from patients with BD, schizophrenia and major depression as well as nonpsychiatric controls.We found increased oxidation of DAT-immunoreactive regions in patients with BD (F3,48 = 6.76, p = 0.001; Dunnett post hoc test p = 0.001) and decreased nitration of TH-immunoreactive regions in both patients with BD (F3,45 = 3.10, p = 0.036; Dunnett post hoc test p = 0.011) and schizophrenia (p = 0.027). On the other hand, we found increased global levels of oxidation in patients with BD (F3,44 = 6.74, p = 0.001; Dunnett post hoc test p = 0.001) and schizophrenia (p = 0.020), although nitration levels did not differ between the groups (F3,46 = 1.75; p = 0.17).Limitations of this study include the use of postmortem brain sections, which may have been affected by factors such as postmortem interval and antemortem agonal states, although demographic factors and postmortem interval were accounted for in our statistical analysis.These findings suggest alterations in levels of protein oxidation and nitration in DA-rich regions of the prefrontal cortex in patients with BD and schizophrenia, but more markedly in those with BD.
|Consequences of developmental exposure to concentrated ambient ultrafine particle air pollution combined with the adult paraquat and maneb model of the Parkinson's disease phenotype in male mice. |
Allen, JL; Liu, X; Weston, D; Conrad, K; Oberdörster, G; Cory-Slechta, DA
Neurotoxicology 41 80-8 2014
Current evidence suggests suceptibility of both the substantia nigra and striatum to exposure to components of air pollution. Further, air pollution has been associated with increased risk of PD diagnsosis in humans or PD-like pathology in animals. This study examined whether exposure of mice to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (CAPS; less than 100nm diameter) during the first two weeks of life would alter susceptibility to induction of the Parkinson's disease phenyotype (PDP) in a pesticide-based paraquat and maneb (PQ+MB) model during adulthood utilizing i.p. injections of 10mg/kg PQ and 30mg/kg MB 2× per week for 6 weeks. Evidence of CAPS-induced enhancement of the PQ+MB PDP was limited primarily to delayed recovery of locomotor activity 24 post-injection of PQ+MB that could be related to alterations in striatal GABA inhibitory function. Absence of more extensive interactions might also reflect the finding that CAPS and PQ+MB appeared to differentially target the nigrostriatal dopamine and amino acid systems, with CAPS impacting striatum and PQ+MB impacting dopamine-glutamate function in midbrain; both CAPS and PQ+MB elevated glutamate levels in these specific regions, consistent with potential excitotoxicity. These findings demonstrate the ability of postnatal CAPS to produce locomotor dysfunction and dopaminergic and glutamateric changes, independent of PQ+MB, in brain regions involved in the PDP.
|Arx is required for specification of the zona incerta and reticular nucleus of the thalamus. |
Sunnen, CN; Simonet, JC; Marsh, ED; Golden, JA
Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology 73 253-61 2014
Mutations in the aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) gene result in a spectrum of structural and functional nervous system disorders including lissencephaly, movement disorders, intellectual disabilities, and epilepsy. Some patients also have symptoms indicating hypothalamic dysfunction, but little is known about the role of ARX in diencephalic development. To begin evaluating diencephalic defects, we examined the expression of a panel of known genes and gene products that label specific diencephalic nuclei in 2 different Arx mutant mouse lines at E18.5. Male mice engineered to have a polyalanine expansion mutation (Arx) revealed no expression differences in any diencephalic nucleus when compared with wild-type littermates. In contrast, mice null for Arx (Arx) lost expression of specific markers of the thalamic reticular nucleus and zona incerta (ZI) while retaining expression in other thalamic nuclei and in the hypothalamus. Tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of the dopaminergic A13 subnucleus of ZI, was among those lost, suggesting a requirement for Arx in normal thalamic reticular nucleus and ZI development and, specifically, for A13 dopaminergic fate. Because the ZI and A13 regions make connections to several hypothalamic nuclei, such misspecification may contribute to the "hypothalamic dysfunction" observed in some patients.
|Viral vector-mediated downregulation of RhoA increases survival and axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion cells. |
Koch, JC; Tönges, L; Michel, U; Bähr, M; Lingor, P
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 8 273 2014
The Rho/ROCK pathway is a promising therapeutic target in neurodegenerative and neurotraumatic diseases. Pharmacological inhibition of various pathway members has been shown to promote neuronal regeneration and survival. However, because pharmacological inhibitors are inherently limited in their specificity, shRNA-mediated approaches can add more information on the function of each single kinase involved. Thus, we generated adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) to specifically downregulate Ras homologous member A (RhoA) via shRNA. We found that specific knockdown of RhoA promoted neurite outgrowth of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) grown on the inhibitory substrate chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) as well as neurite regeneration of primary midbrain neurons (PMN) after scratch lesion. In the rat optic nerve crush (ONC) model in vivo, downregulation of RhoA significantly enhanced axonal regeneration compared to control. Moreover, survival of RGC transduced with AAV expressing RhoA-shRNA was substantially increased at 2 weeks after optic nerve axotomy. Compared to previous data using pharmacological inhibitors to target RhoA, its upstream regulator Nogo or its main downstream target ROCK, the specific effects of RhoA downregulation shown here were most pronounced in regard to promoting RGC survival but neurite outgrowth and axonal regeneration were also increased significantly. Taken together, we show here that specific knockdown of RhoA substantially increases neuronal survival after optic nerve axotomy and modestly increases neurite outgrowth in vitro and axonal regeneration after optic nerve crush.
|Neural correlates of water reward in thirsty Drosophila. |
Lin, S; Owald, D; Chandra, V; Talbot, C; Huetteroth, W; Waddell, S
Nature neuroscience 17 1536-42 2014
Drinking water is innately rewarding to thirsty animals. In addition, the consumed value can be assigned to behavioral actions and predictive sensory cues by associative learning. Here we show that thirst converts water avoidance into water-seeking in naive Drosophila melanogaster. Thirst also permitted flies to learn olfactory cues paired with water reward. Water learning required water taste and less than 40 water-responsive dopaminergic neurons that innervate a restricted zone of the mushroom body γ lobe. These water learning neurons are different from those that are critical for conveying the reinforcing effects of sugar. Naive water-seeking behavior in thirsty flies did not require water taste but relied on another subset of water-responsive dopaminergic neurons that target the mushroom body β' lobe. Furthermore, these naive water-approach neurons were not required for learned water-seeking. Our results therefore demonstrate that naive water-seeking, learned water-seeking and water learning use separable neural circuitry in the brain of thirsty flies.
|Genetic labeling reveals novel cellular targets of schizophrenia susceptibility gene: distribution of GABA and non-GABA ErbB4-positive cells in adult mouse brain. |
Bean, JC; Lin, TW; Sathyamurthy, A; Liu, F; Yin, DM; Xiong, WC; Mei, L
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 13549-66 2014
Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its receptor ErbB4 are schizophrenia risk genes. NRG1-ErbB4 signaling plays a critical role in neural development and regulates neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Nevertheless, its cellular targets remain controversial. ErbB4 was thought to express in excitatory neurons, although recent studies disputed this view. Using mice that express a fluorescent protein under the promoter of the ErbB4 gene, we determined in what cells ErbB4 is expressed and their identity. ErbB4 was widely expressed in the mouse brain, being highest in amygdala and cortex. Almost all ErbB4-positive cells were GABAergic in cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and most of amygdala in neonatal and adult mice, suggesting GABAergic transmission as a major target of NRG1-ErbB4 signaling in these regions. Non-GABAergic, ErbB4-positive cells were present in thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, and hindbrain. In particular, ErbB4 is expressed in serotoninergic neurons of raphe nuclei but not in norepinephrinergic neurons of the locus ceruleus. In hypothalamus, ErbB4 is present in neurons that express oxytocin. Finally, ErbB4 is expressed in a group of cells in the subcortical areas that are positive for S100 calcium binding protein β. These results identify novel cellular targets of NRG1-ErbB4 signaling.
|Optical suppression of drug-evoked phasic dopamine release. |
McCutcheon, JE; Cone, JJ; Sinon, CG; Fortin, SM; Kantak, PA; Witten, IB; Deisseroth, K; Stuber, GD; Roitman, MF
Frontiers in neural circuits 8 114 2014
Brief fluctuations in dopamine concentration (dopamine transients) play a key role in behavior towards rewards, including drugs of abuse. Drug-evoked dopamine transients may result from actions at both dopamine cell bodies and dopamine terminals. Inhibitory opsins can be targeted to dopamine neurons permitting their firing activity to be suppressed. However, as dopamine transients can become uncoupled from firing, it is unknown whether optogenetic hyperpolarization at the level of the soma is able to suppress dopamine transients. Here, we used in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to record transients evoked by cocaine and raclopride in nucleus accumbens (NAc) of urethane-anesthetized rats. We targeted halorhodopsin (NpHR) specifically to dopamine cells by injecting Cre-inducible virus into ventral tegmental area (VTA) of transgenic rats that expressed Cre recombinase under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter (TH-Cre(+) rats). Consistent with previous work, co-administration of cocaine and raclopride led to the generation of dopamine transients in NAc shell. Illumination of VTA with laser strongly suppressed the frequency of transients in NpHR-expressing rats, but not in control rats. Laser did not have any effect on amplitude of transients. Thus, optogenetics can effectively reduce the occurrence of drug-evoked transients and is therefore a suitable approach for studying the functional role of such transients in drug-associated behavior.
|PCP4 regulates Purkinje cell excitability and cardiac rhythmicity. |
Kim, EE; Shekhar, A; Lu, J; Lin, X; Liu, FY; Zhang, J; Delmar, M; Fishman, GI
The Journal of clinical investigation 124 5027-36 2014
Cardiac Purkinje cells are important triggers of ventricular arrhythmias associated with heritable and acquired syndromes; however, the mechanisms responsible for this proarrhythmic behavior are incompletely understood. Here, through transcriptional profiling of genetically labeled cardiomyocytes, we identified expression of Purkinje cell protein-4 (Pcp4), a putative regulator of calmodulin and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) signaling, exclusively within the His-Purkinje network. Using Pcp4-null mice and acquired cardiomyopathy models, we determined that reduced expression of PCP4 is associated with CaMKII activation, abnormal electrophysiology, dysregulated intracellular calcium handling, and proarrhythmic behavior in isolated Purkinje cells. Pcp4-null mice also displayed profound autonomic dysregulation and arrhythmic behavior in vivo. Together, these results demonstrate that PCP4 regulates cardiac excitability through both Purkinje cell-autonomous and central mechanisms and identify this modulator of CaMKII signaling as a potential arrhythmia-susceptibility candidate.
|Phasic activation of individual neurons in the locus ceruleus/subceruleus complex of monkeys reflects rewarded decisions to go but not stop. |
Kalwani, RM; Joshi, S; Gold, JI
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 13656-69 2014
Neurons in the brainstem nucleus locus ceruleus (LC) often exhibit phasic activation in the context of simple sensory-motor tasks. The functional role of this activation, which leads to the release of norepinephrine throughout the brain, is not yet understood in part because the conditions under which it occurs remain in question. Early studies focused on the relationship of LC phasic activation to salient sensory events, whereas more recent work has emphasized its timing relative to goal-directed behavioral responses, possibly representing the end of a sensory-motor decision process. To better understand the relationship between LC phasic activation and sensory, motor, and decision processing, we recorded spiking activity of neurons in the LC+ (LC and the adjacent, norepinephrine-containing subceruleus nucleus) of monkeys performing a countermanding task. The task required the monkeys to occasionally withhold planned, saccadic eye movements to a visual target. We found that many well isolated LC+ units responded to both the onset of the visual cue instructing the monkey to initiate the saccade and again after saccade onset, even when it was initiated erroneously in the presence of a stop signal. Many of these neurons did not respond to saccades made outside of the task context. In contrast, neither the appearance of the stop signal nor the successful withholding of the saccade elicited an LC+ response. Therefore, LC+ phasic activation encodes sensory and motor events related to decisions to execute, but not withhold, movements, implying a functional role in goal-directed actions, but not necessarily more covert forms of processing.
|Designer receptors show role for ventral pallidum input to ventral tegmental area in cocaine seeking. |
Mahler, SV; Vazey, EM; Beckley, JT; Keistler, CR; McGlinchey, EM; Kaufling, J; Wilson, SP; Deisseroth, K; Woodward, JJ; Aston-Jones, G
Nature neuroscience 17 577-85 2014
The ventral pallidum is centrally positioned within mesocorticolimbic reward circuits, and its dense projection to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) regulates neuronal activity there. However, the ventral pallidum is a heterogeneous structure, and how this complexity affects its role within wider reward circuits is unclear. We found that projections to VTA from the rostral ventral pallidum (RVP), but not the caudal ventral pallidum (CVP), were robustly Fos activated during cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking--a rat model of relapse in addiction. Moreover, designer receptor-mediated transient inactivation of RVP neurons, their terminals in VTA or functional connectivity between RVP and VTA dopamine neurons blocked the ability of drug-associated cues (but not a cocaine prime) to reinstate cocaine seeking. In contrast, CVP neuronal inhibition blocked cocaine-primed, but not cue-induced, reinstatement. This double dissociation in ventral pallidum subregional roles in drug seeking is likely to be important for understanding the mesocorticolimbic circuits underlying reward seeking and addiction.
|Dopaminergic neurons promote hippocampal reactivation and spatial memory persistence. |
McNamara, CG; Tejero-Cantero, Á; Trouche, S; Campo-Urriza, N; Dupret, D
Nature neuroscience 17 1658-60 2014
We found that optogenetic burst stimulation of hippocampal dopaminergic fibers from midbrain neurons in mice exploring novel environments enhanced the reactivation of pyramidal cell assemblies during subsequent sleep/rest. When applied during spatial learning of new goal locations, dopaminergic photostimulation improved the later recall of neural representations of space and stabilized memory performance. These findings reveal that midbrain dopaminergic neurons promote hippocampal network dynamics associated with memory persistence.
|Loss of mitochondrial fission depletes axonal mitochondria in midbrain dopamine neurons. |
Berthet, A; Margolis, EB; Zhang, J; Hsieh, I; Zhang, J; Hnasko, TS; Ahmad, J; Edwards, RH; Sesaki, H; Huang, EJ; Nakamura, K
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 14304-17 2014
Disruptions in mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to the selective degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about the normal functions of mitochondrial dynamics in these neurons, especially in axons where degeneration begins, and this makes it difficult to understand the disease process. To study one aspect of mitochondrial dynamics-mitochondrial fission-in mouse DA neurons, we deleted the central fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Drp1 loss rapidly eliminates the DA terminals in the caudate-putamen and causes cell bodies in the midbrain to degenerate and lose α-synuclein. Without Drp1, mitochondrial mass dramatically decreases, especially in axons, where the mitochondrial movement becomes uncoordinated. However, in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a subset of midbrain DA neurons characterized by small hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (Ih) is spared, despite near complete loss of their axonal mitochondria. Drp1 is thus critical for targeting mitochondria to the nerve terminal, and a disruption in mitochondrial fission can contribute to the preferential death of nigrostriatal DA neurons.
|A conserved role for p48 homologs in protecting dopaminergic neurons from oxidative stress. |
Bou Dib, P; Gnägi, B; Daly, F; Sabado, V; Tas, D; Glauser, DA; Meister, P; Nagoshi, E
PLoS genetics 10 e1004718 2014
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Both environmental and genetic factors are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of PD. Although several genes linked to rare familial PD have been identified, endogenous risk factors for sporadic PD, which account for the majority of PD cases, remain largely unknown. Genome-wide association studies have identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with sporadic PD in neurodevelopmental genes including the transcription factor p48/ptf1a. Here we investigate whether p48 plays a role in the survival of DA neurons in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that a Drosophila p48 homolog, 48-related-2 (Fer2), is expressed in and required for the development and survival of DA neurons in the protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) cluster. Loss of Fer2 expression in adulthood causes progressive PAM neuron degeneration in aging flies along with mitochondrial dysfunction and elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, leading to the progressive locomotor deficits. The oxidative stress challenge upregulates Fer2 expression and exacerbates the PAM neuron degeneration in Fer2 loss-of-function mutants. hlh-13, the worm homolog of p48, is also expressed in DA neurons. Unlike the fly counterpart, hlh-13 loss-of-function does not impair development or survival of DA neurons under normal growth conditions. Yet, similar to Fer2, hlh-13 expression is upregulated upon an acute oxidative challenge and is required for the survival of DA neurons under oxidative stress in adult worms. Taken together, our results indicate that p48 homologs share a role in protecting DA neurons from oxidative stress and degeneration, and suggest that loss-of-function of p48 homologs in flies and worms provides novel tools to study gene-environmental interactions affecting DA neuron survival.
|Midkine promotes neuroblastoma through Notch2 signaling. |
Kishida, S; Mu, P; Miyakawa, S; Fujiwara, M; Abe, T; Sakamoto, K; Onishi, A; Nakamura, Y; Kadomatsu, K
Cancer research 73 1318-27 2013
Midkine is a heparin-binding growth factor highly expressed in various cancers, including neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumor. Prognosis of patients with neuroblastoma in which MYCN is amplified remains particularly poor. In this study, we used a MYCN transgenic model for neuroblastoma in which midkine is highly expressed in precancerous lesions of sympathetic ganglia. Genetic ablation of midkine in this model delayed tumor formation and reduced tumor incidence. Furthermore, an RNA aptamer that specifically bound midkine suppressed the growth of neuroblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo in tumor xenografts. In precancerous lesions, midkine-deficient MYCN transgenic mice exhibited defects in activation of Notch2, a candidate midkine receptor, and expression of the Notch target gene HES1. Similarly, RNA aptamer-treated tumor xenografts also showed attenuation of Notch2-HES1 signaling. Our findings establish a critical role for the midkine-Notch2 signaling axis in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis, which implicates new strategies to treat neuroblastoma.
|Egr2-neurons control the adult respiratory response to hypercapnia. |
Ray, RS; Corcoran, AE; Brust, RD; Soriano, LP; Nattie, EE; Dymecki, SM
Brain research 1511 115-25 2013
`The early growth response 2 transcription factor, Egr2, establishes a population of brainstem neurons essential for normal breathing at birth. Egr2-null mice die perinatally of respiratory insufficiency characterized by subnormal respiratory rate and severe apneas. Here we bypass this lethality using a noninvasive pharmacogenetic approach to inducibly perturb neuron activity postnatally, and ask if Egr2-neurons control respiration in adult mice. We found that the normal ventilatory increase in response to elevated tissue CO₂ was impaired, blunted by 63.1 ± 8.7% after neuron perturbation due to deficits in both respiratory amplitude and frequency. By contrast, room-air breathing was unaffected, suggesting that the drive for baseline breathing may not require those Egr2-neurons manipulated here. Of the multiple brainstem sites proposed to affect ventilation in response to hypercapnia, only the retrotrapezoid nucleus, a portion of the serotonergic raphé, and a portion of the A5 nucleus have a history of Egr2 expression. We recently showed that acute inhibition of serotonergic neurons en masse blunts the CO₂ chemoreflex in adults, causing a difference in hypercapnic response of ∼50% after neuron perturbation through effects on respiratory amplitude only. The suppressed respiratory frequency upon perturbation of Egr2-neurons thus may stem from non-serotonergic neurons within the Egr2 domain. Perturbation of Egr2-neurons did not affect body temperature, even on exposure to ambient 4°C. These findings support a model in which Egr2-neurons are a critical component of the respiratory chemoreflex into adulthood. Methodologically, these results highlight how pharmacogenetic approaches allow neuron function to be queried in unanesthetized adult animals, reaching beyond the roadblocks of developmental lethality and compensation as well as the anatomical disturbances associated with invasive methods. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Optogenetics (7th BRES).
|Decreased parkin solubility is associated with impairment of autophagy in the nigrostriatum of sporadic Parkinson's disease. |
Lonskaya, I; Hebron, ML; Algarzae, NK; Desforges, N; Moussa, CE
Neuroscience 232 90-105 2013
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a motor disorder that involves death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Parkin is an autosomal recessive gene that is mutated in early onset PD. We investigated the role of parkin and autophagic clearance in postmortem nigrostriatal tissues from 22 non-familial sporadic PD patients and 15 control samples. Parkin was insoluble with altered cytosolic expression in the nigrostriatum of sporadic PD. Parkin insolubility was associated with lack of degradation of ubiquitinated proteins and accumulation of α-Synuclein and parkin in autophagosomes, suggesting autophagic defects in PD. To test parkin's role in mediating autophagic clearance, we used lentiviral gene transfer to express human wild type or mutant parkin (T240R) with α-Synuclein in the rat striatum. Lentiviral expression of α-Synuclein led to accumulation of autophagic vacuoles, while co-expression of parkin with α-Synuclein facilitated autophagic clearance. Subcellular fractionation showed accumulation of α-Synuclein and tau hyper-phosphorylation (p-Tau) in autophagosomes in gene transfer models, similar to the effects observed in PD brains, but parkin expression led to protein deposition into lysosomes. However, parkin loss of function mutation did not affect autophagic clearance. Taken together, these data suggest that functional parkin regulates autophagosome clearance, while decreased parkin solubility may alter normal autophagy in sporadic PD.
|Transsynaptic tracing with vesicular stomatitis virus reveals novel retinal circuitry. |
Beier, KT; Borghuis, BG; El-Danaf, RN; Huberman, AD; Demb, JB; Cepko, CL
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 35-51 2013
The use of neurotropic viruses as transsynaptic tracers was first described in the 1960s, but only recently have such viruses gained popularity as a method for labeling neural circuits. The development of retrograde monosynaptic tracing vectors has enabled visualization of the presynaptic sources onto defined sets of postsynaptic neurons. Here, we describe the first application of a novel viral tracer, based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), which directs retrograde transsynaptic viral spread between defined cell types. We use this virus in the mouse retina to show connectivity between starburst amacrine cells (SACs) and their known synaptic partners, direction-selective retinal ganglion cells, as well as to discover previously unknown connectivity between SACs and other retinal ganglion cell types. These novel connections were confirmed using physiological recordings. VSV transsynaptic tracing enables cell type-specific dissection of neural circuitry and can reveal synaptic relationships among neurons that are otherwise obscured due to the complexity and density of neuropil.
|Prenatal expression of MET receptor tyrosine kinase in the fetal mouse dorsal raphe nuclei and the visceral motor/sensory brainstem. |
Wu, HH; Levitt, P
Developmental neuroscience 35 1-16 2013
Signaling via MET receptor tyrosine kinase (MET) has been implicated in a number of neurodevelopmental events, including cell migration, dendritic and axonal development and synaptogenesis. Related to its role in the development of forebrain circuitry, we recently identified a functional promoter variant of the MET gene that is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The association of the MET promoter variant rs1858830 C allele is significantly enriched in families with a child who has ASD and co-occurring gastrointestinal conditions. The expression of MET in the forebrain had been mapped in detail in the developing mouse and rhesus macaque. However, in mammals, its expression in the developing brainstem has not been studied extensively throughout developmental stages. Brainstem and autonomic circuitry are implicated in ASD pathophysiology and in gastrointestinal dysfunction. To advance our understanding of the neurodevelopmental influences of MET signaling in brainstem circuitry development, we employed in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to map the expression of Met and its ligand, Hgf, through prenatal development of the mouse midbrain and hindbrain. Our results reveal a highly selective expression pattern of Met in the brainstem, including a subpopulation of neurons in cranial motor nuclei (nVII, nA and nXII), B6 subgroup of the dorsal raphe, Barrington's nucleus, and a small subset of neurons in the nucleus of solitary tract. In contrast to Met, neither full-length nor known splice variants of Hgf were localized in the prenatal brainstem. RT-PCR revealed Hgf expression in target tissues of Met-expressing brainstem neurons, suggesting that MET in these neurons may be activated by HGF from peripheral sources. Together, these data suggest that MET signaling may influence the development of neurons that are involved in central regulation of gastrointestinal function, tongue movement, swallowing, speech, stress and mood.
|Polo-like kinase 2 regulates selective autophagic α-synuclein clearance and suppresses its toxicity in vivo. |
Oueslati, A; Schneider, BL; Aebischer, P; Lashuel, HA
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 E3945-54 2013
An increase in α-synuclein levels due to gene duplications/triplications or impaired degradation is sufficient to trigger its aggregation and cause familial Parkinson disease (PD). Therefore, lowering α-synuclein levels represents a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PD and related synucleinopathies. Here, we report that Polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2), an enzyme up-regulated in synucleinopathy-diseased brains, interacts with, phosphorylates and enhances α-synuclein autophagic degradation in a kinase activity-dependent manner. PLK2-mediated degradation of α-synuclein requires both phosphorylation at S129 and PLK2/α-synuclein complex formation. In a rat genetic model of PD, PLK2 overexpression reduces intraneuronal human α-synuclein accumulation, suppresses dopaminergic neurodegeneration, and reverses hemiparkinsonian motor impairments induced by α-synuclein overexpression. This PLK2-mediated neuroprotective effect is also dependent on PLK2 activity and α-synuclein phosphorylation. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that PLK2 is a previously undescribed regulator of α-synuclein turnover and that modulating its kinase activity could be a viable target for the treatment of synucleinopathies.
|Nigral GFRα1 infusion in aged rats increases locomotor activity, nigral tyrosine hydroxylase, and dopamine content in synchronicity. |
Pruett, BS; Salvatore, MF
Molecular neurobiology 47 988-99 2013
Delivery of exogenous glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) increases locomotor activity in rodent models of aging and Parkinson's disease in conjunction with increased dopamine (DA) tissue content in substantia nigra (SN). Striatal GDNF infusion also increases expression of GDNF's cognate receptor, GFRα1, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) ser31 phosphorylation in the SN of aged rats long after elevated GDNF is no longer detectable. In aging, expression of soluble GFRα1 in the SN decreases in association with decreased TH expression, TH ser31 phosphorylation, DA tissue content, and locomotor activity. Thus, we hypothesized that, in aged rats, replenishing soluble GFRα1 in SN could reverse these deficits and increase locomotor activity. We determined that the quantity of soluble GFRα1 in young adult rat SN is ~3.6 ng. To replenish age-related loss, which is ~30 %, we infused 1 ng soluble GFRα1 bilaterally into SN of aged male rats and observed increased locomotor activity compared to vehicle-infused rats up to 4 days following infusion, with maximal effects on day 3. Five days after infusion, however, neither locomotor activity nor nigrostriatal neurochemical measures were significantly different between groups. In a separate cohort of male rats, nigral, but not striatal, DA, TH, and TH ser31 phosphorylation were increased 3 days following unilateral infusion of 1 ng soluble GFRα1into SN. Therefore, in aged male rats, the transient increase in locomotor activity induced by replenishing age-related loss of soluble GFRα1is temporally matched with increased nigral dopaminergic function. Thus, expression of soluble GFRα1 in SN may be a key component in locomotor activity regulation through its influence over TH regulation and DA biosynthesis.
|Age-dependent regional changes in the rostral migratory stream. |
Mobley, AS; Bryant, AK; Richard, MB; Brann, JH; Firestein, SJ; Greer, CA
Neurobiology of aging 34 1873-81 2013
Throughout life the subventricular zone (SVZ) is a source of new olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons. From the SVZ, neuroblasts migrate tangentially through the rostral migratory stream (RMS), a restricted route approximately 5 mm long in mice, reaching the OB within 10-14 days. Within the OB, neuroblasts migrate radially to the granule and glomerular layers where they differentiate into granule and periglomerular (PG) cells and integrate into existing synaptic circuits. SVZ neurogenesis decreases with age, and might be a factor in age-related olfactory deficits. However, the effect of aging on the RMS and on the differentiation of interneuron subpopulations remains poorly understood. Here, we examine RMS cytoarchitecture, neuroblast proliferation and clearance from the RMS, and PG cell subpopulations at 6, 12, 18, and 23 months of age. We find that aging affects the area occupied by newly generated cells within the RMS and regional proliferation, and the clearance of neuroblasts from the RMS and PG cell subpopulations and distribution remain stable.
|Reciprocal connectivity between mitral cells and external plexiform layer interneurons in the mouse olfactory bulb. |
Huang, L; Garcia, I; Jen, HI; Arenkiel, BR
Frontiers in neural circuits 7 32 2013
Proper brain function relies on exquisite balance between excitation and inhibition, where inhibitory circuits play fundamental roles toward sculpting principle neuron output and information processing. In prominent models of olfactory bulb circuitry, inhibition of mitral cells by local interneurons sharpens odor tuning and provides contrast enhancement. Mitral cell inhibition occurs at both mitral cell apical dendrites and deep-layer dendrodendritic synapses between granule cells, the most abundant population of inhibitory interneurons in the olfactory bulb. However, it remains unclear whether other local interneurons make inhibitory connections onto mitral cells. Here, we report a novel circuitry with strong and reciprocal connectivity between a subpopulation of previously uncharacterized Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH)-expressing interneurons located in the external plexiform layer (EPL), and mitral cells. Using cell type-specific genetic manipulations, imaging, optogenetic stimulation, and electrophysiological recordings, we reveal that CRH-expressing EPL interneurons strongly inhibit mitral cell firing, and that they are reciprocally excited by fast glutamatergic mitral cell input. These findings functionally identify a novel subpopulation of olfactory bulb interneurons that show reciprocal connectivity with mitral cells, uncovering a previously unknown, and potentially critical player in olfactory bulb circuitry that may influence lateral interactions and/or facilitate odor processing.
|Nilotinib reverses loss of dopamine neurons and improves motor behavior via autophagic degradation of α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease models. |
Hebron, ML; Lonskaya, I; Moussa, CE
Human molecular genetics 22 3315-28 2013
Parkinson's disease is a movement disorder characterized by death of dopaminergic substantia nigra (SN) neurons and brain accumulation of α-synuclein. The tyrosine kinase Abl is activated in neurodegeneration. Here, we show that lentiviral expression of α-synuclein in the mouse SN leads to Abl activation (phosphorylation) and lentiviral Abl expression increases α-synuclein levels, in agreement with Abl activation in PD brains. Administration of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib decreases Abl activity and ameliorates autophagic clearance of α-synuclein in transgenic and lentiviral gene transfer models. Subcellular fractionation shows accumulation of α-synuclein and hyper-phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) in autophagic vacuoles in α-synuclein expressing brains, but nilotinib enhances protein deposition into the lysosomes. Nilotinib is used for adult leukemia treatment and it enters the brain within US Food and Drug Administration approved doses, leading to autophagic degradation of α-synuclein, protection of SN neurons and amelioration of motor performance. These data suggest that nilotinib may be a therapeutic strategy to degrade α-synuclein in PD and other α-synucleinopathies.
|The activation sequence of cellular protein handling systems after proteasomal inhibition in dopaminergic cells. |
Xiong, R; Siegel, D; Ross, D
Chemico-biological interactions 204 116-24 2013
Dysfunction of protein handling has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases and inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been linked to the formation of protein aggregates and proteinopathies in such diseases. While proteasomal inhibition could trigger an array of downstream protein handling changes including up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs), induction of molecular chaperones, activation of the ER stress/unfolded protein response (UPR), autophagy and aggresome formation, little is known of the relationship of proteasomal inhibition to the sequence of activation of these diverse protein handling systems. In this study we utilized the reversible proteasome inhibitor MG132 and examined the activity of several major protein handling systems in the immortalized dopaminergic neuronal N27 cell line. In the early phase (up to 6h after proteasomal inhibition), MG132 induced time-dependent proteasomal inhibition which resulted in stimulation of the UPR, increased autophagic flux and stimulated heat shock protein response as determined by increased levels of phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)/GADD153, turnover of autophagy related microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and increased levels of Hsp70 respectively. After prolonged proteasomal inhibition induced by MG132, we observed the formation of vimentin-caged aggresome-like inclusion bodies. A recovery study after MG132-induced proteasomal inhibition indicated that the autophagy-lysosomal pathway participated in the clearance of aggresomes. Our data characterizes the relationship between proteasome inhibition and activation of other protein handling systems. These data also indicated that the induction of alternate protein handling systems and their temporal relationships may be important factors that determine the extent of accumulation of misfolded proteins in cells as a result of proteasome inhibition.
|Changes in the neural representation of odorants after olfactory deprivation in the adult mouse olfactory bulb. |
Kass, MD; Pottackal, J; Turkel, DJ; McGann, JP
Chemical senses 38 77-89 2013
Olfactory sensory deprivation during development has been shown to induce significant alterations in the neurophysiology of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), the primary sensory inputs to the brain's olfactory bulb. Deprivation has also been shown to alter the neurochemistry of the adult olfactory system, but the physiological consequences of these changes are poorly understood. Here we used in vivo synaptopHluorin (spH) imaging to visualize odorant-evoked neurotransmitter release from ORNs in adult transgenic mice that underwent 4 weeks of unilateral olfactory deprivation. Deprivation reduced odorant-evoked spH signals compared with sham-occluded mice. Unexpectedly, this reduction was equivalent between ORNs on the open and plugged sides. Changes in odorant selectivity of glomerular subpopulations of ORNs were also observed, but only in ORNs on the open side of deprived mice. These results suggest that naris occlusion in adult mice produces substantial changes in primary olfactory processing which may reflect not only the decrease in olfactory stimulation on the occluded side but also the alteration of response properties on the intact side. We also observed a modest effect of true sham occlusions that included noseplug insertion and removal, suggesting that conventional noseplug techniques may have physiological effects independent of deprivation per se and thus require more careful controls than has been previously appreciated.
|Leptin receptor neurons in the mouse hypothalamus are colocalized with the neuropeptide galanin and mediate anorexigenic leptin action. |
Laque, A; Zhang, Y; Gettys, S; Nguyen, TA; Bui, K; Morrison, CD; Münzberg, H
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 304 E999-1011 2013
Leptin acts centrally via leptin receptor (LepRb)-expressing neurons to regulate food intake, energy expenditure, and other physiological functions. LepRb neurons are found throughout the brain, and several distinct populations contribute to energy homeostasis control. However, the function of most LepRb populations remains unknown, and their contribution to regulate energy homeostasis has not been studied. Galanin has been hypothesized to interact with the leptin signaling system, but literature investigating colocalization of LepRb and galanin has been inconsistent, which is likely due to technical difficulties to visualize both. We used reporter mice with green fluorescent protein expression from the galanin locus to recapitulate the colocalization of galanin and leptin-induced p-STAT3 as a marker for LepRb expression. Here, we report the existence of two populations of galanin-expressing LepRb neurons (Gal-LepRb neurons): in the hypothalamus overspanning the perifornical area and adjacent dorsomedial and lateral hypothalamus [collectively named extended perifornical area (exPFA)] and in the brainstem (nucleus of the solitary tract). Surprisingly, despite the known orexigenic galanin action, leptin induces galanin mRNA expression and stimulates LepRb neurons in the exPFA, thus conflicting with the expected anorexigenic leptin action. However, we confirmed that intra-exPFA leptin injections were indeed sufficient to mediate anorexic responses. Interestingly, LepRb and galanin-expressing neurons are distinct from orexin or melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-expressing neurons, but exPFA galanin neurons colocalized with the anorexigenic neuropeptides neurotensin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). Based on galanin's known inhibitory function, we speculate that in exPFA Gal-LepRb neurons galanin acts inhibitory rather than orexigenic.
|A nonsynonymous polymorphism in semaphorin 3A as a risk factor for human unexplained cardiac arrest with documented ventricular fibrillation. |
Nakano, Y; Chayama, K; Ochi, H; Toshishige, M; Hayashida, Y; Miki, D; Hayes, CN; Suzuki, H; Tokuyama, T; Oda, N; Suenari, K; Uchimura-Makita, Y; Kajihara, K; Sairaku, A; Motoda, C; Fujiwara, M; Watanabe, Y; Yoshida, Y; Ohkubo, K; Watanabe, I; Nogami, A; Hasegawa, K; Watanabe, H; Endo, N; Aiba, T; Shimizu, W; Ohno, S; Horie, M; Arihiro, K; Tashiro, S; Makita, N; Kihara, Y
PLoS genetics 9 e1003364 2013
Unexplained cardiac arrest (UCA) with documented ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a major cause of sudden cardiac death. Abnormal sympathetic innervations have been shown to be a trigger of ventricular fibrillation. Further, adequate expression of SEMA3A was reported to be critical for normal patterning of cardiac sympathetic innervation. We investigated the relevance of the semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) gene located at chromosome 5 in the etiology of UCA. Eighty-three Japanese patients diagnosed with UCA and 2,958 healthy controls from two different geographic regions in Japan were enrolled. A nonsynonymous polymorphism (I334V, rs138694505Agreater than G) in exon 10 of the SEMA3A gene identified through resequencing was significantly associated with UCA (combined P = 0.0004, OR 3.08, 95%CI 1.67-5.7). Overall, 15.7% of UCA patients carried the risk genotype G, whereas only 5.6% did in controls. In patients with SEMA3A(I334V), VF predominantly occurred at rest during the night. They showed sinus bradycardia, and their RR intervals on the 12-lead electrocardiography tended to be longer than those in patients without SEMA3A(I334V) (1031±111 ms versus 932±182 ms, P = 0.039). Immunofluorescence staining of cardiac biopsy specimens revealed that sympathetic nerves, which are absent in the subendocardial layer in normal hearts, extended to the subendocardial layer only in patients with SEMA3A(I334V). Functional analyses revealed that the axon-repelling and axon-collapsing activities of mutant SEMA3A(I334V) genes were significantly weaker than those of wild-type SEMA3A genes. A high incidence of SEMA3A(I334V) in UCA patients and inappropriate innervation patterning in their hearts implicate involvement of the SEMA3A gene in the pathogenesis of UCA.
|A neural extracellular matrix-based method for in vitro hippocampal neuron culture and dopaminergic differentiation of neural stem cells. |
García-Parra, P; Maroto, M; Cavaliere, F; Naldaiz-Gastesi, N; Álava, JI; García, AG; López de Munain, A; Izeta, A
BMC neuroscience 14 48 2013
The ability to recreate an optimal cellular microenvironment is critical to understand neuronal behavior and functionality in vitro. An organized neural extracellular matrix (nECM) promotes neural cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Here, we expanded previous observations on the ability of nECM to support in vitro neuronal differentiation, with the following goals: (i) to recreate complex neuronal networks of embryonic rat hippocampal cells, and (ii) to achieve improved levels of dopaminergic differentiation of subventricular zone (SVZ) neural progenitor cells.Hippocampal cells from E18 rat embryos were seeded on PLL- and nECM-coated substrates. Neurosphere cultures were prepared from the SVZ of P4-P7 rat pups, and differentiation of neurospheres assayed on PLL- and nECM-coated substrates.When seeded on nECM-coated substrates, both hippocampal cells and SVZ progenitor cells showed neural expression patterns that were similar to their poly-L-lysine-seeded counterparts. However, nECM-based cultures of both hippocampal neurons and SVZ progenitor cells could be maintained for longer times as compared to poly-L-lysine-based cultures. As a result, nECM-based cultures gave rise to a more branched neurite arborization of hippocampal neurons. Interestingly, the prolonged differentiation time of SVZ progenitor cells in nECM allowed us to obtain a purer population of dopaminergic neurons.We conclude that nECM-based coating is an efficient substrate to culture neural cells at different stages of differentiation. In addition, neural ECM-coated substrates increased neuronal survival and neuronal differentiation efficiency as compared to cationic polymers such as poly-L-lysine.
|Direct and retrograde transduction of nigral neurons with AAV6, 8, and 9 and intraneuronal persistence of viral particles. |
Löw, K; Aebischer, P; Schneider, BL
Human gene therapy 24 613-29 2013
Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors of serotypes 6, 8, and 9 were characterized as tools for gene delivery to dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra for future gene therapeutic applications in Parkinson's disease. While vectors of all three serotypes transduced nigral dopaminergic neurons with equal efficiency when directly injected to the substantia nigra, AAV6 was clearly superior to AAV8 and AAV9 for retrograde transduction of nigral neurons after striatal delivery. For sequential transduction of nigral dopaminergic neurons, the combination of AAV9 with AAV6 proved to be more powerful than AAV8 with AAV6 or repeated AAV6 administration. Surprisingly, single-stranded viral genomes persisted in nigral dopaminergic neurons within cell bodies and axon terminals in the striatum, and intact assembled AAV capsid was enriched in nuclei of nigral neurons, 4 weeks after virus injections to the substantia nigra. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra reduced the number of viral genomes in the striatum, in line with viral genome persistence in axon terminals. However, 6-OHDA-induced axonal degeneration did not induce any transsynaptic spread of AAV infection in the striatum. Therefore, the potential presence of viral particles in axons may not represent an important safety issue for AAV gene therapy applications in neurodegenerative diseases.
|Prenatal hypoxia is associated with long-term retinal dysfunction in rats. |
Bourque, SL; Kuny, S; Reyes, LM; Davidge, ST; Sauvé, Y
PloS one 8 e61861 2013
Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been associated with increased predisposition to age-related complications. We tested the hypothesis that rat offspring models of IUGR would exhibit exacerbated, age-related retinal dysfunction.Female Sprague-Dawley rats (maintained at 11.5% O2 from gestational day 15 to 21 to induce IUGR) and control offspring (maintained at 21% O2 throughout pregnancy) had retinal function assessed at 2 months (young) and 14 months of age (aged) with electroretinogram (ERG) recordings. Retinal anatomy was assessed by immunofluorescence.Deficits in rod-driven retina function were observed in aged IUGR offspring, as evidenced by reduced amplitudes of dark-adapted mixed a-wave V(max) (by 49.3%, P less than 0.01), b-wave V(max) (by 42.1%, P less than 0.001) and dark-adapted peak oscillatory potentials (by 42.3%, P less than 0.01). In contrast to the rod-driven defects specific to aged IUGR offspring, light adapted ERG recordings revealed cone defects in young animals, that were stationary until old age. At 2 months, IUGR offspring had amplitude reductions for both b-wave (V(max) by 46%, P less than 0.01) and peak oscillatory potential (V(max) by 38%, P less than 0.05). Finally, defects in cone-driven responses were further confirmed by reduced maximal photopic flicker amplitudes at 2 (by 42%, P less than 0.001) and 14 months (by 34%, P = 0.06) and critical flicker fusion frequencies at 14 months (42 ± 1 Hz, IUGR: 35 ± 2 Hz, P less than 0.05). These functional changes were not paralleled by anatomical losses in IUGR offspring retinas.These data support that the developing retina is sensitive to stressors, and that pathways governing cone- and rod-driven function differ in their susceptibilities. In the case of prenatal hypoxia, cone- and rod-driven dysfunction manifest at young and old ages, respectively. We must, therefore, take into account the specific impact that fetal programming might exert on age-related retinal dystrophies when considering related diagnoses and therapeutic applications.
|Transplantation of Deprenyl-Induced Tyrosine Hydroxylase-Positive Cells Improves 6-OHDA-Lesion Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease: Behavioral and Immunohistochemical Evaluation. |
Haji Ghasem Kashani, M; Ghorbanian, MT; Hosseinpour, L
Cell journal 15 55-64 2013
There is longstanding experimental and clinical evidence that supports the idea that replacement of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons can ameliorate functional disabilities of Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of the present study is to examine the efficacy of transplantation of rat bone marrow stromal cell (BMSCs)-derived tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH(+)) cells induced by deprenyl into 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat models, using behavioral tests and immunohistochemical evaluations.In this experimental study, undifferentiated BrdU-labeled BMSCs were incubated in serum-free medium that contained 10(-8) M deprenyl for 24 hours. Afterwards, BMSCs were cultured for 48 hours in α-minimal essential medium (α-MEM) supplemented with 10% FBS, then differentiated into TH(+) neurons. We randomly divided 24 hemiparkinsonian rats as follows: group 1 (control) received only medium, while groups 2 and 3 were injected with 2×10(5) BMSCs and deprenyl-treated cells in 4 µl medium. Injections were made into the injured strata of the rats. Rotational behavior in response to apomorphine was tested before transplantation and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-graft. Animals were then sacrificed, and the brains were extracted for immunohistochemical and electron microscopic studies.Apomorphine-induced rotation analysis indicated that animals with grafted cells in groups 2 and 3 exhibited significantly less rotational behavior than those in the control group at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after transplantation. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that BrdU-labeled cells expressed specific neuronal markers, such as NF 200 and TH, at the implantation site. The presence of TH(+) cells in conjunction with the reduction in rotation might show the capacity of grafted cells to release dopamine. Ultrastructural analysis revealed the presence of immature neurons and astrocyte-like cells at the graft site.TH(+) neurons induced by deprenyl can be considered as a cell source for PD autograft therapy.
|Caudo-rostral brain spreading of α-synuclein through vagal connections. |
Ulusoy, A; Rusconi, R; Pérez-Revuelta, BI; Musgrove, RE; Helwig, M; Winzen-Reichert, B; Di Monte, DA
EMBO molecular medicine 5 1051-9 2013
α-Synuclein accumulation and pathology in Parkinson's disease typically display a caudo-rostral pattern of progression, involving neuronal nuclei in the medulla oblongata at the earliest stages. In this study, selective expression and accumulation of human α-synuclein within medullary neurons was achieved via retrograde transport of adeno-associated viral vectors unilaterally injected into the vagus nerve in the rat neck. The exogenous protein progressively spread toward more rostral brain regions where it could be detected within axonal projections. Propagation to the pons, midbrain and forebrain followed a stereotypical pattern of topographical distribution. It affected areas such as the coeruleus-subcoeruleus complex, dorsal raphae, hypothalamus and amygdala ipsilateral and, to a lesser extent, contralateral to the injection side. Spreading was accompanied by evidence of neuritic pathology in the form of axonal varicosities intensely immunoreactive for human α-synuclein and containing Thioflavin-S-positive fibrils. Thus, overexpression of human α-synuclein in the lower brainstem is sufficient to induce its long-distance caudo-rostral propagation, recapitulating features of Parkinson's disease and mechanisms of disease progression.
|Drosophila Trap1 protects against mitochondrial dysfunction in a PINK1/parkin model of Parkinson's disease. |
Costa, AC; Loh, SH; Martins, LM
Cell death & disease 4 e467 2013
Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by protein aggregation has been shown to have an important role in neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Mitochondria have evolved at least two levels of defence mechanisms that ensure their integrity and the viability of their host cell. First, molecular quality control, through the upregulation of mitochondrial chaperones and proteases, guarantees the clearance of damaged proteins. Second, organellar quality control ensures the clearance of defective mitochondria through their selective autophagy. Studies in Drosophila have highlighted mitochondrial dysfunction linked with the loss of the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) as a mechanism of PD pathogenesis. The mitochondrial chaperone TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) was recently reported to be a cellular substrate for the PINK1 kinase. Here, we characterise Drosophila Trap1 null mutants and describe the genetic analysis of Trap1 function with Pink1 and parkin. We show that loss of Trap1 results in a decrease in mitochondrial function and increased sensitivity to stress, and that its upregulation in neurons of Pink1 mutant rescues mitochondrial impairment. Additionally, the expression of Trap1 was able to partially rescue mitochondrial impairment in parkin mutant flies; and conversely, expression of parkin rescued mitochondrial impairment in Trap1 mutants. We conclude that Trap1 works downstream of Pink1 and in parallel with parkin in Drosophila, and that enhancing its function may ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction and rescue neurodegeneration in PD.
|Age-appropriate cognition and subtle dopamine-independent motor deficits in aged tau knockout mice. |
Morris, M; Hamto, P; Adame, A; Devidze, N; Masliah, E; Mucke, L
Neurobiology of aging 34 1523-9 2013
The microtubule-associated protein tau is expressed throughout the nervous system, most highly in neurons but also in glial cells. Its functions in adult and aging mammals remain to be defined. Previous studies in mouse models found either protective or detrimental effects of genetic tau ablation. Though tau ablation prevented synaptic, network, and cognitive dysfunctions in several models of Alzheimer's disease and made mice more resistant to epileptic seizures, a recent study described a parkinsonian phenotype in aging Tau knockout mice. Here we tested cognition and motor functions in Tau(+/+), Tau(+/-), and Tau(-/-) mice at approximately 1 and 2 years of age. Tau ablation did not impair cognition and caused only minor motor deficits that were much more subtle than those associated with the aging process. Tau ablation caused a mild increase in body weight, which correlated with and might have contributed to some of the motor deficits. However, tau ablation did not cause significant dopaminergic impairments, and dopamine treatment did not improve the motor deficits, suggesting that they do not reflect extrapyramidal dysfunction.
|TNFα reverse signaling promotes sympathetic axon growth and target innervation. |
Kisiswa, L; Osório, C; Erice, C; Vizard, T; Wyatt, S; Davies, AM
Nature neuroscience 16 865-73 2013
Reverse signaling via members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily controls multiple aspects of immune function. Here we document TNFα reverse signaling in the nervous system to our knowledge for the first time and show that it has a crucial role in establishing sympathetic innervation. During postnatal development, sympathetic axons express TNFα as they grow and branch in their target tissues, which in turn express TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1). In culture, soluble forms of TNFR1 act directly on postnatal sympathetic axons to promote growth and branching by a mechanism that depends on membrane-integrated TNFα and on downstream activation of ERK. Sympathetic innervation density is substantially lower in several tissues in postnatal and adult mice lacking either TNFα or TNFR1. These findings reveal that target-derived TNFR1 acts as a reverse-signaling ligand for membrane-integrated TNFα to promote growth and branching of sympathetic axons.
|Calcium entry and α-synuclein inclusions elevate dendritic mitochondrial oxidant stress in dopaminergic neurons. |
Dryanovski, DI; Guzman, JN; Xie, Z; Galteri, DJ; Volpicelli-Daley, LA; Lee, VM; Miller, RJ; Schumacker, PT; Surmeier, DJ
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 10154-64 2013
The core motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are attributable to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Mitochondrial oxidant stress is widely viewed a major factor in PD pathogenesis. Previous work has shown that activity-dependent calcium entry through L-type channels elevates perinuclear mitochondrial oxidant stress in SNc dopaminergic neurons, providing a potential basis for their selective vulnerability. What is less clear is whether this physiological stress is present in dendrites and if Lewy bodies, the major neuropathological lesion found in PD brains, exacerbate it. To pursue these questions, mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons derived from C57BL/6 transgenic mice were studied in primary cultures, allowing for visualization of soma and dendrites simultaneously. Many of the key features of in vivo adult dopaminergic neurons were recapitulated in vitro. Activity-dependent calcium entry through L-type channels increased mitochondrial oxidant stress in dendrites. This stress progressively increased with distance from the soma. Examination of SNc dopaminergic neurons ex vivo in brain slices verified this pattern. Moreover, the formation of intracellular α-synuclein Lewy-body-like aggregates increased mitochondrial oxidant stress in perinuclear and dendritic compartments. This stress appeared to be extramitochondrial in origin, because scavengers of cytosolic reactive oxygen species or inhibition of NADPH oxidase attenuated it. These results show that physiological and proteostatic stress can be additive in the soma and dendrites of vulnerable dopaminergic neurons, providing new insight into the factors underlying PD pathogenesis.
|Identification of key uric acid synthesis pathway in a unique mutant silkworm Bombyx mori model of Parkinson's disease. |
Tabunoki, H; Ono, H; Ode, H; Ishikawa, K; Kawana, N; Banno, Y; Shimada, T; Nakamura, Y; Yamamoto, K; Satoh, J; Bono, H
PloS one 8 e69130 2013
Plasma uric acid (UA) levels decrease following clinical progression and stage development of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying decreases in plasma UA levels remain unclear, and the potential to apply mutagenesis to a PD model has not previously been discovered. We identified a unique mutant of the silkworm Bombyx mori (B.mori) op. Initially, we investigated the causality of the phenotypic "op" by microarray analysis using our constructed KAIKO functional annotation pipeline. Consequently, we found a novel UA synthesis-modulating pathway, from DJ-1 to xanthine oxidase, and established methods for large-scale analysis of gene expression in B. mori. We found that the mRNA levels of genes in this pathway were significantly lower in B. mori op mutants, indicating that downstream events in the signal transduction cascade might be prevented. Additionally, levels of B.mori tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DJ-1 mRNA were significantly lower in the brain of B. mori op mutants. UA content was significantly lower in the B. mori op mutant tissues and hemolymph. The possibility that the B. mori op mutant might be due to loss of DJ-1 function was supported by the observed vulnerability to oxidative stress. These results suggest that UA synthesis, transport, elimination and accumulation are decreased by environmental oxidative stress in the B. mori op mutant. In the case of B. mori op mutants, the relatively low availability of UA appears to be due both to the oxidation of DJ-1 and to its expenditure to mitigate the effects of environmental oxidative stress. Our findings are expected to provide information needed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of decreased plasma UA levels in the clinical stage progression of PD.
|Neuropeptide y gates a stress-induced, long-lasting plasticity in the sympathetic nervous system. |
Wang, Q; Wang, M; Whim, MD
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 12705-17 2013
Acute stress evokes the fight-or-flight reflex, which via release of the catecholamine hormones affects the function of every major organ. Although the reflex is transient, it has lasting consequences that produce an exaggerated response when stress is reexperienced. How this change is encoded is not known. We investigated whether the reflex affects the adrenal component of the sympathetic nervous system, a major branch of the stress response. Mice were briefly exposed to the cold-water forced swim test (FST) which evoked an increase in circulating catecholamines. Although this hormonal response was transient, the FST led to a long-lasting increase in the catecholamine secretory capacity measured amperometrically from chromaffin cells and in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase. A variety of approaches indicate that these changes are regulated postsynaptically by neuropeptide Y (NPY), an adrenal cotransmitter. Using immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and NPY(GFP) BAC mice, we find that NPY is synthesized by all chromaffin cells. Stress failed to increase secretory capacity in NPY knock-out mice. Genetic or pharmacological interference with NPY and Y1 (but not Y2 or Y5) receptor signaling attenuated the stress-induced change in tyrosine hydroxylase expression. These results indicate that, under basal conditions, adrenal signaling is tonically inhibited by NPY, but stress overrides this autocrine negative feedback loop. Because acute stress leads to a lasting increase in secretory capacity in vivo but does not alter sympathetic tone, these postsynaptic changes appear to be an adaptive response. We conclude that the sympathetic limb of the stress response exhibits an activity-dependent form of long-lasting plasticity.
|Expression of human E46K-mutated α-synuclein in BAC-transgenic rats replicates early-stage Parkinson's disease features and enhances vulnerability to mitochondrial impairment. |
Cannon, JR; Geghman, KD; Tapias, V; Sew, T; Dail, MK; Li, C; Greenamyre, JT
Experimental neurology 240 44-56 2013
Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, is etiologically heterogeneous, with most cases thought to arise from a combination of environmental factors and genetic predisposition; about 10% of cases are caused by single gene mutations. While neurotoxin models replicate many of the key behavioral and neurological features, they often have limited relevance to human exposures. Genetic models replicate known disease-causing mutations, but are mostly unsuccessful in reproducing major features of PD. In this study, we created a BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) transgenic rat model of PD expressing the E46K mutation of α-synuclein, which is pathogenic in humans. The mutant protein was expressed at levels ~2-3-fold above endogenous α-synuclein levels. At 12 months of age, there was no overt damage to the nigrostriatal dopamine system; however, (i) alterations in striatal neurotransmitter metabolism, (ii) accumulation and aggregation of α-synuclein in nigral dopamine neurons, and (iii) evidence of oxidative stress suggest this model replicates several preclinical features of PD. Further, when these animals were exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial toxin linked to PD, they showed heightened sensitivity, indicating that α-synuclein expression modulates the vulnerability to mitochondrial impairment. We conclude that these animals are well-suited to examination of gene-environment interactions that are relevant to PD.
|Microglial activation and antioxidant responses induced by the Parkinson's disease protein α-synuclein. |
Béraud, D; Hathaway, HA; Trecki, J; Chasovskikh, S; Johnson, DA; Johnson, JA; Federoff, HJ; Shimoji, M; Mhyre, TR; Maguire-Zeiss, KA
Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology 8 94-117 2013
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder typified by tremor, rigidity, akinesia and postural instability due in part to the loss of dopamine within the nigrostriatal system. The pathologic features of this disorder include the loss of substantia nigra dopamine neurons and attendant striatal terminals, the presence of large protein-rich neuronal inclusions containing fibrillar α-synuclein and increased numbers of activated microglia. Evidence suggests that both misfolded α-synuclein and oxidative stress play an important role in the pathogenesis of sporadic PD. Here we review evidence that α-synuclein activates glia inducing inflammation and that Nrf2-directed phase-II antioxidant enzymes play an important role in PD. We also provide new evidence that the expression of antioxidant enzymes regulated in part by Nrf2 is increased in a mouse model of α-synuclein overexpression. We show that misfolded α-synuclein directly activates microglia inducing the production and release of the proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, and increasing antioxidant enzyme expression. Importantly, we demonstrate that the precise structure of α-synuclein is important for induction of this proinflammatory pathway. This complex α-synuclein-directed glial response highlights the importance of protein misfolding, oxidative stress and inflammation in PD and represents a potential locus for the development of novel therapeutics focused on induction of the Nrf2-directed antioxidant pathway and inhibition of protein misfolding.
|Analysis of inflammation-related nigral degeneration and locomotor function in DJ-1(-/-) mice. |
Nguyen, TA; Frank-Cannon, T; Martinez, TN; Ruhn, KA; Marvin, M; Casey, B; Treviño, I; Hong, JJ; Goldberg, MS; Tansey, MG
Journal of neuroinflammation 10 50 2013
Complex interactions involving genetic susceptibility and environmental factors are thought to underlie the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the role of inflammatory processes in modulating risk for development of PD has yet to be fully understood, prospective studies suggest that chronic use of NSAIDs reduce the incidence of PD. Loss-of-function mutations in the DJ-1 gene cause a rare form of familial PD with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance; however, DJ-1-/- mice do not display nigrostriatal pathway degeneration, suggesting that additional factors such as inflammation may be needed to induce neurodegeneration on the background of DJ-1 gene mutations. Neuroinflammation causes oxidative stress and, based on evidence that DJ-1 plays a protective role against oxidative stress, we investigated whether DJ-1-/- mice display increased vulnerability to inflammation-induced nigral degeneration.We exposed adult wild-type and DJ-1-/- mice to repeated intranasal administration of soluble TNF (inTNF) or repeated intraperitoneal injections of low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline vehicle. We measured locomotor performance using a variety of behavior tasks, striatal dopamine (DA) content by HPLC, DA neuron (TH+ cells) and total neuron (NeuN+ cells) number in the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area by unbiased stereology, number of Iba1-positive microglia, and mRNA levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress genes by quantitative PCR in the midbrain, cortex and isolated peritoneal macrophages of DJ-1-/- and wild-type mice.We found that chronic LPS injections induced similar neuroinflammatory responses in the midbrains of DJ-1-/- mice and wild-type mice and neither group developed locomotor deficits or nigral degeneration. inTNF administration did not appear to induce neuroinflammatory responses in LPS-treated wild-type or DJ-1-/- mice. The lack of vulnerability to inflammation-induced nigral degeneration was not due to enhanced anti-oxidant gene responses in the midbrains of DJ-1-/- mice which, in fact, displayed a blunted response relative to that of wild-type mice. Peripheral macrophages from wild-type and DJ-1-/- mice displayed similar basal and LPS-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in vitro.Our studies indicate that DJ-1-/- mice do not display increased vulnerability to inflammation-related nigral degeneration in contrast to what has been reported for 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrindine. We conclude that either DJ-1 does not have a critical role in protecting DA neurons against inflammation-induced oxidative stress and/or there is compensatory gene expression in the midbrain of DJ-1-/- mice that renders them resistant to the cytotoxic effects triggered by chronic peripheral inflammation.
|Optical dissection of odor information processing in vivo using GCaMPs expressed in specified cell types of the olfactory bulb. |
Wachowiak, M; Economo, MN; Díaz-Quesada, M; Brunert, D; Wesson, DW; White, JA; Rothermel, M
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 5285-300 2013
Understanding central processing requires precise monitoring of neural activity across populations of identified neurons in the intact brain. In the present study, we used recently optimized variants of the genetically encoded calcium sensor GCaMP (GCaMP3 and GCaMPG5G) to image activity among genetically and anatomically defined neuronal populations in the olfactory bulb (OB), including two types of GABAergic interneurons (periglomerular [PG] and short axon [SA] cells) and OB output neurons (mitral/tufted [MT] cells) projecting to the piriform cortex. We first established that changes in neuronal spiking can be related accurately to GCaMP fluorescence changes via a simple quantitative relationship over a large dynamic range. We next used in vivo two-photon imaging from individual neurons and epifluorescence signals reflecting population-level activity to investigate the spatiotemporal representation of odorants across these neuron types in anesthetized and awake mice. Under anesthesia, individual PG and SA cells showed temporally simple responses and little spontaneous activity, whereas MT cells were spontaneously active and showed diverse temporal responses. At the population level, response patterns of PG, SA, and MT cells were surprisingly similar to those imaged from sensory inputs, with shared odorant-specific topography across the dorsal OB and inhalation-coupled temporal dynamics. During wakefulness, PG and SA cell responses increased in magnitude but remained temporally simple, whereas those of MT cells changed to complex spatiotemporal patterns reflecting restricted excitation and widespread inhibition. These results suggest multiple circuit elements with distinct roles in transforming odor representations in the OB and provide a framework for further study of early olfactory processing using optical and genetic tools.
|Arylsulfatase B improves locomotor function after mouse spinal cord injury. |
Yoo, M; Khaled, M; Gibbs, KM; Kim, J; Kowalewski, B; Dierks, T; Schachner, M
PloS one 8 e57415 2013
Bacterial chondroitinase ABC (ChaseABC) has been used to remove the inhibitory chondroitin sulfate chains from chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans to improve regeneration after rodent spinal cord injury. We hypothesized that the mammalian enzyme arylsulfatase B (ARSB) would also enhance recovery after mouse spinal cord injury. Application of the mammalian enzyme would be an attractive alternative to ChaseABC because of its more robust chemical stability and reduced immunogenicity. A one-time injection of human ARSB into injured mouse spinal cord eliminated immunoreactivity for chondroitin sulfates within five days, and up to 9 weeks after injury. After a moderate spinal cord injury, we observed improvements of locomotor recovery assessed by the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) in ARSB treated mice, compared to the buffer-treated control group, at 6 weeks after injection. After a severe spinal cord injury, mice injected with equivalent units of ARSB or ChaseABC improved similarly and both groups achieved significantly more locomotor recovery than the buffer-treated control mice. Serotonin and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive axons were more extensively present in mouse spinal cords treated with ARSB and ChaseABC, and the immunoreactive axons penetrated further beyond the injury site in ARSB or ChaseABC treated mice than in control mice. These results indicate that mammalian ARSB improves functional recovery after CNS injury. The structural/molecular mechanisms underlying the observed functional improvement remain to be elucidated.
|Foxa1 and foxa2 are required for the maintenance of dopaminergic properties in ventral midbrain neurons at late embryonic stages. |
Stott, SR; Metzakopian, E; Lin, W; Kaestner, KH; Hen, R; Ang, SL
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 8022-34 2013
The maintained expression of transcription factors throughout the development of mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons suggests multiple roles at various stages in development. Two members of the forkhead/winged helix transcription factor family, Foxa1 and Foxa2, have been recently shown to have an important influence in the early development of mDA neurons. Here we present data demonstrating that these genes are also involved in the later maintenance of the mDA system. We conditionally removed both genes in postmitotic mDA neurons using the dopamine transporter-cre mouse. Deletion of both Foxa1 and Foxa2 resulted in a significant reduction in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive mDA neurons. The decrease was predominantly observed in the substantia nigra region of the mDA system, which led to a loss of TH+ fibers innervating the striatum. Further analysis demonstrated that the reduction in the number of TH+ cells in the mutant mice was not due to apoptosis or cell-fate change. Using reporter mouse lines, we found that the mDA neurons were still present in the ventral midbrain, but that they had lost much of their dopaminergic phenotype. The majority of these neurons remained in the ventral mesencephalon until at least 18 months of age. Chromatin immunoprecipitation suggested that the loss of the mDA phenotype is due to a reduction in the binding of the nuclear orphan receptor, Nurr-1 to the promoter region of TH. These results extend previous findings and demonstrate a later role for Foxa genes in regulating the maintenance of dopaminergic phenotype in mDA neurons.
|Sustained resistance to acute MPTP toxicity by hypothalamic dopamine neurons following chronic neurotoxicant exposure is associated with sustained up-regulation of parkin protein. |
Benskey, M; Lee, KY; Parikh, K; Lookingland, KJ; Goudreau, JL
Neurotoxicology 37 144-53 2013
Hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons remain unaffected in Parkinson disease (PD) while there is significant degeneration of midbrain nigrostriatal dopamine (NSDA) neurons. A similar pattern of susceptibility is observed following acute exposure to the neurotoxicant 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), and the resistance of TIDA neurons to MPTP is associated with increased expression of parkin and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L-1 (UCHL-1). In the present study, the response of TIDA and NSDA neurons to acute MPTP administration following chronic MPTP exposure was examined. Mice were treated with ten injections of either MPTP (20mg/kg; s.c.; every 3.5 days) or saline vehicle (10 ml/kg; s.c.; every 3.5 days). Following a 21 day recovery period, chronic saline- and MPTP-treated mice received an additional injection of either saline (10 ml/kg; s.c.) or MPTP (20mg/kg; s.c.) and were sacrificed 24h later. NSDA neurons displayed significant axon terminal degeneration (as reflected by decreases in DA, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA transporter concentrations in the striatum) as well as loss of TH-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) following MPTP, whereas TIDA neurons revealed no overt axon terminal pathology or loss of TH-IR cell bodies. NSDA neuronal pathology was associated with transient decreases in concentrations of parkin and UCHL-1 protein in the SN, which returned to normal levels by 21 days following cessation of chronic neurotoxicant exposure. Resistance of TIDA neurons to MPTP toxicity was correlated with a transient increase in UCHL-1 and a sustained elevation in parkin in the arcuate nucleus. TIDA neurons represent a DA neuron population with a unique and inherent ability to adapt to acute and chronic toxicant administration with a sustained elevation of the neuroprotective protein parkin. The correlation between the ability to increase parkin and UCHL-1 expression and the resistance of DA neurons to neurotoxicant exposure is consistent with a functional link between these features and an underlying differential susceptibility to toxicant-associated neurodegeneration.
|Chemotherapy-induced bone marrow nerve injury impairs hematopoietic regeneration. |
Lucas, D; Scheiermann, C; Chow, A; Kunisaki, Y; Bruns, I; Barrick, C; Tessarollo, L; Frenette, PS
Nature medicine 19 695-703 2013
Anticancer chemotherapy drugs challenge hematopoietic tissues to regenerate but commonly produce long-term sequelae. Chemotherapy-induced deficits in hematopoietic stem or stromal cell function have been described, but the mechanisms mediating hematopoietic dysfunction remain unclear. Administration of multiple cycles of cisplatin chemotherapy causes substantial sensory neuropathy. Here we demonstrate that chemotherapy-induced nerve injury in the bone marrow of mice is a crucial lesion impairing hematopoietic regeneration. Using pharmacological and genetic models, we show that the selective loss of adrenergic innervation in the bone marrow alters its regeneration after genotoxic insult. Sympathetic nerves in the marrow promote the survival of constituents of the stem cell niche that initiate recovery. Neuroprotection by deletion of Trp53 in sympathetic neurons or neuroregeneration by administration of 4-methylcatechol or glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes hematopoietic recovery. These results demonstrate the potential benefit of adrenergic nerve protection for shielding hematopoietic niches from injury.
|The widely used Wnt1-Cre transgene causes developmental phenotypes by ectopic activation of Wnt signaling. |
Lewis, AE; Vasudevan, HN; O'Neill, AK; Soriano, P; Bush, JO
Developmental biology 379 229-34 2013
The Wnt1-Cre transgenic mouse line is extensively used in the study of the development of the neural crest and its derivatives and the midbrain. The Wnt1 gene has important developmental roles in formation of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary, regulation of midbrain size, and neurogenesis of ventral midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. Here, we report that Wnt1-Cre transgenic mice exhibit phenotypes in multiple aspects of midbrain development. Significant expansion of the midbrain and increased proliferation in the developing inferior colliculus is associated with ectopic expression of Wnt1. Marked elevation of Wnt1 expression in the ventral midbrain is correlated with disruption of the differentiation program of ventral mDA neurons. We find that these phenotypes can be attributed to ectopic expression of Wnt1 from the Wnt1-Cre transgene leading to the ectopic activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Since these caveats could complicate the utility of Wnt1-Cre in some developmental circumstances, we report a new Wnt1-Cre2 transgenic mouse line that can serve the same purposes as the original without the associated phenotypic complications. These studies reveal an important caveat to a widely-used reagent, provide an improved version of this reagent, and indicate that the original Wnt1-Cre transgenic mouse line may be useful as a gain of function model for interrogating Wnt signaling mechanisms in multiple aspects of midbrain development.
|Survey on amacrine cells coupling to retrograde-identified ganglion cells in the mouse retina. |
Pang, JJ; Paul, DL; Wu, SM
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 54 5151-62 2013
Retinal amacrine cells (ACs) may make inhibitory chemical synapses and potentially excitatory gap junctions on ganglion cells (GCs). The total number and subtypes of ACs coupled to the entire GC population were investigated in wild-type and three lines of transgenic mice.GCs and GC-coupled ACs were identified by the previously established LY-NB (Lucifer yellow-Neurobiotin) retrograde double-labeling technique, in conjunction with specific antibodies and confocal microscopy.GC-coupled ACs (NB-positive and LY-negative) comprised nearly 11% of displaced ACs and 4% of conventional ACs in wild-type mice, and were 9% and 4% of displaced ACs in Cx45(-/-) and Cx36/45(-/-) mice, respectively. Their somas were small in Cx36/45(-/-) mice, but variable in other strains. They were mostly γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (IR) and located in the GC layer. They comprised only a small portion in the AC subpopulations, including GABA-IR, glycine-IR, calretinin-IR, 5-HT-accumulating, and ON-type choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) ACs in wild-type and ChAT transgenic mice (ChAT- tdTomato). In the distal 80% of the inner plexiform layer (IPL), dense GC dendrites coexisted with rich glycine-IR and GABA-IR. In the inner 20% of the IPL, sparse GC dendrites presented with a major GABA band and sparse glycine-IR.Various subtypes of ACs may couple to GCs. ACs of the same immunoreactivity may either couple or not couple to GCs. Cx36 and Cx45 dominate GC-AC coupling except for small ACs. The overall potency of GC-AC coupling is moderate, especially in the proximal 20% of the IPL, where inhibitory chemical signals are dominated by GABA ACs.
|Forebrain dopamine neurons project down to a brainstem region controlling locomotion. |
Ryczko, D; Grätsch, S; Auclair, F; Dubé, C; Bergeron, S; Alpert, MH; Cone, JJ; Roitman, MF; Alford, S; Dubuc, R
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 E3235-42 2013
The contribution of dopamine (DA) to locomotor control is traditionally attributed to ascending dopaminergic projections from the substantia nigra pars compacta and the ventral tegmental area to the basal ganglia, which in turn project down to the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR), a brainstem region controlling locomotion in vertebrates. However, a dopaminergic innervation of the pedunculopontine nucleus, considered part of the MLR, was recently identified in the monkey. The origin and role of this dopaminergic input are unknown. We addressed these questions in a basal vertebrate, the lamprey. Here we report a functional descending dopaminergic pathway from the posterior tuberculum (PT; homologous to the substantia nigra pars compacta and/or ventral tegmental area of mammals) to the MLR. By using triple labeling, we found that dopaminergic cells from the PT not only project an ascending pathway to the striatum, but send a descending projection to the MLR. In an isolated brain preparation, PT stimulation elicited excitatory synaptic inputs into patch-clamped MLR cells, accompanied by activity in reticulospinal cells. By using voltammetry coupled with electrophysiological recordings, we demonstrate that PT stimulation evoked DA release in the MLR, together with the activation of reticulospinal cells. In a semi-intact preparation, stimulation of the PT elicited reticulospinal activity together with locomotor movements. Microinjections of a D1 antagonist in the MLR decreased the locomotor output elicited by PT stimulation, whereas injection of DA had an opposite effect. It appears that this descending dopaminergic pathway has a modulatory role on MLR cells that are known to receive glutamatergic projections and promotes locomotor output.
|Nicotine-Induced Structural Plasticity in Mesencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons Is Mediated by Dopamine D3 Receptors and Akt-mTORC1 Signaling. |
Collo, Ginetta, et al.
Mol. Pharmacol., 83: 1176-89 (2013) 2013
Although long-term exposure to nicotine is highly addictive, one beneficial consequence of chronic tobacco use is a reduced risk for Parkinson's disease. Of interest, these effects both reflect structural and functional plasticity of brain circuits controlling reward and motor behavior and, specifically, recruitment of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Because the underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly understood, we addressed this issue with use of primary cultures of mouse mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Exposure to nicotine (1-10 μM) for 72 hours in vitro increased dendritic arborization and soma size in primary cultures. These effects were blocked by mecamylamine and dihydro-β-erythroidine, but not methyllycaconitine. The involvement of α4β2 nAChR was supported by the lack of nicotine-induced structural remodeling in neurons from α4 null mutant mice (KO). Challenge with nicotine triggered phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and the thymoma viral proto-oncogene (Akt), followed by activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase. Upstream pathway blockade using the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 [2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride] resulted in suppression of nicotine-induced phosphorylations and structural plasticity. These effects were dependent on functional DA D3 receptor (D3R), because nicotine was inactive both in cultures from D3R KO mice and after pharmacologic blockade with D3R antagonist trans-N-4-2-(6-cyano-1,2,3, 4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)ethylcyclohexyl-4-quinolinecarboxamide (SB-277011-A) (50 nM). Finally, exposure to nicotine in utero (5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) resulted in increased soma area of DAergic neurons of newborn mice, effects not observed in D3 receptor null mutant mice mice. These findings indicate that nicotine-induced structural plasticity at mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons involves α4β2 nAChRs together with dopamine D3R-mediated recruitment of ERK/Akt-mTORC1 signaling.
|Neuronal and nonneuronal cholinergic structures in the mouse gastrointestinal tract and spleen. |
Gautron, L; Rutkowski, JM; Burton, MD; Wei, W; Wan, Y; Elmquist, JK
The Journal of comparative neurology 521 3741-67 2013
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that acetylcholine can directly modulate immune function in peripheral tissues including the spleen and gastrointestinal tract. However, the anatomical relationships between the peripheral cholinergic system and immune cells located in these lymphoid tissues remain unclear due to inherent technical difficulties with currently available neuroanatomical methods. In this study, mice with specific expression of the tdTomato fluorescent protein in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-expressing cells were used to label preganglionic and postganglionic cholinergic neurons and their projections to lymphoid tissues. Notably, our anatomical observations revealed an abundant innervation in the intestinal lamina propria of the entire gastrointestinal tract principally originating from cholinergic enteric neurons. The aforementioned innervation frequently approached macrophages, plasma cells, and lymphocytes located in the lamina propria and, to a lesser extent, lymphocytes in the interfollicular areas of Peyer's patches. In addition to the above innervation, we observed labeled epithelial cells in the gallbladder and lower intestines, as well as Microfold cells and T-cells within Peyer's patches. In contrast, we found only a sparse innervation in the spleen consisting of neuronal fibers of spinal origin present around arterioles and in lymphocyte-containing areas of the white pulp. Lastly, a small population of ChAT-expressing lymphocytes was identified in the spleen including both T- and B-cells. In summary, this study describes the variety of cholinergic neuronal and nonneuronal cells in a position to modulate gastrointestinal and splenic immunity in the mouse.
|Differential distribution of major brain gangliosides in the adult mouse central nervous system. |
Vajn, K; Viljetić, B; Degmečić, IV; Schnaar, RL; Heffer, M
PloS one 8 e75720 2013
Gangliosides - sialic acid-bearing glycolipids - are major cell surface determinants on neurons and axons. The same four closely related structures, GM1, GD1a, GD1b and GT1b, comprise the majority of total brain gangliosides in mammals and birds. Gangliosides regulate the activities of proteins in the membranes in which they reside, and also act as cell-cell recognition receptors. Understanding the functions of major brain gangliosides requires knowledge of their tissue distribution, which has been accomplished in the past using biochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Armed with new knowledge about the stability and accessibility of gangliosides in tissues and new IgG-class specific monoclonal antibodies, we investigated the detailed tissue distribution of gangliosides in the adult mouse brain. Gangliosides GD1b and GT1b are widely expressed in gray and white matter. In contrast, GM1 is predominately found in white matter and GD1a is specifically expressed in certain brain nuclei/tracts. These findings are considered in relationship to the hypothesis that gangliosides GD1a and GT1b act as receptors for an important axon-myelin recognition protein, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Mediating axon-myelin interactions is but one potential function of the major brain gangliosides, and more detailed knowledge of their distribution may help direct future functional studies.
|In vivo electrophysiology of nigral and thalamic neurons in alpha-synuclein-overexpressing mice highlights differences from toxin-based models of parkinsonism. |
Lobb, CJ; Zaheer, AK; Smith, Y; Jaeger, D
Journal of neurophysiology 110 2792-805 2013
Numerous studies have suggested that alpha-synuclein plays a prominent role in both familial and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Mice in which human alpha-synuclein is overexpressed (ASO) display progressive motor deficits and many nonmotor features of PD. However, it is unclear what in vivo pathophysiological mechanisms drive these motor deficits. It is also unknown whether previously proposed pathophysiological features (i.e., increased beta oscillations, bursting, and synchronization) described in toxin-based, nigrostriatal dopamine-depletion models are also present in ASO mice. To address these issues, we first confirmed that 5- to 6-mo-old ASO mice have robust motor dysfunction, despite the absence of significant nigrostriatal dopamine degeneration. In the same animals, we then recorded simultaneous single units and local field potentials (LFPs) in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr), the main basal ganglia output nucleus, and one of its main thalamic targets, the ventromedial nucleus, as well as LFPs in the primary motor cortex in anesthetized ASO mice and their age-matched, wild-type littermates. Neural activity was examined during slow wave activity and desynchronized cortical states, as previously described in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. In contrast to toxin-based models, we found a small decrease, rather than an increase, in beta oscillations in the desynchronized state. Similarly, synchronized burst firing of nigral neurons observed in toxin-based models was not observed in ASO mice. Instead, we found more subtle changes in pauses of SNpr firing compared with wild-type control mice. Our results suggest that the pathophysiology underlying motor dysfunction in ASO mice is distinctly different from striatal dopamine-depletion models of parkinsonism.
|Sympathetic cardiac hyperinnervation and atrial autonomic imbalance in diet-induced obesity promote cardiac arrhythmias. |
McCully, BH; Hasan, W; Streiff, CT; Houle, JC; Woodward, WR; Giraud, GD; Brooks, VL; Habecker, BA
American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology 305 H1530-7 2013
Obesity increases the risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, but the mechanisms are unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that obesity-induced cardiac sympathetic outgrowth and hyperinnervation promotes the development of arrhythmic events. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g), fed a high-fat diet (33% kcal/fat), diverged into obesity-resistant (OR) and obesity-prone (OP) groups and were compared with rats fed normal chow (13% kcal/fat; CON). In vitro experiments showed that both OR and OP rats exhibited hyperinnervation of the heart and high sympathetic outgrowth compared with CON rats, even though OR rats are not obese. Despite the hyperinnervation and outgrowth, we showed that, in vivo, OR rats were less susceptible to arrhythmic events after an intravenous epinephrine challenge compared with OP rats. On examining total and stimulus-evoked neurotransmitter levels in an ex vivo system, we demonstrate that atrial acetylcholine content and release were attenuated in OP compared with OR and CON groups. OP rats also expressed elevated atrial norepinephrine content, while norepinephrine release was suppressed. These findings suggest that the consumption of a high-fat diet, even in the absence of overt obesity, stimulates sympathetic outgrowth and hyperinnervation of the heart. However, normalized cardiac parasympathetic nervous system control may protect the heart from arrhythmic events.
|Imaging-based chemical screening reveals activity-dependent neural differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. |
Sun, Y; Dong, Z; Jin, T; Ang, KH; Huang, M; Haston, KM; Peng, J; Zhong, TP; Finkbeiner, S; Weiss, WA; Arkin, MR; Jan, LY; Guo, S
eLife 2 e00508 2013
Mammalian pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represent an important venue for understanding basic principles regulating tissue-specific differentiation and discovering new tools that may facilitate clinical applications. Mechanisms that direct neural differentiation of PSCs involve growth factor signaling and transcription regulation. However, it is unknown whether and how electrical activity influences this process. Here we report a high throughput imaging-based screen, which uncovers that selamectin, an anti-helminthic therapeutic compound with reported activity on invertebrate glutamate-gated chloride channels, promotes neural differentiation of PSCs. We show that selamectin's pro-neurogenic activity is mediated by γ2-containing GABAA receptors in subsets of neural rosette progenitors, accompanied by increased proneural and lineage-specific transcription factor expression and cell cycle exit. In vivo, selamectin promotes neurogenesis in developing zebrafish. Our results establish a chemical screening platform that reveals activity-dependent neural differentiation from PSCs. Compounds identified in this and future screening might prove therapeutically beneficial for treating neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative disorders. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00508.001.
|Knockdown of tyrosine hydroxylase in the nucleus of the solitary tract reduces elevated blood pressure during chronic intermittent hypoxia. |
Bathina, CS; Rajulapati, A; Franzke, M; Yamamoto, K; Cunningham, JT; Mifflin, S
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 305 R1031-9 2013
Noradrenergic A2 neurons in nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) respond to stressors such as hypoxia. We hypothesize that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) knockdown in NTS reduces cardiovascular responses to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a model of the arterial hypoxemia observed during sleep apnea in humans. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with radiotelemetry transmitters and adeno-associated viral constructs with green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter having either short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for TH or scrambled virus (scRNA) were injected into caudal NTS. Virus-injected rats were exposed to 7 days of CIH (alternating periods of 10% O2 and of 21% O2 from 8 AM to 4 PM; from 4 PM to 8 AM rats were exposed to 21% O2). CIH increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) during the day in both the scRNA (n = 14, P less than 0.001 MAP and HR) and shRNA (n = 13, P less than 0.001 MAP and HR) groups. During the night, MAP and HR remained elevated in the scRNA rats (P less than 0.001 MAP and HR) but not in the shRNA group. TH immunoreactivity and protein were reduced in the shRNA group. FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity was decreased in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of shRNA group (P less than 0.001). However, the shRNA group did not show any change in the FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Exposure to CIH increased MAP which persisted beyond the period of exposure to CIH. Knockdown of TH in the NTS reduced this CIH-induced persistent increase in MAP and reduced the transcriptional activation of PVN. This indicates that NTS A2 neurons play a role in the cardiovascular responses to CIH.
|3-D neurohistology of transparent tongue in health and injury with optical clearing. |
Hua, TE; Yang, TL; Yang, WC; Liu, KJ; Tang, SC
Frontiers in neuroanatomy 7 36 2013
Tongue receives extensive innervation to perform taste, sensory, and motor functions. Details of the tongue neuroanatomy and its plasticity in response to injury offer insights to investigate tongue neurophysiology and pathophysiology. However, due to the dispersed nature of the neural network, standard histology cannot provide a global view of the innervation. We prepared transparent mouse tongue by optical clearing to reveal the spatial features of the tongue innervation and its remodeling in injury. Immunostaining of neuronal markers, including PGP9.5 (pan-neuronal marker), calcitonin gene-related peptide (sensory nerves), tyrosine hydroxylase (sympathetic nerves), and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (cholinergic parasympathetic nerves and neuromuscular junctions), was combined with vessel painting and nuclear staining to label the tissue network and architecture. The tongue specimens were immersed in the optical-clearing solution to facilitate photon penetration for 3-dimensiontal (3-D) confocal microscopy. Taking advantage of the transparent tissue, we simultaneously revealed the tongue microstructure and innervation with subcellular-level resolution. 3-D projection of the papillary neurovascular complex and taste bud innervation was used to demonstrate the spatial features of tongue mucosa and the panoramic imaging approach. In the tongue injury induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide administration in the drinking water, we observed neural tissue remodeling in response to the changes of mucosal and muscular structures. Neural networks and the neuromuscular junctions were both found rearranged at the peri-lesional region, suggesting the nerve-lesion interactions in response to injury. Overall, this new tongue histological approach provides a useful tool for 3-D imaging of neural tissues to better characterize their roles with the mucosal and muscular components in health and disease.
|Changes in sensitivity of reward and motor behavior to dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic drugs in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome. |
Fish, EW; Krouse, MC; Stringfield, SJ; Diberto, JF; Robinson, JE; Malanga, CJ
PloS one 8 e77896 2013
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a leading cause of intellectual disability. FXS is caused by loss of function of the FMR1 gene, and mice in which Fmr1 has been inactivated have been used extensively as a preclinical model for FXS. We investigated the behavioral pharmacology of drugs acting through dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic systems in fragile X (Fmr1 (-/Y)) mice with intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) and locomotor activity measurements. We also measured brain expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis. Fmr1 (-/Y) mice were more sensitive than wild type mice to the rewarding effects of cocaine, but less sensitive to its locomotor stimulating effects. Anhedonic but not motor depressant effects of the atypical neuroleptic, aripiprazole, were reduced in Fmr1 (-/Y) mice. The mGluR5-selective antagonist, 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP), was more rewarding and the preferential M1 antagonist, trihexyphenidyl, was less rewarding in Fmr1 (-/Y) than wild type mice. Motor stimulation by MPEP was unchanged, but stimulation by trihexyphenidyl was markedly increased, in Fmr1 (-/Y) mice. Numbers of midbrain TH+ neurons in the ventral tegmental area were unchanged, but were lower in the substantia nigra of Fmr1 (-/Y) mice, although no changes in TH levels were found in their forebrain targets. The data are discussed in the context of known changes in the synaptic physiology and pharmacology of limbic motor systems in the Fmr1 (-/Y) mouse model. Preclinical findings suggest that drugs acting through multiple neurotransmitter systems may be necessary to fully address abnormal behaviors in individuals with FXS.
|Astrocytes in the rat nucleus tractus solitarii are critical for cardiovascular reflex control. |
Lin, LH; Moore, SA; Jones, SY; McGlashon, J; Talman, WT
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 18608-17 2013
We have shown that an antibody to dopamine-β-hydroxylase conjugated with saporin (anti-DBH-SAP) damages catecholamine neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of rat, attenuates arterial baroreflexes, and leads to lability of arterial blood pressure, damage to cardiac myocytes, and, in some animals, sudden death. However, others have shown that injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a toxin devoid of saporin, also damaged NTS catecholamine neurons but did not lead to these cardiovascular changes. We found similar cardiovascular changes after injecting a different SAP conjugate to target NTS neurons with neurokinin (NK1) receptors. Because ribosome-inactivating proteins may be toxic to glia, we hypothesized that SAP, a ribosome-inactivating protein, might target glia whose loss could account for physiological changes. We tested this hypothesis by assessing effects on select neurons and on glia in the NTS after exposure to SAP, targeted SAP conjugates, or 6-OHDA. SAP and all SAP conjugates led to loss of immunoreactivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein, a marker for astrocytes, in the NTS while 6-OHDA did not. As reported previously, anti-DBH-SAP selectively killed noradrenergic neurons in the NTS while SAP conjugated to stabilized substance P (SSP-SAP) selectively killed neurons with NK1 receptors. In contrast, SAP produced no demonstrable neuronal damage. All injections led to activation of microglia in the NTS; however, only SAP and its conjugates attenuated cardiovascular reflexes while also producing lability of arterial pressure, damage to cardiac myocytes, and in some animals, sudden death. Thus, NTS astrocytes may play a role in mediating cardiovascular reflex transmission through the NTS.
|Morphological and behavioral impact of AAV2/5-mediated overexpression of human wildtype alpha-synuclein in the rat nigrostriatal system. |
Gombash, SE; Manfredsson, FP; Kemp, CJ; Kuhn, NC; Fleming, SM; Egan, AE; Grant, LM; Ciucci, MR; MacKeigan, JP; Sortwell, CE
PloS one 8 e81426 2013
The discovery of the involvement of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis has resulted in the development and use of viral vector-mediated α-syn overexpression rodent models. The goal of these series of experiments was to characterize the neurodegeneration and functional deficits resulting from injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) serotype 2/5-expressing human wildtype α-syn in the rat substantia nigra (SN). Rats were unilaterally injected into two sites in the SN with either rAAV2/5-expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP, 1.2 x 10(13)) or varying titers (2.2 x 10(12), 1.0 x 10(13), 5.9 x 10(13), or 1.0 x 10(14)) of rAAV2/5-α-syn. Cohorts of rats were euthanized 4, 8, or 12 weeks following vector injection. The severity of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (THir) neuron death in the SN pars compacta (SNpc) was dependent on vector titer. An identical magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration (60-70% SNpc THir neuron degeneration and 40-50% loss of striatal TH expression) was observed four weeks following 1.0 x 10(14) titer rAAV2/5-α-syn injection and 8 weeks following 1.0 x 10(13) titer rAAV2/5-α-syn injection. THir neuron degeneration was relatively uniform throughout the rostral-caudal axis of the SNpc. Despite equivalent nigrostriatal degeneration between the 1.0 x 10(13) and 1.0 x 10(14) rAAV2/5-α-syn groups, functional impairment in the cylinder test and the adjusting steps task was only observed in rats with the longer 8 week duration of α-syn expression. Motor impairment in the cylinder task was highly correlated to striatal TH loss. Further, 8 weeks following 5.9 x 10(13) rAAV2/5-α-syn injection deficits in ultrasonic vocalizations were observed. In conclusion, our rAAV2/5-α-syn overexpression model demonstrates robust nigrostriatal α-syn overexpression, induces significant nigrostriatal degeneration that is both vector and duration dependent and under specific parameters can result in motor impairment that directly relates to the level of striatal TH denervation.
|Induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with human fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva show increased mineralization and cartilage formation. |
Matsumoto, Y; Hayashi, Y; Schlieve, CR; Ikeya, M; Kim, H; Nguyen, TD; Sami, S; Baba, S; Barruet, E; Nasu, A; Asaka, I; Otsuka, T; Yamanaka, S; Conklin, BR; Toguchida, J; Hsiao, EC
Orphanet journal of rare diseases 8 190 2013
Abnormal activation of endochondral bone formation in soft tissues causes significant medical diseases associated with disability and pain. Hyperactive mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type 1 receptor ACVR1 lead to fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a rare genetic disorder characterized by progressive ossification in soft tissues. However, the specific cellular mechanisms are unclear. In addition, the difficulty obtaining tissue samples from FOP patients and the limitations in mouse models of FOP hamper our ability to dissect the pathogenesis of FOP.To address these challenges and develop a "disease model in a dish", we created human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) derived from normal and FOP dermal fibroblasts by two separate methods, retroviral integration or integration-free episomal vectors. We tested if the ability to contribute to different steps of endochondral bone formation was different in FOP vs. control iPS cells.Remarkably, FOP iPS cells showed increased mineralization and enhanced chondrogenesis in vitro. The mineralization phenotypes could be suppressed with a small-molecule inhibitor of BMP signaling, DMH1. Our results indicate that the FOP ACVR1 R206H mutation favors chondrogenesis and increases mineral deposition in vitro.Our findings establish a FOP disease cell model for in vitro experimentation and provide a proof-of-concept for using human iPS cell models to understand human skeletal disorders.
|GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area send direct inhibitory projections to orexin neurons. |
Saito, YC; Tsujino, N; Hasegawa, E; Akashi, K; Abe, M; Mieda, M; Sakimura, K; Sakurai, T
Frontiers in neural circuits 7 192 2013
Populations of neurons in the hypothalamic preoptic area (POA) fire rapidly during sleep, exhibiting sleep/waking state-dependent firing patterns that are the reciprocal of those observed in the arousal system. The majority of these preoptic "sleep-active" neurons contain the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. On the other hand, a population of neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) contains orexins, which play an important role in the maintenance of wakefulness, and exhibit an excitatory influence on arousal-related neurons. It is important to know the anatomical and functional interactions between the POA sleep-active neurons and orexin neurons, both of which play important, but opposite roles in regulation of sleep/wakefulness states. In this study, we confirmed that specific pharmacogenetic stimulation of GABAergic neurons in the POA leads to an increase in the amount of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. We next examined direct connectivity between POA GABAergic neurons and orexin neurons using channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2) as an anterograde tracer as well as an optogenetic tool. We expressed ChR2-eYFP selectively in GABAergic neurons in the POA by AAV-mediated gene transfer, and examined the projection sites of ChR2-eYFP-expressing axons, and the effect of optogenetic stimulation of ChR2-eYFP on the activity of orexin neurons. We found that these neurons send widespread projections to wakefulness-related areas in the hypothalamus and brain stem, including the LHA where these fibers make close appositions to orexin neurons. Optogenetic stimulation of these fibers resulted in rapid inhibition of orexin neurons. These observations suggest direct connectivity between POA GABAergic neurons and orexin neurons.
|A discrete dopaminergic projection from the incertohypothalamic A13 cell group to the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray in rat. |
Messanvi, F; Eggens-Meijer, E; Roozendaal, B; van der Want, JJ
Frontiers in neuroanatomy 7 41 2013
Several findings have indicated an involvement of dopamine in panic and defensive behaviors. The dorsolateral column of the periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) is crucially involved in the expression of panic attacks in humans and defensive behaviors, also referred to as panic-like behaviors, in animals. Although the dlPAG is known to receive a specific innervation of dopaminergic fibers and abundantly expresses dopamine receptors, the origin of this dopaminergic input is largely unknown. This study aimed at mapping the dopaminergic projections to the dlPAG in order to provide further insight into the panic-like related behavior circuitry of the dlPAG. For this purpose, the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit b (CTb) was injected into the dlPAG of male Wistar rats and double immunofluorescence for CTb and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine, was performed. Neurons labeled for both CTb and TH were counted in different dopaminergic cell groups. The findings indicate that the dopaminergic nerve terminals present in the dlPAG originate from multiple dopamine-containing cell groups in the hypothalamus and mesencephalon. Interestingly, the A13 cell group is the main source of dopaminergic afferents to the dlPAG and contains at least 45% of the total number of CTb/TH-positive neurons. Anterograde tracing with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) combined with double immunofluorescence for BDA and TH confirmed the projections from the A13 cell group to the dlPAG. The remainder of the dopamine-positive terminals present in the dlPAG was found to originate from the extended A10 cell group and the A11 group. The A13 cell group is known to send dopaminergic efferents to several other brain regions implicated in defensive behavior, including the central amygdala and ventromedial hypothalamus. Therefore, although direct behavioral evidence is lacking, our finding that the A13 cell group is also the main source of dopaminergic input to the dlPAG suggests that dopamine might contribute to the regulation of dlPAG-mediated defensive behaviors.
|Ubiquitination increases parkin activity to promote autophagic α-synuclein clearance. |
Lonskaya, I; Desforges, NM; Hebron, ML; Moussa, CE
PloS one 8 e83914 2013
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder associated with genetic and age related causes. Although autosomal recessive early onset PD linked to parkin mutations does not exhibit α-Synuclein accumulation, while autosomal dominant and sporadic PD manifest with α-Synuclein inclusions, loss of dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons is a common denominator in PD. Here we show that decreased parkin ubiquitination and loss of parkin stability impair interaction with Beclin-1 and alter α-Synuclein degradation, leading to death of dopaminergic neurons. Tyrosine kinase inhibition increases parkin ubiquitination and interaction with Beclin-1, promoting autophagic α-Synuclein clearance and nigral neuron survival. However, loss of parkin via deletion increases α-Synuclein in the blood compared to the brain, suggesting that functional parkin prevents α-Synuclein release into the blood. These studies demonstrate that parkin ubiquitination affects its protein stability and E3 ligase activity, possibly leading to α-Synuclein sequestration and subsequent clearance.
|Behavioral and neurotransmitter abnormalities in mice deficient for Parkin, DJ-1 and superoxide dismutase. |
Hennis, MR; Seamans, KW; Marvin, MA; Casey, BH; Goldberg, MS
PloS one 8 e84894 2013
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of neurons in the substantia nigra that project to the striatum and release dopamine. The cause of PD remains uncertain, however, evidence implicates mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Although most cases of PD are sporadic, 5-10% of cases are caused by inherited mutations. Loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 were the first to be linked to recessively inherited Parkinsonism. Surprisingly, mice bearing similar loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 do not show age-dependent loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons or depletion of dopamine in the striatum. Although the normal cellular functions of Parkin and DJ-1 are not fully understood, we hypothesized that loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 render cells more sensitive to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, we crossed mice deficient for Parkin and DJ-1 with mice deficient for the mitochondrial antioxidant protein Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2) or the cytosolic antioxidant protein Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Aged Parkin -/-) DJ-1(-/-) and Mn-superoxide dismutase triple deficient mice have enhanced performance on the rotorod behavior test. Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase triple deficient mice have elevated levels of dopamine in the striatum in the absence of nigral cell loss. Our studies demonstrate that on a Parkin/DJ-1 null background, mice that are also deficient for major antioxidant proteins do not have progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons but have behavioral and striatal dopamine abnormalities.
|Preproglucagon (PPG) neurons innervate neurochemically identified autonomic neurons in the mouse brainstem. |
Llewellyn-Smith, IJ; Gnanamanickam, GJ; Reimann, F; Gribble, FM; Trapp, S
Neuroscience 229 130-43 2013
Preproglucagon (PPG) neurons produce glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and occur primarily in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). GLP-1 affects a variety of central autonomic circuits, including those controlling the cardiovascular system, thermogenesis, and most notably energy balance. Our immunohistochemical studies in transgenic mice expressing YFP under the control of the PPG promoter showed that PPG neurons project widely to central autonomic regions, including brainstem nuclei. Functional studies have highlighted the importance of hindbrain receptors for the anorexic effects of GLP-1. In this study, we assessed YFP innervation of neurochemically identified brainstem neurons in transgenic YFP-PPG mice. Immunoreactivity for YFP plus choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and/or serotonin (5-HT) was visualised with two- or three-colour immunoperoxidase labelling using black (YFP), brown and blue-grey reaction products. In the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), terminals from fine YFP-immunoreactive axons closely apposed a small proportion of ChAT-positive and rare TH-positive/ChAT-positive motor neurons, mostly ventral to AP. YFP-immunoreactive innervation was virtually absent from the compact and loose formations of the nucleus ambiguus. In the NTS, some TH-immunoreactive neurons were closely apposed by YFP-containing axons. In the A1/C1 column in the ventrolateral medulla, close appositions on TH-positive neurons were more common, particularly in the caudal portion of the column. A single YFP-immunoreactive axon usually provided 1-3 close appositions on individual ChAT- or TH-positive neurons. Serotonin-immunoreactive neurons were most heavily innervated, with the majority of raphé pallidus, raphé obscurus and parapyramidal neurons receiving several close appositions from large varicosities of YFP-immunoreactive axons. These results indicate that GLP-1 neurons innervate various populations of brainstem autonomic neurons. These include vagal efferent neurons and catecholamine neurons in areas linked with cardiovascular control. Our data also indicate a synaptic connection between GLP-1 neurons and 5-HT neurons, some of which might contribute to the regulation of appetite.
|3-D imaging and illustration of mouse intestinal neurovascular complex. |
Fu, YY; Peng, SJ; Lin, HY; Pasricha, PJ; Tang, SC
American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 304 G1-11 2013
Because of the dispersed nature of nerves and blood vessels, standard histology cannot provide a global and associated observation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and vascular network. We prepared transparent mouse intestine and combined vessel painting and three-dimensional (3-D) neurohistology for joint visualization of the ENS and vasculature. Cardiac perfusion of the fluorescent wheat germ agglutinin (vessel painting) was used to label the ileal blood vessels. The pan-neuronal marker PGP9.5, sympathetic neuronal marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), serotonin, and glial markers S100B and GFAP were used as the immunostaining targets of neural tissues. The fluorescently labeled specimens were immersed in the optical clearing solution to improve photon penetration for 3-D confocal microscopy. Notably, we simultaneously revealed the ileal microstructure, vasculature, and innervation with micrometer-level resolution. Four examples are given: 1) the morphology of the TH-labeled sympathetic nerves: sparse in epithelium, perivascular at the submucosa, and intraganglionic at myenteric plexus; 2) distinct patterns of the extrinsic perivascular and intrinsic pericryptic innervation at the submucosal-mucosal interface; 3) different associations of serotonin cells with the mucosal neurovascular elements in the villi and crypts; and 4) the periganglionic capillary network at the myenteric plexus and its contact with glial fibers. Our 3-D imaging approach provides a useful tool to simultaneously reveal the nerves and blood vessels in a space continuum for panoramic illustration and analysis of the neurovascular complex to better understand the intestinal physiology and diseases.
|Layered reward signalling through octopamine and dopamine in Drosophila. |
Burke, CJ; Huetteroth, W; Owald, D; Perisse, E; Krashes, MJ; Das, G; Gohl, D; Silies, M; Certel, S; Waddell, S
Nature 492 433-7 2012
Dopamine is synonymous with reward and motivation in mammals. However, only recently has dopamine been linked to motivated behaviour and rewarding reinforcement in fruitflies. Instead, octopamine has historically been considered to be the signal for reward in insects. Here we show, using temporal control of neural function in Drosophila, that only short-term appetitive memory is reinforced by octopamine. Moreover, octopamine-dependent memory formation requires signalling through dopamine neurons. Part of the octopamine signal requires the α-adrenergic-like OAMB receptor in an identified subset of mushroom-body-targeted dopamine neurons. Octopamine triggers an increase in intracellular calcium in these dopamine neurons, and their direct activation can substitute for sugar to form appetitive memory, even in flies lacking octopamine. Analysis of the β-adrenergic-like OCTβ2R receptor reveals that octopamine-dependent reinforcement also requires an interaction with dopamine neurons that control appetitive motivation. These data indicate that sweet taste engages a distributed octopamine signal that reinforces memory through discrete subsets of mushroom-body-targeted dopamine neurons. In addition, they reconcile previous findings with octopamine and dopamine and suggest that reinforcement systems in flies are more similar to mammals than previously thought.
|MeCP2 dependent heterochromatin reorganization during neural differentiation of a novel Mecp2-deficient embryonic stem cell reporter line. |
Bertulat, B; De Bonis, ML; Della Ragione, F; Lehmkuhl, A; Milden, M; Storm, C; Jost, KL; Scala, S; Hendrich, B; D'Esposito, M; Cardoso, MC
PloS one 7 e47848 2012
The X-linked Mecp2 is a known interpreter of epigenetic information and mutated in Rett syndrome, a complex neurological disease. MeCP2 recruits HDAC complexes to chromatin thereby modulating gene expression and, importantly regulates higher order heterochromatin structure. To address the effects of MeCP2 deficiency on heterochromatin organization during neural differentiation, we developed a versatile model for stem cell in vitro differentiation. Therefore, we modified murine Mecp2 deficient (Mecp2(-/y)) embryonic stem cells to generate cells exhibiting green fluorescent protein expression upon neural differentiation. Subsequently, we quantitatively analyzed heterochromatin organization during neural differentiation in wild type and in Mecp2 deficient cells. We found that MeCP2 protein levels increase significantly during neural differentiation and accumulate at constitutive heterochromatin. Statistical analysis of Mecp2 wild type neurons revealed a significant clustering of heterochromatin per nuclei with progressing differentiation. In contrast we found Mecp2 deficient neurons and astroglia cells to be significantly impaired in heterochromatin reorganization. Our results (i) introduce a new and manageable cellular model to study the molecular effects of Mecp2 deficiency, and (ii) support the view of MeCP2 as a central protein in heterochromatin architecture in maturating cells, possibly involved in stabilizing their differentiated state.
|Intranasal exposure to manganese disrupts neurotransmitter release from glutamatergic synapses in the central nervous system in vivo. |
Moberly, AH; Czarnecki, LA; Pottackal, J; Rubinstein, T; Turkel, DJ; Kass, MD; McGann, JP
Neurotoxicology 33 996-1004 2012
Chronic exposure to aerosolized manganese induces a neurological disorder that includes extrapyramidal motor symptoms and cognitive impairment. Inhaled manganese can bypass the blood-brain barrier and reach the central nervous system by transport down the olfactory nerve to the brain's olfactory bulb. However, the mechanism by which Mn disrupts neural function remains unclear. Here we used optical imaging techniques to visualize exocytosis in olfactory nerve terminals in vivo in the mouse olfactory bulb. Acute Mn exposure via intranasal instillation of 2-200 μg MnCl(2) solution caused a dose-dependent reduction in odorant-evoked neurotransmitter release, with significant effects at as little as 2 μg MnCl(2) and a 90% reduction compared to vehicle controls with a 200 μg exposure. This reduction was also observed in response to direct electrical stimulation of the olfactory nerve layer in the olfactory bulb, demonstrating that Mn's action is occurring centrally, not peripherally. This is the first direct evidence that Mn intoxication can disrupt neurotransmitter release, and is consistent with previous work suggesting that chronic Mn exposure limits amphetamine-induced dopamine increases in the basal ganglia despite normal levels of dopamine synthesis (Guilarte et al., J Neurochem 2008). The commonality of Mn's action between glutamatergic neurons in the olfactory bulb and dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia suggests that a disruption of neurotransmitter release may be a general consequence wherever Mn accumulates in the brain and could underlie its pleiotropic effects.
|Sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers undergo sprouting and neuroma formation in the painful arthritic joint of geriatric mice. |
Jimenez-Andrade, JM; Mantyh, PW
Arthritis research & therapy 14 R101 2012
Although the prevalence of arthritis dramatically increases with age, the great majority of preclinical studies concerning the mechanisms that drive arthritic joint pain have been performed in young animals. One mechanism hypothesized to contribute to arthritic pain is ectopic nerve sprouting; however, neuroplasticity is generally thought to be greater in young versus old nerves. Here we explore whether sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers can undergo a significant ectopic nerve remodeling in the painful arthritic knee joint of geriatric mice.Vehicle (saline) or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) was injected into the knee joint of 27- to 29-month-old female mice. Pain behaviors, macrophage infiltration, neovascularization, and the sprouting of sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers were then assessed 28 days later, when significant knee-joint pain was present. Knee joints were processed for immunohistochemistry by using antibodies raised against CD68 (monocytes/macrophages), PECAM (endothelial cells), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP; sensory nerve fibers), neurofilament 200 kDa (NF200; sensory nerve fibers), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; sympathetic nerve fibers), and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43; nerve fibers undergoing sprouting).At 4 weeks after initial injection, CFA-injected mice displayed robust pain-related behaviors (which included flinching, guarding, impaired limb use, and reduced weight bearing), whereas animals injected with vehicle alone displayed no significant pain-related behaviors. Similarly, in the CFA-injected knee joint, but not in the vehicle-injected knee joint, a remarkable increase was noted in the number of CD68+ macrophages, density of PECAM+ blood vessels, and density and formation of neuroma-like structures by CGRP+, NF200+, and TH+ nerve fibers in the synovium and periosteum.Sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers that innervate the aged knee joint clearly maintain the capacity for robust nerve sprouting and formation of neuroma-like structures after inflammation/injury. Understanding the factors that drive this neuroplasticity, whether this pathologic reorganization of nerve fibers contributes to chronic joint pain, and how the phenotype of sensory and sympathetic nerves changes with age may provide pharmacologic insight and targets for better controlling aging-related joint pain.
|The dopamine D2 receptor gene in lamprey, its expression in the striatum and cellular effects of D2 receptor activation. |
Robertson, B; Huerta-Ocampo, I; Ericsson, J; Stephenson-Jones, M; Pérez-Fernández, J; Bolam, JP; Diaz-Heijtz, R; Grillner, S
PloS one 7 e35642 2012
All basal ganglia subnuclei have recently been identified in lampreys, the phylogenetically oldest group of vertebrates. Furthermore, the interconnectivity of these nuclei is similar to mammals and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (dopaminergic) fibers have been detected within the input layer, the striatum. Striatal processing is critically dependent on the interplay with the dopamine system, and we explore here whether D2 receptors are expressed in the lamprey striatum and their potential role. We have identified a cDNA encoding the dopamine D2 receptor from the lamprey brain and the deduced protein sequence showed close phylogenetic relationship with other vertebrate D2 receptors, and an almost 100% identity within the transmembrane domains containing the amino acids essential for dopamine binding. There was a strong and distinct expression of D2 receptor mRNA in a subpopulation of striatal neurons, and in the same region tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive synaptic terminals were identified at the ultrastructural level. The synaptic incidence of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive boutons was highest in a region ventrolateral to the compact layer of striatal neurons, a region where most striatal dendrites arborise. Application of a D2 receptor agonist modulates striatal neurons by causing a reduced spike discharge and a diminished post-inhibitory rebound. We conclude that the D2 receptor gene had already evolved in the earliest group of vertebrates, cyclostomes, when they diverged from the main vertebrate line of evolution (560 mya), and that it is expressed in striatum where it exerts similar cellular effects to that in other vertebrates. These results together with our previous published data (Stephenson-Jones et al. 2011, 2012) further emphasize the high degree of conservation of the basal ganglia, also with regard to the indirect loop, and its role as a basic mechanism for action selection in all vertebrates.
|Zebrafish chemical screening reveals the impairment of dopaminergic neuronal survival by cardiac glycosides. |
Sun, Y; Dong, Z; Khodabakhsh, H; Chatterjee, S; Guo, S
PloS one 7 e35645 2012
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the prominent degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons among other cell types. Here we report a first chemical screen of over 5,000 compounds in zebrafish, aimed at identifying small molecule modulators of DA neuron development or survival. We find that Neriifolin, a member of the cardiac glycoside family of compounds, impairs survival but not differentiation of both zebrafish and mammalian DA neurons. Cardiac glycosides are inhibitors of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and widely used for treating heart disorders. Our data suggest that Neriifolin impairs DA neuronal survival by targeting the neuronal enriched Na(+)/K(+) ATPase α3 subunit (ATP1A3). Modulation of ionic homeostasis, knockdown of p53, or treatment with antioxidants protects DA neurons from Neriifolin-induced death. These results reveal a previously unknown effect of cardiac glycosides on DA neuronal survival and suggest that it is mediated through ATP1A3 inhibition, oxidative stress, and p53. They also elucidate potential approaches for counteracting the neurotoxicity of this valuable class of medications.
|Ceftriaxone ameliorates motor deficits and protects dopaminergic neurons in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. |
Leung, TC; Lui, CN; Chen, LW; Yung, WH; Chan, YS; Yung, KK
ACS chemical neuroscience 3 22-30 2012
Parkinson's disease is caused by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. There is no current promising treatment for neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons. Ceftriaxone is a beta-lactam antibiotic and has been reported to offer neuroprotective effects (Rothstein, J.-D., Patel, S., Regan, M.-R., Haenggeli, C., Huang, Y.-H., Bergles, D.-E., Jin, L., Dykes, H.-M., Vidensky, S., Chung, D.-S., Toan, S.-V., Bruijn, L.-I., Su, Z.-Z., Gupta, P., and Fisher, P.-B. (2005) Beta-lactam antibiotics offer neuroprotection by increasing glutamate transporter expression Nature433, 73-77). In the present study, efficacy of ceftriaxone in neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons and amelioration of motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson's disease were investigated. Ceftriaxone was administrated in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. Using behavioral tests, grip strength and numbers of apomorphine-induced contralateral rotation were declined in the ceftriaxone-treated group. More importantly, cell death of dopaminergic neurons was found to decrease. In addition, both the protein expression and immunoreactivity for GLT-1 were up-regulated. The present results strongly indicate that ceftriaxone is a potential agent in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
|Dynamic mass redistribution assay decodes differentiation of a neural progenitor stem cell. |
Pai, S; Verrier, F; Sun, H; Hu, H; Ferrie, AM; Eshraghi, A; Fang, Y
Journal of biomolecular screening 17 1180-91 2012
Stem cells hold great potential in drug discovery and development. However, challenges remain to quantitatively measure the functions of stem cells and their differentiated products. Here, we applied fluorescent imaging, quantitative real-time PCR, and label-free dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays to characterize the differentiation process of the ReNcell VM human neural progenitor stem cell. Immunofluorescence imaging showed that after growth factor withdrawal, the neuroprogenitor stem cell was differentiated into dopaminergic neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, thus creating a neuronal cell system. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the differentiated cell system released dopamine upon depolarization with KCl. In conjunction with quantitative real-time PCR, DMR assays using a G-protein-coupled receptor agonist library revealed that a subset of receptors, including dopamine D(1) and D(4) receptors, underwent marked alterations in both receptor expression and signaling pathway during the differentiation process. These findings suggest that DMR assays can decode the differentiation process of stem cells at the cell system level.
|Dopamine transporter loss in 6-OHDA Parkinson's model is unmet by parallel reduction in dopamine uptake. |
Chotibut, T; Apple, DM; Jefferis, R; Salvatore, MF
PloS one 7 e52322 2012
The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates synaptic dopamine (DA) in striatum and modulation of DAT can affect locomotor activity. Thus, in Parkinson's disease (PD), DAT loss could affect DA clearance and locomotor activity. The locomotor benefits of L-DOPA may be mediated by transport through monoamine transporters and conversion to DA. However, its impact upon DA reuptake is unknown and may modulate synaptic DA. Using the unilateral 6-OHDA rat PD model, we examined [(3)H]DA uptake dynamics in relation to striatal DAT and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein loss compared with contralateral intact striatum. Despite greater than 70% striatal DAT loss, DA uptake decreased only ∼25% and increased as DAT loss approached 99%. As other monoamine transporters can transport DA, we determined if norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) differentially modulated DA uptake in lesioned striatum. Unlabeled DA, NE, and 5-HT were used, at a concentration that differentially inhibited DA uptake in intact striatum, to compete against [(3)H]DA uptake. In 6-OHDA lesioned striatum, DA was less effective, whereas NE was more effective, at inhibiting [(3)H]DA uptake. Furthermore, norepinephrine transporter (NET) protein levels increased and desipramine was ∼two-fold more effective at inhibiting NE uptake. Serotonin inhibited [(3)H]DA uptake, but without significant difference between lesioned and contralateral striatum. L-DOPA inhibited [(3)H]DA uptake two-fold more in lesioned striatum and inhibited NE uptake ∼five-fold more than DA uptake in naïve striatum. Consequently, DA uptake may be mediated by NET when DAT loss is at PD levels. Increased inhibition of DA uptake by L-DOPA and its preferential inhibition of NE over DA uptake, indicates that NET-mediated DA uptake may be modulated by L-DOPA when DAT loss exceeds 70%. These results indicate a novel mechanism for DA uptake during PD progression and provide new insight into how L-DOPA affects DA uptake, revealing possible mechanisms of its therapeutic and side effect potential.
|Dopamine acts through Cryptochrome to promote acute arousal in Drosophila. |
Kumar, S; Chen, D; Sehgal, A
Genes & development 26 1224-34 2012
The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is generally diurnal, but a few mutant strains, such as the circadian clock mutant Clk(Jrk), have been described as nocturnal. We report here that increased nighttime activity of Clk mutants is mediated by high levels of the circadian photoreceptor CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) in large ventral lateral neurons (l-LN(v)s). We found that CRY expression is also required for nighttime activity in mutants that have high dopamine signaling. In fact, dopamine signaling is elevated in Clk(Jrk) mutants and acts through CRY to promote the nocturnal activity of this mutant. Notably, dopamine and CRY are required for acute arousal upon sensory stimulation. Because dopamine signaling and CRY levels are typically high at night, this may explain why a chronic increase in levels of these molecules produces sustained nighttime activity. We propose that CRY has a distinct role in acute responses to sensory stimuli: (1) circadian responses to light, as previously reported, and (2) noncircadian effects on arousal, as shown here.
|High LRRK2 levels fail to induce or exacerbate neuronal alpha-synucleinopathy in mouse brain. |
Herzig, MC; Bidinosti, M; Schweizer, T; Hafner, T; Stemmelen, C; Weiss, A; Danner, S; Vidotto, N; Stauffer, D; Barske, C; Mayer, F; Schmid, P; Rovelli, G; van der Putten, PH; Shimshek, DR
PloS one 7 e36581 2012
The G2019S mutation in the multidomain protein leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is one of the most frequently identified genetic causes of Parkinson's disease (PD). Clinically, LRRK2(G2019S) carriers with PD and idiopathic PD patients have a very similar disease with brainstem and cortical Lewy pathology (α-synucleinopathy) as histopathological hallmarks. Some patients have Tau pathology. Enhanced kinase function of the LRRK2(G2019S) mutant protein is a prime suspect mechanism for carriers to develop PD but observations in LRRK2 knock-out, G2019S knock-in and kinase-dead mutant mice suggest that LRRK2 steady-state abundance of the protein also plays a determining role. One critical question concerning the molecular pathogenesis in LRRK2(G2019S) PD patients is whether α-synuclein (aSN) has a contributory role. To this end we generated mice with high expression of either wildtype or G2019S mutant LRRK2 in brainstem and cortical neurons. High levels of these LRRK2 variants left endogenous aSN and Tau levels unaltered and did not exacerbate or otherwise modify α-synucleinopathy in mice that co-expressed high levels of LRRK2 and aSN in brain neurons. On the contrary, in some lines high LRRK2 levels improved motor skills in the presence and absence of aSN-transgene-induced disease. Therefore, in many neurons high LRRK2 levels are well tolerated and not sufficient to drive or exacerbate neuronal α-synucleinopathy.
|Distinct developmental origins and regulatory mechanisms for GABAergic neurons associated with dopaminergic nuclei in the ventral mesodiencephalic region. |
Achim, K; Peltopuro, P; Lahti, L; Li, J; Salminen, M; Partanen, J
Development (Cambridge, England) 139 2360-70 2012
GABAergic neurons in the ventral mesodiencephalic region are highly important for the function of dopaminergic pathways that regulate multiple aspects of behavior. However, development of these neurons is poorly understood. We recently showed that molecular regulation of differentiation of the GABAergic neurons associated with the dopaminergic nuclei in the ventral midbrain (VTA and SNpr) is distinct from the rest of midbrain, but the reason for this difference remained elusive. Here, we have analyzed the developmental origin of the VTA and SNpr GABAergic neurons by genetic fate mapping. We demonstrate that the majority of these GABAergic neurons originate outside the midbrain, from rhombomere 1, and move into the ventral midbrain only as postmitotic neuronal precursors. We further show that Gata2, Gata3 and Tal1 define a subpopulation of GABAergic precursors in ventral rhombomere 1. A failure in GABAergic neuron differentiation in this region correlates with loss of VTA and SNpr GABAergic neurons in Tal1 mutant mice. In contrast to midbrain, GABAergic neurons of the anterior SNpr in the diencephalon are not derived from the rhombomere 1. These results suggest unique migratory pathways for the precursors of important GABAergic neuron subpopulations, and provide the basis for understanding diversity within midbrain GABAergic neurons.
|Comparison of the D2 receptor regulation and neurotoxicant susceptibility of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in wild-type and CB1/CB2 receptor knockout mice. |
Simkins, TJ; Janis, KL; McClure, AK; Behrouz, B; Pappas, SS; Lehner, A; Kaminski, NE; Goudreau, JL; Lookingland, KJ; Kaplan, BL
Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology 7 533-8 2012
Motor dysfunctions of Parkinson Disease (PD) are due to the progressive loss of midbrain nigrostriatal dopamine (NSDA) neurons. Evidence suggests a role for cannabinoid receptors in the neurodegeneration of these neurons following neurotoxicant-induced injury. This work evaluates NSDA neurons in CB1/CB2 knockout (KO) mice and tests the hypothesis that CB1/CB2 KO mice are more susceptible to neurotoxicant exposure. NSDA neuronal indices were assessed using unbiased stereological cell counting, high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection or mass spectrometry, and Western blot. Results reveal that CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor signaling is not necessary for the maintenance of a normally functioning NSDA neuronal system. Mice lacking CB1 and CB2 receptors were found to be equally susceptible to the neurotoxicant 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). These studies support the use of CB1/CB2 KO mice for investigating the cannabinoid receptor-mediated regulation of the NSDA neuronal system in models of PD.
|Distribution of angiotensin type 1a receptor-containing cells in the brains of bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice. |
Gonzalez, AD; Wang, G; Waters, EM; Gonzales, KL; Speth, RC; Van Kempen, TA; Marques-Lopes, J; Young, CN; Butler, SD; Davisson, RL; Iadecola, C; Pickel, VM; Pierce, JP; Milner, TA
Neuroscience 226 489-509 2012
In the central nervous system, angiotensin II (AngII) binds to angiotensin type 1 receptors (AT(1)Rs) to affect autonomic and endocrine functions as well as learning and memory. However, understanding the function of cells containing AT(1)Rs has been restricted by limited availability of specific antisera, difficulties discriminating AT(1)R-immunoreactive cells in many brain regions and, the identification of AT(1)R-containing neurons for physiological and molecular studies. Here, we demonstrate that an Agtr1a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mouse line that expresses type A AT(1)Rs (AT1aRs) identified by enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) overcomes these shortcomings. Throughout the brain, AT1aR-EGFP was detected in the nuclei and cytoplasm of cells, most of which were neurons. EGFP often extended into dendritic processes and could be identified either natively or with immunolabeling of GFP. The distribution of AT1aR-EGFP cells in brain closely corresponded to that reported for AngII binding and AT1aR protein and mRNA. In particular, AT1aR-EGFP cells were in autonomic regions (e.g., hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, central nucleus of the amygdala, parabrachial nucleus, nuclei of the solitary tract and rostral ventrolateral medulla) and in regions involved in electrolyte and fluid balance (i.e., subfornical organ) and learning and memory (i.e., cerebral cortex and hippocampus). Additionally, dual label electron microscopic studies in select brain areas demonstrate that cells containing AT1aR-EGFP colocalize with AT(1)R-immunoreactivity. Assessment of AngII-induced free radical production in isolated EGFP cells demonstrated feasibility of studies investigating AT1aR signaling ex vivo. These findings support the utility of Agtr1a BAC transgenic reporter mice for future studies understanding the role of AT(1)R-containing cells in brain function.
|Chronic ketamine administration modulates midbrain dopamine system in mice. |
Tan, S; Lam, WP; Wai, MS; Yu, WH; Yew, DT
PloS one 7 e43947 2012
Ketamine is an anesthetic and a popular abusive drug. As an anesthetic, effects of ketamine on glutamate and GABA transmission have been well documented but little is known about its long-term effects on the dopamine system. In the present study, the effects of ketamine on dopamine were studied in vitro and in vivo. In pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells and NGF differentiated-PC 12 cells, ketamine decreased the cell viability while increasing dopamine (DA) concentrations in a dose-related manner. However, ketamine did not affect the expression of genes involved in DA synthesis. In the long-term (3 months) ketamine treated mice, significant increases of DA contents were found in the midbrain. Increased DA concentrations were further supported by up-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis. Activation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons could be related to ketamine modulated cortical-subcortical glutamate connections. Using western blotting, significant increases in BDNF protein levels were found in the midbrain, suggesting that perhaps BDNF pathways in the cortical-subcortical connections might contribute to the long-term ketamine induced TH upregulation. These data suggest that long-term ketamine abuse caused a delayed and persistent upregulation of subcortical DA systems, which may contribute to the altered mental status in ketamine abusers.
|Ceramide sphingolipid signaling mediates Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-dependent toxicity via caspase signaling in dopaminergic neurons. |
Martinez, TN; Chen, X; Bandyopadhyay, S; Merrill, AH; Tansey, MG
Molecular neurodegeneration 7 45 2012
Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the ventral midbrain selectively degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD) in part because their oxidative environment in the substantia nigra (SN) may render them vulnerable to neuroinflammatory stimuli. Chronic inhibition of soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) with dominant-negative TNF inhibitors protects DA neurons in rat models of parkinsonism, yet the molecular mechanisms and pathway(s) that mediate TNF toxicity remain(s) to be clearly identified. Here we investigated the contribution of ceramide sphingolipid signaling in TNF-dependent toxicity.Ceramide dose-dependently reduced the viability of DA neuroblastoma cells and primary DA neurons and pharmacological inhibition of sphingomyelinases (SMases) with three different inhibitors during TNF treatment afforded significant neuroprotection by attenuating increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 activation and decreases in Akt phosphorylation. Using lipidomics mass spectrometry we confirmed that TNF treatment not only promotes generation of ceramide, but also leads to accumulation of several atypical deoxy-sphingoid bases (DSBs). Exposure of DA neuroblastoma cells to atypical DSBs in the micromolar range reduced cell viability and inhibited neurite outgrowth and branching in primary DA neurons, suggesting that TNF-induced de novo synthesis of atypical DSBs may be a secondary mechanism involved in mediating its neurotoxicity in DA neurons.We conclude that TNF/TNFR1-dependent activation of SMases generates ceramide and sphingolipid species that promote degeneration and caspase-dependent cell death of DA neurons. Ceramide and atypical DSBs may represent novel drug targets for development of neuroprotective strategies that can delay or attenuate the progressive loss of nigral DA neurons in patients with PD.
|Pathway-specific dopaminergic deficits in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome. |
Riday, TT; Dankoski, EC; Krouse, MC; Fish, EW; Walsh, PL; Han, JE; Hodge, CW; Wightman, RM; Philpot, BD; Malanga, CJ
The Journal of clinical investigation 122 4544-54 2012
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by maternal deletions or mutations of the ubiquitin ligase E3A (UBE3A) allele and characterized by minimal verbal communication, seizures, and disorders of voluntary movement. Previous studies have suggested that abnormal dopamine neurotransmission may underlie some of these deficits, but no effective treatment currently exists for the core features of AS. A clinical trial of levodopa (L-DOPA) in AS is ongoing, although the underlying rationale for this treatment strategy has not yet been thoroughly examined in preclinical models. We found that AS model mice lacking maternal Ube3a (Ube3a(m-/p+) mice) exhibit behavioral deficits that correlated with abnormal dopamine signaling. These deficits were not due to loss of dopaminergic neurons or impaired dopamine synthesis. Unexpectedly, Ube3a(m-/p+) mice exhibited increased dopamine release in the mesolimbic pathway while also exhibiting a decrease in dopamine release in the nigrostriatal pathway, as measured with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. These findings demonstrate the complex effects of UBE3A loss on dopamine signaling in subcortical motor pathways that may inform ongoing clinical trials of L-DOPA therapy in patients with AS.
|Effects of chemostimuli on [Ca2+]i responses of rat aortic body type I cells and endogenous local neurons: comparison with carotid body cells. |
Piskuric, NA; Nurse, CA
The Journal of physiology 590 2121-35 2012
Mammalian aortic bodies (ABs) are putative peripheral arterial chemoreceptors whose function remains controversial, partly because information on their cellular physiology is lacking. In this study, we used ratiometric Ca2+ imaging to investigate for the first time chemosensitivity in short-term cultures of dissociated cells of juvenile rat ABs, located near the junction of the left vagus and recurrent laryngeal nerves. Among the surviving cell population were glomus or type I cell clusters, endogenous local neurons and glia-like cells. A variety of chemostimuli, including hypoxia, isohydric or acidic hypercapnia, and isocapnic acidosis, caused a rise in intracellular [Ca2+] in AB type I cells. The [Ca2+]i responses were indistinguishable from those in carotid body (CB) type I cells grown in parallel cultures from the same animals, and responses to acidic hypercapnia were prevented by the non-specific voltage-gated Ca2+ channel antagonist, 2mM Ni2+. Furthermore, we identified a subpopulation (∼40%) of glia-like cells in AB cultures that resembled CB type II cells based on their approximately equal sensitivity to ATP and UTP, consistent with the expression of purinergic P2Y2 receptors. Finally, we showed that some local neurons, known to be uniquely associated with these AB paraganglia in situ, generated robust [Ca2+]i responses to these chemostimuli. Thus, these AB type I cells and associated putative type II cells resemble those from the well-studied CB. Unlike the CB, however, they also associate with a special group of endogenous neurons which we propose may subserve a sensory function in local cardiovascular reflexes.
|Modeling neural differentiation on micropatterned substrates coated with neural matrix components. |
García-Parra, P; Cavaliere, F; Maroto, M; Bilbao, L; Obieta, I; López de Munain, A; Alava, JI; Izeta, A
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 6 10 2012
Topographical and biochemical characteristics of the substrate are critical for neuronal differentiation including axonal outgrowth and regeneration of neural circuits in vivo. Contact stimuli and signaling molecules allow neurons to develop and stabilize synaptic contacts. Here we present the development, characterization and functional validation of a new polymeric support able to induce neuronal differentiation in both PC12 cell line and adult primary skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) in vitro. By combining a photolithographic technique with use of neural extracellular matrix (ECM) as a substrate, a biocompatible and efficient microenvironment for neuronal differentiation was developed.
|Quantitative assessment of gait and neurochemical correlation in a classical murine model of Parkinson's disease. |
Wang, XH; Lu, G; Hu, X; Tsang, KS; Kwong, WH; Wu, FX; Meng, HW; Jiang, S; Liu, SW; Ng, HK; Poon, WS
BMC neuroscience 13 142 2012
Gait deficits are important clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, existing behavioral tests for the detection of motor impairments in rodents with systemic dopamine depletion only measure akinesia and dyskinesia, and data focusing on gait are scarce. We evaluated gait changes in the methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced C57BL/6 murine model of PD by using a computer-assisted CatWalk system. Correlations of gait parameters with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein levels in the substantia nigra (SN) were also investigated.The gait readouts, including the walking duration, variation of walking speed, step cycle, duty cycle, stance, initial dual stance, terminal dual stance, three- and four-point supports, and the base of support between hind limbs was noted to increase significantly one week after MPTP injection. In contrast, values of the stride length, cadence, swing speed, and diagonal dual support decreased substantially following MPTP treatment (p less than 0.05). All of these changes lasted for three weeks after the last MPTP administration. Except for the stance in the fore limbs and the swing speed in the hind limbs, the gait variability in the PD mice showed a closer correlation with the protein levels of TH in the SN than the walking distances in the conventional open field test. Coordination parameters of the regularity index and step pattern were not affected in mice treated with MPTP.Data of the study suggest that the computer-assisted CatWalk system can provide reliable and objective criteria to stratify gait changes arising from MPTP-induced bilateral lesions in C57/BL6 mice. The extent of gait changes was noted to correlate with the expression of the biomarker for dopaminergic neurons. This novel analytical method may hold promise in the study of disease progression and new drug screening in a murine PD model.
|Glucocorticoids regulation of FosB/ΔFosB expression induced by chronic opiate exposure in the brain stress system. |
García-Pérez, D; Laorden, ML; Milanés, MV; Núñez, C
PloS one 7 e50264 2012
Chronic use of drugs of abuse profoundly alters stress-responsive system. Repeated exposure to morphine leads to accumulation of the transcription factor ΔFosB, particularly in brain areas associated with reward and stress. The persistent effects of ΔFosB on target genes may play an important role in the plasticity induced by drugs of abuse. Recent evidence suggests that stress-related hormones (e.g., glucocorticoids, GC) may induce adaptations in the brain stress system that is likely to involve alteration in gene expression and transcription factors. This study examined the role of GC in regulation of FosB/ΔFosB in both hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic brain stress systems during morphine dependence. For that, expression of FosB/ΔFosB was measured in control (sham-operated) and adrenalectomized (ADX) rats that were made opiate dependent after ten days of morphine treatment. In sham-operated rats, FosB/ΔFosB was induced after chronic morphine administration in all the brain stress areas investigated: nucleus accumbens(shell) (NAc), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), central amygdala (CeA), hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus of the solitary tract noradrenergic cell group (NTS-A(2)). Adrenalectomy attenuated the increased production of FosB/ΔFosB observed after chronic morphine exposure in NAc, CeA, and NTS. Furthermore, ADX decreased expression of FosB/ΔFosB within CRH-positive neurons of the BNST, PVN and CeA. Similar results were obtained in NTS-A(2) TH-positive neurons and NAc pro-dynorphin-positive neurons. These data suggest that neuroadaptation (estimated as accumulation of FosB/ΔFosB) to opiates in brain areas associated with stress is modulated by GC, supporting the evidence of a link between brain stress hormones and addiction.
|Magnolol Protects against MPTP/MPP(+)-Induced Toxicity via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress in In Vivo and In Vitro Models of Parkinson's Disease. |
Muroyama, A; Fujita, A; Lv, C; Kobayashi, S; Fukuyama, Y; Mitsumoto, Y
Parkinson's disease 2012 985157 2012
The aim of this study is to investigate the role of magnolol in preventing 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-) induced neurodegeneration in mice and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-(MPP(+)-) induced cytotoxicity to human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and to examine the possible mechanisms. Magnolol (30 mg/kg) was orally administered to C57BL/6N mice once a day for 4 or 5 days either before or after MPTP treatment. Western blot analysis revealed that MPTP injections substantially decreased protein levels of dopamine transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels in the striatum. Both treatments with magnolol significantly attenuated MPTP-induced decrease in DAT and TH protein levels in the striatum. However, these treatments did not affect MPTP-induced increase in GFAP levels. Moreover, oral administration of magnolol almost completely prevented MPTP-induced lipid peroxidation in the striatum. In human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, magnolol significantly attenuated MPP(+)-induced cytotoxicity and the production of reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that magnolol has protective effects via an antioxidative mechanism in both in vivo and in vitro models of Parkinson's disease.
|Decreased expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the nucleus tractus solitarii inhibits sympathetically mediated baroreflex responses in rat. |
Lin, LH; Nitschke Dragon, D; Jin, J; Tian, X; Chu, Y; Sigmund, C; Talman, WT
The Journal of physiology 590 3545-59 2012
Despite numerous studies it remains controversial whether nitric oxide (NO·) synthesized by neuronal NOS (nNOS) plays an excitatory or inhibitory role in transmission of baroreflex signals in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). In the current studies we sought to test the hypothesis that nNOS is involved in excitation of baroreflex pathways in NTS while excluding pharmacological interventions in assessing the influence of nNOS. We therefore developed, validated and utilized a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to reduce expression of nNOS in the NTS of rats whose baroreflex activity was then studied. We demonstrate downregulation of nNOS through transduction with adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) carrying shRNA for nNOS. When injected bilaterally into NTS AAV2nNOSshRNA significantly reduced reflex tachycardic responses to acute hypotension while not affecting reflex bradycardic responses to acute increases of arterial pressure. Control animals treated with intravenous propranolol to block sympathetically mediated chronotropic responses manifested the same baroreflex responses as animals that had been treated with AAV2nNOSshRNA. Neither AAV2 eGFP nor AAV2nNOScDNA affected baroreflex responses. Blocking cardiac vagal influences with atropine similarly reduced baroreflex-mediated bradycardic responses to increases in arterial pressure both in control animals and in those treated with AAV2nNOSshRNA. We conclude that NO· synthesized by nNOS in the NTS is integral to excitation of baroreflex pathways involved in reflex tachycardia, a largely sympathetically mediated response, but not reflex bradycardia, a largely parasympathetically mediated response. We suggest that, at the basal state, nNOS is maximally engaged. Thus, its upregulation does not augment the baroreflex.
|Substantia nigra vulnerability after a single moderate diffuse brain injury in the rat. |
van Bregt, DR; Thomas, TC; Hinzman, JM; Cao, T; Liu, M; Bing, G; Gerhardt, GA; Pauly, JR; Lifshitz, J
Experimental neurology 234 8-19 2012
Dementia and parkinsonism are late-onset symptoms associated with repetitive head injury, as documented in multiple contact-sport athletes. Clinical symptomatology is the likely phenotype of chronic degeneration and circuit disruption in the substantia nigra (SN). To investigate the initiating neuropathology, we hypothesize that a single diffuse brain injury is sufficient to initiate SN neuropathology including neuronal loss, vascular disruption and microglial activation, contributing to neurodegeneration and altered dopamine regulation. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham or moderate midline fluid percussion brain injury. Stereological estimates indicated a significant 44% loss of the estimated total neuron number in the SN at 28-days post-injury, without atrophy of neuronal nuclear volumes, including 25% loss of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons by 28-days post-injury. Multi-focal vascular compromise occurred 1-2 days post-injury, with ensuing microglial activation (significant 40% increase at 4-days). Neurodegeneration (silver-stain technique) encompassed on average 21% of the SN by 7-days post-injury and increased to 29% by 28-days compared to sham (1%). Whole tissue SN, but not striatum, dopamine metabolism was altered at 28-days post-injury, without appreciable gene or protein changes in dopamine synthesis or regulation elements. Together, single moderate diffuse brain injury resulted in SN neurovascular pathology potentially associated with neuroinflammation or dopamine dysregulation. Compensatory mechanisms may preserve dopamine signaling acutely, but subsequent SN damage with aging or additional injury may expose clinical symptomatology of motor ataxias and dementia.
|Sustained expression of PGC-1α in the rat nigrostriatal system selectively impairs dopaminergic function. |
Ciron, C; Lengacher, S; Dusonchet, J; Aebischer, P; Schneider, BL
Human molecular genetics 21 1861-76 2012
Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been implicated in the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, pathways controlling mitochondrial activity rapidly emerge as potential therapeutic targets. Here, we explore the neuronal response to prolonged overexpression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α), a transcriptional regulator of mitochondrial function, both in vitro and in vivo. In neuronal primary cultures from the ventral midbrain, PGC-1α induces mitochondrial biogenesis and increases basal respiration. Over time, we observe an increasing proportion of the oxygen consumed by neurons which are dedicated to adenosine triphosphate production. In parallel to enhanced oxidative phosphorylation, PGC-1α progressively leads to a decrease in mitochondrial polarization. In the adult rat nigrostriatal system, adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated overexpression of PGC-1α induces the selective loss of dopaminergic markers and increases dopamine (DA) catabolism, leading to a reduction in striatal DA content. In addition, PGC-1α prevents the labeling of nigral neurons following striatal injection of the fluorogold retrograde tracer. When PGC-1α is expressed at higher levels following intranigral AAV injection, it leads to overt degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Finally, PGC-1α overexpression does not prevent nigrostriatal degeneration in pathologic conditions induced by α-synuclein overexpression. Overall, we find that lasting overexpression of PGC-1α leads to major alterations in the metabolic activity of neuronal cells which dramatically impair dopaminergic function in vivo. These results highlight the central role of PGC-1α in the function and survival of dopaminergic neurons and the critical need for maintaining physiological levels of PGC-1α activity.
|Neuroplasticity of sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers in a mouse model of a painful arthritic joint. |
Ghilardi, JR; Freeman, KT; Jimenez-Andrade, JM; Coughlin, KA; Kaczmarska, MJ; Castaneda-Corral, G; Bloom, AP; Kuskowski, MA; Mantyh, PW
Arthritis and rheumatism 64 2223-32 2012
Many forms of arthritis are accompanied by significant chronic joint pain. This study was undertaken to investigate whether there is significant sprouting of sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers in the painful arthritic knee joint and whether nerve growth factor (NGF) drives this pathologic reorganization.A painful arthritic knee joint was produced by injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) into the knee joint of young adult mice. CFA-injected mice were then treated systemically with vehicle or anti-NGF antibody. Pain behaviors were assessed, and at 28 days following the initial CFA injection, the knee joints were processed for immunohistochemistry analysis using antibodies against calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP; sensory nerve fibers), neurofilament 200 kd (NF200; sensory nerve fibers), growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43; sprouted nerve fibers), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; sympathetic nerve fibers), CD31 (endothelial cells), or CD68 (monocyte/macrophages).In CFA-injected mice, there was a significant increase in the density of CD68+ macrophages, CD31+ blood vessels, and CGRP+, NF200+, GAP-43+, and TH+ nerve fibers in the synovium, as well as a significant increase in joint pain-related behaviors. None of these findings were observed in sham-injected mice. Administration of anti-NGF reduced these pain-related behaviors and the ectopic sprouting of nerve fibers, but had no significant effect on the increase in density of CD31+ blood vessels or CD68+ macrophages.These findings demonstrate that ectopic sprouting of sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers occurs in the painful arthritic joint and may be involved in the generation and maintenance of arthritic pain.
|CDNF protects the nigrostriatal dopamine system and promotes recovery after MPTP treatment in mice. |
Airavaara, M; Harvey, BK; Voutilainen, MH; Shen, H; Chou, J; Lindholm, P; Lindahl, M; Tuominen, RK; Saarma, M; Hoffer, B; Wang, Y
Cell transplantation 21 1213-23 2012
Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) is a recently discovered protein, which belongs to the evolutionarily conserved CDNF/MANF family of neurotrophic factors. The degeneration of dopamine neurons following 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment is well characterized, and efficacy in this model is considered a standard criterion for development of parkinsonian therapies. MPTP is a neurotoxin, which produces parkinsonian symptoms in humans and in C57/Bl6 mice. To date, there are no reports about the effects of CDNF on dopamine neuron survival or function in the MPTP rodent model, a critical gap. Therefore, we studied whether CDNF has neuroprotective and neurorestorative properties for the nigrostriatal dopamine system after MPTP injections in C57/Bl6 mice. We found that bilateral striatal CDNF injections, given 20 h before MPTP, improved horizontal and vertical motor behavior. CDNF pretreatment increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in the striatum and in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr), as well as the number of TH-positive cells in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Posttreatment with CDNF, given 1 week after MPTP injections, increased horizontal and vertical motor behavior of mice, as well as dopamine fiber densities in the striatum and the number of TH-positive cells in SNpc. CDNF did not alter any of the analyzed dopaminergic biomarkers or locomotor behavior in MPTP-untreated animals. We conclude that striatal CDNF administration is both neuroprotective and neurorestorative for the TH-positive cells in the nigrostriatal dopamine system in the MPTP model, which supports the development of CDNF-based treatment for Parkinson's disease.
|Cell autonomy of DSCAM function in retinal development. |
Fuerst, PG; Bruce, F; Rounds, RP; Erskine, L; Burgess, RW
Developmental biology 361 326-37 2012
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) provide identifying cues by which neural architecture is sculpted. The Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule (DSCAM) is required for many neurodevelopmental processes in different species and also has several potential mechanisms of activity, including homophilic adhesion, homophilic repulsion and heterophilic interactions. In the mouse retina, Dscam is expressed in many, but not all neuronal subtypes. Mutations in Dscam cause the fasciculation of dendrites of neighboring homotypic neurons, indicating a role in self-avoidance among cells of a given type, a disruption of the non-random patterning of their cell bodies, and a decrease in developmental cell death in affected cell populations. In order to address how DSCAM facilitates retinal pattering, we developed a conditional allele of Dscam to use alongside existing Dscam mutant mouse strains. Conditional deletion of Dscam reproduces cell spacing, cell number and dendrite arborization defects. Inducible deletion of Dscam and retinal ganglion cell depletion in Brn3b mutant retinas both indicate that these DSCAM-mediated phenotypes can occur independently. In chimeric retinas, in which wild type and Dscam mutant cells are comingled, Dscam mutant cells entangle adjacent wild type cells of the same type, as if both cells were lacking Dscam, consistent with DSCAM-dependent cell spacing and neurite arborization being mediated through homophilic binding cell-to-cell. Deletion of Dscam in specific cell types causes cell-type-autonomous cell body spacing defects, indicating that DSCAM mediates arborization and spacing by acting within given cell types. We also examine the cell autonomy of DSCAM in laminar stratification and find that laminar disorganization can be caused in a non-cell autonomous fashion. Finally, we find Dscam dosage-dependent defects in developmental cell death and amacrine cell spacing, relevant to the increased cell death and other disorders observed in Down syndrome mouse models and human patients, in which Dscam is present in three copies.
|AC927, a σ receptor ligand, blocks methamphetamine-induced release of dopamine and generation of reactive oxygen species in NG108-15 cells. |
Kaushal, N; Elliott, M; Robson, MJ; Iyer, AK; Rojanasakul, Y; Coop, A; Matsumoto, RR
Molecular pharmacology 81 299-308 2012
Methamphetamine is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug of abuse that causes neurotoxicity with high or repeated dosing. Earlier studies demonstrated the ability of the selective σ receptor ligand N-phenethylpiperidine oxalate (AC927) to attenuate the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine in vivo. However, the precise mechanisms through which AC927 conveys its protective effects remain to be determined. With the use of differentiated NG108-15 cells as a model system, the effects of methamphetamine on neurotoxic endpoints and mediators such as apoptosis, necrosis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and dopamine release were examined in the absence and presence of AC927. Methamphetamine at physiologically relevant micromolar concentrations caused apoptosis in NG108-15 cells. At higher concentrations of methamphetamine, necrotic cell death was observed. At earlier time points, methamphetamine caused ROS/RNS generation, which was detected with the fluorigenic substrate 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate, acetyl ester, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. N-Acetylcysteine, catalase, and l-N(G)-monomethyl arginine citrate inhibited the ROS/RNS fluorescence signal induced by methamphetamine, which suggests the formation of hydrogen peroxide and RNS. Exposure to methamphetamine also stimulated the release of dopamine from NG108-15 cells into the culture medium. AC927 attenuated methamphetamine-induced apoptosis, necrosis, ROS/RNS generation, and dopamine release in NG108-15 cells. Together, the data suggest that modulation of σ receptors can mitigate methamphetamine-induced cytotoxicity, ROS/RNS generation, and dopamine release in cultured cells.
|Immunohistochemical determination of the site of hypotensive effects of glucagon-like peptide-2 in the rat brain. |
S Sasaki-Hamada,S Okada,K Ito,T Iwai,J-I Oka
Neuroscience 212 2012
Proglucagon-derived glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is released from enteroendocrine cells and neurons. GLP-2 regulates energy absorption and epithelial integrity in the gastrointestinal tract, but its effect on blood-pressure regulation remains unknown. In the present study, we found that GLP-2 administered both peripherally and centrally dose-dependently reduced mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) in male Wistar rats anesthetized with urethane and α-chloralose. Immunohistochemical detection of the c-fos protein (Fos) revealed that the peripherally and centrally administered GLP-2 induced Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM). In contrast, Fos-IR in brainstem catecholamine neurons decreased after the administration of GLP-2. These results suggest that GLP-2 acts on specific brain nuclei to inhibit sympathetic nerve activity and this leads to hypotension.
|Laterodorsal tegmentum and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus circuits regulate renal functions: Neuroanatomical evidence in mice models. |
Dawei Ye,Qingqing Guo,Jueping Feng,Cheng Liu,Hui Yang,Feng Gao,Waiping Zhou,Ling Zhou,Hongbing Xiang,Rongchun Li
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban 32 2012
Neurons in the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDTg) and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) play important roles in central autonomic circuits of the kidney. In this study, we used a combination of retrograde tracers pseudorabies virus (PRV)-614 and fluorescence immunohistochemistry to characterize the neuroanatomic substrate of PPTg and LDTg innervating the kidney in the mouse. PRV-614-infected neurons were retrogradely labeled in the rostral and middle parts of LDTg, and the middle and caudal parts of PPTg after tracer injection in the kidney. PRV-614/TPH double-labeled neurons were mainly localized in the rostral of LDTg, whereas PRV-614/TH neurons were scattered within the three parts of LDTg. PRV-614/TPH and PRV-614/TH neurons were located predominantly in the caudal of PPTg (cPPTg). These data provided direct neuroanatomical foundation for the identification of serotonergic and catecholaminergic projections from the mid-brain tegmentum to the kidney.
|Onecut factors control development of the Locus Coeruleus and of the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus. |
A Espana,F Clotman
Molecular and cellular neurosciences 50 2012
The Locus Coeruleus (LC), the main noradrenergic nucleus in the vertebrate CNS, contributes to the regulation of several processes including arousal, sleep, adaptative behaviors and stress. Regulators controlling the formation of the LC have been identified but factors involved in its maintenance remain unknown. Here, we show that members of the Onecut (OC) family of transcription factors, namely HNF-6, OC-2 and OC-3, are required for maintenance of the LC phenotype. Indeed, in embryos lacking any OC proteins, LC neurons properly differentiate but abnormally migrate and eventually lose their noradrenergic characteristics. Surprisingly, the expression of Oc genes in these neurons is restricted to the earliest differentiation stages, suggesting that OC factors may regulate maintenance of the LC in a non cell-autonomous manner. Accordingly, the OC factors are present throughout development in a population directly adjacent to the LC, the rhombencephalic portion of the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (MTN). In the absence of OC factors, rhombencephalic MTN neurons fail to be generated, suggesting that OC proteins cell-autonomously control their production. Hence, we propose that OC factors are required at early developmental stages for differentiation of the MTN neurons that are in turn necessary for maintenance of the LC.
|Lesioning noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus in C57Bl/6 mice with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine injection, to assess molecular, electrophysiological and biochemical changes in noradrenergic signaling. |
P Szot,L Knight,A Franklin,C Sikkema,S Foster,C W Wilkinson,S S White,M A Raskind
Neuroscience 216 2012
The locus coeruleus (LC) is the major loci of noradrenergic innervation to the forebrain. Due to the extensive central nervous system innervation of the LC noradrenergic system, a reduction in the number of LC neurons could result in significant changes in noradrenergic function in many forebrain regions. LC noradrenergic neurons were lesioned in adult male C57Bl/6 mice with the unilateral administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA) (vehicle on the alternate side). Noradrenergic markers were measured 3 weeks later to determine the consequence of LC loss in the forebrain. Direct administration of 6OHDA into the LC results in the specific reduction of noradrenergic neurons in the LC (as measured by electrophysiology, immunoreactivity and in situ hybridization), the lateral tegmental neurons and dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental region were unaffected. The loss of LC noradrenergic neurons did not result in compensatory changes in the expression of mRNA for norepinephrine (NE)-synthesizing enzymes. The loss of LC noradrenergic neurons is associated with reduced NE tissue concentration and NE transporter (NET) binding sites in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as other forebrain regions such as the amygdala and SN. Adrenoreceptor (AR) binding sites (α(1)- and α(2)-AR) were not significantly affected on the 6OHDA-treated side compared to the vehicle-treated side, although there is a reduction of AR binding sites on both the vehicle- and 6OHDA-treated side in specific forebrain regions. These studies indicate that unilateral stereotaxic injection of 6OHDA into mice reduces noradrenergic LC neurons and reduces noradrenergic innervation to many forebrain regions, including the contralateral side.
|Monoamine oxidase A down-regulation contributes to high metanephrine concentration in pheochromocytoma. |
Grouzmann, E; Matter, M; Bilz, S; Herren, A; Triponez, F; Henzen, C; Kim, KS; Zulewski, H; Buclin, T; Brakch, N; Abid, K
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 97 2773-81 2012
The high diagnostic performance of plasma-free metanephrines (metanephrine and normetanephrine) (MN) for pheochromocytoma (PHEO) results from the tumoral expression of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), the enzyme involved in O-methylation of catecholamines (CAT). Intriguingly, metanephrine, in contrast to epinephrine, is not remarkably secreted during a stress in hypertensive or normotensive subjects, whereas in PHEO patients CAT and MN are both raised to high levels. Because epinephrine and metanephrine are almost exclusively produced by the adrenal medulla, this suggests distinct CAT metabolism in chromaffin cells and pheochromocytes.The objective of the study was to compare CAT metabolism between adrenal medulla and PHEO tissue regarding related enzyme expression including monoamine oxidases (MAO) and COMT.A multicenter comparative study was conducted.The study included 21 patients with a histologically confirmed PHEO and eight adrenal glands as control.CAT, dihydroxyphenol-glycol, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and MN were measured in adrenal medulla and PHEO tissue. Western blot, quantitative RT-PCR and immunofluorescence studies for MAOA, MAOB, tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine β-hydroxylase, L-amino acid decarboxylase, and COMT were applied on tissue homogenates and cell preparations.At both the protein and mRNA levels, MAOA and COMT are detected less often in PHEO compared with adrenal medulla, conversely to tyrosine hydroxylase, L-amino acid decarboxylase, and dopamine β-hydroxylase, much more expressed in tumor tissue. MAOB protein is detected less often in tumor but not differently expressed at the mRNA level. Dihydroxyphenol-glycol is virtually absent from tumor, whereas MN, produced by COMT, rises to 4.6-fold compared with adrenal medulla tissue. MAOA down-regulation was observed in 100% of tumors studied, irrespectively of genetic alteration identified; on the other hand, MAOA was strongly expressed in all adrenal medulla collected independently of age, gender, or late sympathetic activation of the deceased donor.High concentrations of MN in tumor do not only arise from CAT overproduction but also from low MAOA expression, resulting in higher substrate availability for COMT.
|Fibroblast growth factor 2 regulates adequate nigrostriatal pathway formation in mice. |
Olga Baron,Andreas Ratzka,Claudia Grothe
The Journal of comparative neurology 520 2012
Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is an important neurotrophic factor that promotes survival of adult mesencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons and regulates their adequate development. Since mDA neurons degenerate in Parkinson's disease, a comprehensive understanding of their development and maintenance might contribute to the development of causative therapeutic approaches. The current analysis addressed the role of FGF-2 in mDA axonal outgrowth, pathway formation, and innervation of respective forebrain targets using organotypic explant cocultures of ventral midbrain (VM) and forebrain (FB). An enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic mouse strain was used for the VM explants, which allowed combining and distinguishing of individual VM and FB tissue from wildtype and FGF-2-deficient embryonic day (E)14.5 embryos, respectively. These cocultures provided a suitable model to study the role of target-derived FB and intrinsic VM-derived FGF-2. In fact, we show that loss of FGF-2 in both FB and VM results in significantly increased mDA fiber outgrowth compared to wildtype cocultures, proving a regulatory role of FGF-2 during nigrostriatal wiring. Further, we found in heterogeneous cocultures deficient for FGF-2 in FB and VM, respectively, similar phenotypes with wider fiber tracts compared to wildtype cocultures and shorter fiber outgrowth distance than cocultures completely deficient for FGF-2. Additionally, the loss of target-derived FGF-2 in FB explants resulted in decreased caudorostral glial migration. Together these findings imply an intricate interplay of target-derived and VM-derived FGF signaling, which assures an adequate nigrostriatal pathway formation and target innervation. J. Comp. Neurol. 520:3949-3961, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
|Morphological and pathological evolution of the brain microcirculation in aging and Alzheimer's disease. |
Hunter, JM; Kwan, J; Malek-Ahmadi, M; Maarouf, CL; Kokjohn, TA; Belden, C; Sabbagh, MN; Beach, TG; Roher, AE
PloS one 7 e36893 2012
Key pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), including amyloid plaques, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and neurofibrillary tangles do not completely account for cognitive impairment, therefore other factors such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular pathologies, may contribute to AD. In order to elucidate the microvascular changes that contribute to aging and disease, direct neuropathological staining and immunohistochemistry, were used to quantify the structural integrity of the microvasculature and its innervation in three oldest-old cohorts: 1) nonagenarians with AD and a high amyloid plaque load; 2) nonagenarians with no dementia and a high amyloid plaque load; 3) nonagenarians without dementia or amyloid plaques. In addition, a non-demented (ND) group (average age 71 years) with no amyloid plaques was included for comparison. While gray matter thickness and overall brain mass were reduced in AD compared to ND control groups, overall capillary density was not different. However, degenerated string capillaries were elevated in AD, potentially suggesting greater microvascular "dysfunction" compared to ND groups. Intriguingly, apolipoprotein ε4 carriers had significantly higher string vessel counts relative to non-ε4 carriers. Taken together, these data suggest a concomitant loss of functional capillaries and brain volume in AD subjects. We also demonstrated a trend of decreasing vesicular acetylcholine transporter staining, a marker of cortical cholinergic afferents that contribute to arteriolar vasoregulation, in AD compared to ND control groups, suggesting impaired control of vasodilation in AD subjects. In addition, tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of noradrenergic vascular innervation, was reduced which may also contribute to a loss of control of vasoconstriction. The data highlight the importance of the brain microcirculation in the pathogenesis and evolution of AD.
|Collateralization of projections from the rostral ventrolateral medulla to the rostral and caudal thoracic spinal cord in felines. |
Michael F Gowen,Sarah W Ogburn,Takeshi Suzuki,Yoichiro Sugiyama,Lucy A Cotter,Bill J Yates
Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale 220 2012
Stimulation of vestibular receptors elicits distinct changes in blood flow to the forelimb and hindlimb, showing that the nervous system has the capacity to produce changes in sympathetic outflow which are specific for a particular region of the body. However, it is unclear whether the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the primary region of the brainstem that regulates sympathetic outflow to vascular smooth muscle, has the appropriate connectivity with sympathetic preganglionic neurons to generate anatomically patterned responses. To make this determination, the retrograde fluorescent tracer Fast Blue was injected into the T(4) spinal cord segment of cats, which regulates upper body blood flow, whereas Fluoro-Ruby was injected into the T(10) segment to label projections to a region of the spinal cord that regulates lower body blood flow. More neurons were single-labeled by a particular tracer (92 %) than were double labeled by both tracers (8 %), supporting the notion that the RVLM can regulate sympathetic outflow from a limited number of spinal cord segments. Since a large fraction of RVLM neurons that control sympathetic outflow in rodents contain epinephrine, we additionally determined whether the tracer-labeled cells were immunopositive for the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which participates in the synthesis of catecholamines. Double labeling by the two tracers injected into the spinal cord was more common for TH-immunopositive neurons than for the general population of RVLM neurons: 19 % of the TH-positive cells contained both Fast Blue and Fluoro-Ruby, 30 % contained one of the tracers, and 51 % were not labeled by either tracer. Furthermore, many spinally projecting neurons in close proximity to the RVLM catecholaminergic neurons (41 % of the population) were not immunopositive for TH, suggesting that feline RVLM is neurochemically heterogeneous.
|ER stress inhibits neuronal death by promoting autophagy. |
Antoine Fouillet,Clemence Levet,Angelique Virgone,Marion Robin,Pierre Dourlen,Jennifer Rieusset,Elise Belaidi,Michel Ovize,Monique Touret,Serge Nataf,Bertrand Mollereau
Autophagy 8 2012
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases but its relationship and role in disease progression remain unclear. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we showed that mild ER stress (preconditioning) is neuroprotective in Drosophila and mouse models of Parkinson disease. In addition, we found that the combination of mild ER stress and apoptotic signals triggers an autophagic response both in vivo and in vitro. We showed that when autophagy is impaired, ER-mediated protection is lost. We further demonstrated that autophagy inhibits caspase activation and apoptosis. Based on our findings, we conclude that autophagy is required for the neuroprotection mediated by mild ER stress, and therefore ER preconditioning has potential therapeutic value for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
|Accumbal dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin activity after naloxone-conditioned place aversion in morphine-dependent mice. |
Iván Gómez-Milanés,Pilar Almela,Juan-Antonio García-Carmona,M Salud García-Gutiérrez,Auxiliadora Aracil-Fernández,Jorge Manzanares,M Victoria Milanés Maquilón,M Luisa Laorden
Neurochemistry international 61 2012
Dopamine (DA) neurons not only show a pattern signaling the magnitude, delay and probability of rewards but also code negative motivation and aversive events. Beside DA, other systems such as noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) may also be implicated in naloxone-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA; an index of the aversive consequences of withdrawal). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate: (i) the turnover of DA, NA and 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), one of the most important substrates for aversive states, (ii) the changes in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression in the ventral tegmental area, and (iii) total TH protein levels and TH phosphorylation in the NAc after naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal. DA, NA and 5-HT turnover was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). TH gene expression was determined by real time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and total TH and TH phosphorylated at Ser31 and Ser40 were analyzed by Western blot. Present results show that the aversion for environmental cues paired with opioid withdrawal was higher than that observed in the saline group treated with naloxone, which indicates that morphine pretreatment potentiated the ability of naloxone to produce place aversion. In addition, present data show that naloxone-induced CPA positively correlated with an increase of DA and NA turnover in the NAc, which paralleled an increase in TH gene expression in the VTA and TH phosphorylation and enhanced TH protein levels in the NAc. Thus, the present study indicates that naloxone-induced aversion in morphine-dependent mice enhances DA and NA activity in the NAc and suggests that transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of TH could be involved in the hyperactivity of mesolimbic dopaminergic system observed in morphine-withdrawn mice.
|Transient appearance of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive cells in the midline epithelial seam of the human fetal secondary palate. |
Yukio Katori,Shunichi Shibata,Tetsuaki Kawase,Baik Hwan Cho,Gen Murakami
The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association 49 2012
Objective : Transient immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase, which mediates the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to dihydroxyphenylalanine, in the midline epithelial seam between the bilateral palatal shelves was investigated in human fetuses. Materials and Methods : Horizontal or frontal paraffin sections of two human fetuses at 9 and 15 weeks of gestation were used to examine the distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells in regions of the entire head other than the brain. Immunohistochemical staining for S100 protein, calretinin, cytokeratin 14, and vimentin was examined using adjacent or near sections. Results : Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells were large and densely distributed in the midline epithelial seam at the site of palatal fusion in fetuses at 9 weeks but not in fetuses at 15 weeks, in which the midline epithelial seam had already disappeared. No expression of S100 protein, calretinin, or vimentin was detected, but the midline epithelial seam was positive for cytokeratin 14. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity was not detected in epithelia during the process of palatal fusion in mice from E 14.0 to 15.0. Conclusions : These findings indicate that tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells in the midline epithelial seams are nonneural epithelial cells and suggest that the tyrosine hydroxylase is a novel factor involved in normal palatal formation, especially the fate of the midline epithelial seam in humans.
|Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area fire faster in adolescent rats than in adults. |
McCutcheon, JE; Conrad, KL; Carr, SB; Ford, KA; McGehee, DS; Marinelli, M
Journal of neurophysiology 108 1620-30 2012
Adolescence may be a period of vulnerability to drug addiction. In rats, elevated firing activity of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons predicts enhanced addiction liability. Our aim was to determine if dopamine neurons are more active in adolescents than in adults and to examine mechanisms underlying any age-related difference. VTA dopamine neurons fired faster in adolescents than in adults as measured with in vivo extracellular recordings. Dopamine neuron firing can be divided into nonbursting (single spikes) and bursting activity (clusters of high-frequency spikes). Nonbursting activity was higher in adolescents compared with adults. Frequency of burst events did not differ between ages, but bursts were longer in adolescents than in adults. Elevated dopamine neuron firing in adolescent rats was also observed in cell-attached recordings in ex vivo brain slices. Using whole cell recordings, we found that passive and active membrane properties were similar across ages. Hyperpolarization-activated cation currents and small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel currents were also comparable across ages. We found no difference in dopamine D2-class autoreceptor function across ages, although the high baseline firing in adolescents resulted in autoreceptor activation being less effective at silencing neurons. Finally, AMPA receptor-mediated spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents occurred at lower frequency in adolescents; GABA(A) receptor-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents occurred at both lower frequency and smaller amplitude in adolescents. In conclusion, VTA dopamine neurons fire faster in adolescence, potentially because GABA tone increases as rats reach adulthood. This elevation of firing rate during adolescence is consistent with it representing a vulnerable period for developing drug addiction.
|The atypical homeoprotein Pbx1a participates in the axonal pathfinding of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. |
Sgadò, P; Ferretti, E; Grbec, D; Bozzi, Y; Simon, HH
Neural development 7 24 2012
The pre B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1 (Pbx1) genes belong to the three amino acid loop extension family of homeodomain proteins that form hetero-oligomeric complexes with other homeodomain transcription factors, thereby modulating target specificity, DNA binding affinity and transcriptional activity of their molecular associates.Here, we provide evidence that Pbx1 is expressed in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons from embryonic day 11 into adulthood and determines some of the cellular properties of this neuronal population. In Pbx1-deficient mice, the mesencephalic dopaminergic axons stall during mid-gestation at the border between di- and telencephalon before entering the ganglionic eminence, leading to a loose organization of the axonal bundle and partial misrouting. In Pbx1-deficient dopaminergic neurons, the high affinity netrin-1 receptor, deleted in colon cancer (DCC), is down-regulated. Interestingly, we found several conserved Pbx1 binding sites in the first intron of DCC, suggesting a direct regulation of DCC transcription by Pbx1.The expression of Pbx1 in dopaminergic neurons and its regulation of DCC expression make it an important player in defining the axonal guidance of the midbrain dopaminergic neurons, with possible implications for the normal physiology of the nigro-striatal system as well as processes related to the degeneration of neurons during the course of Parkinson's disease.
|Dorsal root ganglion neurons innervating pelvic organs in the mouse express tyrosine hydroxylase. |
P R Brumovsky,J-H La,C J McCarthy,T H,G F Gebhart
Neuroscience 223 2012
Previous studies in rat and mouse documented that a subpopulation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating non-visceral tissues express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Here we studied whether or not mouse DRG neurons retrogradely traced with Fast Blue (FB) from colorectum or urinary bladder also express immunohistochemically detectable TH. The lumbar sympathetic chain (LSC) and major pelvic ganglion (MPG) were included in the analysis. Previously characterized antibodies against TH, norepinephrine transporter type 1 (NET-1) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were used. On average, ∼14% of colorectal and ∼17% of urinary bladder DRG neurons expressed TH and spanned virtually all neuronal sizes, although more often in the medium-sized to small ranges. Also, they were more abundant in lumbosacral than thoracolumbar DRGs, and often coexpressed CGRP. We also detected several TH-immunoreactive (IR) colorectal and urinary bladder neurons in the LSC and the MPG, more frequently in the former. No NET-1-IR neurons were detected in DRGs, whereas the majority of FB-labeled, TH-IR neurons in the LSC and MPG coexpressed this marker (as did most other TH-IR neurons not labeled from the target organs). TH-IR nerve fibers were detected in all layers of the colorectum and the urinary bladder, with some also reaching the basal mucosal cells. Most TH-IR fibers in these organs lacked CGRP. Taken together, we show: (1) that a previously undescribed population of colorectal and urinary bladder DRG neurons expresses TH, often CGRP but not NET-1, suggesting the absence of a noradrenergic phenotype; and (2) that TH-IR axons/terminals in the colon or urinary bladder, naturally expected to derive from autonomic sources, could also originate from sensory neurons.
|Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra. |
Purves-Tyson, TD; Handelsman, DJ; Double, KL; Owens, SJ; Bustamante, S; Weickert, CS
BMC neuroscience 13 95 2012
Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR) or indirect by conversion to 17β-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER). How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s) and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5α-reductase). We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and monoamine oxygenase (MAO) A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5α-reductase mRNA levels.We find ERα and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT) increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ERα mRNA down-regulation and ERβ mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5α reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy.We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting conversion of T to DHT and increasing AR mRNA. Further, testosterone may increase local dopamine synthesis and metabolism, thereby changing dopamine regulation within the substantia nigra. We show that testosterone action through both AR and ERs modulates synthesis of sex steroid receptor by altering AR and ER mRNA levels in normal adolescent male substantia nigra. Increased sex steroids in the brain at adolescence may alter substantia nigra dopamine pathways, increasing vulnerability for the development of psychopathology.
|The Role of the Subthalamic Nucleus in L-DOPA Induced Dyskinesia in 6-Hydroxydopamine Lesioned Rats. |
Asier Aristieta,Garikoitz Azkona,Ainhoa Sagarduy,Cristina Miguelez,José Ángel Ruiz-Ortega,Rosario Sanchez-Pernaute,Luisa Ugedo
PloS one 7 2012
L-DOPA is the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), but prolonged use leads to disabling motor complications including dyskinesia. Strong evidence supports a role of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in the pathophysiology of PD whereas its role in dyskinesia is a matter of controversy. Here, we investigated the involvement of STN in dyskinesia, using single-unit extracellular recording, behavioural and molecular approaches in hemi-parkinsonian rats rendered dyskinetic by chronic L-DOPA administration. Our results show that chronic L-DOPA treatment does not modify the abnormal STN activity induced by the 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway in this model. Likewise, we observed a loss of STN responsiveness to a single L-DOPA dose both in lesioned and sham animals that received daily L-DOPA treatment. We did not find any correlation between the abnormal involuntary movement (AIM) scores and the electrophysiological parameters of STN neurons recorded 24 h or 20-120 min after the last L-DOPA injection, except for the axial subscores. Nonetheless, unilateral chemical ablation of the STN with ibotenic acid resulted in a reduction in global AIM scores and peak-severity of dyskinesia. In addition, STN lesion decreased the anti-dyskinetogenic effect of buspirone in a reciprocal manner. Striatal protein expression was altered in dyskinetic animals with increases in ΔFosB, phosphoDARPP-32, dopamine receptor (DR) D3 and DRD2/DRD1 ratio. The STN lesion attenuated the striatal molecular changes and normalized the DRD2/DRD1 ratio. Taken together, our results show that the STN plays a role, if modest, in the physiopathology of dyskinesias.
|Reinduced Wnt signaling limits regenerative potential of sensory axons in the spinal cord following conditioning lesion. |
Hollis, Edmund R and Zou, Yimin
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 109: 14663-8 (2012) 2012
Conditioning lesion of the peripheral branch of dorsal column axons is a well-known paradigm enabling the central branch to regenerate after injury to the spinal cord. However, only a small number of regenerating axons enter grafted substrates, and they do not grow beyond the lesion. We found that conditioning lesion induces, in addition to growth-stimulating genes, related to receptor tyrosine kinase (Ryk), a potent repulsive receptor for Wnts. Wnts are expressed around the site of spinal cord injury, and we found that grafted bone marrow stromal cells secreting the Wnt inhibitors secreted frizzled-related protein 2 or Wnt inhibitory factor 1 enhanced regeneration of the central branch after peripheral conditioning lesion. Furthermore, we found that Wnt4-expressing grafts caused dramatic long-range retraction of the injured central branch of conditioned dorsal root ganglion neurons. Macrophages accumulate along the path of receding axons but not around Wnt4-expressing cells, suggesting that the retraction of dorsal column axons is not a secondary effect of increased macrophages attracted by Wnt4. Therefore, Wnt-Ryk signaling is an inhibitory force co-induced with growth-stimulating factors after conditioning lesion. Overcoming Wnt inhibition may further enhance therapies being designed on the basis of the conditioning-lesion paradigm.
|Effects of Ovariectomy and Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on Vaginal Wall Thickness and Innervation. |
Georges Pelletier,Johanne Ouellet,Céline Martel,Fernand Labrie
The journal of sexual medicine 9 2012
Introduction. One mechanism by which low sexual steroid activity observed after menopause could cause sexual dysfunction is by deficient vaginal innervation. Recently, it has been shown that intravaginal administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) could produce beneficial effects on sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women. Aim. The goal of this study was to determine if DHEA could modify innervation in the rat vagina. Main Outcome Measures. The area occupied by the nerve fibers immunoreactive for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), a panneuronal marker or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a sympathetic nerve fiber marker, in the lamina propria and muscular layers, respectively, as well as the total area of each of these 2 layers were measured by stereological analysis. Methods. The innervation of the rat vagina was examined 9 months after ovariectomy (OVX) compared to intact animals and treatment of OVX animals with DHEA (80 mg/kg). Four sections from each vagina (5 animals/groups) were immunostained. Results. In OVX animals, the lamina propria area was decreased to 44%, an effect which was reversed by DHEA to 69% of the intact value. OVX also caused a 59% decrease in the area of PGP 9.5 fibers, an effect which was prevented by DHEA, thus showing a 68% stimulatory effect of DHEA on the density of PGP 9.5 fibers in the lamina propria compared to OVX animals. Following OVX, the muscular layer area was decreased by 61%. DHEA treatment induced 118% and 71% increases in TH fiber area compared to OVX and intact animals, respectively. The density of TH fibers was 182% increased over intact controls by DHEA treatment of OVX animals. Conclusions. The relatively potent stimulatory effect of DHEA on intravaginal nerve fiber density provides a possible explanation for the beneficial effects of intravaginal DHEA on sexual dysfunction observed in postmenopausal women. Pelletier G, Ouellet J, Martel C, and Labrie F. Effects of ovariectomy and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on vaginal wall thickness and innervation. J Sex Med **;**:**-**.
|Late-onset Parkinsonism in NFκB/c-Rel-deficient mice. |
Baiguera, Cristina, et al.
Brain, 135: 2750-65 (2012) 2012
Activation of the nuclear factor κB/c-Rel can increase neuronal resilience to pathological noxae by regulating the expression of pro-survival manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, now known as SOD2) and Bcl-xL genes. We show here that c-Rel-deficient (c-rel(-/-)) mice developed a Parkinson's disease-like neuropathology with ageing. At 18 months of age, c-rel(-/-) mice exhibited a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, as assessed by tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity and Nissl staining. Nigral degeneration was accompanied by a significant loss of dopaminergic terminals and a significant reduction of dopamine and homovanillic acid levels in the striatum. Mice deficient of the c-Rel factor exhibited a marked immunoreactivity for fibrillary α-synuclein in the substantia nigra pars compacta as well as increased expression of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and iron staining in both the substantia nigra pars compacta and striatum. Aged c-rel(-/-) mouse brain were characterized by increased microglial reactivity in the basal ganglia, but no astrocytic reaction. In addition, c-rel(-/-) mice showed age-dependent deficits in locomotor and total activity and various gait-related deficits during a catwalk analysis that were reminiscent of bradykinesia and muscle rigidity. Both locomotor and gait-related deficits recovered in c-rel(-/-) mice treated with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine. These data suggest that c-Rel may act as a regulator of the substantia nigra pars compacta resilience to ageing and that aged c-rel(-/-) mice may be a suitable model of Parkinson's disease.
|A cytoarchitectonic and chemoarchitectonic analysis of the dopamine cell groups in the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and retrorubral field in the mouse. |
Yuhong Fu,Yuan Yuan,Glenda Halliday,Zoltán Rusznák,Charles Watson,George Paxinos
Brain structure & function 217 2012
The three main dopamine cell groups of the brain are located in the substantia nigra (A9), ventral tegmental area (A10), and retrorubral field (A8). Several subdivisions of these cell groups have been identified in rats and humans but have not been well described in mice, despite the increasing use of mice in neurodegenerative models designed to selectively damage A9 dopamine neurons. The aim of this study was to determine whether typical subdivisions of these dopamine cell groups are present in mice. The dopamine neuron groups were analysed in 15 adult C57BL/6J mice by anatomically localising tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter protein (DAT), calbindin, and the G-protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 (GIRK2) proteins. Measurements of the labeling intensity, neuronal morphology, and the proportion of neurons double-labeled with TH, DAT, calbindin, or GIRK2 were used to differentiate subregions. Coronal maps were prepared and reconstructed in 3D. The A8 cell group had the largest dopamine neurons. Five subregions of A9 were identified: the reticular part with few dopamine neurons, the larger dorsal and smaller ventral dopamine tiers, and the medial and lateral parts of A9. The latter has groups containing some calbindin-immunoreactive dopamine neurons. The greatest diversity of dopamine cell types was identified in the seven subregions of A10. The main dopamine cell groups in the mouse brain are similar in terms of diversity to those observed in rats and humans. These findings are relevant to models using mice to analyse the selective vulnerability of different types of dopamine neurons.
|Running wheel exercise ameliorates methamphetamine-induced damage to dopamine and serotonin terminals. |
Steven J O'dell,Bryan A Galvez,Alexander J Ball,John F Marshall
Synapse (New York, N.Y.) 66 2012
Repeated administration of methamphetamine (mAMPH) to rodents in a single-day binge produces long-lasting damage to dopaminergic and serotonergic terminals. Because previous research has demonstrated that physical activity can ameliorate nigrostriatal injury, this study investigated whether voluntary exercise in rats can alter the monoaminergic damage resulting from a neurotoxic mAMPH binge. Adult male rats were allowed constant access to running wheels or kept in nonwheel cages for three weeks, then given a binge dosing regimen of mAMPH or saline. The rats were returned to their original environments for three additional weeks post-mAMPH. [(125) I]RTI-55 binding and autoradiography was used to quantify dopamine transporters (DAT), and radioimmunocytochemistry was used to quantify striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Binge mAMPH treatment significantly reduced striatal DAT and TH in a regionally specific pattern; with greatest effects in ventral caudate-putamen (CP) and relative sparing of the nucleus accumbens septi (NAc). The effects of mAMPH on striatal DAT and TH were ameliorated in the running, compared to the sedentary, animals. Also, mAMPH was found to reduce [(125) I]RTI-55 binding to serotonin transporters (SERT) in frontoparietal cortex, and this too was significantly attenuated by exercise. Additional correlational analyses showed that the post-mAMPH running of individual animals predicted the amelioration of striatal DAT and TH as well as frontoparietal SERT. Overall, voluntary exercise significantly diminished mAMPH-induced forebrain monoaminergic damage. The significant correlations between post-mAMPH exercise and markers of monoaminergic terminal integrity provide novel evidence that voluntary exercise may exert beneficial effects on behavior in recovering mAMPH addicts.
|Dopaminergic neurons inhibit striatal output through non-canonical release of GABA. |
Tritsch, NX; Ding, JB; Sabatini, BL
Nature 490 262-6 2012
The substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area contain the two largest populations of dopamine-releasing neurons in the mammalian brain. These neurons extend elaborate projections in the striatum, a large subcortical structure implicated in motor planning and reward-based learning. Phasic activation of dopaminergic neurons in response to salient or reward-predicting stimuli is thought to modulate striatal output through the release of dopamine to promote and reinforce motor action. Here we show that activation of dopamine neurons in striatal slices rapidly inhibits action potential firing in both direct- and indirect-pathway striatal projection neurons through vesicular release of the inhibitory transmitter GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid). GABA is released directly from dopaminergic axons but in a manner that is independent of the vesicular GABA transporter VGAT. Instead, GABA release requires activity of the vesicular monoamine transporter VMAT2, which is the vesicular transporter for dopamine. Furthermore, VMAT2 expression in GABAergic neurons lacking VGAT is sufficient to sustain GABA release. Thus, these findings expand the repertoire of synaptic mechanisms used by dopamine neurons to influence basal ganglia circuits, show a new substrate whose transport is dependent on VMAT2 and demonstrate that GABA can function as a bona fide co-transmitter in monoaminergic neurons.
|Involvement of estrogen receptors in the resveratrol-mediated increase in dopamine transporter in human dopaminergic neurons and in striatum of female mice. |
Valentina Di Liberto,Johanna Mäkelä,Laura Korhonen,Melania Olivieri,Timofey Tselykh,Annika Mälkiä,Hai Do Thi,Natale Belluardo,Dan Lindholm,Giuseppa Mudò
Neuropharmacology 62 2012
Treatment with resveratrol (RSV) has been shown to protect vulnerable neurons after various brain injuries and in neurodegenerative diseases. The mechanisms for the effects of RSV in brain are not fully understood, but RSV may affect the expression of various gene products. RSV is structurally related to the synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol so the effects of RSV may be gender-specific. Here we studied the role of RSV in the regulation of dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum using male and female mice. The basic levels of DAT in the striatum showed no sex difference, but the levels increased significantly by RSV (20 mg/kg i.p.) in female but not in male mice. Pretreatment of mice with the selective estrogen receptor (ER), ER?- and ER? antagonist ICI 182,780, led to a complete block of RSV effect on DAT protein levels, suggesting that ERs are involved in the up-regulation of DAT by RSV. Similar data was also obtained in culture using human MESC2.10 and mouse SN4741 dopaminergic cells after treatment with RSV. Data further showed that RSV specifically induced gene transcription of DAT in the dopaminergic cells. These results show that estrogen receptors are involved in the up-regulation of DAT by RSV in the dopaminergic neurons, demonstrating a sex-dependent effect of RSV in the brain that may be of clinical importance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'.
|Increasing heterogeneity in the organization of synaptic inputs of mature olfactory bulb neurons generated in newborn rats. |
Wolfgang Kelsch,Shuyin Sim,Carlos Lois
The Journal of comparative neurology 520 2012
New neurons are added into the mammalian olfactory bulb throughout life, but it remains unknown whether the properties of new neurons generated in newborn animals differ from those added during adulthood. We compared the densities of glutamatergic synapses of granule cells (GCs) generated in newborn and adult rats over extended periods of time. We observed that, whereas adult-born GCs maintained stable cell-to-cell variability of synaptic densities soon after they integrated into the circuit, cell-to-cell variability of synaptic densities of neonatal-born GCs increased months after their integration. We also investigated whether the synaptic reorganization induced by sensory deprivation occurred differently in mature neonatal- and adult-born GCs. Sensory deprivation after new GCs had differentiated induced more pronounced changes in the synaptic densities of neonatal-born GCs than in adult-born GCs. These observations suggest that the synapses of mature neonatal-born GCs retain a higher degree of malleability in response to changes in neuronal activity than adult-born GCs.
|Aggregation of αSynuclein promotes progressive in vivo neurotoxicity in adult rat dopaminergic neurons. |
Grit Taschenberger,Manuel Garrido,Yuliya Tereshchenko,Mathias Bähr,Markus Zweckstetter,Sebastian Kügler
Acta neuropathologica 123 2012
Fibrillar αSynuclein is the major constituent of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, the protein deposits characteristic for Parkinson's disease (PD). Multiplications of the αSynuclein gene, as well as point mutations cause familial PD. However, the exact role of αSynuclein in neurodegeneration remains uncertain. Recent research in invertebrates has suggested that oligomeric rather than fibrillizing αSynuclein mediates neurotoxicity. To investigate the impact of αSynuclein aggregation on the progression of neurodegeneration, we expressed variants with different fibrillation propensities in the rat substantia nigra (SN) by means of recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors. The formation of proteinase K-resistant αSynuclein aggregates was correlated to the loss of nigral dopaminergic (DA) neurons and striatal fibers. Expression of two prefibrillar, structure-based design mutants of αSynuclein (i.e., A56P and A30P/A56P/A76P) resulted in less aggregate formation in nigral DA neurons as compared to human wild-type (WT) or the inherited A30P mutation. However, only the αSynuclein variants capable of forming fibrils (WT/A30P), but not the oligomeric αSynuclein species induced a sustained progressive loss of adult nigral DA neurons. These results demonstrate that divergent modes of αSynuclein neurotoxicity exist in invertebrate and mammalian DA neurons in vivo and suggest that fibrillation of αSynuclein promotes the progressive degeneration of nigral DA neurons as found in PD patients.
|Efferent projections of C3 adrenergic neurons in the rat central nervous system. |
Charles P Sevigny,Jaspreet Bassi,David A Williams,Colin R Anderson,Walter G Thomas,Andrew M Allen
The Journal of comparative neurology 520 2012
C3 neurons constitute one of three known adrenergic nuclei in the rat central nervous system (CNS). While the adrenergic C1 cell group has been extensively characterized both physiologically and anatomically, the C3 nucleus has remained relatively obscure. This study employed a lentiviral tracing technique that expresses green fluorescent protein behind a promoter selective to noradrenergic and adrenergic neurons. Microinjection of this virus into the C3 nucleus enabled the selective tracing of C3 efferents throughout the rat CNS, thus revealing the anatomical framework of C3 projections. C3 terminal fields were observed in over 40 different CNS nuclei, spanning all levels of the spinal cord, as well as various medullary, mesencephalic, hypothalamic, thalamic, and telencephalic nuclei. The highest densities of C3 axon varicosities were observed in Lamina X and the intermediolateral cell column of the thoracic spinal cord, as well as the dorsomedial medulla (both commissural and medial nuclei of the solitary tract, area postrema, and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus), ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, dorsal parabrachial nucleus, periventricular and rhomboid nuclei of the thalamus, and paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. In addition, moderate and sparse projections were observed in many catecholaminergic and serotonergic nuclei, as well as the area anterior and ventral to the third ventricle, Lamina X of the cervical, lumbar, and sacral spinal cord, and various hypothalamic and telencephalic nuclei. The anatomical map of C3 projections detailed in this survey hopes to lay the first steps toward developing a functional framework for this nucleus.
|Postnatal changes in the expression pattern of the imprinted signalling protein XLαs underlie the changing phenotype of deficient mice. |
Krechowec, SO; Burton, KL; Newlaczyl, AU; Nunn, N; Vlatković, N; Plagge, A
PloS one 7 e29753 2012
The alternatively spliced trimeric G-protein subunit XLαs, which is involved in cAMP signalling, is encoded by the Gnasxl transcript of the imprinted Gnas locus. XLαs deficient mice show neonatal feeding problems, leanness, inertia and a high mortality rate. Mutants that survive to weaning age develop into healthy and fertile adults, which remain lean despite elevated food intake. The adult metabolic phenotype can be attributed to increased energy expenditure, which appears to be caused by elevated sympathetic nervous system activity. To better understand the changing phenotype of Gnasxl deficient mice, we compared XLαs expression in neonatal versus adult tissues, analysed its co-localisation with neural markers and characterised changes in the nutrient-sensing mTOR1-S6K pathway in the hypothalamus. Using a newly generated conditional Gnasxl lacZ gene trap line and immunohistochemistry we identified various types of muscle, including smooth muscle cells of blood vessels, as the major peripheral sites of expression in neonates. Expression in all muscle tissues was silenced in adults. While Gnasxl expression in the central nervous system was also developmentally silenced in some midbrain nuclei, it was upregulated in the preoptic area, the medial amygdala, several hypothalamic nuclei (e.g. arcuate, dorsomedial, lateral and paraventricular nuclei) and the nucleus of the solitary tract. Furthermore, expression was detected in the ventral medulla as well as in motoneurons and a subset of sympathetic preganglionic neurons of the spinal cord. In the arcuate nucleus of Gnasxl-deficient mice we found reduced activity of the nutrient sensing mTOR1-S6K signalling pathway, which concurs with their metabolic status. The expression in these brain regions and the hypermetabolic phenotype of adult Gnasxl-deficient mice imply an inhibitory function of XLαs in energy expenditure and sympathetic outflow. By contrast, the neonatal phenotype of mutant mice appears to be due to a transient role of XLαs in muscle tissues.Full Text Article
|Mimicking phosphorylation at serine 87 inhibits the aggregation of human α-synuclein and protects against its toxicity in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. |
Oueslati, A; Paleologou, KE; Schneider, BL; Aebischer, P; Lashuel, HA
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 1536-44 2012
Several lines of evidence suggest that phosphorylation of α-synuclein (α-syn) at S87 or S129 may play an important role in regulating its aggregation, fibrillogenesis, Lewy body formation, and neurotoxicity in vivo. However, whether phosphorylation at these residues enhances or protects against α-syn toxicity in vivo remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the cellular and behavioral effect of overexpression of wild-type (WT), S87A, and S87E α-syn to block or to mimic S87 phosphorylation, respectively, in the substantia nigra of Wistar rats using recombinant adeno-associated vectors. Our results revealed that WT and S87A overexpression induced α-syn aggregation, loss of dopaminergic neurons, and fiber pathology. These neuropathological effects correlated well with the induction of hemi-parkinsonian motor symptoms. Strikingly, overexpression of the phosphomimic mutant S87E did not show any toxic effect on dopaminergic neurons and resulted in significantly less α-syn aggregates, dystrophic fibers, and motor impairment. Together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that mimicking phosphorylation at S87 inhibits α-syn aggregation and protects against α-syn-induced toxicity in vivo, suggesting that phosphorylation at this residue would play an important role in controlling α-syn neuropathology. In addition, our results provide strong evidence for a direct correlation between α-syn-induced neurotoxicity, fiber pathology, and motor impairment and the extent of α-syn aggregation in vivo, suggesting that lowering α-syn levels and/or blocking its aggregation are viable therapeutic strategies for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and related synucleinopathies.
|Metabolic biomarkers of prenatal alcohol exposure in human embryonic stem cell-derived neural lineages. |
Palmer, JA; Poenitzsch, AM; Smith, SM; Conard, KR; West, PR; Cezar, GG
Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research 36 1314-24 2012
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disability. The mechanisms underlying FASD are incompletely understood, and biomarkers to identify those at risk are lacking. Here, we perform metabolomic analysis of embryoid bodies and neural lineages derived from human embryonic stem (hES) cells to identify the neural secretome produced in response to ethanol (EtOH) exposure.WA01 and WA09 hES cells were differentiated into embryoid bodies, neural progenitors, or neurons. Cells along this progression were cultured for 4 days with 0, 0.1, or 0.3% EtOH. Supernatants were subjected to C18 chromatography followed by ESI-QTOF-MS. Features were annotated using public databases, and the identities of 4 putative biomarkers were confirmed with purified standards and comparative MS/MS.EtOH treatment induced statistically significant changes to metabolite abundance in human embryoid bodies (180 features), neural progenitors (76 features), and neurons (42 features). There were no shared significant features between different cell types. Fifteen features showed a dose-response to EtOH. Four chemical identities were confirmed: L-thyroxine, 5'-methylthioadenosine, and the tryptophan metabolites, L-kynurenine and indoleacetaldehyde. One feature with a putative annotation of succinyladenosine was significantly increased in both EtOH treatments. Additional features were selective to EtOH treatment but were not annotated in public databases.EtOH exposure induces statistically significant changes to the metabolome profile of human embryoid bodies, neural progenitors, and neurons. Several of these metabolites are normally present in human serum, suggesting their usefulness as potential serum FASD biomarkers. These findings suggest the biochemical pathways that are affected by EtOH in the developing nervous system and delineate mechanisms of alcohol injury during human development.
|Small molecules enable highly efficient neuronal conversion of human fibroblasts. |
Julia Ladewig,Jerome Mertens,Jaideep Kesavan,Jonas Doerr,Daniel Poppe,Finnja Glaue,Stefan Herms,Peter Wernet,Gesine Kögler,Franz-Josef Müller,Philipp Koch,Oliver Brüstle
Nature methods 9 2012
Forced expression of proneural transcription factors has been shown to direct neuronal conversion of fibroblasts. Because neurons are postmitotic, conversion efficiencies are an important parameter for this process. We present a minimalist approach combining two-factor neuronal programming with small molecule-based inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and SMAD signaling, which converts postnatal human fibroblasts into functional neuron-like cells with yields up to >200% and neuronal purities up to >80%.
|The mitochondrial chaperone protein TRAP1 mitigates α-Synuclein toxicity. |
Butler, EK; Voigt, A; Lutz, AK; Toegel, JP; Gerhardt, E; Karsten, P; Falkenburger, B; Reinartz, A; Winklhofer, KF; Schulz, JB
PLoS genetics 8 e1002488 2012
Overexpression or mutation of α-Synuclein is associated with protein aggregation and interferes with a number of cellular processes, including mitochondrial integrity and function. We used a whole-genome screen in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to search for novel genetic modifiers of human [A53T]α-Synuclein-induced neurotoxicity. Decreased expression of the mitochondrial chaperone protein tumor necrosis factor receptor associated protein-1 (TRAP1) was found to enhance age-dependent loss of fly head dopamine (DA) and DA neuron number resulting from [A53T]α-Synuclein expression. In addition, decreased TRAP1 expression in [A53T]α-Synuclein-expressing flies resulted in enhanced loss of climbing ability and sensitivity to oxidative stress. Overexpression of human TRAP1 was able to rescue these phenotypes. Similarly, human TRAP1 overexpression in rat primary cortical neurons rescued [A53T]α-Synuclein-induced sensitivity to rotenone treatment. In human (non)neuronal cell lines, small interfering RNA directed against TRAP1 enhanced [A53T]α-Synuclein-induced sensitivity to oxidative stress treatment. [A53T]α-Synuclein directly interfered with mitochondrial function, as its expression reduced Complex I activity in HEK293 cells. These effects were blocked by TRAP1 overexpression. Moreover, TRAP1 was able to prevent alteration in mitochondrial morphology caused by [A53T]α-Synuclein overexpression in human SH-SY5Y cells. These results indicate that [A53T]α-Synuclein toxicity is intimately connected to mitochondrial dysfunction and that toxicity reduction in fly and rat primary neurons and human cell lines can be achieved using overexpression of the mitochondrial chaperone TRAP1. Interestingly, TRAP1 has previously been shown to be phosphorylated by the serine/threonine kinase PINK1, thus providing a potential link of PINK1 via TRAP1 to α-Synuclein.
|Tbr2 deficiency in mitral and tufted cells disrupts excitatory-inhibitory balance of neural circuitry in the mouse olfactory bulb. |
Mizuguchi, R; Naritsuka, H; Mori, K; Mao, CA; Klein, WH; Yoshihara, Y
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 8831-44 2012
The olfactory bulb (OB) is the first relay station in the brain where odor information from the olfactory epithelium is integrated, processed through its intrinsic neural circuitry, and conveyed to higher olfactory centers. Compared with profound mechanistic insights into olfactory axon wiring from the nose to the OB, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of functional neural circuitry among various types of neurons inside the OB. T-box transcription factor Tbr2 is expressed in various types of glutamatergic excitatory neurons in the brain including the OB projection neurons, mitral and tufted cells. Here we generated conditional knockout mice in which the Tbr2 gene is inactivated specifically in mitral and tufted cells from late embryonic stages. Tbr2 deficiency caused cell-autonomous changes in molecular expression including a compensatory increase of another T-box member, Tbr1, and a concomitant shift of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluT) subtypes from VGluT1 to VGluT2. Tbr2-deficient mitral and tufted cells also exhibited anatomical abnormalities in their dendritic morphology and projection patterns. Additionally, several non-cell-autonomous phenotypes were observed in parvalbumin-, calbindin-, and 5T4-positive GABAergic interneurons. Furthermore, the number of dendrodendritic reciprocal synapses between mitral/tufted cells and GABAergic interneurons was significantly reduced. Upon stimulation with odorants, larger numbers of mitral and tufted cells were activated in Tbr2 conditional knockout mice. These results suggest that Tbr2 is required for not only the proper differentiation of mitral and tufted cells, but also for the establishment of functional neuronal circuitry in the OB and maintenance of excitatory-inhibitory balance crucial for odor information processing.
|Role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 on the catecholaminergic response to morphine withdrawal in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). |
Almela, P; Navarro-Zaragoza, J; García-Carmona, JA; Mora, L; Hidalgo, J; Milanés, MV; Laorden, ML
PloS one 7 e47089 2012
Stress induces the release of the peptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) into the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and also increases dopamine (DA) levels in brain regions receiving dense VTA input. Since the role of stress in drug addiction is well established, the present study examined the possible involvement of CRF1 receptor in the interaction between morphine withdrawal and catecholaminergic pathways in the reward system. The effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal on signs of withdrawal, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity, dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) turnover in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and activation of VTA dopaminergic neurons, were investigated in rats pretreated with vehicle or CP-154,526 (selective CRF1R antagonist). CP-154,526 attenuated the increases in body weight loss and suppressed some of withdrawal signs. Pretreatment with CRF1 receptor antagonist resulted in no significant modification of the increased NA turnover at NAc or plasma corticosterone levels that were seen during morphine withdrawal. However, blockade of CRF1 receptor significantly reduced morphine withdrawal-induced increases in plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) levels, DA turnover and TH phosphorylation at Ser40 in the NAc. In addition, CP-154,526 reduced the number of TH containing neurons expressing c-Fos in the VTA after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. Altogether, these results support the idea that VTA dopaminergic neurons are activated in response to naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and suggest that CRF1 receptors are involved in the activation of dopaminergic pathways which project to NAc.
|Reelin together with ApoER2 regulates interneuron migration in the olfactory bulb. |
Hellwig, S; Hack, I; Zucker, B; Brunne, B; Junghans, D
PloS one 7 e50646 2012
One pathway regulating the migration of neurons during development of the mammalian cortex involves the extracellular matrix protein Reelin. Reelin and components of its signaling cascade, the lipoprotein receptors ApoER2 and Vldlr and the intracellular adapter protein Dab1 are pivotal for a correct layer formation during corticogenesis. The olfactory bulb (OB) as a phylogenetically old cortical region is known to be a prominent site of Reelin expression. Although some aspects of Reelin function in the OB have been described, the influence of Reelin on OB layer formation has so far been poorly analyzed. Here we studied animals deficient for either Reelin, Vldlr, ApoER2 or Dab1 as well as double-null mutants. We performed organotypic migration assays, immunohistochemical marker analysis and BrdU incorporation studies to elucidate roles for the different components of the Reelin signaling cascade in OB neuroblast migration and layer formation. We identified ApoER2 as being the main receptor responsible for Reelin mediated detachment of neuroblasts and correct migration of early generated interneurons within the OB, a prerequisite for correct OB lamination.
|The activity-dependent histone variant H2BE modulates the life span of olfactory neurons. |
Santoro, SW; Dulac, C
eLife 1 e00070 2012
We have identified a replication-independent histone variant, Hist2h2be (referred to herein as H2be), which is expressed exclusively by olfactory chemosensory neurons. Levels of H2BE are heterogeneous among olfactory neurons, but stereotyped according to the identity of the co-expressed olfactory receptor (OR). Gain- and loss-of-function experiments demonstrate that changes in H2be expression affect olfactory function and OR representation in the adult olfactory epithelium. We show that H2BE expression is reduced by sensory activity and that it promotes neuronal cell death, such that inactive olfactory neurons display higher levels of the variant and shorter life spans. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of H2BE differ from those of the canonical H2B, consistent with a role for H2BE in altering transcription. We propose a physiological function for H2be in modulating olfactory neuron population dynamics to adapt the OR repertoire to the environment.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00070.001.
|The majority of dorsal spinal cord gastrin releasing peptide is synthesized locally whereas neuromedin B is highly expressed in pain- and itch-sensing somatosensory neurons. |
Fleming, MS; Ramos, D; Han, SB; Zhao, J; Son, YJ; Luo, W
Molecular pain 8 52 2012
Itch is one of the major somatosensory modalities. Some recent findings have proposed that gastrin releasing peptide (Grp) is expressed in a subset of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and functions as a selective neurotransmitter for transferring itch information to spinal cord interneurons. However, expression data from public databases and earlier literatures indicate that Grp mRNA is only detected in dorsal spinal cord (dSC) whereas its family member neuromedin B (Nmb) is highly expressed in DRG neurons. These contradictory results argue that a thorough characterization of the expression of Grp and Nmb is warranted.Grp mRNA is highly expressed in dSC but is barely detectable in DRGs of juvenile and adult mice. Anti-bombesin serum specifically recognizes Grp but not Nmb. Grp is present in a small number of small-diameter DRG neurons and in abundance in layers I and II of the spinal cord. The reduction of dSC Grp after dorsal root rhizotomy is significantly different from those of DRG derived markers but similar to that of a spinal cord neuronal marker. Double fluorescent in situ of Nmb and other molecular markers indicate that Nmb is highly and selectively expressed in nociceptive and itch-sensitive DRG neurons.The majority of dSC Grp is synthesized locally in dorsal spinal cord neurons. On the other hand, Nmb is highly expressed in pain- and itch-sensing DRG neurons. Our findings provide direct anatomic evidence that Grp could function locally in the dorsal spinal cord in addition to its roles in DRG neurons and that Nmb has potential roles in nociceptive and itch-sensitive neurons. These results will improve our understanding about roles of Grp and Nmb in mediating itch sensation.
|Mice overexpressing wild-type human alpha-synuclein display alterations in colonic myenteric ganglia and defecation. |
Wang, L; Magen, I; Yuan, PQ; Subramaniam, SR; Richter, F; Chesselet, MF; Taché, Y
Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society 24 e425-36 2012
Prevalent non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) include gastrointestinal motor impairments and advanced stage PD displays pathological aggregates of α-synuclein in colonic enteric neurons. We previously showed that 12 months old mice overexpressing human wild type (WT) α-synuclein under the Thy1 promoter (Thy1-aSyn) displayed colonic motor dysfunction. We investigated functional gut alterations at earlier ages and histological correlates.Defecation, gastric emptying (GE), and immunostaining for α-synuclein, peripheral choline acetyltransferase (pChAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in distal colon myenteric plexuses were assessed in male Thy1-aSyn compared to littermate WT mice.Thy1-aSyn mice aged 2.5-3 or 7-8 months old had 81% and 55% reduction in fecal pellet output, respectively, in the first 15 min of exposure to a novel environment. The reduction remained significant in the older group for 2-h, and subsequent refeeding resulted also in a 60% and 69% reduction of defecation in the first hour, respectively. Thy1-aSyn mice (8-10 months) displayed increased α-synuclein in the myenteric plexuses with abundant varicose terminals surrounding pChAT-immunoreactive (ir) neurons, and only a few, nNOS-ir neurons. There were no conspicuous changes in pChAT- and nNOS-ir neurons, or TH- and VIP-ir nerve fibers. Thy1-aSyn mice aged 4-18 months had normal GE.The occurrence of over-production of pre-synaptic α-synuclein in colonic myenteric ganglia several months before the loss of striatal dopamine may provide an anatomical basis for interference with cholinergic neuronal activation, causing an early impairment in defecation to stimuli.
|Differential expression of dopaminergic cell markers in the adult zebrafish forebrain. |
Yamamoto K, Ruuskanen JO, Wullimann MF, Vernier P.
The Journal of comparative neurology 519 576-98 2011
Although the simultaneous presence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), dopamine transporter (DAT), and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is considered as a phenotypic signature of dopamine (DA) neurons, it has been suggested that they are not uniformly expressed in all dopaminergic brain nuclei. Moreover, in nonmammalian vertebrates, two tyrosine hydroxylase genes (TH1 and TH2) are found, and they exhibit different expression patterns in zebrafish brains. Here we present a detailed description of the distribution of TH1, TH2, AADC, DAT, and VMAT2 transcripts, in relation to TH and DA immunoreactivity to better characterize dopaminergic nuclei in the adult zebrafish forebrain. TH2-positive cells in the hypothalamus are strongly DA immunoreactive (DAir), providing direct evidence that they are dopaminergic. DAir cells are also found in most TH1-positive or TH-immunoreactive (THir) nuclei. However, the DAir signal was weaker than THir in the olfactory bulb, telencephalon, ventral thalamus, pretectum, and some posterior tubercular and preoptic nuclei. These cell populations also exhibited low levels of VMAT2 transcripts, suggesting that low DA is due to a lower vesicular DA accumulation. In contrast, cell populations with low levels of AADC did not always have low levels of DA. DAT transcripts were abundantly expressed in most of the TH1- or TH2-positive territories. In addition, DAT and/or VMAT2 transcripts were found in some periventricular cell populations such as in the telencephalon without TH1 or TH2 expression. Thus, expression patterns of dopaminergic cell markers are not homogeneous, suggesting that the gene regulatory logic determining the dopaminergic phenotype is unexpectedly complex. J. Comp. Neurol. 519:576-598, 2011. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
|Degeneration of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in klotho mouse related to vitamin D exposure. |
Kosakai A, Ito D, Nihei Y, Yamashita S, Okada Y, Takahashi K, Suzuki N.
Brain research 1382 109-17 2011
Parkinson's disease (PD), which is characterized by degeneration of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons of unclear etiology, is primarily an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, while the normal process of aging is also known to decrease the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However, no consensus exists regarding how advancing age may predispose the dopaminergic system to PD. The Klotho-insufficient (klotho) mouse exhibits a syndrome that resembles human aging. Recent studies have revealed that abnormal activation of vitamin D is the major cause of this phenotype. In this study, we examined mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons of klotho mice and identified tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the SNc and VTA, and found that levels of striatal dopamine were significantly decreased with aging in klotho mice. Notably, these phenotypes were rescued by vitamin D restriction, suggesting that abnormal activation of vitamin D due to Klotho insufficiency leads to degeneration of the dopaminergic system. The present study provides new insights into the pathology of age-related degeneration of dopaminergic neurons possibly related to Klotho-mediated regulation of vitamin D.
|Loss of sympathetic nerve fibers around intratumoral arterioles reflects malignant potential of gastric cancer. |
Miyato H, Kitayama J, Ishigami H, Kaisaki S, Nagawa H.
Annals of surgical oncology 18 2281-8 2011
The role and clinical significance of the alteration of sympathetic nerve fibers (SNF) was assessed in gastric cancer. Loss of nerve fibers in malignant tumors has previously been described; however, how dysfunction of the nervous system is involved in cancer progression has not been clarified in clinical studies.
|Surgical synovectomy decreases density of sensory nerve fibers in synovial tissue of non-inflamed controls and rheumatoid arthritis patients. |
Ossyssek B, Anders S, Grifka J, Straub RH.
Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society 29 297-302 2011
Surgical synovectomy is a technique to treat synovitis and pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) resistant to DMARDs or therapy with biologics. Indication to synovectomy is subject to tight cooperation of orthopaedic surgeons and rheumatologists. It was thought that synovectomy leads to a reduction of sensory nerve fibers, called sensory denervation. Since sensory denervation after synovectomy has never been histologically tested, we aimed to investigate sensory and sympathetic innervation in synovial tissue before and after synovectomy. Eight non-inflamed control subjects and eight patients with RA were included in this study with a two-stage synovectomy approach (interval 40–50 days). Nerve fibers and cells in synovial tissue were detected and counted using immunofluorescence. Density of sympathetic nerve fibers did not change after synovectomy, whereas density of sensory nerve fibers decreased in all control subjects and seven of eight patients with RA. In parallel, the density of synovial cells increased after synovectomy in all control subjects and six of eight RA patients, which is indicative of a wound healing response. In one female RA patient, density of sensory nerve fibers increased and a very marked rise of cellular density was observed, too. This indicates that probably not all patients profit from surgical synovectomy. The majority of patients (94%) demonstrated sensory denervation after surgical synovectomy accompanied by a wound healing cell response. This study can help to explain the positive effects of surgical synovectomy which usually leads to pain reduction and improved mobility.
|Intrinsic bioenergetic properties and stress sensitivity of dopaminergic synaptosomes. |
Choi, SW; Gerencser, AA; Lee, DW; Rajagopalan, S; Nicholls, DG; Andersen, JK; Brand, MD
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 4524-34 2011
Dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta are defective in Parkinson's disease, but the specificity of this dysfunction is not understood. One hypothesis is that mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity is intrinsically lower in striatal dopaminergic presynaptic nerve varicosities, making them unusually susceptible to inhibition of electron transport by oxidative damage. To test this hypothesis, we separated isolated synaptosomes bearing dopamine transporters using immunomagnetic beads and compared their respiration with that of the residual nondopaminergic synaptosomes. As predicted, dopaminergic synaptosomes from striatum had lower respiratory rates. However, so did dopaminergic synaptosomes from cortex, indicating a lack of the predicted striatal specificity. We used fluorescent probes to analyze the bioenergetic competence of individual synaptosomes in the two fractions. The respiratory differences became nonsignificant when respiration rates were normalized to the number of respiration-competent synaptosomes, suggesting that differences reflected the quality of the different fractions. To circumvent damage induced by synaptosomal separation, we monitored membrane potentials in whole unseparated single synaptosomes using fluorescent imaging, and then identified the dopaminergic subpopulation using a fluorescent dopamine transporter substrate (ASP(+) [4-(4-diethylaminostyryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide]). The capacity of dopaminergic and nondopaminergic synaptosomes to maintain plasma membrane and mitochondrial membrane potential under several stresses did not differ. In addition, this capacity did not decline in either subpopulation with age, a risk factor for Parkinson's disease. We conclude that the intrinsic bioenergetic capacities of dopaminergic and nondopaminergic presynaptic synaptosomes from mice do not differ.
|AMSH is required to degrade ubiquitinated proteins in the central nervous system. |
Suzuki S, Tamai K, Watanabe M, Kyuuma M, Ono M, Sugamura K, Tanaka N.
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 408 582-8 2011
Deubiquitination is a biochemical process that mediates the removal of ubiquitin moieties from ubiquitin-conjugated substrates. AMSH (associated molecule with the SH3 domain of STAM) is a deubiquitination enzyme that participates in the endosomal sorting of several cell-surface molecules. AMSH impairment results in missorted ubiquitinated cargoes in vitro and severe neurodegeneration in vivo, but it is not known how AMSH deficiency causes neuronal damage in the brain. Here, we demonstrate that AMSH(-/-) mice developed ubiquitinated protein accumulations as early as embryonic day 10 (E10), and that severe deposits were present in the brain at postnatal day 8 (P8) and P18. Interestingly, TDP-43 was found to accumulate and colocalize with glial marker-positive cells in the brain. Glutamate receptor and p62 accumulations were also found; these molecules colocalized with ubiquitinated aggregates in the brain. These data suggest that AMSH plays an important role in degrading ubiquitinated proteins and glutamate receptors in vivo. AMSH(-/-) mice provide an animal model for neurodegenerative diseases, which are commonly characterized by the generation of proteinaceous aggregates.
|Differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, endothelin-1 and nitric oxide synthases in the rat carotid body exposed to intermittent hypoxia. |
Del Rio R, Moya EA, Iturriaga R.
Brain research 1395 74-85 2011
The enhanced carotid body (CB) chemosensory response to hypoxia induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) has been attributed to oxidative stress, which is expected to increase the expression of chemosensory modulators including chemoexcitatory pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CB. Accordingly, we studied the time-course of the changes in the immunohistological expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, ET-1, iNOS, eNOS and 3-nitrotyrosine in the CB, along with the progression of enhanced CB chemosensory responses to acute hypoxia in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to CIH (5%O(2), 12times/h per 8h) for 7, 14 and 21days. Exposure to CIH for 7days resulted in a sustained potentiation of CB chemosensory responses to acute hypoxia, which persisted until 21days of CIH. The chemosensory potentiation was paralleled by an increased 3-nitrotyrosine expression in the CB. On the contrary, CIH produced a transient 2-fold increase of ET-1 immunoreactivity at 7days, a decrease in eNOS immunoreactivity, and a delayed but progressive increase of TNF-α, IL-1β and iNOS immunoreactivity, which was not associated with changes in systemic plasma levels or immune cell invasion within the CB. Thus, present results suggest that the local expression of chemosensory modulators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CB may have different temporal contribution to the CB chemosensory potentiation induced by CIH.
|Food hoarding and associated neuronal activation in brain reward circuitry in Mongolian gerbils. |
Yang HD, Wang Q, Wang Z, Wang DH.
Physiology & behavior 104 429-36 2011
Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) display food hoarding and thus provide an opportunity to study the neuromechanisms underlying this behavior. In the present study, male gerbils exhibited a bimodal expression of food hoarding behavior-some displayed high levels of food hoarding whereas others virtually lacked this behavior under normal laboratory conditions with free access to food. Food hoarding was found to be associated with an increase in neuronal activation, indicated by Fos immunoreactive (ir) staining, in several brain areas including the nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area (VTA), and lateral hypothalamus. Food hoarding was also associated with increases in the number of cells labeled for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-ir), the rate limiting enzyme for dopamine conversion, and the number of cells co-labeled for TH-ir/Fos-ir in the VTA, suggesting that dopamine in the brain reward circuitry may be involved in food hoarding. Further, we found that 22h of food deprivation induced food hoarding in some, but not all, males that naturally did not display food hoarding. In these males, however, food hoarding did not increase TH-ir or TH-ir/Fos-ir expression in the VTA. Together, these data indicate that male Mongolian gerbils display diverse phenotypes of food hoarding behavior and that dopamine in the brain reward circuitry may be involved in the control of naturally occurring, but not food deprivation-induced, food hoarding.
|Timing of Sonic hedgehog and Gli1 expression segregates midbrain dopamine neurons. |
Hayes, L; Zhang, Z; Albert, P; Zervas, M; Ahn, S
The Journal of comparative neurology 519 3001-18 2011
The ventral midbrain (vMb) is organized into distinct anatomical domains and contains cohorts of functionally distinct subtypes of midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons. We tested the hypothesis that genetic history and timing of gene expression within mDA neuron progenitors impart spatial diversity. Using genetic inducible fate mapping to mark the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Gli1 lineages at varying embryonic stages, we performed a quantitative and qualitative comparison of the two lineages' contribution to the mDA neuron domains. Dynamic changes in Shh and Gli1 expression in the vMb primordia delineated their spatial contribution to the embryonic day 12.5 vMb: Both lineages first contributed to the medial domain, but subsequently the Gli1 lineage exclusively contributed to the lateral vMb while the Shh lineage expanded more broadly across the vMb. The contribution of both lineages to the differentiated mDA neuron domain was initially biased anteriorly and became more uniform across the anterior/posterior vMb throughout development. Our findings demonstrate that the early Shh and Gli1 lineages specify mDA neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta while the late Shh and Gli1 lineages maintain their progenitor state longer in the posterior vMb to extend the production of mDA neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Together, our study demonstrates that the timing of gene expression along with the genetic lineage (Shh or Gli1) within the neural progenitors segregate mDA neurons into distinct spatial domains.
|Chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced vascular enlargement and VEGF upregulation in the rat carotid body is not prevented by antioxidant treatment. |
Del Rio, R; Muñoz, C; Arias, P; Court, FA; Moya, EA; Iturriaga, R
American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 301 L702-11 2011
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a characteristic of sleep obstructive apnea, enhances carotid body (CB) chemosensory responses to hypoxia, but its consequences on CB vascular area and VEGF expression are unknown. Accordingly, we studied the effect of CIH on CB volume, glomus cell numbers, blood vessel diameter and number, and VEGF immunoreactivity (VEGF-ir) in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 5% O(2), 12 times/h for 8 h or sham condition for 21 days. We found that CIH did not modify the CB volume or the number of glomus cells but increased VEGF-ir and enlarged the vascular area by increasing the size of the blood vessels, whereas the number of the vessels was unchanged. Because oxidative stress plays an essential role in the CIH-induced carotid chemosensory potentiation, we tested whether antioxidant treatment with ascorbic acid may impede the vascular enlargement and the VEGF upregulation. Ascorbic acid, which prevents the CB chemosensory potentiation, failed to impede the vascular enlargement and the increased VEGF-ir. Thus present results suggest that the CB vascular enlargement induced by CIH is a direct effect of intermittent hypoxia and not secondary to the oxidative stress. Accordingly, the subsequent capillary changes may be secondary to the mechanisms involved in the neural chemosensory plasticity induced by intermittent hypoxia.
|The neuroprotective action of candesartan is related to interference with the early stages of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopaminergic cell death. |
Mertens B, Varcin M, Michotte Y, Sarre S.
The European journal of neuroscience 34 1141-8 2011
Several studies have revealed that manipulation of the renin angiotensin system results in reduced progression of nigrostriatal damage in different animal models of Parkinson's disease. In the present work, the effect of daily treatment of rats with the angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT(1) ) receptor antagonist candesartan (3 mg/kg per day, s.c.) initiated 7 days before the intrastriatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was investigated by means of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cell counts in the substantia nigra, and dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid measurements in the striatum. In this experimental set-up, candesartan protected dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal tract against the neurotoxin-induced cell death. However, the beneficial effects of AT(1) receptor blockade were not confirmed when treatment was started 24 h after the lesion, suggesting that candesartan interferes with the early events of the 6-OHDA-induced cell death. Stimulation of the AT(1) receptor with Ang II increased the formation of hydroxyl radicals in the striatum of intact rats as measured by the in vivo microdialysis salicylate trapping technique. This Ang II-induced production of reactive oxygen species was suppressed by candesartan perfusion. Furthermore, the Ang II-induced production of reactive oxygen species was nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate - oxidase and protein kinase C dependent as it could be blocked in the presence of apocynin, an nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate - oxidase inhibitor, and chelerythrine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C. Together, these data further support the hypothesis that Ang II might contribute in an early stage to the neurotoxicity of 6-OHDA by reinforcing the cascade of oxidative stress.
|Histomorphometric and sympathetic innervation of the human renal artery: A cadaveric study. |
Reddy S, Kumar P, Prasad K.
Urology annals 3 141-6 2011
Renal artery stenosis (RAS) and acute renal failure may be due to the intimal hyperplasia and sympathetic fibers of the renal artery (RA), respectively. The purpose of this study was to characterize arterial wall and sympathetic innervation of the human RA.
|Chronic 5-HT transporter blockade reduces DA signaling to elicit basal ganglia dysfunction. |
Morelli, E; Moore, H; Rebello, TJ; Gray, N; Steele, K; Esposito, E; Gingrich, JA; Ansorge, MS
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 15742-50 2011
Serotonin (5-HT)-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely administered for the treatment of depression, anxiety, and other neuropsychiatric disorders, but response rates are low, and side effects often lead to discontinuation. Side effect profiles suggest that SSRIs inhibit dopaminergic activity, but mechanistic insight remains scarce. Here we show that in mice, chronic 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) blockade during adulthood but not during development impairs basal ganglia-dependent behaviors in a dose-dependent and reversible fashion. Furthermore, chronic 5-HTT blockade reduces striatal dopamine (DA) content and metabolism. A causal relationship between reduced DA signaling and impaired basal ganglia-dependent behavior is indicated by the reversal of behavioral deficits through L-DOPA administration. Our data suggest that augmentation of DA signaling would reduce side effects and increase efficacies of SSRI-based therapy.
|Genetic deletion of trace amine 1 receptors reveals their role in auto-inhibiting the actions of ecstasy (MDMA). |
Di Cara, B; Maggio, R; Aloisi, G; Rivet, JM; Lundius, EG; Yoshitake, T; Svenningsson, P; Brocco, M; Gobert, A; De Groote, L; Cistarelli, L; Veiga, S; De Montrion, C; Rodriguez, M; Galizzi, JP; Lockhart, BP; Cogé, F; Boutin, JA; Vayer, P; Verdouw, PM; Groenink, L; Millan, MJ
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 16928-40 2011
"Ecstasy" [3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine (MDMA)] is of considerable interest in light of its prosocial properties and risks associated with widespread recreational use. Recently, it was found to bind trace amine-1 receptors (TA(1)Rs), which modulate dopaminergic transmission. Accordingly, using mice genetically deprived of TA(1)R (TA(1)-KO), we explored their significance to the actions of MDMA, which robustly activated human adenylyl cyclase-coupled TA(1)R transfected into HeLa cells. In wild-type (WT) mice, MDMA elicited a time-, dose-, and ambient temperature-dependent hypothermia and hyperthermia, whereas TA(1)-KO mice displayed hyperthermia only. MDMA-induced increases in dialysate levels of dopamine (DA) in dorsal striatum were amplified in TA(1)-KO mice, despite identical levels of MDMA itself. A similar facilitation of the influence of MDMA upon dopaminergic transmission was acquired in frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, and induction of locomotion by MDMA was haloperidol-reversibly potentiated in TA(1)-KO versus WT mice. Conversely, genetic deletion of TA(1)R did not affect increases in DA levels evoked by para-chloroamphetamine (PCA), which was inactive at hTA(1) sites. The TA(1)R agonist o-phenyl-3-iodotyramine (o-PIT) blunted the DA-releasing actions of PCA both in vivo (dialysis) and in vitro (synaptosomes) in WT but not TA(1)-KO animals. MDMA-elicited increases in dialysis levels of serotonin (5-HT) were likewise greater in TA(1)-KO versus WT mice, and 5-HT-releasing actions of PCA were blunted in vivo and in vitro by o-PIT in WT mice only. In conclusion, TA(1)Rs exert an inhibitory influence on both dopaminergic and serotonergic transmission, and MDMA auto-inhibits its neurochemical and functional actions by recruitment of TA(1)R. These observations have important implications for the effects of MDMA in humans.
|Partial biopterin deficiency disturbs postnatal development of the dopaminergic system in the brain. |
Homma, D; Sumi-Ichinose, C; Tokuoka, H; Ikemoto, K; Nomura, T; Kondo, K; Katoh, S; Ichinose, H
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 1445-52 2011
Postnatal development of dopaminergic system is closely related to the development of psychomotor function. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of dopamine and requires tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) as a cofactor. To clarify the effect of partial BH4 deficiency on postnatal development of the dopaminergic system, we examined two lines of mutant mice lacking a BH4-biosynthesizing enzyme, including sepiapterin reductase knock-out (Spr(-/-)) mice and genetically rescued 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase knock-out (DPS-Pts(-/-)) mice. We found that biopterin contents in the brains of these knock-out mice were moderately decreased from postnatal day 0 (P0) and remained constant up to P21. In contrast, the effects of BH4 deficiency on dopamine and TH protein levels were more manifested during the postnatal development. Both of dopamine and TH protein levels were greatly increased from P0 to P21 in wild-type mice but not in those mutant mice. Serotonin levels in those mutant mice were also severely suppressed after P7. Moreover, striatal TH immunoreactivity in Spr(-/-) mice showed a drop in the late developmental stage, when those mice exhibited hind-limb clasping behavior, a type of motor dysfunction. Our results demonstrate a critical role of biopterin in the augmentation of TH protein in the postnatal period. The developmental manifestation of psychomotor symptoms in BH4 deficiency might be attributable at least partially to high dependence of dopaminergic development on BH4 availability.
|Morphologic pattern of the intrinsic ganglionated nerve plexus in mouse heart. |
Rysevaite, K; Saburkina, I; Pauziene, N; Noujaim, SF; Jalife, J; Pauza, DH
Heart rhythm : the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 8 448-54 2011
Both normal and genetically modified mice are excellent models for investigating molecular mechanisms of arrhythmogenic cardiac diseases that may be associated with an imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous input to the heart.The purpose of this study was to (1) determine the structural organization of the mouse cardiac neural plexus, (2) identify extrinsic neural sources and their relationship with the cardiac plexus, and (3) reveal any anatomic differences in the cardiac plexus between mouse and other species.Cardiac nerve structures were visualized using histochemical staining for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on whole heart and thorax-dissected preparations derived from 25 mice. To confirm the reliability of staining parasympathetic and sympathetic neural components in the mouse heart, we applied a histochemical method for AChE and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and/or choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) on whole mounts preparations from six mice.Double immunohistochemical labeling of TH and ChAT on AChE-positive neural elements in mouse whole mounts demonstrated equal staining of nerves and ganglia for AChE that were positive for both TH and ChAT. The extrinsic cardiac nerves access the mouse heart at the right and left cranial veins and interblend within the ganglionated nerve plexus of the heart hilum that is persistently localized on the heart base. Nerves and bundles of nerve fibers extend epicardially from this plexus to atria and ventricles by left dorsal, dorsal right atrial, right ventral, and ventral left atrial routes or subplexuses. The right cranial vein receives extrinsic nerves that mainly originate from the right cervicothoracic ganglion and a branch of the right vagus nerve, whereas the left cranial vein is supplied by extrinsic nerves from the left cervicothoracic ganglion and the left vagus nerve. The majority of intrinsic cardiac ganglia are localized on the heart base at the roots of the pulmonary veins. These ganglia are interlinked by interganglionic nerves into the above mentioned nerve plexus of the heart hilum. In general, the examined hearts contained 19 ± 3 ganglia, giving a cumulative ganglion area of 0.4 ± 0.1 mm(2).Despite substantial anatomic differences in ganglion number and distribution, the structural organization of the intrinsic ganglionated plexus in the mouse heart corresponds in general to that of other mammalian species, including human.
|Differential response of the central noradrenergic nervous system to the loss of locus coeruleus neurons in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. |
McMillan, PJ; White, SS; Franklin, A; Greenup, JL; Leverenz, JB; Raskind, MA; Szot, P
Brain research 1373 240-52 2011
In Parkinson's disease (PD), there is a significant loss of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) in addition to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). The goal of this study was to determine if the surviving LC noradrenergic neurons in PD demonstrate compensatory changes in response to the neuronal loss, as observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) mRNA expression in postmortem LC tissue of control and age-matched PD subjects demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of noradrenergic neurons in the LC of PD subjects. TH mRNA expression/neuron did not differ between control and PD subjects, but DBH mRNA expression/neuron was significantly elevated in PD subjects compared to control. This increase in DBH mRNA expression in PD subjects is not a response to neuronal loss because the amount of DBH mRNA expression/neuron in AD subjects was not significantly different from control. Norepinephrine transporter (NET) binding site concentration in the LC of PD subjects was significantly reduced over the cell body region as well as the peri-LC dendritic zone. In PD subjects, the loss of dendrites from surviving noradrenergic neurons was also apparent with TH-immunoreactivity (IR). This loss of LC dendritic innervation in PD subjects as measured by TH-IR was not due to LC neuronal loss because TH-IR in AD subjects was robust, despite a similar loss of LC neurons. These data suggest that there is a differential response of the noradrenergic nervous system in PD compared to AD in response to the loss of LC neurons.
|A virus-like particle-based anti-nerve growth factor vaccine reduces inflammatory hyperalgesia: potential long-term therapy for chronic pain. |
Röhn, TA; Ralvenius, WT; Paul, J; Borter, P; Hernandez, M; Witschi, R; Grest, P; Zeilhofer, HU; Bachmann, MF; Jennings, GT
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 186 1769-80 2011
Chronic pain resulting from inflammatory and neuropathic disorders causes considerable economic and social burden. For a substantial proportion of patients, conventional drug treatments do not provide adequate pain relief. Consequently, novel approaches to pain management, involving alternative targets and new therapeutic modalities compatible with chronic use, are being sought. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a major mediator of chronic pain. Clinical testing of NGF antagonists is ongoing, and clinical proof of concept has been established with a neutralizing mAb. Active immunization, with the goal of inducing therapeutically effective neutralizing autoreactive Abs, is recognized as a potential treatment option for chronic diseases. We have sought to determine if such a strategy could be applied to chronic pain by targeting NGF with a virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccine. A vaccine comprising recombinant murine NGF conjugated to VLPs from the bacteriophage Qβ (NGFQβ) was produced. Immunization of mice with NGFQβ induced anti-NGF-specific IgG Abs capable of neutralizing NGF. Titers could be sustained over 1 y by periodic immunization but declined in the absence of boosting. Vaccination with NGFQβ substantially reduced hyperalgesia in collagen-induced arthritis or postinjection of zymosan A, two models of inflammatory pain. Long-term NGFQβ immunization did not change sensory or sympathetic innervation patterns or induce cholinergic deficits in the forebrain, nor did it interfere with blood-brain barrier integrity. Thus, autovaccination targeting NGF using a VLP-based approach may represent a novel modality for the treatment of chronic pain.
|Potential mechanisms for hypoalgesia induced by anti-nerve growth factor immunoglobulin are identified using autoimmune nerve growth factor deprivation. |
Hoffman, EM; Zhang, Z; Anderson, MB; Schechter, R; Miller, KE
Neuroscience 193 452-65 2011
Nerve growth factor (NGF) antagonism has long been proposed as a chronic pain treatment. In 2010, the FDA suspended clinical trials using tanezumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-NGF antibody, to treat osteoarthritis due to worsening joint damage in 16 patients. Increased physical activity in the absence of acute pain which normally prevents self-harm was purported as a potential cause. Such an adverse effect is consistent with an extension of tanezumab's primary mechanism of action by decreasing pain sensitivity below baseline levels. In animal inflammatory pain models, NGF antagonism decreases intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density and attenuates increases in expression of nociception-related proteins, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). Little is known of the effects of NGF antagonism in noninflamed animals and the hypoalgesia that ensues. In the current study, we immunized rats with NGF or cytochrome C (cytC) and examined (1) nocifensive behaviors with thermal latencies, mechanical thresholds, the hot plate test, and the tail flick test, (2) IENF density, and (3) expression of CGRP, SP, voltage-gated sodium channel 1.8 (Nav1.8), and glutaminase in subpopulations of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons separated by size and isolectin B4 (IB4) labeling. Rats with high anti-NGF titers had delayed responses on the hot plate test but no other behavioral abnormalities. Delayed hot plate responses correlated with lower IENF density. CGRP and SP expression was decreased principally in medium (400-800 μm(2)) and small neurons (less than 400 μm(2)), respectively, regardless of IB4 labeling. Expression of Nav1.8 was only decreased in small and medium IB4 negative neurons. NGF immunization appears to result in a more profound antagonism of NGF than tanezumab therapy, but we hypothesize that decreases in IENF density and nociception-related protein expression are potential mechanisms for tanezumab-induced hypoalgesia.
|Organotypic vibrosections: novel whole sagittal brain cultures. |
Ullrich, C; Daschil, N; Humpel, C
Journal of neuroscience methods 201 131-41 2011
In vitro cell culture models are of enormous importance in neuroscience research and organotypic brain slices are found to be a potent model very close to the in vivo situation. Brain slices can be cultured as single slices or as co-slices. However, there is need to culture whole brain sections, containing the complex functional architecture. The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize whole brain sagittal slice cultures (200μm organotypic vibrosections) from postnatal day 8 rats. We show that sagittal vibrosections can be cultured for several weeks and they maintain survival of cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons, as well as a strong capillary network. Partly long-distance cortico-striatal and cortico-hippocampal nerve fibers were found using Mini-Ruby neurotracing. Dopaminergic nerve fibers extended from the mesencephalon, but in the striato-nigral tract and in the striatum only strong dense varicosities were found. The model also allows to study pathological triggers, such as e.g. hydrogen peroxide markedly increased propidiumiodide-positive nuclei in the hippocampus. In conclusion, our novel model provides an easy potent whole sagittal brain culture system that allows to study cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons together but also in close interaction with all other cells of the brain and with capillaries. It will be a great challenge in future to use this model to re-construct whole pathways. This vibrosection model may partly represent a close adult in vivo situation, which allows to study neurodegeneration and neuroprotection of cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons, which plays an important role in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, respectively.
|Preventive or late administration of anti-NGF therapy attenuates tumor-induced nerve sprouting, neuroma formation, and cancer pain. |
Jimenez-Andrade, JM; Ghilardi, JR; Castañeda-Corral, G; Kuskowski, MA; Mantyh, PW
Pain 152 2564-74 2011
Early, preemptive blockade of nerve growth factor (NGF)/tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) attenuates tumor-induced nerve sprouting and bone cancer pain. A critical unanswered question is whether late blockade of NGF/TrkA can attenuate cancer pain once NGF-induced nerve sprouting and neuroma formation has occurred. By means of a mouse model of prostate cancer-induced bone pain, anti-NGF was either administered preemptively at day 14 after tumor injection when nerve sprouting had yet to occur, or late at day 35, when extensive nerve sprouting had occurred. Animals were humanely killed at day 70 when, in vehicle-treated animals, significant nerve sprouting and neuroma formation was present in the tumor-bearing bone. Although preemptive and sustained administration (days 14-70) of anti-NGF more rapidly attenuated bone cancer nociceptive behaviors than late and sustained administration (days 35-70), by day 70 after tumor injection, both preemptive and late administration of anti-NGF significantly reduced nociceptive behaviors, sensory and sympathetic nerve sprouting, and neuroma formation. In this model, as in most cancers, the individual cancer cell colonies have a limited half-life because they are constantly proliferating, metastasizing, and undergoing necrosis as the parent cancer cell colony outgrows its blood supply. Similarly, the sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers that innervate the tumor undergo sprouting at the viable/leading edge of the parent tumor, degenerate as the parent cancer cell colony becomes necrotic, and resprout in the viable, newly formed daughter cell colonies. These results suggest that preemptive or late-stage blockade of NGF/TrkA can attenuate nerve sprouting and cancer pain.
|Do palisade endings in extraocular muscles arise from neurons in the motor nuclei? |
Lienbacher, K; Mustari, M; Ying, HS; Büttner-Ennever, JA; Horn, AK
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 52 2510-9 2011
The purpose of this study was to localize the cell bodies of palisade endings that are associated with the myotendinous junctions of the extraocular muscles.Rhesus monkeys received tract-tracer injections (tetramethylrhodamine dextran [TMR-DA] or choleratoxin subunit B [CTB]) into the oculomotor and trochlear nuclei, which contain the motoneurons of extraocular muscles. All extraocular muscles were processed for the combined immunocytochemical detection of the tracer and SNAP-25 or synaptophysin for the visualization of the complete muscle innervation.In all muscles--except the lateral rectus--en plaque and en grappe motor endings, but also palisade endings, were anterogradely labeled. In addition a few tracer-labeled tendon organs were found. One group of tracer-negative nerve fibers was identified as thin tyrosine hydroxylase-positive sympathetic fibers, and a second less numerous group of tracer-negative fibers may originate from the trigeminal ganglia. No cellular or terminal tracer labeling was present within the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus or the trigeminal ganglia.These results confirm those of earlier studies and furthermore suggest that the somata of palisade endings are located close to the extraocular motor nuclei--in this case, probably within the C and S groups around the periphery of the oculomotor nucleus. The multiple en grappe endings have also been shown to arise from these cells groups, but it is not possible to distinguish different populations in these experiments.
|Intrinsic phototransduction persists in melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells lacking diacylglycerol-sensitive TRPC subunits. |
Perez-Leighton, CE; Schmidt, TM; Abramowitz, J; Birnbaumer, L; Kofuji, P
The European journal of neuroscience 33 856-67 2011
In mammals, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate various non-image-forming photic responses, such as circadian photoentrainment, pupillary light reflex and pineal melatonin suppression. ipRGCs directly respond to environmental light by activation of the photopigment melanopsin followed by the opening of an unidentified cation-selective channel. Studies in heterologous expression systems and in the native retina have strongly implicated diacylglycerol-sensitive transient receptor potential channels containing TRPC3, TRPC6 and TRPC7 subunits in melanopsin-evoked depolarization. Here we show that melanopsin-evoked electrical responses largely persist in ipRGCs recorded from early postnatal (P6-P8) and adult (P22-P50) mice lacking expression of functional TRPC3, TRPC6 or TRPC7 subunits. Multielectrode array (MEA) recordings performed at P6-P8 stages under conditions that prevent influences from rod/cone photoreceptors show comparable light sensitivity for the melanopsin-evoked responses in these mutant mouse lines in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice. Patch-clamp recordings from adult mouse ipRGCs lacking TRPC3 or TRPC7 subunits show intrinsic light-evoked responses equivalent to those recorded in WT mice. Persistence of intrinsic light-evoked responses was also noted in ipRGCs lacking TRPC6 subunits, although with significantly smaller magnitudes. These results demonstrate that the melanopsin-evoked depolarization in ipRGCs is not mediated by either TRPC3, TRPC6 or TRPC7 channel subunits alone. They also suggest that the melanopsin signaling pathway includes TRPC6-containing heteromeric channels in mature retinas.
|Increased feeding and food hoarding following food deprivation are associated with activation of dopamine and orexin neurons in male Brandt's voles. |
Zhang, XY; Yang, HD; Zhang, Q; Wang, Z; Wang, DH
PloS one 6 e26408 2011
Small mammals usually face energetic challenges, such as food shortage, in the field. They have thus evolved species-specific adaptive strategies for survival and reproductive success. In the present study, we examined male Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) for their physiological, behavioral, and neuronal responses to food deprivation (FD) and subsequent re-feeding. Although 48 hr FD induced a decrease in body weight and the resting metabolic rate (RMR), such decreases did not reach statistical significance when compared to the control males that did not experience FD. During the first 2 hr of re-feeding following 48 hr FD, voles showed higher levels of feeding than controls. However, when permitted to hoard food, FD voles showed an increase in food hoarding, rather than feeding, compared to the controls. Further, both feeding and food hoarding induced an increase in neuronal activation, measured by Fos-ir, in a large number of brain areas examined. Interestingly, feeding and food hoarding also induced an increase in the percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells that co-expressed Fos-ir in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), whereas both FD and feeding induced an increase in the percentage of orexin-ir cells that co-expressed Fos-ir in the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Food hoarding also increased orexin-ir/Fos-ir labeling in the LH. Together, our data indicate that food-deprived male Brandt's voles display enhanced feeding or food hoarding dependent upon an environmental setting. In addition, changes in central dopamine and orexin activities in selected brain areas are associated with feeding and hoarding behaviors following FD and subsequent re-feeding.
|FGF signalling inhibits neural induction in human embryonic stem cells. |
Greber, B; Coulon, P; Zhang, M; Moritz, S; Frank, S; Müller-Molina, AJ; Araúzo-Bravo, MJ; Han, DW; Pape, HC; Schöler, HR
The EMBO journal 30 4874-84 2011
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can exit the self-renewal programme, through the action of signalling molecules, at any given time and differentiate along the three germ layer lineages. We have systematically investigated the specific roles of three signalling pathways, TGFβ/SMAD2, BMP/SMAD1, and FGF/ERK, in promoting the transition of hESCs into the neuroectoderm lineage. In this context, inhibition of SMAD2 and ERK signalling served to cooperatively promote exit from hESC self-renewal through the rapid downregulation of NANOG and OCT4. In contrast, inhibition of SMAD1 signalling acted to maintain SOX2 expression and prevent non-neural differentiation via HAND1. Inhibition of FGF/ERK upregulated OTX2 that subsequently induced the neuroectodermal fate determinant PAX6, revealing a novel role for FGF2 in indirectly repressing PAX6 in hESCs. Combined inhibition of the three pathways hence resulted in highly efficient neuroectoderm formation within 4 days, and subsequently, FGF/ERK inhibition promoted rapid differentiation into peripheral neurons. Our study assigns a novel, biphasic role to FGF/ERK signalling in the neural induction of hESCs, which may also have utility for applications requiring the rapid and efficient generation of peripheral neurons.
|The majority of myelinated and unmyelinated sensory nerve fibers that innervate bone express the tropomyosin receptor kinase A. |
Castañeda-Corral, G; Jimenez-Andrade, JM; Bloom, AP; Taylor, RN; Mantyh, WG; Kaczmarska, MJ; Ghilardi, JR; Mantyh, PW
Neuroscience 178 196-207 2011
Although skeletal pain is a leading cause of chronic pain and disability, relatively little is known about the specific populations of nerve fibers that innervate the skeleton. Recent studies have reported that therapies blocking nerve growth factor (NGF) or its cognate receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) are efficacious in attenuating skeletal pain. A potential factor to consider when assessing the analgesic efficacy of targeting NGF-TrkA signaling in a pain state is the fraction of NGF-responsive TrkA+ nociceptors that innervate the tissue from which the pain is arising, as this innervation and the analgesic efficacy of targeting NGF-TrkA signaling may vary considerably from tissue to tissue. To explore this in the skeleton, tissue slices and whole mount preparations of the normal, adult mouse femur were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Analysis of these preparations revealed that 80% of the unmyelinated/thinly myelinated sensory nerve fibers that express calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and innervate the periosteum, mineralized bone and bone marrow also express TrkA. Similarly, the majority of myelinated sensory nerve fibers that express neurofilament 200 kDa (NF200) which innervate the periosteum, mineralized bone and bone marrow also co-express TrkA. In the normal femur, the relative density of CGRP+, NF200+ and TrkA+ sensory nerve fibers per unit volume is: periosteumgreater than bone marrowgreater than mineralized bonegreater than cartilage with the respective relative densities being 100:2:0.1:0. The observation that the majority of sensory nerve fibers innervating the skeleton express TrkA+, may in part explain why therapies that block NGF/TrkA pathway are highly efficacious in attenuating skeletal pain.
|Neuronal replacement in the injured olfactory bulb. |
Liu, H; Guthrie, KM
Experimental neurology 228 270-82 2011
The adult forebrain subventricular zone contains neural stem cells that produce neurons destined for the olfactory bulb, where interneuron populations turnover throughout life. Forebrain injuries can stimulate production of these cells, and re-direct migrating precursors from the olfactory system to areas of damage, where their region-appropriate differentiation and long-term functional integration remain a matter for debate. Paradoxically, little is known about the ability of these progenitors to replace olfactory neurons lost to injury. Their innate capacity to generate bulb neurons may give them an advantage in this regard, and using injections of N-methyl-d-aspartate to kill mature olfactory bulb neurons, combined with bromodeoxyuridine labeling to monitor the fate of adult-born cells, we investigated the potential for injury-induced neurogenesis in this system. Widespread degeneration of bulb neurons did not affect the rate of cell proliferation in the subventricular zone, or cause neuroblasts to divert from their normal migratory route. However migration was slowed by the injury, leading to the accumulation and differentiation of neuroblasts as NeuN+ cells in the rostral migratory stream within 2 weeks of their birth. Despite this, a subset of new neurons successfully invaded the damaged bulb tissue, where they expressed neuronal markers including NeuN, calretinin, GABA, and tyrosine hydroxylase, with some surviving here for as long as 6 months. To test for functional integration of cells born post-injury, we also performed smaller NMDA lesions in restricted portions of the bulb granule cell layer and observed adult-born NeuN+ cells in these areas within 5 weeks, and BrdU+ cells that expressed the immediate-early gene c-fos following odor stimulation. These data suggest that the normal neurogenic capacity of the adult subventricular zone can be adapted to replace subsets of olfactory neurons lost to injury.
|Loss of ATF2 function leads to cranial motoneuron degeneration during embryonic mouse development. |
Ackermann, J; Ashton, G; Lyons, S; James, D; Hornung, JP; Jones, N; Breitwieser, W
PloS one 6 e19090 2011
The AP-1 family transcription factor ATF2 is essential for development and tissue maintenance in mammals. In particular, ATF2 is highly expressed and activated in the brain and previous studies using mouse knockouts have confirmed its requirement in the cerebellum as well as in vestibular sense organs. Here we present the analysis of the requirement for ATF2 in CNS development in mouse embryos, specifically in the brainstem. We discovered that neuron-specific inactivation of ATF2 leads to significant loss of motoneurons of the hypoglossal, abducens and facial nuclei. While the generation of ATF2 mutant motoneurons appears normal during early development, they undergo caspase-dependent and independent cell death during later embryonic and foetal stages. The loss of these motoneurons correlates with increased levels of stress activated MAP kinases, JNK and p38, as well as aberrant accumulation of phosphorylated neurofilament proteins, NF-H and NF-M, known substrates for these kinases. This, together with other neuropathological phenotypes, including aberrant vacuolisation and lipid accumulation, indicates that deficiency in ATF2 leads to neurodegeneration of subsets of somatic and visceral motoneurons of the brainstem. It also confirms that ATF2 has a critical role in limiting the activities of stress kinases JNK and p38 which are potent inducers of cell death in the CNS.
|Some lumbar sympathetic neurons develop a glutamatergic phenotype after peripheral axotomy with a note on VGLUT₂-positive perineuronal baskets. |
Brumovsky, PR; Seroogy, KB; Lundgren, KH; Watanabe, M; Hökfelt, T; Gebhart, GF
Experimental neurology 230 258-72 2011
Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system, including in primary afferent neurons. However, to date a glutamatergic phenotype of autonomic neurons has not been described. Therefore, we explored the expression of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) types 1, 2 and 3 in lumbar sympathetic chain (LSC) and major pelvic ganglion (MPG) of naïve BALB/C mice, as well as after pelvic nerve axotomy (PNA), using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Colocalization with activating transcription factor-3 (ATF-3), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and calcitonin gene-related peptide was also examined. Sham-PNA, sciatic nerve axotomy (SNA) or naïve mice were included. In naïve mice, VGLUT(2)-like immunoreactivity (LI) was only detected in fibers and varicosities in LSC and MPG; no ATF-3-immunoreactive (IR) neurons were visible. In contrast, PNA induced upregulation of VGLUT(2) protein and transcript, as well as of ATF-3-LI in subpopulations of LSC neurons. Interestingly, VGLUT(2)-IR LSC neurons coexpressed ATF-3, and often lacked the noradrenergic marker TH. SNA only increased VGLUT(2) protein and transcript in scattered LSC neurons. Neither PNA nor SNA upregulated VGLUT(2) in MPG neurons. We also found perineuronal baskets immunoreactive either for VGLUT(2) or the acetylcholinergic marker VAChT in non-PNA MPGs, usually around TH-IR neurons. VGLUT(1)-LI was restricted to some varicosities in MPGs, was absent in LSCs, and remained largely unaffected by PNA or SNA. This was confirmed by the lack of expression of VGLUT(1) or VGLUT(3) mRNAs in LSCs, even after PNA or SNA. Taken together, axotomy of visceral and non-visceral nerves results in a glutamatergic phenotype of some LSC neurons. In addition, we show previously non-described MPG perineuronal glutamatergic baskets.
|Lithium protects against oxidative stress-mediated cell death in α-synuclein-overexpressing in vitro and in vivo models of Parkinson's disease. |
Kim, YH; Rane, A; Lussier, S; Andersen, JK
Journal of neuroscience research 89 1666-75 2011
Lithium has recently been suggested to have neuroprotective properties in relation to several neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we examined the potential cytoprotective effect of lithium in preventing oxidative stress-induced protein accumulation and neuronal cell death in the presence of increased α-synuclein levels in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, lithium administration was found to protect against cell death in a hydrogen peroxide-treated, stable α-synuclein-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-overexpressing dopaminergic N27 cell line. Lithium feeding (0.255% lithium chloride) of 9-month-old pan-neuronal α-synuclein transgenic mice over a 3-month period was also sufficient to prevent accumulation of oxidized/nitrated α-synuclein as a consequence of chronic paraquat/maneb administration in multiple brain regions, including the glomerular layer, mitral cells, and the granule cell layer of the olfactory bulb (OB), striatum, substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. Lithium not only prevented α-synuclein-mediated protein accumulation/aggregation in these brain regions but also protected neuronal cells including mitral cells and dopaminergic SNpc neurons against oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration. These results suggest that lithium can prevent both α-synuclein accumulation and neurodegeneration in an animal model of PD, suggesting that this drug, already FDA-approved for use in bipolar disorder, may constitute a novel therapy for another human disease.
|Acute and long-term response of dopamine nigrostriatal synapses to a single, low-dose episode of 3-nitropropionic acid-mediated chemical hypoxia. |
Cynthia A Crawford,Garnik Akopian,Justin Ring,Michael W Jakowec,Giselle M Petzinger,Julie K Andersen,Philip Vittozzi-Wong,Kristie Wang,Cristal M Farley,Sergios Charntikov,Danut Mitroi,M Flint Beal,Robert Chow,John P Walsh
Synapse (New York, N.Y.) 65 2011
The goal of the present investigation was to determine the persistence of striatal (DA) dopaminergic dysfunction after a mild chemically induced hypoxic event in Fisher 344 rats. To this end, we gave a single injection of the mitochondrial complex II inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP; 16.5 mg/kg, i.p.) to 2-month old male F344 rats and measured various indices of striatal DA functioning and lipid peroxidation over a 3-month span. Separate groups of rats were used to measure rod walking, evoked DA release, DA content, malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, DA receptor binding, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity. The results showed that 3-NP exposure reduced most measures of DA functioning including motoric ability, DA release, and D(2) receptor densities for 1 to 3 months postdrug administration. Interestingly, DA content was reduced 1 week after 3-NP exposure, but rose to 147% of control values 1 month after 3-NP treatment. MDA accumulation, a measure of lipid peroxidation activity, was increased 24 h and 1 month after 3-NP treatment. 3-NP did not affect TH activity, suggesting that alterations in DA functioning were not the result of nigrostriatal terminal loss. These data demonstrate that a brief mild hypoxic episode caused by 3-NP exposure has long-term detrimental effects on the functioning of the nigrostriatal DA system.
|The netrin receptor DCC is required in the pubertal organization of mesocortical dopamine circuitry. |
Manitt, C; Mimee, A; Eng, C; Pokinko, M; Stroh, T; Cooper, HM; Kolb, B; Flores, C
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 8381-94 2011
Netrins are guidance cues involved in neural connectivity. We have shown that the netrin-1 receptor DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) is involved in the functional organization of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system. Adult mice with a heterozygous loss-of-function mutation in dcc exhibit changes in indexes of DA function, including DA-related behaviors. These phenotypes are only observed after puberty, a critical period in the maturation of the mesocortical DA projection. Here, we examined whether dcc heterozygous mice exhibit structural changes in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) DA synaptic connectivity, before and after puberty. Stereological counts of tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH)-positive varicosities were increased in the cingulate 1 and prelimbic regions of the pregenual mPFC. dcc heterozygous mice also exhibited alterations in the size, complexity, and dendritic spine density of mPFC layer V pyramidal neuron basilar dendritic arbors. Remarkably, these presynaptic and postsynaptic partner phenotypes were not observed in juvenile mice, suggesting that DCC selectively influences the extensive branching and synaptic differentiation that occurs in the maturing mPFC DA circuit at puberty. Immunolabeling experiments in wild-type mice demonstrated that DCC is segregated to TH-positive fibers innervating the nucleus accumbens, with only scarce DCC labeling in mPFC TH-positive fibers. Netrin had an inverted target expression pattern. Thus, DCC-mediated netrin-1 signaling may influence the formation/maintenance of mesocorticolimbic DA topography. In support of this, we report that dcc heterozygous mice exhibit a twofold increase in the density of mPFC DCC/TH-positive varicosities. Our results implicate DCC-mediated netrin-1 signaling in the establishment of mPFC DA circuitry during puberty.
|Genetic activation of Nrf2 signaling is sufficient to ameliorate neurodegenerative phenotypes in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease. |
Barone, MC; Sykiotis, GP; Bohmann, D
Disease models & mechanisms 4 701-7 2011
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder. Oxidative stress has been associated with the etiology of both sporadic and monogenic forms of PD. The transcription factor Nrf2, a conserved global regulator of cellular antioxidant responses, has been implicated in neuroprotection against PD pathology. However, direct evidence that upregulation of the Nrf2 pathway is sufficient to confer neuroprotection in genetic models of PD is lacking. Expression of the PD-linked gene encoding α-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons of Drosophila results in decreased locomotor activity and selective neuron loss in a progressive age-dependent manner, providing a genetically accessible model of PD. Here we show that upregulation of the Nrf2 pathway by overexpressing Nrf2 or its DNA-binding dimerization partner, Maf-S, restores the locomotor activity of α-synuclein-expressing flies. Similar benefits are observed upon RNA-interference-mediated downregulation of the prime Nrf2 inhibitor, Keap1, as well as in conditions of keap1 heterozygosity. Consistently, the α-synuclein-induced dopaminergic neuron loss is suppressed by Maf-S overexpression or keap1 heterozygosity. Our data validate the sustained upregulation of the Nrf2 pathway as a neuroprotective strategy against PD. This model provides a genetically accessible in vivo system in which to evaluate the potential of additional Nrf2 pathway components and regulators as therapeutic targets.
|Simvastatin prevents dopaminergic neurodegeneration in experimental parkinsonian models: the association with anti-inflammatory responses. |
Yan, J; Xu, Y; Zhu, C; Zhang, L; Wu, A; Yang, Y; Xiong, Z; Deng, C; Huang, XF; Yenari, MA; Yang, YG; Ying, W; Wang, Q
PloS one 6 e20945 2011
In addition to their original applications to lowering cholesterol, statins display multiple neuroprotective effects. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors interact closely with the dopaminergic system and are strongly implicated in therapeutic paradigms of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aims to investigate how simvastatin impacts on experimental parkinsonian models via regulating NMDA receptors.Regional changes in NMDA receptors in the rat brain and anxiolytic-like activity were examined after unilateral medial forebrain bundle lesion by 6-hydroxydopamine via a 3-week administration of simvastatin. NMDA receptor alterations in the post-mortem rat brain were detected by [³H]MK-801(Dizocilpine) binding autoradiography. 6-hydroxydopamine treated PC12 was applied to investigate the neuroprotection of simvastatin, the association with NMDA receptors, and the anti-inflammation. 6-hydroxydopamine induced anxiety and the downregulation of NMDA receptors in the hippocampus, CA1(Cornu Ammonis 1 Area), amygdala and caudate putamen was observed in 6-OHDA(6-hydroxydopamine) lesioned rats whereas simvastatin significantly ameliorated the anxiety-like activity and restored the expression of NMDA receptors in examined brain regions. Significant positive correlations were identified between anxiolytic-like activity and the restoration of expression of NMDA receptors in the hippocampus, amygdala and CA1 following simvastatin administration. Simvastatin exerted neuroprotection in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat brain and 6-hydroxydopamine treated PC12, partially by regulating NMDA receptors, MMP9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9), and TNF-a (tumour necrosis factor-alpha).Our results provide strong evidence that NMDA receptor modulation after simvastatin treatment could partially explain its anxiolytic-like activity and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in experimental parkinsonian models. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the critical roles of simvastatin in treating PD via NMDA receptors.Full Text Article
|Sympathetic inhibition of IL-6, IFN-γ, and KC CXCL1 and sympathetic stimulation of TGF-β in spleen of early arthritic mice. |
Straub RH, Rauch L, Rauh L, Pongratz G
Brain, behavior, and immunity 25 1708-15. Epub 2011 Jul 13. 2011
|Acute versus long-term effects of 6-hydroxydopamine on oxidative stress and dopamine depletion in the striatum of mice. |
Varcin M, Bentea E, Mertens B, Van Den Haute C, Baekelandt V, Michotte Y, Sarre S
Journal of neuroscience methods 202 128-36. Epub 2011 Jul 18. 2011
Oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms which may be important in the pathogenesis of Parkinson\'s disease. In the current study, the effects of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) perfusion on hydroxyl radical formation in the mouse striatum were investigated using the in vivo salicylate trapping microdialysis technique. The latter uses salicylate as a trapping agent for hydroxyl radicals with formation of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA), which is measured by HPLC. Two different approaches of the technique were validated in mice. First, perfusion of the trapping agent salicylate (1mM) via the probe in combination with 6-OHDA (5μM) was used to screen for radical scavenging properties of compounds in mice. Alternatively, striatal administration of 6-OHDA in a concentration known to induce nigrostriatal denervation (1mM), without the trapping agent, allowed to maximally challenge the neuronal microenvironment and as such to investigate both its acute and long-term effects. In the first method, as expected, glutathione (GSH) (1.5mM) prevented the 6-OHDA-induced increase in 2,3-DHBA levels. In the second method, GSH prevented the hydroxyl radical formation, while depletion of GSH with 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHO) resulted in significantly higher 2,3-DHBA levels than when 6-OHDA was perfused alone. Three weeks after the local 6-OHDA perfusion, the total striatal dopamine (DA) and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) content were reduced by 30%, compared to the intact striatum, accompanied by a reduction in striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive (ir) nerve terminals. This suggests that the second method can be used to determine the acute as well as the long-term effects of 6-OHDA in the mouse striatum.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Organization of the nervous system in Opisthorchis viverrini investigated by histochemical and immunohistochemical study. |
Leksomboon R, Chaijaroonkhanarak W, Arunyanart C, Umka J, Jones MK, Sripa B
Parasitology international 2011
The structure and organization of the nervous system has been documented for various helminth parasites. However, the neuroanatomy of the carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini has not been described. This study therefore investigated the organization of the nervous system of this fluke using cholinesterase activity, aminergic and peptidergic (FMRFamide-like peptides) immunostaining to tag major neural elements. The nervous system, as detected by acetylcholinesterase (AchE) reaction, was similar in newly excysted metacercariae, migrating juveniles and adult parasites. In these stages, there were three pairs (dorsal, ventral and lateral) of bilaterally symmetrical longitudinal nerve cords and two cerebral ganglia. The ventral nerve cords and the cerebral ganglia were well-developed and exhibited strong AchE reactivity, as well as aminergic and FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity. Numerous immunoreactive nerve cell bodies were observed around the inner surface of the ventral sucker. Fine FMRFamide-like peptides immunopositive nerve fiber was rarely observed. Overall, the organization of the nervous system of O. viverrini is similar to other trematodes.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Behavioral, neurochemical, and electrophysiological changes in an early spontaneous mouse model of nigrostriatal degeneration. |
Sgadò P, Viaggi C, Pinna A, Marrone C, Vaglini F, Pontis S, Mercuri NB, Morelli M, Corsini GU
Neurotoxicity research 20 170-81. Epub 2010 Nov 23. 2011
In idiopathic Parkinson\'s disease, clinical symptoms do not emerge until consistent neurodegeneration has occurred. The late appearance of symptoms implies the existence of a relatively long preclinical period during which several disease-induced neurochemical changes take place to mask the existence of the disease and delay its clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to examine the neurochemical, neurophysiological, and behavioral changes induced by the loss of nigrostriatal innervation in the En1+/-;En2-/- mouse, in the 10 months following degeneration, compared to En2 null mutant mice. Behavioral analysis (Pole-test, Beam-walking test, and Inverted grid test) and field potential recordings in the striatum indicated that loss of ~70% of nigrostriatal neurons produced no significant functional effects until 8 months of age, when En1+/-;En2-/- animals started to show frank motor deficits and electrophysiological alterations in corticostriatal plasticity. Similarly, alterations in dopamine homeostasis, dopamine turnover, and dopamine innervation were observed in aged animals compared to young En1+/-;En2-/- mice. These data suggests that in En1+/-;En2-/- mice nigrostriatal degeneration in the substantia nigra is functionally compensated.
|Histomorphometric and sympathetic innervation of the human posterior intercostal artery and its clinical importance. |
S Reddy,P Kumar,K Prasad
Folia morphologica 70 2011
The purpose of this investigation was to study the characteristics of arterial wall and sympathetic innervation of the human posterior intercostal artery (PIA) in order to assess its suitability as an arterial graft for vascular surgeries. Fifty PIA samples were obtained from 25 cadavers (18 males and 7 females). Samples were divided into three age groups: group 1: 19-40 years; group 2: 41-60 years; and group 3 over 61 years. Sections (5 ?m-thickness) of each sample were taken and stained with haematoxylin-eosin, Verhoeff's-Van Gieson. Five samples were processed for tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining. The differences in the thickness of tunica intima were not statistically significant when group 1 was compared with group 2 (p = 0.798), but significant differences were observed in the thickness of the tunica intima when comparing group 2 with group 3 (p = 0.012) and group 3 with group 1 (p = 0.002). The tunica media was not statistically significant when group 1 was compared with group 2 (p = 0.479). However, significant differences were observed in the thickness of the tunica media when comparing group 2 with group 3 (p = 0.001) and group 3 with group 1 (p = 0.011). The mean (SD) number of elastic laminae in group 1, group 2, and group 3 were 7.88 ± 0.69, 6.62 ± 0.51, and 4.56 ± 0.82, respectively. Tunica intima/media ratios in groups 1, 2, and 3 were found to be 0.09 ± 0.01, 0.11 ± 0.02, and 0.27 ± 0.16, respectively. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining revealed that sympathetic fibres are found mainly in the tunica adventitia and at the adventitia-medial border. The sympathetic nerve fibre area and sympathetic index were found to be 0.004 mm2, and 0.151 mm(2), respectively. PIA has relatively thin intima and media, which are favourable features regarding its potential suitability as an alternate coronary bypass conduit.
|Overexpression of neurotrophin-3 stimulates a second wave of dopaminergic amacrine cell genesis after birth in the mouse retina. |
Yoshida, M; Feng, L; Grimbert, F; Rangarajan, KV; Buggele, W; Copenhagen, DR; Cang, J; Liu, X
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 12663-73 2011
Dopaminergic amacrine (DA) cells play multiple and important roles in retinal function. Neurotrophins are known to modulate the number and morphology of DA cells, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are unclear. Here, we investigate how neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) regulates DA cell density in the mouse retina. We demonstrate that overexpression of NT-3 upregulates DA cell number and leads to a consequent increase in the density of DA cell dendrites. To examine the mechanisms of DA cell density increase, we further investigate the effect of NT-3 overexpression on retinal apoptosis and mitosis during development. We find that NT-3 does not affect the well known wave of retinal cell apoptosis that normally occurs during the first 2 weeks after birth. Instead, overexpression of NT-3 promotes additional mitosis of DA cells at postnatal day 4, but does not affect cell mitosis before birth, the peak period of amacrine cell genesis in wild-type retinas. We next show that retinal explants cultured from birth to day 7 without extra NT-3 produced by lens exhibit similar number of DA cells as in wild type, further supporting the notion that postnatal overexpression of lens-derived NT-3 affects DA cell number. Moreover, the additional mitosis after birth in NT-3-overexpressing mice does not occur in calretinin-positive amacrine cells or PKC-positive rod ON bipolar cells. Thus, the NT-3-triggered wave of cell mitosis after birth is specific for the retinal DA cells.
|Expression and functional properties of TRPM2 channels in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra of the rat. |
Chung, KK; Freestone, PS; Lipski, J
Journal of neurophysiology 106 2865-75 2011
Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels are sensitive to oxidative stress, and their activation can lead to cell death. Although these channels have been extensively studied in expression systems, their role in the brain, particularly in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), remains unknown. In this study, we assessed the expression and functional properties of TRPM2 channels in rat dopaminergic SNc neurons, using acute brain slices. RT-PCR analysis revealed TRPM2 mRNA expression in the SNc region. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression of TRPM2 protein in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons. Channel function was tested with whole cell patch-clamp recordings and calcium (fura-2) imaging. Intracellular application of ADP-ribose (50-400 μM) evoked a dose-dependent, desensitizing inward current and intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) rise. These responses were strongly inhibited by the nonselective TRPM2 channel blockers clotrimazole and flufenamic acid. Exogenous application of H(2)O(2) (1-5 mM) evoked a rise in [Ca(2+)](i) and an outward current mainly due to activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels. Inhibition of K(+) conductance with Cs(+) and tetraethylammonium unmasked an inward current. The inward current and/or [Ca(2+)](i) rise were partially blocked by clotrimazole and N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid (ACA). The H(2)O(2)-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise was abolished in "zero" extracellular Ca(2+) concentration and was enhanced at higher baseline [Ca(2+)](i), consistent with activation of TRPM2 channels in the cell membrane. These results provide evidence for the functional expression of TRPM2 channels in dopaminergic SNc neurons. Given the involvement of oxidative stress in degeneration of SNc neurons in Parkinson's disease, further studies are needed to determine the pathophysiological role of these channels in the disease process.
|Androgens exacerbate motor asymmetry in male rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion. |
Cunningham RL, Macheda T, Watts LT, Poteet E, Singh M, Roberts JL, Giuffrida A
Hormones and behavior 60 617-24. Epub 2011 Aug 31. 2011
Parkinson\'s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopamine neuron loss in the nigrostriatal pathway that shows greater incidence in men than women. The mechanisms underlying this gender bias remain elusive, although one possibility is that androgens may increase dopamine neuronal vulnerability to oxidative stress. Motor impairment can be modeled in rats receiving a unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a neurotoxin producing nigrostriatal degeneration. To investigate the role of androgens in PD, we compared young (2months) and aged (24months) male rats receiving gonadectomy (GDX) and their corresponding intact controls. One month after GDX, rats were unilaterally injected with 6-OHDA, and their motor impairment and asymmetry were assessed 2weeks later using the cylinder test and the amphetamine-induced rotation test. Plasma samples were also collected to assess the concentration of testosterone and advanced oxidation protein products, a product of oxidative stress. GDX decreased lesion-induced asymmetry along with oxidative stress and increased amphetamine-induced rotations. These results show that GDX improves motor behaviors by decreasing motor asymmetry in 6-OHDA-treated rats, an effect that may be ascribed to increased release of striatal dopamine and decreased oxidative stress. Collectively, the data support the hypothesis that androgens may underlie the gender bias observed in PD.Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|The pathological process underlying Alzheimer\'s disease in individuals under thirty. |
Braak H, Del Tredici K
Acta neuropathologica 121 171-81. Epub 2010 Dec 15. 2011
Brains of 42 individuals between the ages of 4 and 29 were examined with antibodies (AT8, 4G8) and silver stains for the presence of intraneuronal and extracellular protein aggregates associated with Alzheimer\'s disease. Thirty-eight of 42 (38/42) cases displayed abnormally phosphorylated tau protein (pretangle material) in nerve cells or in portions of their cellular processes, and 41/42 individuals showed no extracellular amyloid-β protein deposition or neuritic plaques-an individual with Down syndrome was the only exception. In 16/42 cases abnormal tau was found in the transentorhinal region, and in 3/42 cases this site was Gallyas-positive for isolated NFTs (NFT stage I). Of 26 cases that lacked abnormal tau in the transentorhinal region, 4 did not show pretangle material at subcortical sites. The remaining 22 of these same 26 cases, however, had subcortical lesions confined to non-thalamic nuclei with diffuse projections to the cerebral cortex, and, remarkably, in 19/22 individuals the pretangle material was confined to the noradrenergic coeruleus/subcoeruleus complex. Assuming the pretangle alterations are not transient and do not regress, these findings may indicate that the Alzheimer\'s disease-related pathological process leading to neurofibrillary tangle formation does not begin in the cerebral cortex but, rather, in select subcortical nuclei, and it may start quite early, i.e., before puberty or in early young adulthood.Comment inActa Neuropathol. 2011 Feb;121(2):145-7.
|Immunohistochemical characterization of the intrinsic cardiac neural plexus in whole-mount mouse heart preparations. |
Rysevaite K, Saburkina I, Pauziene N, Vaitkevicius R, Noujaim SF, Jalife J, Pauza DH
Heart Rhythm 2011
BACKGROUND: The intrinsic neural plexus of the mouse heart has not been adequately investigated despite the extensive use of this species in experimental cardiology.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of cholinergic, adrenergic, and sensory neural components in whole-mount mouse heart preparations using double immunohistochemical labeling.METHODS/RESULTS: Intrinsic neurons were concentrated within 19 ± 3 ganglia (n = 20 mice) of varying size, scattered on the medial side of the inferior caval (caudal) vein on the right atrium and close to the pulmonary veins on the left atrium. Of a total of 1,082 ± 160 neurons, most somata (83%) were choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactive, whereas 4% were tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive; 14% of ganglionic cells were biphenotypic for ChAT and TH. The most intense ChAT staining was observed in axonal varicosities. ChAT was evident in nerve fibers interconnecting intrinsic ganglia. Both ChAT and TH immunoreactivity were abundant within the nerves accessing the heart. However, epicardial TH-immunoreactive nerve fibers were predominant on the dorsal and ventral left atrium, whereas most ChAT-positive axons proceeded on the heart base toward the large intrinsic ganglia and on the epicardium of the root of the right cranial vein. Substance P-positive and calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive nerve fibers were abundant on the epicardium and within ganglia adjacent to the heart hilum. Small intensely fluorescent cells were grouped into clusters of 3 to 8 and were dispersed within large ganglia or separately on the atrial and ventricular walls.CONCLUSION: Although some nerves and neuronal bundles of the mouse epicardial plexus are mixed, most express either adrenergic or cholinergic markers. Therefore, selective stimulation and/or ablation of the functionally distinct intrinsic neural pathways should allow the study of specific effects on cardiac function.Copyright © 2011 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|A rat model of progressive nigral neurodegeneration induced by the Parkinson's disease-associated G2019S mutation in LRRK2. |
Dusonchet, J; Kochubey, O; Stafa, K; Young, SM; Zufferey, R; Moore, DJ; Schneider, BL; Aebischer, P
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 907-12 2011
The G2019S mutation in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene is the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), accounting for a significant proportion of both autosomal dominant familial and sporadic PD cases. Our aim in the present study is to generate a mammalian model of mutant G2019S LRRK2 pathogenesis, which reproduces the robust nigral neurodegeneration characteristic of PD. We developed adenoviral vectors to drive neuron-specific expression of full-length wild-type or mutant G2019S human LRRK2 in the nigrostriatal system of adult rats. Wild-type LRRK2 did not induce any significant neuronal loss. In contrast, under the same conditions and levels of expression, G2019S mutant LRRK2 causes a progressive degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons. Our data provide a novel rat model of PD, based on a prevalent genetic cause, that reproduces a cardinal feature of the disease within a rapid time frame suitable for testing of neuroprotective strategies.
|Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonism enhances glucose utilisation and activates brown adipose tissue in diet-induced obese mice. |
Bajzer, M; Olivieri, M; Haas, MK; Pfluger, PT; Magrisso, IJ; Foster, MT; Tschöp, MH; Krawczewski-Carhuatanta, KA; Cota, D; Obici, S
Diabetologia 54 3121-31 2011
We examined the physiological mechanisms by which cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonism improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity independent of its anorectic and weight-reducing effects, as well as the effects of CB1 antagonism on brown adipose tissue (BAT) function.Three groups of diet-induced obese mice received for 1 month: vehicle; the selective CB1 antagonist SR141716; or vehicle/pair-feeding. After measurements of body composition and energy expenditure, mice underwent euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp studies to assess in vivo insulin action. In separate cohorts, we assessed insulin action in weight-reduced mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO), and the effect of CB1 antagonism on BAT thermogenesis. Surgical denervation of interscapular BAT (iBAT) was carried out in order to study the requirement for the sympathetic nervous system in mediating the effects of CB1 antagonism on BAT function.Weight loss associated with chronic CB1 antagonism was accompanied by increased energy expenditure, enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose utilisation, and marked activation of BAT thermogenesis. Insulin-dependent glucose uptake was significantly increased in white adipose tissue and BAT, whereas glycogen synthesis was increased in liver, fat and muscle. Despite marked weight loss in the mice, SR141716 treatment did not improve insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production nor increase skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Denervation of iBAT blunted the effect of SR141716 on iBAT differentiation and insulin-mediated glucose uptake.Chronic CB1 antagonism markedly enhances insulin-mediated glucose utilisation in DIO mice, independent of its anorectic and weight-reducing effects. The potent effect on insulin-stimulated BAT glucose uptake reveals a novel role for CB1 receptors as regulators of glucose metabolism.
|Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α6 subunits are on GABAergic neuronal boutons adherent to ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. |
Yang, K; Buhlman, L; Khan, GM; Nichols, RA; Jin, G; McIntosh, JM; Whiteaker, P; Lukas, RJ; Wu, J
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 2537-48 2011
Diverse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes containing different subunit combinations can be placed on nerve terminals or soma/dendrites in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). nAChR α6 subunit message is abundant in the VTA, but α6*-nAChR cellular localization, function, pharmacology, and roles in cholinergic modulation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons within the VTA are not well understood. Here, we report evidence for α6β2*-nAChR expression on GABA neuronal boutons terminating on VTA DA neurons. α-Conotoxin (α-Ctx) MII labeling coupled with immunocytochemical staining localizes putative α6*-nAChRs to presynaptic GABAergic boutons on acutely dissociated, rat VTA DA neurons. Functionally, acetylcholine (ACh) induces increases in the frequency of bicuculline-, picrotoxin-, and 4-aminopyridine-sensitive miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) mediated by GABA(A) receptors. These increases are abolished by α6*-nAChR-selective α-Ctx MII or α-Ctx PIA (1 nm) but not by α7 (10 nm methyllycaconitine) or α4* (1 μm dihydro-β-erythroidine)-nAChR-selective antagonists. ACh also fails to increase mIPSC frequency in VTA DA neurons prepared from nAChR β2 knock-out mice. Moreover, ACh induces an α-Ctx PIA-sensitive elevation in intraterminal Ca(2+) in synaptosomes prepared from the rat VTA. Subchronic exposure to 500 nm nicotine reduces ACh-induced GABA release onto the VTA DA neurons, as does 10 d of systemic nicotine exposure. Collectively, these results indicate that α6β2*-nAChRs are located on presynaptic GABAergic boutons within the VTA and modulate GABA release onto DA neurons. These presynaptic α6β2*-nAChRs likely play important roles in nicotinic modulation of DA neuronal activity.
|Authentically phosphorylated α-synuclein at Ser129 accelerates neurodegeneration in a rat model of familial Parkinson's disease. |
Sato, H; Arawaka, S; Hara, S; Fukushima, S; Koga, K; Koyama, S; Kato, T
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 16884-94 2011
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and the appearance of fibrillar aggregates of insoluble α-synuclein (α-syn) called Lewy bodies (LBs). Approximately 90% of α-syn deposited in LBs is phosphorylated at serine 129 (Ser129). In contrast, only 4% of total α-syn is phosphorylated in normal brain, suggesting that accumulation of Ser129-phosphorylated α-syn is involved in the pathogenesis of PD. However, the role of Ser129 phosphorylation in α-syn neurotoxicity remains unclear. In this study, we coexpressed familial PD-linked A53T α-syn and G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6) in the rat SN pars compacta using recombinant adeno-associated virus 2. Coexpression of these proteins yielded abundant Ser129-phosphorylated α-syn and significantly exacerbated degeneration of dopaminergic neurons when compared with coexpression of A53T α-syn and GFP. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Ser129-phosphorylated α-syn was preferentially distributed to swollen neurites. However, biochemical analysis showed that the increased expression of Ser129-phosphorylated α-syn did not promote accumulation of detergent-insoluble α-syn. Coexpression of catalytically inactive K215R mutant GRK6 failed to accelerate A53T α-syn-induced degeneration. Furthermore, introducing a phosphorylation-incompetent mutation, S129A, into A53T α-syn did not alter the pace of degeneration, even when GRK6 was coexpressed. Our study demonstrates that authentically Ser129-phosphorylated α-syn accelerates A53T α-syn neurotoxicity without the formation of detergent-insoluble α-syn, and suggests that the degenerative process could be constrained by inhibiting the kinase that phosphorylates α-syn at Ser129.
|Generation and characterization of rat and mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for MeCP2 and their use in X-inactivation studies. |
Jost, KL; Rottach, A; Milden, M; Bertulat, B; Becker, A; Wolf, P; Sandoval, J; Petazzi, P; Huertas, D; Esteller, M; Kremmer, E; Leonhardt, H; Cardoso, MC
PloS one 6 e26499 2011
Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) binds DNA, and has a preference for methylated CpGs and, hence, in cells, it accumulates in heterochromatin. Even though it is expressed ubiquitously MeCP2 is particularly important during neuronal maturation. This is underscored by the fact that in Rett syndrome, a neurological disease, 80% of patients carry a mutation in the MECP2 gene. Since the MECP2 gene lies on the X chromosome and is subjected to X chromosome inactivation, affected patients are usually chimeric for wild type and mutant MeCP2. Here, we present the generation and characterization of the first rat monoclonal MeCP2 specific antibodies as well as mouse monoclonal antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal antibody. We demonstrate that our antibodies are suitable for immunoblotting, (chromatin) immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence of endogenous and ectopically expressed MeCP2. Epitope mapping revealed that most of the MeCP2 monoclonal antibodies recognize the C-terminal domain and one the N-terminal domain of MeCP2. Using slot blot analysis, we determined a high sensitivity of all antibodies, detecting amounts as low as 1 ng of MeCP2 protein. Moreover, the antibodies recognize MeCP2 from different species, including human, mouse, rat and pig. Lastly, we have validated their use by analyzing and quantifying X chromosome inactivation skewing using brain tissue of MeCP2 heterozygous null female mice. The new MeCP2 specific monoclonal antibodies described here perform well in a large variety of immunological applications making them a very valuable set of tools for studies of MeCP2 pathophysiology in situ and in vitro.Full Text Article
|Neurobehavioral Changes in Mice Exposed to Fast Neutrons in utero. |
Ishida Y, Ohmachi Y, Takai N, Hiraoka T, Ogiu T, Nishikawa T, Nishimura Y, Shimada Y
J Radiat Res (Tokyo) 2011
Epidemiological studies have revealed that radiation causes brain development abnormalities in atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero. Rat and mouse studies have also shown that prenatal exposure to low-linear energy transfer radiation induces developmental brain anomalies. Because the effects of prenatal irradiation on adult behavior patterns remain largely unknown, the present study investigated the effects of neutron exposure in utero on postnatal behavior patterns in mice. [C57BL/6J × C3H/He] hybrid (B6C3F1) mice were exposed to cyclotron-derived fast neutrons with peak energy of 10 MeV (0.02-0.2 Gy) or Cs-137 gamma-rays (0.2-1.5 Gy) on embryonic day 13.5. At 5.5-8 months of age, the neurobehavior of male offspring was examined by Rota-rod treadmill and locomotor activity. The accumulation of radio-labeled drug at muscarinic acetylcholine and serotonin receptors in mice from control and neutron-irradiated groups was determined by the tracer method. Locomotor activity during the dark period increased in the 0.02 Gy neutron-irradiated group. Furthermore, at 5.5 months of age, tracer binding in vivo to the muscarinic acetylcholine increased and to the serotonin receptors decreased in the 0.02 Gy neutron-irradiated group. In conclusion, the present study reveals that a certain \"low-dose window\" may exist for radiation-induced changes in neurobehavior and binding to neurotransmitter receptors, because there was correlation in neurobehavior and binding to neurotransmitter receptors in the 0.02 Gy neutron-irradiated group though there was not correlation in the neutron-irradiated groups more than 0.05 Gy.
|The newborn rat\'s stress system readily habituates to repeated and prolonged Maternal separation, while continuing to respond to stressors in context dependent fashion. |
Daskalakis NP, Claessens SE, Laboyrie JJ, Enthoven L, Oitzl MS, Champagne DL, de Kloet ER
Hormones and behavior 60 165-76. Epub 2011 May 3. 2011
Adrenal corticosterone secretion of newborn mice rapidly desensitizes to repeated maternal absence. The present study investigated the effects of novelty exposure, maternal care and genotype on this phenomenon. Maternal separation (MS) took place on postnatal days (pnd) 3-5. In Wistar rats, the degree of novelty in the MS-environment was varied by exposing pups to: (i) \"home separation\": pups remained in the home cage; (ii) \"novel separation\": pups were placed individually in a novel cage. Maternal care was recorded on pnd 1 to 4. To investigate the effect of genotype, we also examined Long Evans in the \"home separation\" condition. Basal and stress-induced ACTH and corticosterone levels were measured. Adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and melanocortin receptor-2 (MCR-2) proteins served as markers for adrenal function. We show, in both rat strains, that the rise in plasma corticosterone induced by a single 8h-MS on pnd 5 was abolished, when this separation procedure had also been performed on pnd 3 and 4. Habituation to maternal absence occurred irrespective of housing conditions. However, pups in the \"home separation\" condition received less maternal care upon reunion than those placed in the \"novel separation\". These \"home separation\" pups appeared more responsive to a subsequent acute novelty-stressor, and their adrenal TH and MCR-2 were higher. Long Evans rats appeared more stress responsive than the Wistars, in the home separation condition. In conclusion, separation environment, maternal care and genotype do not affect adrenal desensitization to repeated 8h-MS itself, but may modulate the adrenal stress-responsiveness of separated pups.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|The ATM cofactor ATMIN protects against oxidative stress and accumulation of DNA damage in the aging brain. |
Kanu, N; Penicud, K; Hristova, M; Wong, B; Irvine, E; Plattner, F; Raivich, G; Behrens, A
The Journal of biological chemistry 285 38534-42 2010
Progressive accumulation of DNA damage is causally involved in cellular senescence and organismal aging. The DNA damage kinase ATM plays a central role in maintaining genomic stability. ATM mutations cause the genetic disorder ataxia telangiectasia, which is primarily characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and cancer susceptibility. Although the importance of ATM function to protect against oxidative DNA damage and during aging is well described, the mechanism of ATM activation by these stimuli is not known. Here we identify ATM interactor (ATMIN) as an essential component of the ATM signaling pathway in response to oxidative stress and aging. Embryos lacking ATMIN (atmin(Δ/Δ)) died in utero and showed increased numbers of cells positive for phosphorylated histone H2aX, indicative of increased DNA damage. atmin(Δ/Δ) mouse embryonic fibroblasts accumulated DNA damage and prematurely entered senescence when cultured at atmospheric oxygen levels (20%), but this defect was rescued by addition of an antioxidant and also by culturing cells at physiological oxygen levels (3%). In response to acute oxidative stress, atmin(Δ/Δ) mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed slightly lower levels of ATM phosphorylation and reduced ATM substrate phosphorylation. Conditional deletion of ATMIN in the murine nervous system (atmin(ΔN)) resulted in reduced numbers of dopaminergic neurons, as does ATM deficiency. ATM activity was observed in old, but not in young, control mice, but aging-induced ATM signaling was impaired by ATMIN deficiency. Consequently, old atmin(ΔN) mice showed accumulation of DNA damage in the cortex accompanied by gliosis, resulting in increased mortality of aging mutant mice. These results suggest that ATMIN mediates ATM activation by oxidative stress, and thereby ATMIN protects the aging brain by preventing accumulation of DNA damage.
|Mutations in Lama1 disrupt retinal vascular development and inner limiting membrane formation. |
Edwards, MM; Mammadova-Bach, E; Alpy, F; Klein, A; Hicks, WL; Roux, M; Simon-Assmann, P; Smith, RS; Orend, G; Wu, J; Peachey, NS; Naggert, JK; Lefebvre, O; Nishina, PM
The Journal of biological chemistry 285 7697-711 2010
The Neuromutagenesis Facility at the Jackson Laboratory generated a mouse model of retinal vasculopathy, nmf223, which is characterized clinically by vitreal fibroplasia and vessel tortuosity. nmf223 homozygotes also have reduced electroretinogram responses, which are coupled histologically with a thinning of the inner nuclear layer. The nmf223 locus was mapped to chromosome 17, and a missense mutation was identified in Lama1 that leads to the substitution of cysteine for a tyrosine at amino acid 265 of laminin alpha1, a basement membrane protein. Despite normal localization of laminin alpha1 and other components of the inner limiting membrane, a reduced integrity of this structure was suggested by ectopic cells and blood vessels within the vitreous. Immunohistochemical characterization of nmf223 homozygous retinas demonstrated the abnormal migration of retinal astrocytes into the vitreous along with the persistence of hyaloid vasculature. The Y265C mutation significantly reduced laminin N-terminal domain (LN) interactions in a bacterial two-hybrid system. Therefore, this mutation could affect interactions between laminin alpha1 and other laminin chains. To expand upon these findings, a Lama1 null mutant, Lama1(tm1.1Olf), was generated that exhibits a similar but more severe retinal phenotype than that seen in nmf223 homozygotes. The increased severity of the Lama1 null mutant phenotype is probably due to the complete loss of the inner limiting membrane in these mice. This first report of viable Lama1 mouse mutants emphasizes the importance of this gene in retinal development. The data presented herein suggest that hypomorphic mutations in human LAMA1 could lead to retinal disease.Full Text Article
|Quantitative analysis of pre- and postsynaptic sex differences in the nucleus accumbens. |
Forlano, PM; Woolley, CS
The Journal of comparative neurology 518 1330-48 2010
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in motivation and reward. While there is ample evidence for sex differences in addiction-related behaviors, little is known about the neuroanatomical substrates that underlie these sexual dimorphisms. We investigated sex differences in synaptic connectivity of the NAc by evaluating pre- and postsynaptic measures in gonadally intact male and proestrous female rats. We used DiI labeling and confocal microscopy to measure dendritic spine density, spine head size, dendritic length, and branching of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the NAc, and quantitative immunofluorescence to measure glutamatergic innervation using pre- (vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and 2) and postsynaptic (postsynaptic density 95) markers, as well as dopaminergic innervation of the NAc. We also utilized electron microscopy to complement the above measures. Clear but subtle sex differences were identified, namely, in distal dendritic spine density and the proportion of large spines on MSNs, both of which are greater in females. Sex differences in spine density and spine head size are evident in both the core and shell subregions, but are stronger in the core. This study is the first demonstration of neuroanatomical sex differences in the NAc and provides evidence that structural differences in synaptic connectivity and glutamatergic input may contribute to behavioral sex differences in reward and addiction.
|Electrophysiological and morphological characteristics and synaptic connectivity of tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing neurons in adult mouse striatum. |
Ibáñez-Sandoval, O; Tecuapetla, F; Unal, B; Shah, F; Koós, T; Tepper, JM
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 6999-7016 2010
Whole-cell recordings were obtained from tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing (TH(+)) neurons in striatal slices from bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice that synthesize enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) selectively in neurons expressing TH transcriptional regulatory sequences. Stereological cell counting indicated that there were approximately 2700 EGFP-TH(+) neurons/striatum. Whole-cell recordings in striatal slices demonstrated that EGFP-TH(+) neurons comprise four electrophysiologically distinct neuron types whose electrophysiological properties have not been reported previously in striatum. EGFP-TH(+) neurons were identified in retrograde tracing studies as interneurons. Recordings from synaptically connected pairs of EGFP-TH(+) interneurons and spiny neurons showed that the interneurons elicited GABAergic IPSPs/IPSCs in spiny neurons powerful enough to significantly delay evoked spiking. EGFP-TH(+) interneurons responded to local or cortical stimulation with glutamatergic EPSPs. Local stimulation also elicited GABA(A) IPSPs, at least some of which arose from identified spiny neurons. Single-cell reverse transcription-PCR showed expression of VMAT1 in EGFP-TH(+) interneurons, consistent with previous suggestions that these interneurons may be dopaminergic as well as GABAergic. All four classes of interneurons were medium sized with modestly branching, varicose dendrites, and dense, highly varicose axon collateral fields. These data show for the first time that there exists in the normal rodent striatum a substantial population of TH(+)/GABAergic interneurons comprising four electrophysiologically distinct subtypes whose electrophysiological properties differ significantly from those of previously described striatal GABAergic interneurons. These interneurons are likely to play an important role in striatal function through fast GABAergic synaptic transmission in addition to, and independent of, their potential role in compensation for dopamine loss in experimental or idiopathic Parkinson's disease.
|Neonatal androgen-dependent sex differences in lumbar spinal cord dopamine concentrations and the number of A11 diencephalospinal dopamine neurons. |
Pappas, SS; Tiernan, CT; Behrouz, B; Jordan, CL; Breedlove, SM; Goudreau, JL; Lookingland, KJ
The Journal of comparative neurology 518 2423-36 2010
A(11) diencephalospinal dopamine (DA) neurons provide the major source of DA innervation to the spinal cord. DA in the dorsal and ventral horns modulates sensory, motor, nociceptive, and sexual functions. Previous studies from our laboratory revealed a sex difference in the density of DA innervation in the lumbar spinal cord. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sex differences in spinal cord DA are androgen dependent, influenced by adult or perinatal androgens, and whether a sex difference in the number of lumbar-projecting A(11) neurons exists. Adult male mice have significantly higher DA concentrations in the lumbar spinal cord than either females or males carrying the testicular feminization mutation (tfm) in the androgen receptor (AR) gene, suggesting an AR-dependent origin. Spinal cord DA concentrations are not changed following orchidectomy in adult male mice or testosterone administration to ovariectomized adult female mice. Administration of exogenous testosterone to postnatal day 2 female mice results in DA concentrations in the adult lumbar spinal cord comparable to those of males. Male mice display significantly more lumbar-projecting A(11) DA neurons than females, particularly in the caudal portion of the A(11) cell body region, as determined by retrograde tract tracing and immunohistochemistry directed toward tyrosine hydroxylase. These results reveal an AR-dependent sex difference in both the number of lumbar-projecting A(11) DA neurons and the lumbar spinal cord DA concentrations, organized by the presence of androgens early in life. The AR-dependent sex difference suggests that this system serves a sexually dimorphic function in the lumbar spinal cord.
|Altered expression of retinal molecular markers in the canine RPE65 model of Leber congenital amaurosis. |
Hernández, M; Pearce-Kelling, SE; Rodriguez, FD; Aguirre, GD; Vecino, E
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 51 6793-802 2010
Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a group of childhood-onset retinal diseases characterized by severe visual impairment or blindness. One form is caused by mutations in the RPE65 gene, which encodes the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) isomerase. In this study, the retinal structure and expression of molecular markers for different retinal cell types were characterized, and differences between control and RPE65 mutant dogs during the temporal evolution of the disease were analyzed.Retinas from normal and mutant dogs of different ages were examined by immunofluorescence with a panel of 16 different antibodies.Cones and rods were preserved in the mutant retinas, and the number of cones was normal. However, there was altered expression of cone arrestin and delocalization of rod opsin. The ON bipolar cells showed sprouting of the dendritic arbors toward the outer nuclear layer (ONL) and retraction of their axons in the inner nuclear layer (INL). A decreased expression of GABA, and an increased expression of intermediate filament glial markers was also found in the mutant retinas. These changes were more evident in the adult than the young mutant retinas.The structure of the retina is well preserved in the mutant retina, but several molecular changes take place in photoreceptors and in bipolar and amacrine cells. Some of these changes are structural, whereas others reflect a change in localization of the examined proteins. This study provides new information that can be applied to the interpretation of outcomes of retinal gene therapy in animal models and humans.
|Induction of pluripotent stem cells from human third molar mesenchymal stromal cells. |
Oda, Y; Yoshimura, Y; Ohnishi, H; Tadokoro, M; Katsube, Y; Sasao, M; Kubo, Y; Hattori, K; Saito, S; Horimoto, K; Yuba, S; Ohgushi, H
The Journal of biological chemistry 285 29270-8 2010
The expression of four transcription factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, and MYC) can reprogram mouse as well as human somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. We generated iPS cells from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from human third molars (wisdom teeth) by retroviral transduction of OCT3/4, SOX2, and KLF4 without MYC, which is considered as oncogene. Interestingly, some of the clonally expanded MSCs could be used for iPS cell generation with 30-100-fold higher efficiency when compared with that of other clonally expanded MSCs and human dermal fibroblasts. Global gene expression profiles demonstrated some up-regulated genes regarding DNA repair/histone conformational change in the efficient clones, suggesting that the processes of chromatin remodeling have important roles in the cascade of iPS cells generation. The generated iPS cells resembled human embryonic stem (ES) cells in many aspects, including morphology, ES marker expression, global gene expression, epigenetic states, and the ability to differentiate into the three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Because human third molars are discarded as clinical waste, our data indicate that clonally expanded MSCs derived from human third molars are a valuable cell source for the generation of iPS cells.
|Distinct retinal deficits in a zebrafish pyruvate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant. |
Maurer, CM; Schönthaler, HB; Mueller, KP; Neuhauss, SC
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 11962-72 2010
Mutations in ubiquitously expressed metabolic genes often lead to CNS-specific effects, presumably because of the high metabolic demands of neurons. However, mutations in omnipresent metabolic pathways can conceivably also result in cell type-specific effects because of cell-specific requirements for intermediate products. One such example is the zebrafish noir mutant, which we found to be mutated in the pdhb gene, coding for the E1 beta subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. This vision mutant is described as blind and was isolated because of its vision defect-related darker appearance. A detailed morphological, behavioral, and physiological analysis of the phenotype revealed an unexpected specific effect on the retina. Surprisingly, the cholinergic amacrine cells of the inner retina are affected earlier than the photoreceptors. This might be attributable to the inability of these cells to maintain production of their neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This is reflected in an earlier loss of motion vision, followed only later by a general loss of light perception. Since both characteristics of the phenotype are attributable to a loss of acetyl-CoA production by pyruvate dehydrogenase, we used a ketogenic diet to bypass this metabolic block and could indeed partially rescue vision and prolong survival of the larvae. The noir mutant provides a case for a systemic disease with ocular manifestation with a surprising specific effect on the retina given the ubiquitous requirement for the mutated gene.
|Endocannabinoid involvement in endometriosis. |
Dmitrieva, N; Nagabukuro, H; Resuehr, D; Zhang, G; McAllister, SL; McGinty, KA; Mackie, K; Berkley, KJ
Pain 151 703-10 2010
Endometriosis is a disease common in women that is defined by abnormal extrauteral growths of uterine endometrial tissue and associated with severe pain. Partly because how the abnormal growths become associated with pain is poorly understood, the pain is difficult to alleviate without resorting to hormones or surgery, which often produce intolerable side effects or fail to help. Recent studies in a rat model and women showed that sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers sprout branches to innervate the abnormal growths. This situation, together with knowledge that the endocannabinoid system is involved in uterine function and dysfunction and that exogenous cannabinoids were once used to alleviate endometriosis-associated pain, suggests that the endocannabinoid system is involved in both endometriosis and its associated pain. Herein, using a rat model, we found that CB1 cannabinoid receptors are expressed on both the somata and fibers of both the sensory and sympathetic neurons that innervate endometriosis's abnormal growths. We further found that CB1 receptor agonists decrease, whereas CB1 receptor antagonists increase, endometriosis-associated hyperalgesia. Together these findings suggest that the endocannabinoid system contributes to mechanisms underlying both the peripheral innervation of the abnormal growths and the pain associated with endometriosis, thereby providing a novel approach for the development of badly-needed new treatments.
|Melanocortin-4 receptor expression in a vago-vagal circuitry involved in postprandial functions. |
Gautron L, Lee C, Funahashi H, Friedman J, Lee S, Elmquist J
J Comp Neurol 518 6-24. 2010
Vagal afferents regulate energy balance by providing a link between the brain and postprandial signals originating from the gut. In the current study, we investigated melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) expression in the nodose ganglion, where the cell bodies of vagal sensory afferents reside. By using a line of mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the MC4R promoter, we found GFP expression in approximately one-third of nodose ganglion neurons. By using immunohistochemistry combined with in situ hybridization, we also demonstrated that approximately 20% of GFP-positive neurons coexpressed cholecystokinin receptor A. In addition, we found that the GFP is transported to peripheral tissues by both vagal sensory afferents and motor efferents, which allowed us to assess the sites innervated by MC4R-GFP neurons. GFP-positive efferents that co-expressed choline acetyltransferase specifically terminated in the hepatic artery and the myenteric plexus of the stomach and duodenum. In contrast, GFP-positive afferents that did not express cholinergic or sympathetic markers terminated in the submucosal plexus and mucosa of the duodenum. Retrograde tracing experiments confirmed the innervation of the duodenum by GFP-positive neurons located in the nodose ganglion. Our findings support the hypothesis that MC4R signaling in vagal afferents may modulate the activity of fibers sensitive to satiety signals such as cholecystokinin, and that MC4R signaling in vagal efferents may contribute to the control of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.Full Text Article
|Progesterone decreases tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation state and increases protein phosphatase 2A activity in the stalk-median eminence on proestrous afternoon. |
Bin Liu,Lydia A Arbogast
The Journal of endocrinology 204 2010
The progesterone (P(4)) rise on proestrous afternoon is associated with dephosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and reduced TH activity in the stalk-median eminence (SME), which contributes to the proestrous prolactin surge in rats. In the present study, we investigated the time course for P(4) effect on TH activity and phosphorylation state, as well as cAMP levels and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity and quantity, in the SME on proestrous morning and afternoon. P(4) (7.5 mg/kg, s.c.) treatment on proestrous afternoon decreased TH activity and TH phosphorylation state at Ser-31 and Ser-40 within 1 h, whereas morning administration of P(4) had no 1 h effect on TH. PP2A activity in the SME was enhanced after P(4) treatment for 1 h on proestrous afternoon without a change in PP2A catalytic subunit quantity, whereas P(4) treatment had no effect on PP2A activity or quantity on proestrous morning. cAMP levels in the SME were unchanged with 1 h P(4) treatment. At 5 h after P(4) treatment, TH activity and phosphorylation state declined coincident with an increase in plasma prolactin in both P(4)-treated morning and afternoon groups. PP2A activity in the SME was unchanged in 5 h P(4)-treated rat. Our data suggest that P(4) action on tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons involves at least two components. A more rapid (1 h) P(4) effect engaged only on proestrous afternoon likely involves the activation of PP2A. The longer P(4) action on TIDA neurons is evident on both the morning and afternoon of proestrus and may involve a common, as yet unidentified, mechanism.Full Text Article
|A basal ganglia pathway drives selective auditory responses in songbird dopaminergic neurons via disinhibition. |
SD Gale, DJ Perkel
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 1027-37 2010
Dopaminergic neurons in mammals respond to rewards and reward-predicting cues, and are thought to play an important role in learning actions or sensory cues that lead to reward. The anatomical sources of input that drive or modulate such responses are not well understood; these ultimately define the range of behavior to which dopaminergic neurons contribute. Primary rewards are not the immediate objective of all goal-directed behavior. For example, a goal of vocal learning is to imitate vocal-communication signals. Here, we demonstrate activation of dopaminergic neurons in songbirds driven by a basal ganglia region required for vocal learning, area X. Dopaminergic neurons in anesthetized zebra finches respond more strongly to the bird's own song (BOS) than to other sounds, and area X is critical for these responses. Direct pharmacological modulation of area X output, in the absence of auditory stimulation, is sufficient to bidirectionally modulate the firing rate of dopaminergic neurons. The only known pathway from song control regions to dopaminergic neurons involves a projection from area X to the ventral pallidum (VP), which in turn projects to dopaminergic regions. We show that VP neurons are spontaneously active and inhibited preferentially by BOS, suggesting that area X disinhibits dopaminergic neurons by inhibiting VP. Supporting this model, auditory-response latencies are shorter in area X than VP, and shorter in VP than dopaminergic neurons. Thus, dopaminergic neurons can be disinhibited selectively by complex sensory stimuli via input from the basal ganglia. The functional pathway we identify may allow dopaminergic neurons to contribute to vocal learning.Full Text Article
|Effects of early and delayed treatment with an mGluR5 antagonist on motor impairment, nigrostriatal damage and neuroinflammation in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease. |
Ambrosi G, Armentero MT, Levandis G, Bramanti P, Nappi G, Blandini F
Brain research bulletin 2010
The loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons that characterizes Parkinson's disease (PD) causes complex functional alterations in the basal ganglia circuit. Increased glutamatergic activity at crucial points of the circuit may be central to these alterations, thereby contributing to the onset of PD motor symptoms. Signs of neuroinflammation accompanying the neuronal loss have also been observed; also in this case, glutamate-mediated mechanisms may be involved. Glutamate may therefore intervene at multiple levels in PD pathophysiology, possibly through the modulation of metabotropic receptors. To address this issue, we evaluated the effects of systemic treatment with MPEP (2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine), an antagonist of metabotropic receptor mGluR5, in a rodent model of progressive nigrostriatal degeneration based on the intrastriatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Following 6-OHDA injection, Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a 4-week, daily treatment with MPEP (1.5mg/kg, i.p.). To investigate whether the effects varied with the progression of the lesion, subgroups of lesioned animals started the treatment at different time-points: (1) immediately, (2) 1 week, or (3) 4 weeks after the neurotoxin injection. Akinesia, dopaminergic nigrostriatal damage and neuroinflammatory response (microglial and astroglial activation) were investigated. MPEP prompted immediate amelioration of 6-OHDA-induced akinesia, as measured by the Adjusting step test, in all subgroups, regardless of the degree of nigrostriatal damage. Conversely, MPEP did not modify neuronal survival or neuroinflammatory response in the nigrostriatal pathway. In conclusion, chronic treatment with MPEP exerted a pure symptomatic effect, further supporting that mGluR5 modulation may be a viable strategy to counteract the basal ganglia functional modifications underlying PD motor symptoms. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|Locus ceruleus controls Alzheimer's disease pathology by modulating microglial functions through norepinephrine. |
Heneka, MT; Nadrigny, F; Regen, T; Martinez-Hernandez, A; Dumitrescu-Ozimek, L; Terwel, D; Jardanhazi-Kurutz, D; Walter, J; Kirchhoff, F; Hanisch, UK; Kummer, MP
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107 6058-63 2010
Locus ceruleus (LC)-supplied norepinephrine (NE) suppresses neuroinflammation in the brain. To elucidate the effect of LC degeneration and subsequent NE deficiency on Alzheimer's disease pathology, we evaluated NE effects on microglial key functions. NE stimulation of mouse microglia suppressed Abeta-induced cytokine and chemokine production and increased microglial migration and phagocytosis of Abeta. Induced degeneration of the locus ceruleus increased expression of inflammatory mediators in APP-transgenic mice and resulted in elevated Abeta deposition. In vivo laser microscopy confirmed a reduced recruitment of microglia to Abeta plaque sites and impaired microglial Abeta phagocytosis in NE-depleted APP-transgenic mice. Supplying the mice the norepinephrine precursor L-threo-DOPS restored microglial functions in NE-depleted mice. This indicates that decrease of NE in locus ceruleus projection areas facilitates the inflammatory reaction of microglial cells in AD and impairs microglial migration and phagocytosis, thereby contributing to reduced Abeta clearance. Consequently, therapies targeting microglial phagocytosis should be tested under NE depletion.
|Induction of FosB/DeltaFosB in the brain stress system-related structures during morphine dependence and withdrawal. |
Núñez C, Martín F, Földes A, Luisa Laorden M, Kovács KJ, Victoria Milanés M
J Neurochem 114 475-87. Epub 2010 Apr 23. 2010
The transcription factor DeltaFosB is induced in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) by drugs of abuse. This study was designed to evaluate the possible modifications in FosB/DeltaFosB expression in both hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic brain stress system during morphine dependence and withdrawal. Rats were made dependent on morphine and, on day 8, were injected with saline or naloxone. Using immunohistochemistry and western blot, the expression of FosB/DeltaFosB, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and pro-dynorphin (DYN) was measured in different nuclei from the brain stress system in morphine-dependent rats and after morphine withdrawal. Additionally, we studied the expression of FosB/DeltaFosB in CRF-, TH- and DYN-positive neurons. FosB/DeltaFosB was induced after chronic morphine administration in the parvocellular part of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), NAc-shell, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central amygdala and A(2) noradrenergic part of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS-A(2)). Morphine dependence and withdrawal evoked an increase in FosB/DeltaFosB-TH and FosB/DeltaFosB-CRF double labelling in NTS-A(2) and PVN, respectively, besides an increase in TH levels in NTS-A(2) and CRF expression in PVN. These data indicate that neuroadaptation to addictive substances, observed as accumulation of FosB/DeltaFosB, is not limited to the reward circuits but may also manifest in other brain regions, such as the brain stress system, which have been proposed to be directly related to addiction.
|Aged Tgfbeta2/Gdnf double-heterozygous mice show no morphological and functional alterations in the nigrostriatal system. |
Heermann, S; Opazo, F; Falkenburger, B; Krieglstein, K; Spittau, B
Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) 117 719-27 2010
Loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the resulting decrease in striatal dopamine levels are the hallmarks of Parkinson's disease. Tgfbeta and Gdnf have been identified as neurotrophic factors for dopaminergic midbrain neurons in vivo and in vitro. Haploinsufficiency for either Tgfbeta or Gdnf led to dopaminergic deficits. In this study we therefore analyzed the nigrostriatal system of aged Tgfbeta2 (+/-)/Gdnf (+/-) double-heterozygous mice. Unexpectedly, we found no morphological changes in the nigrostriatal system as compared with age-matched wild-type mice. There were no significant differences in the number of TH-positive midbrain neurons and no changes in the optical density of TH immunoreactivity in striata of Tgfbeta2 (+/-)/Gdnf (+/-) double-heterozygous mice. Moreover, we found no significant differences in the striatal levels of dopamine and its metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid. Our results indicate that a combined haploinsufficiency for Tgfbeta2 and Gdnf has no impact on the function and the survival of midbrain DA neurons under normal aging conditions.Full Text Article
|alpha-synuclein transgenic mice reveal compensatory increases in Parkinson's disease-associated proteins DJ-1 and Parkin and have enhanced alpha-synuclein and PINK1 levels after rotenone treatment. |
George S, Mok SS, Nurjono M, Ayton S, Finkelstein DI, Masters CL, Li QX, Culvenor JG
J Mol Neurosci 42 243-54. Epub 2010 May 13. 2010
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder characterised by loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. The pathological hallmarks are cytoplasmic inclusions termed Lewy bodies consisting primarily of aggregated alpha-synuclein (alphaSN). Different lines of transgenic mice have been developed to model PD but have failed to recapitulate the hallmarks of this disease. Since treatment of rodents with the pesticide rotenone can reproduce nigrostriatal cell loss and other features of PD, we aimed to test chronic oral administration of rotenone to transgenic mice over-expressing human alphaSN with the A53T mutation. Initial assessment of this transgenic line for compensatory molecular changes indicated decreased brain beta-synuclein expression and significantly increased levels of the PD-associated oxidative stress response protein, DJ-1, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase enzyme, Parkin. Rotenone treatment of 30 mg/kg for 25 doses over a 35-day period was tolerated in the transgenic mice and resulted in decreased spontaneous locomotor movement and increased cytoplasmic alphaSN expression. The mitochondrial Parkinson's-associated PTEN-induced kinase 1 protein levels were also increased in transgenic mouse brain after rotenone treatment; there was no change in brain dopamine levels or nigrostriatal cell loss. These hA53T alphaSN transgenic mice provide a useful model for presymptomatic Parkinson's features and are valuable for study of associated compensatory changes in early Parkinson's disease stages.
|Androgenic and oestrogenic influences on tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells of the prairie vole medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. |
Cavanaugh BL, Lonstein JS
J Neuroendocrinol 22 217-25. Epub 2010 Jan 27. 2010
The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MeApd) and principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBST) are densely interconnected sites integrating steroid hormone and olfactory information necessary for sociosexual behaviours in many rodents. Our laboratory recently reported sexually dimorphic populations of cells containing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) located in the MeApd and pBST of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), with males having many more TH-immunoreactive (-ir) cells in these sites than do females. Gonadal hormones circulating during adulthood were showm to regulate this sex difference because it was eliminated by castrating adult males or implanting females with testosterone-filled capsules. In the present study, we demonstrate that many (25-65%) TH-ir cells in the MeApd and pBST of adult virgin male and female prairie voles also contain immunoreactivity for either the androgen receptor or oestrogen receptor alpha. Subcutaneous implants of oestradiol benzoate mimicked the effects of testosterone and maintained high numbers of TH-ir cells in these sites in castrated males. However, implants of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) did not, and these males had low numbers of TH-ir cells similar to castrated males given empty capsules. A similar effect was found in females, where testosterone or oestradiol benzoate greatly increased the number of TH-ir cells in these sites compared to intact or ovariectomised controls, but DHT did not. DHT implants did, however, maintain high seminal vesicle weights in males. Thus, many of the TH-ir cells in the prairie vole MeApd and pBST are potentially sensitive to androgens and oestrogens, although maintaining immunocytochemically detectable levels of TH in these cells may depend more on an oestrogen-mediated mechanism in both sexes. These data have implications for understanding how gonadal hormone release across the reproductive cycle modulates these species-specific groups of catecholaminergic cells and socially monogamous behaviours in prairie voles.
|Neurons associated with aggrecan-based perineuronal nets are protected against tau pathology in subcortical regions in Alzheimer's disease. |
Morawski, M, et al.
Neuroscience, 169: 1347-63 (2010) 2010
The biological basis for the selective vulnerability of neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is elusive. Aggrecan-based perineuronal nets (PNs) of the extracellular matrix have been considered to contribute to neuroprotection in the cerebral cortex. In the present study, we investigated the organization of the aggrecan-based extracellular matrix in subcortical regions known to be preferentially affected by tau pathology in AD. Immunocytochemistry of aggrecan core protein was combined with detection of neurofibrillary degeneration. The results show that many regions affected by tau pathology in AD, such as the basal nucleus of Meynert, the dorsal thalamus, hypothalamic nuclei, raphe nuclei, and the locus coeruleus were devoid of a characteristic aggrecan-based extracellular matrix. Regions composed of nuclei with clearly different intensity of tau pathology, such as the amygdala, the thalamus and the oculomotor complex, showed largely complementary distribution patterns of neurofibrillary tangles and PNs. Quantification in the rostral interstitial nucleus of the longitudinal fascicle potentially affected by tau pathology in AD revealed that tau pathology was not accompanied by loss of aggrecan-based PNs. Neuro-fibrillary tangles in net-associated neurons extremely rarely occurred in the pontine reticular formation. We conclude that the low vulnerability of neurons ensheathed by PNs previously described for cortical areas in AD represents a more general phenomenon that also applies to subcortical regions. The aggrecan-based extracellular matrix of PNs may thus, be involved in neuroprotection.
|Splanchnic sympathectomy prevents translocation and spreading of E coli but not S aureus in liver cirrhosis. |
Worlicek M, Knebel K, Linde HJ, Moleda L, Schölmerich J, Straub RH, Wiest R
Introduction Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is mainly caused by bacterial translocation of enteric Gram-negative bacteria, predominantly Escherichia coli. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is activated in advanced cirrhosis, particularly in the splanchic circulation, and exerts potent immunosuppressive actions. However, the role of splanchnic SNS activity in bacterial translocation and bacterial spreading in cirrhosis remains unclear. Methods E coli or Stapylococcus aureus (10(6) CFU) were given intraperitoneally. After 6 h, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), liver, spleen, lung and peripheral blood were harvested from ascitic cirrhotic rats (LC) and healthy controls with and without splanchnic sympathectomy (SE). The bacterial tissue burden was determined by standard microbiological culture techniques. In vitro phagocytic activity of peritoneal polymorphonuclear leucocytes was assessed by FACS analysis. Results Under basal conditions SE reduced bacterial translocation to MLN in LC rats from 45% to 17%. LC rats had a marked increase in bacteraemia after E coli and S aureus challenge and an increased incidence and degree of E coli translocation to MLN, liver, spleen and lung compared with control rats. SE prevented bacteraemia in LC rats after E coli but not after S aureus challenge. Prior SE abolished the difference in incidence as well as the bacterial tissue burden in each organ after E coli application in LC rats, being no longer significantly different from control rats with or without SE. The protective effects of SE against E coli were associated with a greater influx of mononuclear cells into the peritoneal cavity and increased phagocytic activity of peritoneal polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Conclusions In cirrhosis with bacterial peritonitis, hyperactivity of the splanchnic sympathetic nervous system contributes to the translocation of E coli but not S aureus to MLN and extraintestinal sites. This indicates a key role for sympathetic drive in the impairment in host defence against Gram-negative bacteria in cirrhosis.
|Real-time monitoring of chemical transmission in slices of the murine adrenal gland. |
Petrovic J, Walsh PL, Thornley KT, Miller CE, Wightman RM
Endocrinology 151 1773-83 Epub 2010 Feb 24 2010
The real-time electrochemical detection of catecholamine secretion from murine adrenal slices using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) and amperometry at carbon fiber microelectrodes is described. Bright-field and immunofluorescent microscopy supported that chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla are organized into clusters and positively stain for tyrosine hydroxylase confirming that they are catecholaminergic. Spontaneous exocytotic catecholamine events were observed inside chromaffin cell clusters with both FSCV and amperometry and were modulated by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist hexamethonium and low extracellular calcium. Reintroduction of extracellular calcium and pressure ejection of acetylcholine caused the frequency of spikes to increase back to predrug levels. Electrical stimulation caused the synchronous secretion from multiple cells within the gland, which were modulated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors but not muscarinic receptors or gap junctions. Furthermore, electrically stimulated release was abolished with perfusion of low extracellular calcium or tetrodotoxin, indicating that the release requires electrical excitability. An extended waveform was used to study the spontaneous and stimulated release events to determine their chemical content by FSCV. Consistent with total content analysis and immunohistochemical studies, about two thirds of the cells studied spontaneously secreted epinephrine, whereas one third secreted norepinephrine. Whereas adrenergic sites contained mostly epinephrine during electrical stimulation, noradrenergic sites contained a mixture of the catecholamines showing the heterogeneity of the adrenal medulla.Full Text Article
|Phosphorylation at S87 is enhanced in synucleinopathies, inhibits alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and influences synuclein-membrane interactions. |
Paleologou KE, Oueslati A, Shakked G, Rospigliosi CC, Kim HY, Lamberto GR, Fernandez CO, Schmid A, Chegini F, Gai WP, Chiappe D, Moniatte M, Schneider BL, Aebischer P, Eliezer D, Zweckstetter M, Masliah E, Lashuel HA
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the 30 3184-98 2010
Increasing evidence suggests that phosphorylation may play an important role in the oligomerization, fibrillogenesis, Lewy body (LB) formation, and neurotoxicity of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) in Parkinson disease. Herein we demonstrate that alpha-syn is phosphorylated at S87 in vivo and within LBs. The levels of S87-P are increased in brains of transgenic (TG) models of synucleinopathies and human brains from Alzheimer disease (AD), LB disease (LBD), and multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients. Using antibodies against phosphorylated alpha-syn (S129-P and S87-P), a significant amount of immunoreactivity was detected in the membrane in the LBD, MSA, and AD cases but not in normal controls. In brain homogenates from diseased human brains and TG animals, the majority of S87-P alpha-syn was detected in the membrane fractions. A battery of biophysical methods were used to dissect the effect of S87 phosphorylation on the structure, aggregation, and membrane-binding properties of monomeric alpha-syn. These studies demonstrated that phosphorylation at S87 expands the structure of alpha-syn, increases its conformational flexibility, and blocks its fibrillization in vitro. Furthermore, phosphorylation at S87, but not S129, results in significant reduction of alpha-syn binding to membranes. Together, our findings provide novel mechanistic insight into the role of phosphorylation at S87 and S129 in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies and potential roles of phosphorylation in alpha-syn normal biology.
|Social novelty increases tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the extended olfactory amygdala of female prairie voles. |
Cavanaugh BL, Lonstein JS
Physiol Behav 100 381-6. Epub 2010 Apr 8. 2010
The monogamous social behaviors of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) require olfactory inputs, which are processed by the posterodorsal medial amygdala (MeApd) and principal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBST). The male prairie vole MeApd and pBST contain hundreds of cells densely immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-ir). Female prairie voles have relatively few of these cells, but we previously found that the number of these TH-ir cells is greatly increased in females by exogenous estradiol. We here hypothesized that the number of TH-ir cells in their MeApd and pBST would also increase during the natural hormone surges associated with females' induced estrus. We found that the number of TH-ir cells in both sites did significantly increase after females cohabitated for two days with an unfamiliar male. However, this increase did not require the presence of ovaries and even tended to occur in the pBST of females cohabitating for two days with unfamiliar females. We then determined if the greater number of TH-ir cells after heterosexual pairing was transient by examining two groups of long-term pairbonded females (primiparous and multiparous), and found these females also had significantly more TH-ir cells in the pBST and/or MeApd compared to unmated controls. Thus, social novelty arising from cohabitation with unfamiliar conspecifics produces a reoccurring increase in the number of TH-ir cells in the female prairie vole extended olfactory amygdala. Ovarian hormones are not necessarily required. This increase in catecholaminergic cells may facilitate acquisition and retention of olfactory memories necessary for social recognition in this species.Full Text Article
|Distinct glutaminyl cyclase expression in Edinger-Westphal nucleus, locus coeruleus and nucleus basalis Meynert contributes to pGlu-Abeta pathology in Alzheimer's disease. |
Morawski, Markus, et al.
Acta Neuropathol., 120: 195-207 (2010) 2010
Glutaminyl cyclase (QC) was discovered recently as the enzyme catalyzing the pyroglutamate (pGlu or pE) modification of N-terminally truncated Alzheimer's disease (AD) Abeta peptides in vivo. This modification confers resistance to proteolysis, rapid aggregation and neurotoxicity and can be prevented by QC inhibitors in vitro and in vivo, as shown in transgenic animal models. However, in mouse brain QC is only expressed by a relatively low proportion of neurons in most neocortical and hippocampal subregions. Here, we demonstrate that QC is highly abundant in subcortical brain nuclei severely affected in AD. In particular, QC is expressed by virtually all urocortin-1-positive, but not by cholinergic neurons of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, by noradrenergic locus coeruleus and by cholinergic nucleus basalis magnocellularis neurons in mouse brain. In human brain, QC is expressed by both, urocortin-1 and cholinergic Edinger-Westphal neurons and by locus coeruleus and nucleus basalis Meynert neurons. In brains from AD patients, these neuronal populations displayed intraneuronal pE-Abeta immunoreactivity and morphological signs of degeneration as well as extracellular pE-Abeta deposits. Adjacent AD brain structures lacking QC expression and brains from control subjects were devoid of such aggregates. This is the first demonstration of QC expression and pE-Abeta formation in subcortical brain regions affected in AD. Our results may explain the high vulnerability of defined subcortical neuronal populations and their central target areas in AD as a consequence of QC expression and pE-Abeta formation.
|Somatostatin interneurons delineate the inner part of the external plexiform layer in the mouse main olfactory bulb. |
Gabriel Lepousez,Zsolt Csaba,Véronique Bernard,Catherine Loudes,Catherine Videau,Joelle Lacombe,Jacques Epelbaum,Cécile Viollet
The Journal of comparative neurology 518 2010
Neuropeptides play a major role in the modulation of information processing in neural networks. Somatostatin, one of the most concentrated neuropeptides in the brain, is found in many sensory systems including the olfactory pathway. However, its cellular distribution in the mouse main olfactory bulb (MOB) is yet to be characterized. Here we show that approximately 95% of mouse bulbar somatostatin-immunoreactive (SRIF-ir) cells describe a homogeneous population of interneurons. These are restricted to the inner lamina of the external plexiform layer (iEPL) with dendritic field strictly confined to the region. iEPL SRIF-ir neurons share some morphological features of Van Gehuchten short-axon cells, and always express glutamic acid decarboxylase, calretinin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide. One-half of SRIF-ir neurons are parvalbumin-ir, revealing an atypical neurochemical profile when compared to SRIF-ir interneurons of other forebrain regions such as cortex or hippocampus. Somatostatin is also present in fibers and in a few sparse presumptive deep short-axon cells in the granule cell layer (GCL), which were previously reported in other mammalian species. The spatial distribution of somatostatin interneurons in the MOB iEPL clearly outlines the region where lateral dendrites of mitral cells interact with GCL inhibitory interneurons through dendrodendritic reciprocal synapses. Symmetrical and asymmetrical synaptic contacts occur between SRIF-ir dendrites and mitral cell dendrites. Such restricted localization of somatostatin interneurons and connectivity in the bulbar synaptic network strongly suggest that the peptide plays a functional role in the modulation of olfactory processing.
|Autocrine VEGF-VEGF-R loop on podocytes during glomerulonephritis in humans. |
Hohenstein B, Colin M, Foellmer C, Amann KU, Brekken RA, Daniel C, Hugo CP
Nephrol Dial Transplant 2010
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most important and tightly regulated angiogenic cytokine in the kidney. Its activity is critical for capillary/glomerular preservation and repair, and recent studies have also demonstrated its relevance for the preservation of podocytes. METHODS: The present study investigated a large number (n = 153) of renal biopsies from patients with glomerulonephritis (GN) and evaluated the expression and activity of the glomerular VEGF system [VEGF, VEGF-R1, VEGF-R2 and biologically active VEGF as identified by VEGF-VEGF receptor complexes (VEGF-VEGF-R)] in parallel with markers of renal function, injury and repair. RESULTS: Whereas glomerular VEGF expression was clearly elevated, VEGF-R expression levels were widely unchanged. In parallel to the overall VEGF expression, the biological activity of VEGF on its receptors was uniformly significantly enhanced. Interestingly, the expression pattern of VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 significantly changed during GN where a very prominent podocytic pattern appeared, which was also detected for receptor-bound VEGF. VEGF expression and activity could be linked with indicators of renal injury such as glomerular proliferation and creatinine, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows, for the first time, increased podocytic VEGF-VEGF-R binding during human GN, suggesting not only the existence of a glomerular paracrine proangiogenic, but also an autocrine role of the VEGF-VEGF-R system in diseased podocytes.
|Low density of sympathetic nerve fibers relative to substance P-positive nerve fibers in lesional skin of chronic pruritus and prurigo nodularis. |
Haas S, Capellino S, Phan NQ, Böhm M, Luger TA, Straub RH, Ständer S
J Dermatol Sci 58 193-7. Epub 2010 Apr 4. 2010
BACKGROUND: In prurigo nodularis (PN), an increase in the density of dermal substance P-positive (SP+) sensory nerve fibers has been demonstrated. In addition, the density of sympathetic nerve fibers is unchanged.
|Central regulation of the pharyngeal and upper esophageal reflexes during swallowing in the Japanese eel. |
Mukuda T, Ando M
Journal of comparative physiology. A, Neuroethology, sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology 196 111-22 2010
We investigated the regulation of the pharyngeal and upper esophageal reflexes during swallowing in eel. By retrograde tracing from the muscles, the motoneurons of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) were located caudally within the mid-region of the glossopharyngeal-vagal motor complex (mGVC). In contrast, the motoneurons innervating the pharyngeal wall were localized medially within mGVC. Sensory pharyngeal fibers in the vagal nerve terminated in the caudal region of the viscerosensory column (cVSC). Using the isolated brain, we recorded 51 spontaneously active neurons within mGVC. These neurons could be divided into rhythmically (n = 8) and continuously (n = 43) firing units. The rhythmically firing neurons seemed to be restricted medially, whereas the continuously firing neurons were found caudally within mGVC. The rhythmically firing neurons were activated by the stimulation of the cVSC. In contrast, the stimulation of the cVSC inhibited firing of most, but not all the continuously firing neurons. The inhibitory effect was blocked by prazosin in 17 out of 38 neurons. Yohimbine also blocked the cVSC-induced inhibition in five of prazosin-sensitive neurons. We suggest that the neurons in cVSC inhibit the continuously firing motoneurons to relax the UES and stimulate the rhythmically firing neurons to constrict the pharynx simultaneously.
|Tetrahydroberberine blocks ATP-sensitive potassium channels in dopamine neurons acutely-dissociated from rat substantia nigra pars compacta. |
Wu C, Yang K, Liu Q, Wakui M, Jin GZ, Zhen X, Wu J
Tetrahydroberberine (THB) exhibits neuroprotective effects but its targets and underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Emerging evidence indicates that ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) promote Parkinson disease (PD) pathogenesis, thus blocking K(ATP) channels may protect neurons against neuronal degeneration. In the present study, we tested a hypothesis that THB blocks K(ATP) channels in dopaminergic (DA) neurons acutely dissociated from rat SNc. Using perforated patch-clamp recording in current-clamp mode, the functional K(ATP) channels can be opened by persistent perfusion of rotenone, an inhibitor of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Bath-application of THB reversibly blocks opened K(ATP) channels in a concentration-dependent manner, which is comparable to a classical K(ATP) channel blocker, Tol. Compared to THB analogs, l-stepholidine (l-SPD) or l-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP), THB exhibits more profound blockade in K(ATP) channels. In addition, exposure of THB alone to the recorded neuron increases action potential firing, and THB also restores rotenone-induced membrane hyperpolarization in the presence of dopamine D2 receptor antagonist (sulpiride), suggesting that THB exhibits an excitatory effect on SNc DA neurons through the block of K(ATP) channels. Collectively, the blockade of neuronal K(ATP) channels by THB in SNc DA neurons is a novel pharmacological mechanism of THB, which may contribute to its neuroprotective effects in PD.
|Neural development of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 null embryonic stem cells: a system for studying Rett syndrome. |
Okabe Y, Kusaga A, Takahashi T, Mitsumasu C, Murai Y, Tanaka E, Higashi H, Matsuishi T, Kosai K
Brain Res 1360 17-27. Epub 2010 Sep 25. 2010
Mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) gene cause the neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome (RTT). Here, we describe a new experimental system that efficiently elucidates the role of MeCP2 in neural development. MeCP2-null and control ES cells were generated by adenoviral conditional targeting and examined for maintenance of the undifferentiated ES cell state, neurogenesis, and gliogenesis during in vitro differentiation. In addition, dopamine release and electrophysiological features of neurons differentiated from these ES cells were examined. Loss of MeCP2 did not affect undifferentiated ES cell colony morphology and growth, or the timing or efficiency of neural stem cell differentiation into Nestin-, TuJ- or TH-positive neurons. In contrast, gliogenesis was drastically accelerated by MeCP2 deficiency. Dopamine production and release in response to a depolarizing stimulus in MeCP2-null ES-derived dopaminergic neurons was intact. However, MeCP2-null differentiated neurons showed significantly smaller voltage-dependent Na(+) currents and A-type K(+) currents, suggesting incomplete maturation. Thus, MeCP2 is not essential for maintenance of the undifferentiated ES cell state, neurogenesis, or dopaminergic function; rather, it is principally involved in inhibiting gliogenesis. Altered neuronal maturity may indirectly result from abnormal glial development and may underlie the pathogenesis of RTT. These data contribute to a better understanding of the developmental roles of MeCP2 and the pathogenesis of RTT.
|Characterisation of behavioural and neurodegenerative changes induced by intranigral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. |
Grealish S, Mattsson B, Draxler P, Björklund A
Eur J Neurosci 31 2266-78. Epub 2010 Jun 1. 2010
Despite the widespread use of mice as models of Parkinson's disease there is a surprising lack of validation and characterisation of unilateral lesion models in mice and the extent of behavioural impairments induced by such lesions. The aim of the present study was to characterise the behavioural deficits observed after injection of 6-hydroxydopamine unilaterally into the substantia nigra, and correlate the behavioural impairments with the extent of damage to the mesostriatal dopaminergic pathway. We found that a recently introduced test for assessment of sensorimotor impairment, the corridor task, was particularly useful in determining lesion severity, and that this test, in combination with standard drug-induced rotation tests, can be used to select animals with profound (> or = 80%) dopaminergic lesions that are stable over time. Based on these data we propose criteria that can be used to predict the extent of lesion, classified as severe, intermediate or mild lesions of the mesostriatal pathway. The correlation of cell loss and striatal innervation with the performance in each test provides a useful tool for the assessment of functional recovery in neurorestoration and cell transplantation studies, and for the evaluation of the in vivo efficacy and performance of stem cell-derived dopamine neuron preparations.
|Neurochemical changes in a double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease fed a pro-oxidant diet. |
Ash ES, Alavijeh MS, Palmer AM, Mitchelmore C, Howlett DR, Francis PT, Broadstock M, Richardson JC
Neurochem Int 2010
Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) causing neurodegeneration and decreased monoamine neurotransmitters. We investigated the effect of administration of a pro-oxidant diet on the levels of monoamines and metabolites in the brains of wildtype and transgenic mice expressing mutant APP and PS-1 (TASTPM mice). Three-month-old TASTPM and wildtype (C57BL6/J) mice were fed either normal or pro-oxidant diet for 3 months. The neocortex, cerebellum, hippocampus and striatum were assayed for their monoamine and monoamine metabolite content using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TOH) levels were analysed by Western blotting. In the striatum, female TASTPM mice had higher levels of DOPAC and male TASTPM mice had higher levels of 5-HIAA compared to wildtype mice. Administration of pro-oxidant diet increased striatal MHPG, turnover of NA and 5-HT levels in female TASTPM mice compared to TASTPM mice fed control diet. The pro-oxidant diet also decreased DOPAC levels in female TASTPM mice compared to those fed control diet. Striatal TOH did not depend on diet, gender or genotype. In the neocortex, the TASTPM genotype increased levels of 5-HIAA in male mice fed control diet compared to wildtype mice. In the cerebellum, the TASTPM genotype led to decreased levels of HVA (male mice only) and also decreased turnover of DA (female mice only) compared to wildtype mice. These data suggest a sparing of monoaminergic neurones in the cortex, striatum and hippocampus of TASTPM mice fed pro-oxidant diet and could be indicative of increased activity in corticostriatal circuits. The decreased cerebellar levels of HVA and turnover of DA in TASTPM mice hint at possible axonal degeneration within this subregion. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
|Peri-pubertal emergence of UNC-5 homologue expression by dopamine neurons in rodents. |
Manitt, C; Labelle-Dumais, C; Eng, C; Grant, A; Mimee, A; Stroh, T; Flores, C
PloS one 5 e11463 2010
Puberty is a critical period in mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system development, particularly for the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) projection which achieves maturity in early adulthood. The guidance cue netrin-1 organizes neuronal networks by attracting or repelling cellular processes through DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) and UNC-5 homologue (UNC5H) receptors, respectively. We have shown that variations in netrin-1 receptor levels lead to selective reorganization of mPFC DA circuitry, and changes in DA-related behaviors, in transgenic mice and in rats. Significantly, these effects are only observed after puberty, suggesting that netrin-1 mediated effects on DA systems vary across development. Here we report on the normal expression of DCC and UNC5H in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) by DA neurons from embryonic life to adulthood, in both mice and rats. We show a dramatic and enduring pubertal change in the ratio of DCC:UNC5H receptors, reflecting a shift toward predominant UNC5H function. This shift in DCC:UNC5H ratio coincides with the pubertal emergence of UNC5H expression by VTA DA neurons. Although the distribution of DCC and UNC5H by VTA DA neurons changes during puberty, the pattern of netrin-1 immunoreactivity in these cells does not. Together, our findings suggest that DCC:UNC5H ratios in DA neurons at critical periods may have important consequences for the organization and function of mesocorticolimbic DA systems.Full Text Article
|Differentiation of non-mesencephalic neural stem cells towards dopaminergic neurons. |
Rössler, R, et al.
Neuroscience, 170: 417-28 (2010) 2010
Neural stem cells (NSCs), either isolated from fetal or adult human brain or derived from induced pluripotent stem cells, are now considered major candidates for in vitro generation of transplantable dopaminergic (DA) neurons and modeling of Parkinson's disease. It is generally thought that in vitro differentiation of neural stem cells into meso-diencephalic dopaminergic neurons, requires recapitulation of dopaminergic differentiation pathway normally occurring in the ventral mesencephalon during embryogenesis. This dopaminergic pathway is partially activated by a combination of the extracellular induction factors Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), Fibroblast Growth Factor 8 (FGF8) and Wnt1 that trigger specific intracellular transcription cascades. In vitro mimicking of these embryonic ventral mesencephalic conditions has been successful for dopaminergic differentiation of embryonic stem cells and ventral mesencephalic NSCs. Dopaminergic differentiation of non-mesencephalic NSCs (nmNSCs), however, is considered arduous. Here we examine whether Shh, FGF8 and Wnt1 can activate typical dopaminergic transcription factors, such as Lmx1a, Msx1 and Otx2 in nmNSCs. We found that Shh, FGF8 and Wnt1 induced the expression of Lmx1a and Otx2 in nmNSCs resulting in the differentiation of up to 39% of the nmNSCs into neurons expressing Pitx3. However, only a low number ( approximately 13%) of these cells became more DA-like neurons also expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The histone deacetylase (HDAC)-inhibitor trichostatin A combined with Shh, FGF8 and Wnt1 caused orchestrated induction of Lmx1a, Otx2, Msx1 plus the early DA transcription factor En1. Now significantly increased numbers of TH ( approximately 22%) and Pitx3 ( approximately 33%) neurons were observed. Most of these cells coexpressed the DA markers DAT and Vmat2. Taken together, we demonstrate that nmNSCs indeed can be differentiated towards DA-like neurons, but this differentiation is far from complete in comparison to ventral mesencephalic NSCs and embryonic stem cells; most likely, the nmNSCs lack the proper "primed" epigenetic state of these cells for DA differentiation facilitating the induction of DA specific transcription factors.
|Exhaled nitric oxide in acute respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. |
Gadish T, Soferman R, Merimovitch T, Fireman E, Sivan Y
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 164 727-31. 2010
OBJECTIVE: To investigate fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels in infants during acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis and during convalescence.
|Distinctive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor functional phenotypes of rat ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons. |
Yang, K; Hu, J; Lucero, L; Liu, Q; Zheng, C; Zhen, X; Jin, G; Lukas, RJ; Wu, J
The Journal of physiology 587 345-61 2009
Dopaminergic (DAergic) neuronal activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is thought to contribute generally to pleasure, reward, and drug reinforcement and has been implicated in nicotine dependence. nAChRs expressed in the VTA exhibit diverse subunit compositions, but the functional and pharmacological properties are largely unknown. Here, using patch-clamp recordings in single DAergic neurons freshly dissociated from rat VTA, we clarified three functional subtypes of nAChRs (termed ID, IID and IIID receptors) based on whole-cell current kinetics and pharmacology. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that comparing to ID, IID receptor-mediated current had faster activation and decay constant and IIID receptor-mediated current had larger current density. Pharmacologically, ID receptor-mediated current was sensitive to the alpha4beta2-nAChR agonist RJR-2403 and antagonist dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DHbetaE); IID receptor-mediated current was sensitive to the selective alpha7-nAChR agonist choline and antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA); while IIID receptor-mediated current was sensitive to the beta4-containing nAChR agonist cytisine and antagonist mecamylamine (MEC). The agonist concentration-response relationships demonstrated that IID receptor-mediated current exhibited the highest EC(50) value compared to ID and IIID receptors, suggesting a relatively low agonist affinity of type IID receptors. These results suggest that the type ID, IID and IIID nAChR-mediated currents are predominately mediated by activation of alpha4beta2-nAChR, alpha7-nAChR and a novel nAChR subtype(s), respectively. Collectively, these findings indicate that the VTA DAergic neurons express diversity and multiplicity of functional nAChR subtypes. Interestingly, each DAergic neuron predominantly expresses only one particularly functional nAChR subtype, which may have distinct but important roles in regulation of VTA DA neuronal function, DA transmission and nicotine dependence.
|Gata2 is a tissue-specific post-mitotic selector gene for midbrain GABAergic neurons. |
Kala, K; Haugas, M; Lilleväli, K; Guimera, J; Wurst, W; Salminen, M; Partanen, J
Development (Cambridge, England) 136 253-62 2009
Midbrain GABAergic neurons control several aspects of behavior, but regulation of their development and diversity is poorly understood. Here, we further refine the midbrain regions active in GABAergic neurogenesis and show their correlation with the expression of the transcription factor Gata2. Using tissue-specific inactivation and ectopic expression, we show that Gata2 regulates GABAergic neuron development in the mouse midbrain, but not in rhombomere 1, where it is needed in the serotonergic lineage. Without Gata2, all the precursors in the embryonic midbrain fail to activate GABAergic neuron-specific gene expression and instead switch to a glutamatergic phenotype. Surprisingly, this fate switch is also observed throughout the neonatal midbrain, except for the GABAergic neurons located in the ventral dopaminergic nuclei, suggesting a distinct developmental pathway for these neurons. These studies identify Gata2 as an essential post-mitotic selector gene of the GABAergic neurotransmitter identity and demonstrate developmental heterogeneity of GABAergic neurons in the midbrain.
|Colocalization of connexin 36 and corticotropin-releasing hormone in the mouse brain. |
Westberg, L; Sawa, E; Wang, AY; Gunaydin, LA; Ribeiro, AC; Pfaff, DW
BMC neuroscience 10 41 2009
Gap junction proteins, connexins, are expressed in most endocrine and exocrine glands in the body and are at least in some glands crucial for the hormonal secretion. To what extent connexins are expressed in neurons releasing hormones or neuropeptides from or within the central nervous system is, however, unknown. Previous studies provide indirect evidence for gap junction coupling between subsets of neuropeptide-containing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Here we employ double labeling and retrograde tracing methods to investigate to what extent neuroendocrine and neuropeptide-containing neurons of the hypothalamus and brainstem express the neuronal gap junction protein connexin 36.Western blot analysis showed that connexin 36 is expressed in the PVN. In bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice, which specifically express the reporter gene Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) under the control of the connexin 36 gene promoter, EGFP expression was detected in magnocellular (neuroendocrine) and in parvocellular neurons of the PVN. Although no EGFP/connexin36 expression was seen in neurons containing oxytocin or vasopressin, EGFP/connexin36 was found in subsets of PVN neurons containing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and in somatostatin neurons located along the third ventricle. Moreover, CRH neurons in brainstem areas, including the lateral parabrachial nucleus, also expressed EGFP/connexin 36.Our data indicate that connexin 36 is expressed in subsets of neuroendocrine and CRH neurons in specific nuclei of the hypothalamus and brainstem.
|Mobilization of calcium from intracellular stores facilitates somatodendritic dopamine release. |
Patel, JC; Witkovsky, P; Avshalumov, MV; Rice, ME
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 29 6568-79 2009
Somatodendritic dopamine (DA) release in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) shows a limited dependence on extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](o)), suggesting the involvement of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Here, using immunocytochemistry we demonstrate the presence of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2 (SERCA2) that sequesters cytosolic Ca(2+) into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as well as inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in DAergic neurons. Notably, RyRs were clustered at the plasma membrane, poised for activation by Ca(2+) entry. Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to monitor evoked extracellular DA concentration ([DA](o)) in midbrain slices, we found that SERCA inhibition by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) decreased evoked [DA](o) in the SNc, indicating a functional role for ER Ca(2+) stores in somatodendritic DA release. Implicating IP(3)R-dependent stores, an IP(3)R antagonist, 2-APB, also decreased evoked [DA](o). Moreover, DHPG, an agonist of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1s, which couple to IP(3) production), increased somatodendritic DA release, whereas CPCCOEt, an mGluR1 antagonist, suppressed it. Release suppression by mGluR1 blockade was prevented by 2-APB or CPA, indicating facilitation of DA release by endogenous glutamate acting via mGluR1s and IP(3)R-gated Ca(2+) stores. Similarly, activation of RyRs by caffeine increased [Ca(2+)](i) and elevated evoked [DA](o). The increase in DA release was prevented by a RyR blocker, dantrolene, and by CPA. Importantly, the efficacy of dantrolene was enhanced in low [Ca(2+)](o), suggesting a mechanism for maintenance of somatodendritic DA release with limited Ca(2+) entry. Thus, both mGluR1-linked IP(3)R- and RyR-dependent ER Ca(2+) stores facilitate somatodendritic DA release in the SNc.
|Chronic expression of H-ferritin in dopaminergic midbrain neurons results in an age-related expansion of the labile iron pool and subsequent neurodegeneration: implications for Parkinson's disease. |
Kaur, D; Rajagopalan, S; Andersen, JK
Brain research 1297 17-22 2009
While ferritin elevation within dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) is protective against neurodegeneration elicited by two toxin models of Parkinson's disease (PD), MPTP and paraquat, in young animals, its prolonged elevation results in a selective age-related neurodegeneration. A similar age-related neurodegeneration has been reported in iron regulatory protein 2-deficient (IRP2 -/-) mice coinciding with increased ferritin levels within degenerating neurons. This has been speculated to be due to subsequent reductions in the labile iron pool (LIP) needed for the synthesis of iron-sulfur-containing enzymes. In order to assess whether LIP reduction is responsible for age-related neurodegeneration in our ferritin transgenics, we examined LIP levels in ferritin-expressing transgenics with increasing age. While LIP levels were reduced within DA SN nerve terminals isolated from young ferritin transgenics compared to wildtype littermate controls, they were found to be increased in older transgenic animals at the age at which selective neurodegeneration is first noted. Furthermore, administration of the bioavailable iron chelator, clioquinol (CQ), to older mice was found to protect against both increased LIP and subsequent dopaminergic neurodegeneration. This suggests that age-related neurodegeneration in these mice is likely due to increased iron availability rather than its reduction. This may have important implications for PD and other related neurodegenerative conditions in which iron and ferritin have been implicated.
|Dopamine neuron glutamate cotransmission: frequency-dependent modulation in the mesoventromedial projection. |
Chuhma, N; Choi, WY; Mingote, S; Rayport, S
Neuroscience 164 1068-83 2009
Mesoventromedial dopamine neurons projecting from the medial ventral tegmental area to the ventromedial shell of the nucleus accumbens play a role in attributing incentive salience to environmental stimuli that predict important events, and appear to be particularly sensitive to the effects of psychostimulant drugs. Despite the observation that these dopamine neurons make up almost the entire complement of neurons in the projection, stimulating their cell bodies evokes a fast glutamatergic response in accumbens neurons. This is apparently due to dopamine neuron glutamate cotransmission, suggested by the extensive coexpression of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) in the neurons. To examine the interplay between the dopamine and glutamate signals, we used acute quasi-horizontal brain slices made from DAT-YFP mice in which the intact mesoventromedial projection can be visualized. Under current clamp, when dopamine neurons were stimulated repeatedly, dopamine neuron glutamate transmission showed dopamine-mediated facilitation, solely at higher, burst-firing frequencies. Facilitation was diminished under voltage clamp and flipped to inhibition by intracellular Cs(+) or GDPbetaS, indicating that it was mediated postsynaptically. Postsynaptic facilitation was D1 mediated, required activation of NMDA receptors and closure of voltage gated K(+)-channels. When postsynaptic facilitation was blocked, D2-mediated presynaptic inhibition became apparent. These counterbalanced pre- and postsynaptic actions determine the frequency dependence of dopamine modulation; at lower firing frequencies dopamine modulation is not apparent, while at burst firing frequency postsynaptic facilitation dominates and dopamine becomes facilitatory. Dopamine neuron glutamate cotransmission may play an important role in encoding the incentive salience value of conditioned stimuli that activate goal-directed behaviors, and may be an important subtract for enduring drug-seeking behaviors.
|Hydrogen in drinking water reduces dopaminergic neuronal loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson's disease. |
Fujita, K; Seike, T; Yutsudo, N; Ohno, M; Yamada, H; Yamaguchi, H; Sakumi, K; Yamakawa, Y; Kido, MA; Takaki, A; Katafuchi, T; Tanaka, Y; Nakabeppu, Y; Noda, M
PloS one 4 e7247 2009
It has been shown that molecular hydrogen (H(2)) acts as a therapeutic antioxidant and suppresses brain injury by buffering the effects of oxidative stress. Chronic oxidative stress causes neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we show that drinking H(2)-containing water significantly reduced the loss of dopaminergic neurons in PD model mice using both acute and chronic administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). The concentration-dependency of H(2) showed that H(2) as low as 0.08 ppm had almost the same effect as saturated H(2) water (1.5 ppm). MPTP-induced accumulation of cellular 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a marker of DNA damage, and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a marker of lipid peroxidation were significantly decreased in the nigro-striatal dopaminergic pathway in mice drinking H(2)-containing water, whereas production of superoxide (O(2)*(-)) detected by intravascular injection of dihydroethidium (DHE) was not reduced significantly. Our results indicated that low concentration of H(2) in drinking water can reduce oxidative stress in the brain. Thus, drinking H(2)-containing water may be useful in daily life to prevent or minimize the risk of life style-related oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.
|Writing memories with light-addressable reinforcement circuitry. |
Claridge-Chang, A; Roorda, RD; Vrontou, E; Sjulson, L; Li, H; Hirsh, J; Miesenböck, G
Cell 139 405-15 2009
Dopaminergic neurons are thought to drive learning by signaling changes in the expectations of salient events, such as rewards or punishments. Olfactory conditioning in Drosophila requires direct dopamine action on intrinsic mushroom body neurons, the likely storage sites of olfactory memories. Neither the cellular sources of the conditioning dopamine nor its precise postsynaptic targets are known. By optically controlling genetically circumscribed subsets of dopaminergic neurons in the behaving fly, we have mapped the origin of aversive reinforcement signals to the PPL1 cluster of 12 dopaminergic cells. PPL1 projections target restricted domains in the vertical lobes and heel of the mushroom body. Artificially evoked activity in a small number of identifiable cells thus suffices for programming behaviorally meaningful memories. The delineation of core reinforcement circuitry is an essential first step in dissecting the neural mechanisms that compute and represent valuations, store associations, and guide actions.
|Immunohistochemical changes in rat retinas at various time periods of elevated intraocular pressure. |
Hernandez, M; Rodriguez, FD; Sharma, SC; Vecino, E
Molecular vision 15 2696-709 2009
To study alterations in different retinal cell types associated with retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death after elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) in rats.IOP was elevated by episcleral vein cauterization of the rat left eye. The right unoperated eye was kept as the control. IOP was measured when rats were awake. The animals were euthanized after one week (n=4) and five weeks (n=4). Their eyes were enucleated, postfixed, cryoprotected, and embedded in optimal cutting temperature (OCT) medium. Cryosections of the retina were cut at 14 microm thickness and processed for immunocytochemistry with 15 antibodies that specifically stain different retinal cell types. The distribution and intensity of the label was analyzed by comparing sections of control and glaucomatous retinas obtained from identical locations.The amount of amacrine cells identified by calcium binding proteins and choline acetyltransferase antibodies decreased after five weeks of elevated IOP. By using the anti-protein kinase C-alpha antibody, we were able to label a subpopulation of rod bipolar cells in control retinas but not in retinas that had elevated IOP. No changes were found in RGCs labeled with brain derived neurotrophic factor when comparing control and glaucomatous retinas. Glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin expression in glial cells increased after one week of elevated IOP.After one week of elevated IOP and before the onset of RGC death, it was evident that inner retinal cells showed remarkable changes in their molecular expression.
|Comparative analysis of conditional reporter alleles in the developing embryo and embryonic nervous system. |
Ellisor, Debra, et al.
Gene Expr. Patterns, (2009) 2009
A long-standing problem in development is understanding how progenitor cells transiently expressing genes contribute to complex anatomical and functional structures. In the developing nervous system an additional level of complexity arises when considering how cells of distinct lineages relate to newly established neural circuits. To address these problems, we used both cumulative marking with Cre/loxP and Genetic Inducible Fate Mapping (GIFM), which permanently and heritably marks small populations of progenitors and their descendants with fine temporal control using CreER/loxP. A key component used in both approaches is a conditional phenotyping allele that has the potential to be expressed in all cell types, but is quiescent because of a loxP flanked Stop sequence, which precedes a reporter allele. Upon recombination, the resulting phenotyping allele is 'turned on' and then constitutively expressed. Thus, the reporter functions as a high fidelity genetic lineage tracer in vivo. Currently there is an array of reporter alleles that can be used in marking strategies, but their recombination efficiency and applicability to a wide array of tissues has not been thoroughly described. To assess the recombination/marking potential of the reporters, we utilized CreER(T) under the control of a Wnt1 transgene (Wnt1-CreER(T)) as well as a cumulative, non-inducible En1(Cre) knock-in line in combination with three different reporters: R26R (LacZ reporter), Z/EG (EGFP reporter), and Tau-Lox-STOP-Lox-mGFP-IRES-NLS-LacZ (membrane-targeted GFP/nuclear LacZ reporter). We marked the Wnt1 lineage using each of the three reporters at embryonic day (E) 8.5 followed by analysis at E10.0, E12.5, and in the adult. We also compared cumulative marking of cells with a history of En1 expression at the same stages. We evaluated the reporters by whole-mount and section analysis and ascertained the strengths and weaknesses of each of the reporters. Comparative analysis with the reporters elucidated complexities of how the Wnt1 and En1 lineages contribute to developing embryos and to axonal projection patterns of neurons derived from these lineages.
|Extensive contribution of embryonic stem cells to the development of an evolutionarily divergent host. |
Xiang, AP; Mao, FF; Li, WQ; Park, D; Ma, BF; Wang, T; Vallender, TW; Vallender, EJ; Zhang, L; Lee, J; Waters, JA; Zhang, XM; Yu, XB; Li, SN; Lahn, BT
Human molecular genetics 17 27-37 2008
The full potential of embryonic stem (ES) cells to generate precise cell lineages and complex tissues can be best realized when they are differentiated in vivo-i.e. in developing blastocysts. Owing to various practical and ethical constraints, however, it is impossible to introduce ES cells of certain species into blastocysts of the same species. One solution is to introduce ES cells into blastocysts of a different species. However, it is not known whether ES cells can contribute extensively to chimerism when placed into blastocysts of a distantly related species. Here, we address this question using two divergent species, Apodemus sylvaticus and Mus musculus, whose genome sequence differs by approximately 18% from each other. Despite this considerable evolutionary distance, injection of Apodemus ES cells into Mus blastocysts led to viable chimeras bearing extensive Apodemus contributions to all major organs, including the germline, with Apodemus contribution reaching approximately 40% in some tissues. Immunostaining showed that Apodemus ES cells have differentiated into a wide range of cell types in the chimeras. Our results thus provide a proof of principle for the feasibility of differentiating ES cells into a wide range of cell types and perhaps even complex tissues by allowing them to develop in vivo in an evolutionarily divergent host-a strategy that may have important applications in research and therapy. Furthermore, our study demonstrates that mammalian evolution can proceed at two starkly contrasting levels: significant divergence in genome and proteome sequence, yet striking conservation in developmental programs.
|Phosphorylation state of tyrosine hydroxylase in the stalk-median eminence is decreased by progesterone in cycling female rats. |
Liu, B; Arbogast, LA
Endocrinology 149 1462-9 2008
Progesterone has the capacity to suppress hypothalamic dopaminergic neuronal activity on proestrous afternoon and prolong or amplify the preovulatory prolactin surge in rats. In the present study, we examined enzyme activity and phosphorylation state of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the stalk-median eminence of cycling female rats on proestrus and estrus and related these to circulating progesterone levels. Phospho-TH levels were evaluated by Western blot analysis. TH activity was determined from the rate of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) accumulation. Phospho-TH levels at Ser-19, Ser-31, and Ser-40 were similar at 1100, 1300, and 1500 h on proestrus but declined at 1700, 1900, and 2200 h, coincident with rising serum progesterone levels. Similarly, DOPA accumulation was 30-50% lower at 1700, 1900, and 2200 h as compared with 1100-1500 h on proestrus. Ser-31 and Ser-40 phosphorylation states were increased by 1100 h on estrus to a level similar to 1100 h on proestrus, whereas DOPA accumulation was 30% greater on estrous as compared with proestrous morning. There were no significant differences among the several time points on proestrus and estrus with regard to TH protein or beta-tubulin levels. Exogenous progesterone administration (7.5 mg/kg, sc) before the preovulatory progesterone surge decreased TH activity and phospho-TH at Ser-19, Ser-31, and Ser-40, accompanied by premature increased serum prolactin. Our study suggests that decreased TH phosphorylation at Ser-19, Ser-31, and Ser-40 contributes to the decline in TH activity in the stalk-median eminence on proestrous afternoon and that progesterone may cause this initial cytoplasmic response of TH dephosphorylation.
|Ciliary neurotrophic factor mediates dopamine D2 receptor-induced CNS neurogenesis in adult mice. |
Yang, P; Arnold, SA; Habas, A; Hetman, M; Hagg, T
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 2231-41 2008
Neurogenesis continues in the adult forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Degeneration of dopaminergic projections in Parkinson's disease and animals reduces, whereas ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promotes, neurogenesis. We tested whether the dopaminergic system promotes neurogenesis through CNTF. Astrocytes of the SVZ and dentate gyrus expressed CNTF and were close to dopaminergic terminals. Dopaminergic denervation in adult mice reduced CNTF mRNA by approximately 60%, whereas systemic treatment with the D2 agonist quinpirole increased CNTF mRNA in the SVZ and hippocampal formation, and in cultured astrocytes by 1.5-5 fold. The effect of quinpirole in vitro was blocked by the D2 antagonist eticlopride and did not cause astroglial proliferation or hypertrophy. Systemic quinpirole injections increased proliferation in wild-type mice by approximately 25-75% but not in CNTF-/- littermates or in the SVZ of mice infused with CNTF antibodies. Quinpirole increased the number of neuroblasts in wild-type but not in CNTF-/- littermates. Neurogenesis was reduced by approximately 20% in CNTF-/- mice, confirming the endogenous role of CNTF. Nigrostriatal denervation did not affect SVZ proliferation in CNTF-/- mice, suggesting that the dopaminergic innervation normally regulates neurogenesis through CNTF. Quinpirole acted on postsynaptic receptors as it reversed the reduced proliferation seen after dopaminergic denervation in wild-type mice. Thus, CNTF mediates dopaminergic innervation- and D2 receptor-induced neurogenesis in the adult forebrain. Because CNTF is predominantly expressed in the nervous system, this mechanism and the ability to pharmacologically modulate it have implications for Parkinson's disease and cell-replacement therapies for other disorders.
|PYM50028, a novel, orally active, nonpeptide neurotrophic factor inducer, prevents and reverses neuronal damage induced by MPP+ in mesencephalic neurons and by MPTP in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. |
Visanji, NP; Orsi, A; Johnston, TH; Howson, PA; Dixon, K; Callizot, N; Brotchie, JM; Rees, DD
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 22 2488-97 2008
Many experimental data support the enhancement of neurotrophic factors as a means to modify neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. However, the translation of this to the clinic has proven problematic. This is likely due to the complex nature of the surgical gene delivery and cell-based approaches adopted to deliver proteinaceous neurotrophic factors to targets within the central nervous system. We investigated the ability of a novel, orally active, nonpeptide neurotrophic factor inducer, PYM50028 (Cogane), to restore dopaminergic function after 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) -induced damage to mesencephalic neurons in vitro and in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) -lesioned mice. In rat mesencephalic neurons, administration of PYM50028, either before or after MPP(+), significantly prevented and reversed both MPP(+)-induced neuronal atrophy and cell loss. These effects were potent and of a magnitude equivalent to those achieved by a combination of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Oral administration of PYM50028 (10 mg/kg/day for 60 days) to MPTP-lesioned mice, commencing after a striatal impairment was evident, resulted in a significant elevation of striatal GDNF (297%) and BDNF (511%), and attenuated the loss of striatal dopaminergic transporter levels and dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. PYM50028 did not inhibit monoamine oxidase B in vitro, nor did it alter brain levels of MPP(+) in vivo. PYM50028 has neuroprotective and neurorestorative potential and is in clinical development for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease.
|Striatal and nigral pathology in a lentiviral rat model of Machado-Joseph disease. |
Alves, S; Régulier, E; Nascimento-Ferreira, I; Hassig, R; Dufour, N; Koeppen, A; Carvalho, AL; Simões, S; de Lima, MC; Brouillet, E; Gould, VC; Déglon, N; de Almeida, LP
Human molecular genetics 17 2071-83 2008
Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is a fatal, dominant neurodegenerative disorder. MJD results from polyglutamine repeat expansion in the MJD-1 gene, conferring a toxic gain of function to the ataxin-3 protein. In this study, we aimed at overexpressing ataxin-3 in the rat brain using lentiviral vectors (LV), to generate an in vivo MJD genetic model and, to study the disorder in defined brain regions: substantia nigra, an area affected in MJD, cortex and striatum, regions not previously reported to be affected in MJD. LV encoding mutant or wild-type human ataxin-3 was injected in the brain of adult rats and the animals were tested for behavioral deficits and neuropathological abnormalities. Striatal pathology was confirmed in transgenic mice and human tissue. In substantia nigra, unilateral overexpression of mutant ataxin-3 led to: apomorphine-induced turning behavior; formation of ubiquitinated ataxin-3 aggregates; alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity; and loss of dopaminergic markers (TH and VMAT2). No neuropathological changes were observed upon wild-type ataxin-3 overexpression. Mutant ataxin-3 expression in striatum and cortex, resulted in accumulation of misfolded ataxin-3, and within striatum, loss of neuronal markers. Striatal pathology was confirmed by observation in MJD transgenic mice of ataxin-3 aggregates and substantial reduction of DARPP-32 immunoreactivity and, in human striata, by ataxin-3 inclusions, immunoreactive for ubiquitin and alpha-synuclein. This study demonstrates the use of LV encoding mutant ataxin-3 to produce a model of MJD and brings evidence of striatal pathology, suggesting that this region may contribute to dystonia and chorea observed in some MJD patients and may represent a target for therapies.
|Effects on differentiation of embryonic ventral midbrain progenitors by Lmx1a, Msx1, Ngn2, and Pitx3. |
Roybon, L; Hjalt, T; Christophersen, NS; Li, JY; Brundin, P
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 3644-56 2008
Neurons derived from neural stem cells could potentially be used for cell therapy in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. To achieve controlled differentiation of neural stem cells, we expressed transcription factors involved in the development of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in rat and human neural progenitors. Using retroviral-mediated transgene delivery, we overexpressed Lmx1a (LIM homeobox transcription factor 1, alpha), Msx1 (msh homeobox homolog 1), Ngn2 (neurogenin 2), or Pitx3 (paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 3) in neurospheres derived from embryonic day 14.5 rat ventral mesencephalic progenitors. We also expressed either Lmx1a or Msx1 in the human embryonic midbrain-derived progenitor cell line NGC-407. Rat cells transduced with Ngn2 exited the cell cycle and expressed the neuronal marker microtubule-associated protein 2 and catecholamine-neuron protein vesicular monoamine transporter 2. Interestingly, Pitx3 downregulated the expression of SOX2 (SRY-box containing gene 2) and Nestin, altered cell morphology, but never induced neuronal or glial differentiation. Ngn2 exhibited a strong neuron-inducing effect. In contrast, few Lmx1a-transduced cells matured into neurons, and Msx1 overexpression promoted oligodendrogenesis rather than neuronal differentiation. Importantly, none of these four genes, alone or in combination, enhanced differentiation of rat neural stem cells into dopaminergic neurons. Notably, the overexpression of Lmx1a, but not Msx1, in human neural progenitors increased the yield of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells by threefold. Together, we demonstrate that induced overexpression of transcription factor genes has profound and specific effects on the differentiation of rat and human midbrain progenitors, although few dopamine neurons are generated.
|Nestin expression defines both glial and neuronal progenitors in postnatal sympathetic ganglia. |
Shi, H; Cui, H; Alam, G; Gunning, WT; Nestor, A; Giovannucci, D; Zhang, M; Ding, HF
The Journal of comparative neurology 508 867-78 2008
Sympathetic ganglia are primarily composed of noradrenergic neurons and satellite glial cells. Although both cell types originate from neural crest cells, the identities of the progenitor populations at intermediate stages of the differentiation process remain to be established. Here we report on the identification in vivo of glial and neuronal progenitor cells in postnatal sympathetic ganglia, by using mouse superior cervical ganglia as a model system. There are significant levels of cellular proliferation in mouse superior cervical ganglia during the first 18 days after birth. A majority of the proliferating cells express both nestin and brain lipid-binding protein (BLBP). Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) fate-tracing experiments demonstrate that these nestin and BLBP double-positive cells represent a population of glial progenitors for sympathetic satellite cells. The glial differentiation process is characterized by a marked downregulation of nestin and upregulation of S100, with no significant changes in the levels of BLBP expression. We also identify a small number of proliferating cells that express nestin and tyrosine hydroxylase, a key enzyme of catecholamine biosynthesis that defines sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. Together, these results establish nestin as a common marker for sympathetic neuronal and glial progenitor cells and delineate the cellular basis for the generation and maturation of sympathetic satellite cells.
|Beta2-adrenergic receptor signaling mediates corneal epithelial wound repair. |
Ghoghawala, SY; Mannis, MJ; Pullar, CE; Rosenblatt, MI; Isseroff, RR
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 49 1857-63 2008
Beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonists are frequently prescribed ophthalmic drugs, yet previous investigations into how catecholamines affect corneal wound healing have yielded conflictingWith the use of an integrated pharmacologic and genetic approach, the authors investigated how the beta-AR impacts corneal epithelial healing.Migratory rates of cultured adult murine corneal epithelial (AMCE) cells and in vivo corneal wound healing were examined in beta2-AR(+/+) and beta2-AR(-/-) mice. Signaling pathways were evaluated by immunoblotting. results. The beta-AR agonist isoproterenol decreased AMCE cell migratory speed to 70% of untreated controls, and this was correlated with a 0.60-fold decrease in levels of activated phospho-ERK (P-ERK). Treatment with the beta-AR antagonist (timolol) increased speed 33% and increased P-ERK 2.4-fold (P less than 0.05). The same treatment protocols had no effect on AMCE cells derived from beta2-AR(-/-) mice; all treatment groups showed statistically equivalent migratory speeds and ERK phosphorylation. In beta2-AR(+/+) animals, the beta-AR agonist (isoproterenol) delayed the rate of in vivo corneal wound healing by 79%, whereas beta-AR antagonist (timolol) treatment increased the rate of healing by 16% (P less than 0.05) compared with saline-treated controls. In contrast, in the beta2-AR(-/-) mice, all treatment groups demonstrated equivalent rates of wound healing. Additionally, murine corneal epithelial cell expressed the catecholamine-synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase and detectable levels of epinephrine (184.5 pg/mg protein).The authors provide evidence of an endogenous autocrine catecholamine signaling pathway dependent on an intact beta2-AR for the modulation of corneal epithelial wound repair.
|Chemical sympathectomy increases susceptibility to ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 infection. |
Templeton, A; Nguyen, G; Ash, JD; Straub, RH; Carr, DJ
Journal of neuroimmunology 197 37-46 2008
The cornea is one of the most highly innervated tissues in the mammalian host. We hypothesized changes to cornea innervation through chemical sympathectomy would significantly alter the host response to the neurotropic viral pathogen, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) following ocular infection. Mice treated with 6-hydroxydopamine hydrobromide displayed reduced tyrosine hydroxylase-positive fibers residing in the cornea. Sympathectomized mice were also found to show a transient rise in virus recovered in infected tissues and succumbed to infection in greater numbers. Whereas there were no differences in infiltrating leukocyte populations including HSV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the infected tissue, an increase in substance P and a decrease in IFN-gamma levels in the trigeminal ganglion but not brain stem of sympathectomized mice were noted. Sympathectomized mice treated with the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist L703,606 had delayed mortality implicating the involvement of substance P in HSV-1-mediated death.
|Vesicular glutamate transporter 3-immunoreactive pericellular baskets ensheath a distinct population of neurons in the lateral septum. |
Riedel, A; Westerholz, S; Braun, K; Edwards, RH; Arendt, T; Härtig, W
Journal of chemical neuroanatomy 36 177-90 2008
The lateral septum (LS) plays a role in the adjustment of behavioral responses according to environmental demands. This is a complex integrative process wherein a variety of modulatory systems, i.e. cholinergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic projections forming pericellular baskets around LS neurons, are involved. Recently, vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3)-immunoreactive (-ir) structures outlining unlabeled somata and their proximal dendrites were described in the LS. However, the vesicular transporters for acetylcholine and GABA were not or only rarely co-expressed with VGLUT3. In this study, the morphology and distribution of these VGLUT3-ir structures were systematically analyzed revealing that (1) they form distinct pericellular baskets (PBs) displaying variable shapes, (2) they are arranged in a layer-like pattern similar to the terminals of other modulatory systems, (3) beside a few exceptions (e.g., choline acetyltransferase), they are generally not or very sparsely co-localized with other neurochemical markers characterizing major neuron populations or afferent systems of the LS, i.e. calcium-binding proteins, tyrosine hydroxylase, tryptophan hydroxylase, vesicular glutamate transporters 1 (VGLUT1) and 2 (VGLUT2) and the vesicular GABA transporter. Thus, in the LS, a separate population of neurons is covered by VGLUT3-ir PBs. The distribution pattern and the lack of co-localization indicate that the VGLUT3-expressing cells of origin are located in the brainstem and that they could be pure glutamatergic projection neurons-different from the well-defined canonical VGLUT1- and VGLUT2-expressing neurons. Alternatively, they could simultaneously express VGLUT3 and second transmitter, but use different release sites inside the LS for both.
|Neural circuitry of stress-induced insomnia in rats. |
Cano, G; Mochizuki, T; Saper, CB
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 10167-84 2008
Sleep architecture is often disturbed after a stressful event; nevertheless, little is known about the brain circuitry responsible for the sleep perturbations induced by stress. We exposed rats to a psychological stressor (cage exchange) that initially causes an acute stress response, but several hours later generates a pattern of sleep disturbances similar to that observed in stress-induced insomnia in humans: increased sleep latency, decreased non-REM (nREM) and REM sleep, increased fragmentation, and high-frequency EEG activity during nREM sleep. We examined the pattern of Fos expression to identify the brain circuitry activated, and found increased Fos in the cerebral cortex, limbic system, and parts of the arousal and autonomic systems. Surprisingly, there was simultaneous activation of the sleep-promoting areas, most likely driven by ongoing circadian and homeostatic pressure. The activity in the cerebral cortex and arousal system while sleeping generates a novel intermediate state characterized by EEG high-frequency activity, distinctive of waking, during nREM sleep. Inactivation of discrete limbic and arousal regions allowed the recovery of specific sleep components and altered the Fos pattern, suggesting a hierarchical organization of limbic areas that in turn activate the arousal system and subsequently the cerebral cortex, generating the high-frequency activity. This high-frequency activity during nREM was eliminated in the stressed rats after inactivating parts of the arousal system. These results suggest that shutting down the residual activity of the limbic-arousal system might be a better approach to treat stress-induced insomnia, rather than potentiation of the sleep system, which remains fully active.
|An essential role for frizzled 5 in mammalian ocular development. |
Liu, C; Nathans, J
Development (Cambridge, England) 135 3567-76 2008
Microphthalmia, coloboma and persistent fetal vasculature within the vitreous cavity are among the most common human congenital ocular anomalies, and each has been associated with a variety of genetic disorders. Here we show that, in the mouse, loss of frizzled 5 (Fz5) - a putative Wnt receptor expressed in the eye field, optic cup and retina - causes all of these defects with high penetrance. In the developing Fz5(-/-) eye, the sequence of defects, in order of appearance, is: increased cell death in the ventral retina, delayed and/or incomplete closure of the ventral fissure, an excess of mesenchymal cells in the vitreous cavity, an excess of retinal astrocyte precursors and mature astrocytes, and persistence of the hyaloid vasculature in association with a large number of pigment cells. Fz5(-/-) mice also exhibit a late-onset progressive retinal degeneration by approximately 6 months of age, which might be related to the expression of Fz5 in Müller glia in the adult retina. These results demonstrate a central role for frizzled signaling in mammalian eye development and are likely to be relevant to the etiology of congenital human ocular anomalies.
|Components of the NGF signaling complex are altered in mdx mouse superior cervical ganglion and its target organs. |
Lombardi, Loredana, et al.
Neurobiol. Dis., 32: 402-11 (2008) 2008
We previously reported that in the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) of dystrophic mdx mice, which lack full-length dystrophin, there is a loss of neurons projecting to SCG muscular targets, like the iris. Nonetheless, surviving neurons, innervating either iris or submandibular gland (SuGl), a SCG non-muscular target, underwent reduced axon defasciculation and terminal branching. Here we report that, during early post-natal development, levels of pro-apoptotic proNGF in mdx mouse iris, but not in the SuGl, are higher than in the wild-type. This increase, along with reduced levels of NGF receptors (TrkA and p75NTR) in SCG, may be partly responsible for the observed loss of neurons projecting to the iris. These alterations, combined with a reduction in polysialylated-NCAM and neurofilament protein levels in SCG, may also account for reduced axon defasciculation and terminal branching in mdx mouse SCG targets.
|Cardiac sympathetic rejuvenation: a link between nerve function and cardiac hypertrophy. |
Kimura, K; Ieda, M; Kanazawa, H; Yagi, T; Tsunoda, M; Ninomiya, S; Kurosawa, H; Yoshimi, K; Mochizuki, H; Yamazaki, K; Ogawa, S; Fukuda, K
Circulation research 100 1755-64 2007
Neuronal function and innervation density is regulated by target organ-derived neurotrophic factors. Although cardiac hypertrophy drastically alternates the expression of various growth factors such as endothelin-1, angiotensin II, and leukemia inhibitory factor, little is known about nerve growth factor expression and its effect on the cardiac sympathetic nerves. This study investigated the impact of pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy on the innervation density and cellular function of cardiac sympathetic nerves, including kinetics of norepinephrine synthesis and reuptake, and neuronal gene expression. Right ventricular hypertrophy was induced by monocrotaline treatment in Wistar rats. Newly developed cardiac sympathetic nerves expressing beta(3)-tubulin (axonal marker), GAP43 (growth-associated cone marker), and tyrosine hydroxylase were markedly increased only in the right ventricle, in parallel with nerve growth factor upregulation. However, norepinephrine and dopamine content was paradoxically attenuated, and the protein and kinase activity of tyrosine hydroxylase were markedly downregulated in the right ventricle. The reuptake of [(125)I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine and [(3)H]-norepinephrine were also significantly diminished in the right ventricle, indicating functional downregulation in cardiac sympathetic nerves. Interestingly, we found cardiac sympathetic nerves in hypertrophic right ventricles strongly expressed highly polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) (an immature neuron marker) as well as neonatal heart. Taken together, pressure overload induced anatomical sympathetic hyperinnervation but simultaneously caused deterioration of neuronal cellular function. This phenomenon was explained by the rejuvenation of cardiac sympathetic nerves as well as the hypertrophic cardiomyocytes, which also showed the fetal form gene expression.
|Differential development of neuronal physiological responsiveness in two human neural stem cell lines. |
Donato, R; Miljan, EA; Hines, SJ; Aouabdi, S; Pollock, K; Patel, S; Edwards, FA; Sinden, JD
BMC neuroscience 8 36 2007
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are powerful research tools for the design and discovery of new approaches to neurodegenerative disease. Overexpression of the myc family transcription factors in human primary cells from developing cortex and mesencephalon has produced two stable multipotential NSC lines (ReNcell VM and CX) that can be continuously expanded in monolayer culture.In the undifferentiated state, both ReNcell VM and CX are nestin positive and have resting membrane potentials of around -60 mV but do not display any voltage-activated conductances. As initially hypothesized, using standard methods (stdD) for differentiation, both cell lines can form neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes according to immunohistological characteristics. However it became clear that this was not true for electrophysiological features which designate neurons, such as the firing of action potentials. We have thus developed a new differentiation protocol, designated 'pre-aggregation differentiation' (preD) which appears to favor development of electrophysiologically functional neurons and to lead to an increase in dopaminergic neurons in the ReNcell VM line. In contrast, the protocol used had little effect on the differentiation of ReNcell CX in which dopaminergic differentiation was not observed. Moreover, after a week of differentiation with the preD protocol, 100% of ReNcell VM featured TTX-sensitive Na+-channels and fired action potentials, compared to 25% after stdD. Currents via other voltage-gated channels did not appear to depend on the differentiation protocol. ReNcell CX did not display the same electrophysiological properties as the VM line, generating voltage-dependant K+ currents but no Na+ currents or action potentials under either stdD or preD differentiation.These data demonstrate that overexpression of myc in NSCs can be used to generate electrophysiologically active neurons in culture. Development of a functional neuronal phenotype may be dependent on parameters of isolation and differentiation of the cell lines, indicating that not all human NSCs are functionally equivalent.
|The role of the substantia nigra pars compacta in regulating sleep patterns in rats. |
Lima, MM; Andersen, ML; Reksidler, AB; Vital, MA; Tufik, S
PloS one 2 e513 2007
As of late, dopaminergic neurotransmission has been recognized to be involved in the generation of sleep disturbances. Increasing evidence shows that sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are mostly related to the disease itself, rather than being a secondary phenomenon. Evidence contained in the literature lends support to the hypothesis that the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway is closely involved in the regulation of sleep patterns.To test this hypothesis we examined the electrophysiological activity along the sleep-wake cycle of rats submitted to a surgically induced lesion of the SNpc by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). We demonstrated that a 50% lesion of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) suffices to produce disruptions of several parameters in the sleep-wake pattern of rats. A robust and constant decrease in the latency to the onset of slow wave sleep (SWS) was detected throughout the five days of recording in both light [F((22.16)) = 72.46, pless than 0.0001] and dark [F((22.16)) = 75.0, pless than 0.0001] periods. Also found was a pronounced increase in the percentage of sleep efficiency during the first four days of recording [F((21.15)) = 21.48, pless than 0.0001], in comparison to the sham group. Additionally, the reduction in the SNpc dopaminergic neurons provoked an ablation in the percentage of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) during three days of the sleep-wake recording period with a strong correlation (r = 0.91; pless than 0.0001) between the number of dopaminergic neurons lost and the percentage decrease of REM sleep on the first day of recording. On day 4, the percentage of REM sleep during the light and dark periods was increased, [F((22.16)) = 2.46, pless than 0.0007], a phenomenon consistent with REM rebound.We propose that dopaminergic neurons present in the SNpc possess a fundamental function in the regulation of sleep processes, particularly in promoting REM sleep.Full Text Article
|Foxa1 and Foxa2 regulate multiple phases of midbrain dopaminergic neuron development in a dosage-dependent manner. |
Ferri, AL; Lin, W; Mavromatakis, YE; Wang, JC; Sasaki, H; Whitsett, JA; Ang, SL
Development (Cambridge, England) 134 2761-9 2007
The role of transcription factors in regulating the development of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons is intensively studied owing to the involvement of these neurons in diverse neurological disorders. Here we demonstrate novel roles for the forkhead/winged helix transcription factors Foxa1 and Foxa2 in the specification and differentiation of mDA neurons by analysing the phenotype of Foxa1 and Foxa2 single- and double-mutant mouse embryos. During specification, Foxa1 and Foxa2 regulate the extent of neurogenesis in mDA progenitors by positively regulating Ngn2 (Neurog2) expression. Subsequently, Foxa1 and Foxa2 regulate the expression of Nurr1 (Nr4a2) and engrailed 1 in immature neurons and the expression of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase in mature neurons during early and late differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Interestingly, genetic evidence indicates that these functions require different gene dosages of Foxa1 and Foxa2. Altogether, our results demonstrate that Foxa1 and Foxa2 regulate multiple phases of midbrain dopaminergic neuron development in a dosage-dependent manner.
|Methionine sulfoxide reductase A and a dietary supplement S-methyl-L-cysteine prevent Parkinson's-like symptoms. |
Wassef, R; Haenold, R; Hansel, A; Brot, N; Heinemann, SH; Hoshi, T
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27 12808-16 2007
Parkinson's disease (PD), a common neurodegenerative disease, is caused by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Although the underlying cause of the neuronal loss is unknown, oxidative stress is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of PD. The amino acid methionine is readily oxidized to methionine sulfoxide, and its reduction is catalyzed by a family of enzymes called methionine sulfoxide reductases (MSRs). The reversible oxidation-reduction cycle of methionine involving MSRs has been postulated to act as a catalytic antioxidant system protecting cells from oxidative damage. Here, we show that one member of the MSR family, MSRA, inhibits development of the locomotor and circadian rhythm defects caused by ectopic expression of human alpha-synuclein in the Drosophila nervous system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that one way to enhance the MSRA antioxidant system is dietary supplementation with S-methyl-L-cysteine (SMLC), found abundantly in garlic, cabbage, and turnips. SMLC, a substrate in the catalytic antioxidant system mediated by MSRA, prevents the alpha-synuclein-induced abnormalities. Therefore, interventions focusing on the enzymatic reduction of oxidized methionine catalyzed by MSRA represent a new prevention and therapeutic approach for PD and potentially for other neurodegenerative diseases involving oxidative stress.
|Generation of a transgenic zebrafish model of Tauopathy using a novel promoter element derived from the zebrafish eno2 gene. |
Bai, Q; Garver, JA; Hukriede, NA; Burton, EA
Nucleic acids research 35 6501-16 2007
The aim of this study was to isolate cis-acting regulatory elements for the generation of transgenic zebrafish models of neurodegeneration. Zebrafish enolase-2 (eno2) showed neuronal expression increasing from 24 to 72 h post-fertilization (hpf) and persisting through adulthood. A 12 kb eno2 genomic fragment, extending from 8 kb upstream of exon 1 to exon 2, encompassing intron 1, was sufficient to drive neuronal reporter gene expression in vivo over a similar time course. Five independent lines of stable Tg(eno2 : GFP) zebrafish expressed GFP widely in neurons, including populations with relevance to neurodegeneration, such as cholinergic neurons, dopaminergic neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells. We replaced the exon 2-GFP fusion gene with a cDNA encoding the 4-repeat isoform of the human microtubule-associated protein Tau. The first intron of eno2 was spliced with high fidelity and efficiency from the chimeric eno2-Tau transcript. Tau was expressed at approximately 8-fold higher levels in Tg(eno2 : Tau) zebrafish brain than normal human brain, and localized to axons, neuropil and ectopic neuronal somatic accumulations resembling neurofibrillary tangles. The 12 kb eno2 promoter drives high-level transgene expression in differentiated neurons throughout the CNS of stable transgenic zebrafish. This regulatory element will be useful for the construction of transgenic zebrafish models of neurodegeneration.
|Osteopetrotic (op/op) mice have reduced microglia, no Abeta deposition, and no changes in dopaminergic neurons. |
Kondo, Y; Lemere, CA; Seabrook, TJ
Journal of neuroinflammation 4 31 2007
Activation of microglia is a part of the inflammatory response in neurodegenerative diseases but its role in the pathophysiology of these diseases is still unclear. The osteopetrotic (op/op) mouse lacks colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and thus has a deficiency in microglia and macrophages. Prior reports have demonstrated that op/op mice deposit amyloid beta (Abeta) plaques, similar to those found in Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of these studies was to confirm this and to determine if the lack of CSF-1 affects the development of dopaminergic neurons and the expression of CD200, a known microglial inhibitory protein.We examined the central nervous system of op/op mice at 30 days, 60 days and 7 months of age and wildtype littermates at 30 days using immunohistochemistry and histochemistry.We found a decrease in the number of microglia in 1 month-old op/op mice compared to wildtype (WT) littermates as measured by CD11b, CD45, CD32/16, CD68, CD204 and F4/80 immunoreactivity. Abeta plaques were not detected, while the number of dopaminergic neurons appeared normal. The expression of CD200 appeared to be normal, but there appeared to be a lower expression in the substantia nigra.In contrast to a prior report we did not detect Abeta deposition in the central nervous system of op/op mice at 30 days, 60 days or 7 months of age and there was a normal number of dopaminergic neurons. This indicates that op/op mice may be useful to examine the effects of microglia on neurodegenerative disease progression by breeding them to different transgenic mouse models. In addition, the lack of CSF-1 does not appear to affect CD200 expression by neurons but we did note a decrease in the substantia nigra of op/op and WT mice, suggesting that this may be a mechanism by which microglia control may be attenuated in this specific area during Parkinson's disease.
|AVPV neurons containing estrogen receptor-beta in adult male rats are influenced by soy isoflavones. |
Bu, L; Lephart, ED
BMC neuroscience 8 13 2007
Isoflavones, the most abundant phytoestrogens in soy foods, are structurally similar to 17beta-estradiol. It is known that 17beta-estradiol induces apoptosis in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) in rat brain. Also, there is evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones reduces the volume of AVPV in male rats. Therefore, in this study, we examined the influence of dietary soy isoflavones on apoptosis in AVPV of 150 day-old male rats fed either a soy isoflavone-free diet (Phyto-free) or a soy isoflavone-rich diet (Phyto-600).The occurrence of apoptosis in AVPV was examined by TUNEL staining. The incidence of apoptosis was about 10 times higher in the Phyto-600 group (33.1 +/- 1.7%) than in the Phyto-free group (3.6 +/- 1.0%). Furthermore, these apoptotic cells were identified as neurons by dual immunofluorescent staining of GFAP and NeuN as markers of astrocytes and neurons, respectively. Then the dopaminergic neurons in AVPV were detected by immunohistochemistry staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). No significant difference in the number of TH neurons was observed between the diet treatment groups. When estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta were examined by immunohistochemistry, we observed a 22% reduction of ERbeta-positive cell numbers in AVPV with consumption of soy isoflavones, whereas no significant change in ERalpha-positive cell numbers was detected. Furthermore, almost all the apoptotic cells were ERbeta-immunoreactive (ir), but not ERalpha-ir. Last, subcutaneous injections of equol (a major isoflavone metabolite) that accounts for approximately 70-90% of the total circulating plasma isoflavone levels did not alter the volume of AVPV in adult male rats.In summary, these findings provide direct evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones, but not the exposure to equol, influences the loss of ERbeta-containing neurons in male AVPV.Full Text Article
|Identification of an immune-responsive mesolimbocortical serotonergic system: potential role in regulation of emotional behavior. |
Lowry, CA; Hollis, JH; de Vries, A; Pan, B; Brunet, LR; Hunt, JR; Paton, JF; van Kampen, E; Knight, DM; Evans, AK; Rook, GA; Lightman, SL
Neuroscience 146 756-72 2007
Peripheral immune activation can have profound physiological and behavioral effects including induction of fever and sickness behavior. One mechanism through which immune activation or immunomodulation may affect physiology and behavior is via actions on brainstem neuromodulatory systems, such as serotonergic systems. We have found that peripheral immune activation with antigens derived from the nonpathogenic, saprophytic bacterium, Mycobacterium vaccae, activated a specific subset of serotonergic neurons in the interfascicular part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRI) of mice, as measured by quantification of c-Fos expression following intratracheal (12 h) or s.c. (6 h) administration of heat-killed, ultrasonically disrupted M. vaccae, or heat-killed, intact M. vaccae, respectively. These effects were apparent after immune activation by M. vaccae or its components but not by ovalbumin, which induces a qualitatively different immune response. The effects of immune activation were associated with increases in serotonin metabolism within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, consistent with an effect of immune activation on mesolimbocortical serotonergic systems. The effects of M. vaccae administration on serotonergic systems were temporally associated with reductions in immobility in the forced swim test, consistent with the hypothesis that the stimulation of mesolimbocortical serotonergic systems by peripheral immune activation alters stress-related emotional behavior. These findings suggest that the immune-responsive subpopulation of serotonergic neurons in the DRI is likely to play an important role in the neural mechanisms underlying regulation of the physiological and pathophysiological responses to both acute and chronic immune activation, including regulation of mood during health and disease states. Together with previous studies, these findings also raise the possibility that immune stimulation activates a functionally and anatomically distinct subset of serotonergic neurons, different from the subset of serotonergic neurons activated by anxiogenic stimuli or uncontrollable stressors. Consequently, selective activation of specific subsets of serotonergic neurons may have distinct behavioral outcomes.
|Clozapine modulates aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase activity in mouse striatum. |
Neff, NH; Wemlinger, TA; Duchemin, AM; Hadjiconstantinou, M
The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 317 480-7 2006
Clozapine is efficacious for treating dopaminergic psychosis in Parkinson's disease and ameliorates l-DOPA-induced motor complications. Based on its pharmacology and reported enhancing effects on dopamine metabolism and tyrosine hydroxylase activity, we investigated whether it could modulate the activity of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD), the second enzyme for the biosynthesis of catecholamines and indoleamines. A single dose of clozapine increased AAAD activity of striatum in a dose- and time-dependent manner. At 1 h, enhanced enzyme activity was characterized by an increased V(max) for substrate and cofactor and was accompanied by elevated levels of protein in striatum and mRNA in substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, locus coeruleus, and raphe nuclei. Acute clozapine increased tyrosine hydroxylase activity in striatum but with differing temporal patterns from AAAD and heightened dopamine metabolism. Interestingly, the response of the dopaminergic markers to clozapine was greater following a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) lesion. Chronically administered clozapine increased AAAD activity and protein and dopamine metabolism in striatum without affecting tyrosine hydroxylase. Exogenous l-DOPA decarboxylation was accelerated in the striatum of intact and MPTP-lesioned mice following acute clozapine, and the effect was exaggerated in the MPTP mice. To identify receptors involved, antagonists of receptors occupied by clozapine were employed. D4, 5-HT1(A), and 5-HT2(A), in addition to D1, D2, and D3, antagonists, augmented AAAD activity in striatum, whereas 5-HT2(C), 5-HT3, muscarinic, and alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenergic antagonists were ineffective. For the first time, these studies provide evidence that clozapine modulates AAAD activity in the brain and suggests that dopamine and serotonin receptors are involved.
|Mash1 is required for generic and subtype differentiation of hypothalamic neuroendocrine cells. |
McNay, DE; Pelling, M; Claxton, S; Guillemot, F; Ang, SL
Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 20 1623-32 2006
The neuroendocrine hypothalamus regulates a number of critical biological processes and underlies a range of diseases from growth failure to obesity. Although the elucidation of hypothalamic function has progressed well, knowledge of hypothalamic development is poor. In particular, little is known about the processes underlying the neurogenesis and specification of neurons of the ventral nuclei, the arcuate and ventromedial nuclei. The proneural gene Mash1 is expressed throughout the basal retrochiasmatic neuroepithelium and loss of Mash1 results in hypoplasia of both the arcuate and ventromedial nuclei. These defects are due to a failure of neurogenesis and apoptosis, a defect that can be rescued by ectopic Ngn2 under the control of the Mash1 promoter. In addition to its role in neurogenesis, analysis of Mash1(-/-), Mash1(+/-), Mash1(KINgn2/KINgn2), and Mash1(KINgn2/+) mice demonstrates that Mash1 is specifically required for Gsh1 expression and subsequent GHRH expression, positively regulates SF1 expression, and suppresses both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression. Although Mash1 is not required for propiomelanocortin (POMC) expression, it is required for normal development of POMC(+) neurons. These data demonstrate that Mash1 is both required for the generation of ventral neuroendocrine neurons as well as playing a central role in subtype specification of these neurons.
|beta-Adrenergic receptor antagonists accelerate skin wound healing: evidence for a catecholamine synthesis network in the epidermis. |
Pullar, CE; Rizzo, A; Isseroff, RR
The Journal of biological chemistry 281 21225-35 2006
The skin is our primary defense against noxious environmental agents. Upon injury, keratinocytes migrate directionally into the wound bed to initiate re-epithelialization, essential for wound repair and restoration of barrier integrity. Keratinocytes express a high level of beta2-adrenergic receptors (beta2-ARs) that appear to play a role in cutaneous homeostasis as aberrations in either keratinocyte beta2-AR function or density are associated with various skin diseases. Here we report the novel finding that beta-AR antagonists promote wound re-epithelialization in a "chronic" human skin wound-healing model. beta-AR antagonists increase ERK phosphorylation, the rate of keratinocyte migration, electric field-directed migration, and ultimately accelerate human skin wound re-epithelialization. We demonstrate that keratinocytes express two key enzymes required for catecholamine (beta-AR agonist) synthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase and phenylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase, both localized within keratinocyte cytoplasmic vesicles. Finally, we confirm the synthesis of epinephrine by measuring the endogenously synthesized catecholamine in keratinocyte extracts. Previously, we have demonstrated that beta-AR agonists delay wound re-epithelialization. Here we report that the mechanism for the beta-AR antagonist-mediated augmentation of wound repair is due to beta2-AR blockade, preventing the binding of endogenously synthesized epinephrine. Our work describes an endogenous beta-AR mediator network in the skin that can temporally regulate skin wound repair. Further investigation of this network will improve our understanding of both the skin repair process and the multiple modes of action of one of the most frequently prescribed class of drugs, hopefully resulting in a new treatment for chronic wounds.
|Iptakalim modulates ATP-sensitive K(+) channels in dopamine neurons from rat substantia nigra pars compacta. |
Wu, J; Hu, J; Chen, YP; Takeo, T; Suga, S; Dechon, J; Liu, Q; Yang, KC; St John, PA; Hu, G; Wang, H; Wakui, M
The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 319 155-64 2006
Iptakalim, a novel cardiovascular ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel opener, exerts neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic (DA) neurons against metabolic stress-induced neurotoxicity, but the mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we examined the effects of iptakalim on functional K(ATP) channels in the plasma membrane (pm) and mitochondrial membrane using patch-clamp and fluorescence-imaging techniques. In identified DA neurons acutely dissociated from rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), both the mitochondrial metabolic inhibitor rotenone and the sulfonylurea receptor subtype (SUR) 1-selective K(ATP) channel opener (KCO) diazoxide induced neuronal hyperpolarization and abolished action potential firing, but the SUR2B-selective KCO cromakalim exerted little effect, suggesting that functional K(ATP) channels in rat SNc DA neurons are mainly composed of SUR1. Immunocytochemical staining showed a SUR1-rather than a SUR2B-positive reaction in most dissociated DA neurons. At concentrations between 3 and 300 microM, iptakalim failed to hyperpolarize DA neurons; however, 300 microM iptakalim increased neuronal firing. In addition, iptakalim restored DA neuronal firing during rotenone-induced hyperpolarization and suppressed rotenone-induced outward current, suggesting that high concentrations of iptakalim close neuronal K(ATP) channels. Furthermore, in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, iptakalim (300-500 microM) closed diazoxide-induced Kir6.2/SUR1 K(ATP) channels, which were heterologously expressed. In rhodamine-123-preloaded DA neurons, iptakalim neither depolarized mitochondrial membrane nor prevented rotenone-induced mitochondrial depolarization. These data indicate that iptakalim is not a K(ATP) channel opener in rat SNc DA neurons; instead, iptakalim is a pm-K(ATP) channel closer at high concentrations. These effects of iptakalim stimulate further pharmacological investigation and the development of possible therapeutic applications.
|Normal biogenesis and cycling of empty synaptic vesicles in dopamine neurons of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 knockout mice. |
Croft, BG; Fortin, GD; Corera, AT; Edwards, RH; Beaudet, A; Trudeau, LE; Fon, EA
Molecular biology of the cell 16 306-15 2005
The neuronal isoform of vesicular monoamine transporter, VMAT2, is responsible for packaging dopamine and other monoamines into synaptic vesicles and thereby plays an essential role in dopamine neurotransmission. Dopamine neurons in mice lacking VMAT2 are unable to store or release dopamine from their synaptic vesicles. To determine how VMAT2-mediated filling influences synaptic vesicle morphology and function, we examined dopamine terminals from VMAT2 knockout mice. In contrast to the abnormalities reported in glutamatergic terminals of mice lacking VGLUT1, the corresponding vesicular transporter for glutamate, we found that the ultrastructure of dopamine terminals and synaptic vesicles in VMAT2 knockout mice were indistinguishable from wild type. Using the activity-dependent dyes FM1-43 and FM2-10, we also found that synaptic vesicles in dopamine neurons lacking VMAT2 undergo endocytosis and exocytosis with kinetics identical to those seen in wild-type neurons. Together, these results demonstrate that dopamine synaptic vesicle biogenesis and cycling are independent of vesicle filling with transmitter. By demonstrating that such empty synaptic vesicles can cycle at the nerve terminal, our study suggests that physiological changes in VMAT2 levels or trafficking at the synapse may regulate dopamine release by altering the ratio of fillable-to-empty synaptic vesicles, as both continue to cycle in response to neural activity.
|Lipopolysaccharide has selective actions on sub-populations of catecholaminergic neurons involved in activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and inhibition of prolactin secretion. |
Hollis, JH; Lightman, SL; Lowry, CA
The Journal of endocrinology 184 393-406 2005
Immune activation results in adaptive neuroendocrine responses, including activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which are dependent on the integrity of medullary catecholaminergic (CA) systems. In contrast, although specific roles of pontine, midbrain, and hypothalamic CA systems in neuroendocrine function have been described, the functional roles of these CA systems in modulating neuroendocrine function during immune responses have not been investigated. We have, therefore, investigated the effects of immune activation on the various CA systems of the central nervous system (CNS) and explored this relationship with changes in plasma corticosterone and plasma prolactin. Male BALB/c mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 500 microg/kg i.p.) and 2 h later cardiac blood was taken and mice were perfused with fixative. Immunostaining procedures were performed using antibodies raised against c-Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of CA neurons, and detailed topographical analysis of the CA systems within the CNS was performed. LPS-injected mice had increased concentrations of plasma corticosterone and decreased concentrations of plasma prolactin compared with vehicle-injected controls. LPS-injected mice had increased numbers of c-Fos-positive CA neurons within the medullary (A1, A2, C1, C2), pontine (A6) and midbrain (A10) cell groups when compared with vehicle-injected controls. Among hypothalamic CA cell groups, LPS had differential effects on the numbers of c-Fos-positive CA neurons in topographically organised subdivisions of the arcuate nucleus (A12). Changes in plasma prolactin concentrations correlated with the numbers of c-Fos-positive CA neurons within the area postrema, the medullary CA cell groups, the medial posterior division of the arcuate, and the zona incerta. The present study identifies topographically organised, anatomically distinct CA systems that are likely to modulate some of the neuroendocrine responses to immune activation, and may provide novel targets for the relief of symptoms associated with illness and disease.
|Abnormal development of the locus coeruleus in Ear2(Nr2f6)-deficient mice impairs the functionality of the forebrain clock and affects nociception. |
Warnecke, M; Oster, H; Revelli, JP; Alvarez-Bolado, G; Eichele, G
Genes & development 19 614-25 2005
The orphan nuclear receptor Ear2 (Nr2f6) is transiently expressed in the rostral part of the rhombic lip in which the locus coeruleus (LC) arises. LC development, regulated by a signaling cascade (Mash1 --greater than Phox2b --greater than Phox2a), is disrupted in Ear2-/- embryos as revealed by an approximately threefold reduction in the number of Phox2a- and Phox2b-expressing LC progenitor cells. Mash1 expression in the rhombic lip, however, is unaffected, placing Ear2 in between Mash1 and Phox2a/b. Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase staining demonstrate that greater than 70% of LC neurons are absent in the adult with agenesis affecting primarily the dorsal division of the LC. Normally, this division projects noradrenergic efferents to the cortex that appear to be diminished in Ear2-/- since the cortical concentration of noradrenaline is four times lower in these mice. The rostral region of the cortex is known to contain a circadian pacemaker regulating adaptability to light- and restricted food-driven entrainment. In situ hybridization establishes that the circadian expression pattern of the clock gene Period1 is abolished in the Ear2-/- forebrain. Behavioral experiments reveal that Ear2 mutants have a delayed entrainment to shifted light-dark cycles and adapt less efficiently to daytime feeding schedules. We propose that neurons in the dorsal division of LC contribute to the regulation of the forebrain clock, at least in part, through targeted release of noradrenaline into the cortical area.
|Otx2 regulates subtype specification and neurogenesis in the midbrain. |
Vernay, B; Koch, M; Vaccarino, F; Briscoe, J; Simeone, A; Kageyama, R; Ang, SL
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 25 4856-67 2005
The transcription factor Otx2 is required to determine mesencephalic versus metencephalic (cerebellum/pons) territory during embryogenesis. This function of Otx2 primarily involves positioning and maintaining the mid-hindbrain organizer at the border between midbrain and anterior hindbrain. Otx2 expression is maintained long after this organizer is established. We therefore generated conditional mutants of Otx2 using the Cre/loxP system to study later roles during rostral brain development. For inactivation of Otx2 in neuronal progenitor cells, we crossed Otx2(flox/flox) animals with Nestin-Cre transgenic animals. In Nestin-Cre/+; Otx2(flox/flox) embryos, Otx2 activity was lost from the ventral midbrain starting at embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5). In these mutant embryos, the mid-hindbrain organizer was properly positioned at E12.5, although Otx2 is absent from the midbrain. Hence, the Nestin-Cre/+; Otx2(flox/flox) animals represent a novel mouse model for studying the role of Otx2 in the midbrain, independently of abnormal development of the mid-hindbrain organizer. Our data demonstrate that Otx2 controls the development of several neuronal populations in the midbrain by regulating progenitor identity and neurogenesis. Dorsal midbrain progenitors ectopically expressed Math1 and generate an ectopic cerebellar-like structure. Similarly, Nkx2.2 ectopic expression ventrally into tegmentum progenitors is responsible for the formation of serotonergic neurons and hypoplasia of the red nucleus in the midbrain. In addition, we discovered a novel role for Otx2 in regulating neurogenesis of dopaminergic neurons. Altogether, these results demonstrate that Otx2 is required from E10.5 onward to regulate neuronal subtype identity and neurogenesis in the midbrain.
|Increased glutathione S-transferase activity rescues dopaminergic neuron loss in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease. |
Whitworth, AJ; Theodore, DA; Greene, JC; Benes, H; Wes, PD; Pallanck, LJ
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102 8024-9 2005
Loss-of-function mutations of the parkin gene are a major cause of early-onset parkinsonism. To explore the mechanism by which loss of parkin function results in neurodegeneration, we are using a genetic approach in Drosophila. Here, we show that Drosophila parkin mutants display degeneration of a subset of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the brain. The neurodegenerative phenotype of parkin mutants is enhanced by loss-of-function mutations of the glutathione S-transferase S1 (GstS1) gene, which were identified in an unbiased genetic screen for genes that modify parkin phenotypes. Furthermore, overexpression of GstS1 in DA neurons suppresses neurodegeneration in parkin mutants. Given the previous evidence for altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress in sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), these data suggest that the mechanism of DA neuron loss in Drosophila parkin mutants is similar to the mechanisms underlying sporadic PD. Moreover, these findings identify a potential therapeutic approach in treating PD.
|Directed differentiation of neural cells to hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons. |
Ohyama, K; Ellis, P; Kimura, S; Placzek, M
Development (Cambridge, England) 132 5185-97 2005
Hypothalamic neurons play a key role in homeostasis, yet little is known about their differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that Shh and Bmp7 from the adjacent prechordal mesoderm govern hypothalamic neural fate, their sequential action controlling hypothalamic dopaminergic neuron generation in a Six3-dependent manner. Our data suggest a temporal distinction in the requirement for the two signals. Shh acts early to specify dopaminergic neurotransmitter phenotype. Subsequently, Bmp7 acts on cells that are ventralised by Shh, establishing aspects of hypothalamic regional identity in late-differentiating/postmitotic cells. The concerted actions of Shh and Bmp7 can direct mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells to a hypothalamic dopaminergic fate ex vivo.
|Engrailed genes are cell-autonomously required to prevent apoptosis in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. |
Albéri, L; Sgadò, P; Simon, HH
Development (Cambridge, England) 131 3229-36 2004
The neuropathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease is the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, presumably mediated by apoptosis. The homeobox transcription factors engrailed 1 and engrailed 2 are expressed by this neuronal population from early in development to adulthood. Despite a large mid-hindbrain deletion in double mutants null for both genes, mesencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons are induced, become postmitotic and acquire their neurotransmitter phenotype. However, at birth, no mDA neurons are left. We show that the entire population of these neurons is lost by E14 in the mutant animals, earlier than in any other described genetic model system for Parkinson's disease. This disappearance is caused by apoptosis revealed by the presence of activated caspase 3 in the dying tyrosine hydroxylase-positive mutant cells. Furthermore, using in vitro cell mixing experiments and RNA interference on primary cell culture of ventral midbrain we were able to show that the demise of mDA neurons in the mutant mice is due to a cell-autonomously requirement of the engrailed genes and not a result of the missing mid-hindbrain tissue. Gene silencing in the postmitotic neurons by RNA interference activates caspase 3 and induces apoptosis in less than 24 hours. This rapid induction of cell death in mDA neurons suggests that the engrailed genes participate directly in the regulation of apoptosis, a proposed mechanism for Parkinson's disease.
|Electrophysiological, pharmacological, and molecular evidence for alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat midbrain dopamine neurons. |
Wu, J; George, AA; Schroeder, KM; Xu, L; Marxer-Miller, S; Lucero, L; Lukas, RJ
The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 311 80-91 2004
Dopamine (DA) neurons located in the mammalian midbrain have been generally implicated in reward and drug reinforcement and more specifically in nicotine dependence. However, roles played by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, including those composed of alpha7-subunits [alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs)], in modulation of DA signaling and in nicotine dependence are not clearly understood. Although midbrain slice recording has been used previously to identify functional alpha7-nAChRs, these preparations are not optimally designed for extremely rapid and reproducible drug application, and rapidly desensitized, alpha7-nAChR-mediated currents may have been underestimated or not detected. Here, we use patch-clamp, whole-cell current recordings from single neurons acutely dissociated from midbrain nuclei and having features of DA neurons to characterize acetylcholine-induced, inward currents that rapidly activate and desensitize, are mimicked by the alpha7-nAChR-selective agonist, choline, blocked by the alpha7-nAChR-selective antagonists, methyllycaconitine and alpha-bungarotoxin, and are similar to those of heterologously expressed, human alpha7-nAChRs. We also use reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, and immunocytochemical staining to demonstrate nAChR alpha7 subunit gene expression as message and protein in the rat substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area. Expression of alpha7 subunit message and of alpha7-nAChR-mediated responses is developmentally regulated, with both being absent in samples taken from rats at postnatal day 7, but later becoming present and increasing over the next 2 weeks. Collectively, this electrophysiological, pharmacological, and molecular evidence indicates that nAChR alpha7 subunits and functional alpha7-nAChRs are expressed somatodendritically by midbrain DA neurons, where they may play important physiological roles and contribute to nicotine reinforcement and dependence.
|Axon guidance of mouse olfactory sensory neurons by odorant receptors and the beta2 adrenergic receptor. |
Feinstein, P; Bozza, T; Rodriguez, I; Vassalli, A; Mombaerts, P
Cell 117 833-46 2004
Odorant receptors (ORs) provide the core determinant of identity for axons of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) to coalesce into glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Here, using gene targeting in mice, we examine how the OR protein determines axonal identity. An OR::GFP fusion protein is present in axons, consistent with a direct function of ORs in axon guidance. When the OR coding region is deleted, we observe OSNs that coexpress other ORs that function in odorant reception and axonal identity. It remains unclear if such coexpression is normally prevented by negative feedback on OR gene choice. A drastic reduction in OR protein level produces axonal coalescence into novel, remote glomeruli. By contrast, chimeric ORs and ORs with minor mutations perturb axon outgrowth. Strikingly, the beta2 adrenergic receptor can substitute for an OR in glomerular formation when expressed from an OR locus. Thus, ORs have not evolved a unique function in axon guidance.
|The generation of dopaminergic neurons by human neural stem cells is enhanced by Bcl-XL, both in vitro and in vivo. |
Liste, I; García-García, E; Martínez-Serrano, A
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 24 10786-95 2004
Progress in stem cell biology research is enhancing our ability to generate specific neuron types for basic and applied studies and to design new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. In the case of Parkinson's disease (PD), alternative human dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons other than primary fetal tissue do not yet exist. One possible source could be human neural stem cells (hNSCs), although the yield in DAergic neurons and their survival are very limited. [see figure]. In this study, we found that Bcl-X(L) enhances (one-to-two orders of magnitude) the capacity for spontaneous dopaminergic differentiation of hNSCs, which then exceeds that of cultured human ventral mesencephalic tissue. Bcl-X(L) also enhanced total neuron generation by hNSCs, but to a lower extent. Neuronal phenotypes other than DA were not affected by Bcl-X(L), indicating an exquisitely specific effect on DAergic neurons. In vivo, grafts of Bcl-X(L)-overexpressing hNSCs do generate surviving human TH+ neurons in the adult rat 6-OH-dopamine lesioned striatum, something never seen when naive hNSCs were transplanted. Most of the data obtained here in terms of the effects of Bcl-X(L) are consistent with an enhanced survival type of mechanism and not supportive of induction, specification, or proliferation of DAergic precursors. From this in vitro and in vivo evidence, we conclude that enhancing Bcl-X(L) expression is important to obtain human DAergic neurons from hNSCs. These findings may facilitate the development of drug-screening and cell-replacement activities to discover new therapeutic strategies for PD.
|GABAergic synapses made by a retinal dopaminergic neuron. |
Contini, M; Raviola, E
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100 1358-63 2003
In the retina, dopaminergic amacrine (interplexiform) cells establish multiple synapses on the perikarya of AII amacrines, the neurons that distribute rod signals to on- and off-cone bipolars. We used triple-label immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy to identify the receptors contained within the postsynaptic active zone of these synapses in both mouse and rat retinas. We found that at the interface between the dendrites of the dopaminergic neurons and the AII amacrine cell perikarya clusters of postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors are situated in register with aggregates of presynaptic organelles immunoreactive for GABA, the GABA vesicular transporter, and the vesicular monoamine transporter-2. D1 and D23 dopamine receptors, on the other hand, do not form clusters on the surface of the perikarya of AII amacrine cells. We suggest that the synapses between retinal dopaminergic neurons and AII amacrine cells are GABAergic and that both GABA and dopamine are released by the presynaptic endings. GABA acts on the ionotropic receptors clustered at the postsynaptic active zone, whereas dopamine diffuses to more distant, slower-acting metabotropic receptors.
|LY503430, a novel alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor potentiator with functional, neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects in rodent models of Parkinson's disease. |
Murray, TK; Whalley, K; Robinson, CS; Ward, MA; Hicks, CA; Lodge, D; Vandergriff, JL; Baumbarger, P; Siuda, E; Gates, M; Ogden, AM; Skolnick, P; Zimmerman, DM; Nisenbaum, ES; Bleakman, D; O'Neill, MJ
The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 306 752-62 2003
Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the brain. Recent developments in the molecular biology and pharmacology of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) subtype of glutamate receptors have led to the discovery of selective, potent, and systemically active AMPA receptor potentiators. These molecules enhance synaptic transmission and play important roles in plasticity and cognitive processes. In the present study, we first characterized a novel AMPA receptor potentiator, (R)-4'-[1-fluoro-1-methyl-2-(propane-2-sulfonylamino)-ethyl]-biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid methylamide (LY503430), on recombinant human GLUA1-4 and native preparations in vitro and then evaluated the potential neuroprotective effects of the molecule in rodent models of Parkinson's disease. Results indicated that submicromolar concentrations of LY503430 selectively enhanced glutamate-induced calcium influx into human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with human GLUA1, GLUA2, GLUA3, or GLUA4 AMPA receptors. The molecule also potentiated AMPA-mediated responses in native cortical, hippocampal, and substantia nigra neurons. We also report here that LY503430 provided dose-dependent functional and histological protection in animal models of Parkinson's disease. The neurotoxicity after unilateral infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine into either the substantia nigra or the striatum of rats and that after systemic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in mice were reduced. Interestingly, LY503430 also had neurotrophic actions on functional and histological outcomes when treatment was delayed until well after (6 or 14 days) the lesion was established. LY503430 also produced some increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the substantia nigra and a dose-dependent increases in growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) expression in the striatum. Therefore, we propose that AMPA receptor potentiators offer the potential of a new disease modifying therapy for Parkinson's disease.
|In vitro development of mouse embryonic stem cells lacking JNK/stress-activated protein kinase-associated protein 1 (JSAP1) scaffold protein revealed its requirement during early embryonic neurogenesis. |
Xu, P; Yoshioka, K; Yoshimura, D; Tominaga, Y; Nishioka, T; Ito, M; Nakabeppu, Y
The Journal of biological chemistry 278 48422-33 2003
The Jsap1 gene encodes a scaffold protein for c-Jun N-terminal kinase cascades. We established c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase-associated protein 1 (JSAP1)-null mouse embryonic stem cell lines by homologous recombination. The JSAP1-null embryonic stem cells were viable, however, exhibited hyperplasia of the ectoderm during embryoid body formation, and spontaneously differentiated into neurons more efficiently than did wild type. The expression of components of c-Jun N-terminal kinase cascades and a subset of marker mRNAs during early embryogenesis was altered in the JSAP1-null mutants. Retinoic acid dramatically increased the expression of JSAP1 and JNK3, which were co-precipitated with anti-JNK3 in the neuroectoderm of wild type but not JSAP1-null embryoid bodies. In the neurons differentiated from the wild type embryoid bodies, JSAP1 was localized in the soma, neurites, and growth cone-like structure of the neurites, and neurite outgrowth from the JSAP1-null embryoid bodies was apparently less efficient than from wild type. JSAP1 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 were coexpressed in the embryonic ectoderm of E7.5 mouse embryo, whereas Wnt1 and Pax2 were coexpressed with JSAP1 at the midbrain-hindbrain junction in E12.5 mouse embryo, thus suggesting that JSAP1 is required for early embryonic neurogenesis.
|Apoptotic-like changes in Lewy-body-associated disorders and normal aging in substantia nigral neurons. |
Tompkins, MM; Basgall, EJ; Zamrini, E; Hill, WD
The American journal of pathology 150 119-31 1997
In Parkinson's disease and other Lewy-body-associated disorders, the substantia nigra pars compacta undergoes degeneration, but the mechanism of cell death has not been previously described. The substantia nigra of normal and Alzheimer's disease cases were compared with substantia nigra from patients with Lewy-body-associated disorders (Parkinson's disease, concomitant Alzheimer's/Parkinson's disease, and diffuse Lewy body disease) using in situ end labeling to detect fragmented DNA. In situ end-labeled neurons demonstrated changes resembling apoptosis: nuclear condensation, chromatin fragmentation, and formation of apoptotic-like bodies. Ultrastructural analysis confirmed nuclear condensation and formation of apoptotic-like bodies. Apoptotic-like changes were seen in the substantia nigra of both normal and diseased cases; concomitant Alzheimer's/Parkinson's disease and diffuse Lewy body disease cases had significantly higher amounts of apoptotic-like changes than normal controls or Alzheimer patients. The finding of neuronal death by apoptosis may have relevance for the development of new treatment strategies for Parkinson's disease and related disorders.
|SNAP i.d. 2.0 System Brochure|
|Millipore Tools for Characterizing Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells|
|Dopamine Selectively Predisposes Dopaminergic Neurons In Primary Mesencephalic Cultures To Damage By An Oxidative Insult|