Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|R, M, H, Av||ICC, IHC, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 6 months at -20°C in undiluted from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
References | 12 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Fat Deposition and Inflammation in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Sympathetic Activity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet. |
Dinh, CH; Szabo, A; Yu, Y; Camer, D; Zhang, Q; Wang, H; Huang, XF
Nutrients 7 4705-23 2015
Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7) of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/BARD), or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. BARD was administered daily in drinking water. Interscapular BAT, and ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem, were collected for analysis by histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. BARD prevented fat deposition in BAT, demonstrated by the decreased accumulation of lipid droplets. When administered BARD, HFD mice had lower numbers of F4/80 and CD11c macrophages in the BAT with an increased proportion of CD206 macrophages, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD increased phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in BAT and VLM. In the VLM, BARD increased energy expenditure proteins, including beta 3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). Overall, oral BARD prevented fat deposition and inflammation in BAT, and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity.
|Unique Effects of Acute Aripiprazole Treatment on the Dopamine D2 Receptor Downstream cAMP-PKA and Akt-GSK3β Signalling Pathways in Rats. |
Pan, B; Chen, J; Lian, J; Huang, XF; Deng, C
PloS one 10 e0132722 2015
Aripiprazole is a wide-used antipsychotic drug with therapeutic effects on both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and reduced side-effects. Although aripiprazole was developed as a dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) partial agonist, all other D2R partial agonists that aimed to mimic aripiprazole failed to exert therapeutic effects in clinic. The present in vivo study aimed to investigate the effects of aripiprazole on the D2R downstream cAMP-PKA and Akt-GSK3β signalling pathways in comparison with a D2R antagonist--haloperidol and a D2R partial agonist--bifeprunox. Rats were injected once with aripiprazole (0.75 mg/kg, i.p.), bifeprunox (0.8 mg/kg, i.p.), haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle. Five brain regions--the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), caudate putamen (CPu), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN) were collected. The protein levels of PKA, Akt and GSK3β were measured by Western Blotting; the cAMP levels were examined by ELISA tests. The results showed that aripiprazole presented similar acute effects on PKA expression to haloperidol, but not bifeprunox, in the CPU and VTA. Additionally, aripiprazole was able to increase the phosphorylation of GSK3β in the PFC, NAc, CPu and SN, respectively, which cannot be achieved by bifeprunox and haloperidol. These results suggested that acute treatment of aripiprazole had differential effects on the cAMP-PKA and Akt-GSK3β signalling pathways from haloperidol and bifeprunox in these brain areas. This study further indicated that, by comparison with bifeprunox, the unique pharmacological profile of aripiprazole may be attributed to the relatively lower intrinsic activity at D2R.
|Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibition enhances the dopamine D1 receptor/PKA/DARPP-32 signaling cascade in frontal cortex. |
Mahomi Kuroiwa,Gretchen L Snyder,Takahide Shuto,Atsuo Fukuda,Yuchio Yanagawa,David R Benavides,Angus C Nairn,James A Bibb,Paul Greengard,Akinori Nishi
Psychopharmacology 219 2012
Alteration of dopamine neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex, especially hypofunction of dopamine D1 receptors, contributes to psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. D1 receptors signal through the cAMP/PKA second messenger cascade, which is modulated by phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes that hydrolyze and inactivate cyclic nucleotides. Though several PDEs are expressed in cortical neurons, the PDE4 enzyme family (PDE4A-D) has been implicated in the control of cognitive function. The best studied isoform, PDE4B, interacts with a schizophrenia susceptibility factor, disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1).
|Restricted role of CRF1 receptor for the activity of brainstem catecholaminergic neurons in the negative state of morphine withdrawal. |
Juan-Antonio Garcia-Carmona,Pilar Almela,Alberto Baroja-Mazo,M Victoria Milanes,M Luisa Laorden
Psychopharmacology 220 2012
Evidence suggests that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system is an important mediator in the negative symptoms of opioid withdrawal.
|Role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 on the catecholaminergic response to morphine withdrawal in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). |
Almela, P; Navarro-Zaragoza, J; García-Carmona, JA; Mora, L; Hidalgo, J; Milanés, MV; Laorden, ML
PloS one 7 e47089 2012
Stress induces the release of the peptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) into the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and also increases dopamine (DA) levels in brain regions receiving dense VTA input. Since the role of stress in drug addiction is well established, the present study examined the possible involvement of CRF1 receptor in the interaction between morphine withdrawal and catecholaminergic pathways in the reward system. The effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal on signs of withdrawal, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity, dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) turnover in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and activation of VTA dopaminergic neurons, were investigated in rats pretreated with vehicle or CP-154,526 (selective CRF1R antagonist). CP-154,526 attenuated the increases in body weight loss and suppressed some of withdrawal signs. Pretreatment with CRF1 receptor antagonist resulted in no significant modification of the increased NA turnover at NAc or plasma corticosterone levels that were seen during morphine withdrawal. However, blockade of CRF1 receptor significantly reduced morphine withdrawal-induced increases in plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) levels, DA turnover and TH phosphorylation at Ser40 in the NAc. In addition, CP-154,526 reduced the number of TH containing neurons expressing c-Fos in the VTA after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. Altogether, these results support the idea that VTA dopaminergic neurons are activated in response to naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and suggest that CRF1 receptors are involved in the activation of dopaminergic pathways which project to NAc.
|Genetic deletion of trace amine 1 receptors reveals their role in auto-inhibiting the actions of ecstasy (MDMA). |
Di Cara, B; Maggio, R; Aloisi, G; Rivet, JM; Lundius, EG; Yoshitake, T; Svenningsson, P; Brocco, M; Gobert, A; De Groote, L; Cistarelli, L; Veiga, S; De Montrion, C; Rodriguez, M; Galizzi, JP; Lockhart, BP; Cogé, F; Boutin, JA; Vayer, P; Verdouw, PM; Groenink, L; Millan, MJ
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 16928-40 2011
"Ecstasy" [3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine (MDMA)] is of considerable interest in light of its prosocial properties and risks associated with widespread recreational use. Recently, it was found to bind trace amine-1 receptors (TA(1)Rs), which modulate dopaminergic transmission. Accordingly, using mice genetically deprived of TA(1)R (TA(1)-KO), we explored their significance to the actions of MDMA, which robustly activated human adenylyl cyclase-coupled TA(1)R transfected into HeLa cells. In wild-type (WT) mice, MDMA elicited a time-, dose-, and ambient temperature-dependent hypothermia and hyperthermia, whereas TA(1)-KO mice displayed hyperthermia only. MDMA-induced increases in dialysate levels of dopamine (DA) in dorsal striatum were amplified in TA(1)-KO mice, despite identical levels of MDMA itself. A similar facilitation of the influence of MDMA upon dopaminergic transmission was acquired in frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, and induction of locomotion by MDMA was haloperidol-reversibly potentiated in TA(1)-KO versus WT mice. Conversely, genetic deletion of TA(1)R did not affect increases in DA levels evoked by para-chloroamphetamine (PCA), which was inactive at hTA(1) sites. The TA(1)R agonist o-phenyl-3-iodotyramine (o-PIT) blunted the DA-releasing actions of PCA both in vivo (dialysis) and in vitro (synaptosomes) in WT but not TA(1)-KO animals. MDMA-elicited increases in dialysis levels of serotonin (5-HT) were likewise greater in TA(1)-KO versus WT mice, and 5-HT-releasing actions of PCA were blunted in vivo and in vitro by o-PIT in WT mice only. In conclusion, TA(1)Rs exert an inhibitory influence on both dopaminergic and serotonergic transmission, and MDMA auto-inhibits its neurochemical and functional actions by recruitment of TA(1)R. These observations have important implications for the effects of MDMA in humans.
|Serine 129 phosphorylation reduces the ability of alpha-synuclein to regulate tyrosine hydroxylase and protein phosphatase 2A in vitro and in vivo. |
Lou, H; Montoya, SE; Alerte, TN; Wang, J; Wu, J; Peng, X; Hong, CS; Friedrich, EE; Mader, SA; Pedersen, CJ; Marcus, BS; McCormack, AL; Di Monte, DA; Daubner, SC; Perez, RG
The Journal of biological chemistry 285 17648-61 2010
Alpha-synuclein (a-Syn), a protein implicated in Parkinson disease, contributes significantly to dopamine metabolism. a-Syn binding inhibits the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis. Phosphorylation of TH stimulates its activity, an effect that is reversed by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). In cells, a-Syn overexpression activates PP2A. Here we demonstrate that a-Syn significantly inhibited TH activity in vitro and in vivo and that phosphorylation of a-Syn serine 129 (Ser-129) modulated this effect. In MN9D cells, a-Syn overexpression reduced TH serine 19 phosphorylation (Ser(P)-19). In dopaminergic tissues from mice overexpressing human a-Syn in catecholamine neurons only, TH-Ser-19 and TH-Ser-40 phosphorylation and activity were also reduced, whereas PP2A was more active. Cerebellum, which lacks excess a-Syn, had PP2A activity identical to controls. Conversely, a-Syn knock-out mice had elevated TH-Ser-19 phosphorylation and activity and less active PP2A in dopaminergic tissues. Using an a-Syn Ser-129 dephosphorylation mimic, with serine mutated to alanine, TH was more inhibited, whereas PP2A was more active in vitro and in vivo. Phosphorylation of a-Syn Ser-129 by Polo-like-kinase 2 in vitro reduced the ability of a-Syn to inhibit TH or activate PP2A, identifying a novel regulatory role for Ser-129 on a-Syn. These findings extend our understanding of normal a-Syn biology and have implications for the dopamine dysfunction of Parkinson disease.Full Text Article
|14-3-3zeta contributes to tyrosine hydroxylase activity in MN9D cells: localization of dopamine regulatory proteins to mitochondria. |
Wang, J; Lou, H; Pedersen, CJ; Smith, AD; Perez, RG
The Journal of biological chemistry 284 14011-9 2009
The 14-3-3 proteins stimulate the activation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme. To explore if particular endogenous 14-3-3 isoforms specifically affected TH activity and dopamine synthesis, we utilized rodent nigrostriatal tissues and midbrain-derived MN9D dopaminergic cells. Extracts from ventral midbrain and MN9D cells contained similar pools of 14-3-3 mRNAs, with 14-3-3zeta being relatively abundant in both. Protein levels of 14-3-3zeta were also abundant. [(32)P]Orthophosphate labeling of MN9D cells, followed by co-immunoprecipitation with pan-TH and pan-14-3-3 antibodies brought down similar amounts of phosphorylated TH in each, confirming that 14-3-3-bound phosphorylated TH in our cells. Co-immunoprecipitation of striatal tissues with a pan-TH antibody precipitated 14-3-3zeta but not another potential TH regulatory isoform, 14-3-3eta. In whole cell extracts from MN9D cells after 14-3-3 small interfering RNA treatments, we found that 14-3-3zeta knockdown significantly reduced TH activity and dopamine synthesis whereas knockdown of 14-3-3eta had no effect. 14-3-3zeta was found co-localized on mitochondria with TH, and its knockdown by small interfering RNA reduced TH phosphorylation and TH activity in the mitochondrial pool. Together the data support a role for 14-3-3zeta as an endogenous activator of TH in midbrain dopaminergic neurons and furthermore, identify mitochondria as a potential novel site for dopamine synthesis, with implications for Parkinson disease.Full Text Article
|Distinct roles of PDE4 and PDE10A in the regulation of cAMP/PKA signaling in the striatum. |
Nishi, A; Kuroiwa, M; Miller, DB; O'Callaghan, JP; Bateup, HS; Shuto, T; Sotogaku, N; Fukuda, T; Heintz, N; Greengard, P; Snyder, GL
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 10460-71 2008
Phosphodiesterase (PDE) is a critical regulator of cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling in cells. Multiple PDEs with different substrate specificities and subcellular localization are expressed in neurons. Dopamine plays a central role in the regulation of motor and cognitive functions. The effect of dopamine is largely mediated through the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade, and therefore controlled by PDE activity. We used in vitro and in vivo biochemical techniques to dissect the roles of PDE4 and PDE10A in dopaminergic neurotransmission in mouse striatum by monitoring the ability of selective PDE inhibitors to regulate phosphorylation of presynaptic [e.g., tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)] and postsynaptic [e.g., dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of M(r) 32 kDa (DARPP-32)] PKA substrates. The PDE4 inhibitor, rolipram, induced a large increase in TH Ser40 phosphorylation at dopaminergic terminals that was associated with a commensurate increase in dopamine synthesis and turnover in striatum in vivo. Rolipram induced a small increase in DARPP-32 Thr34 phosphorylation preferentially in striatopallidal neurons by activating adenosine A(2A) receptor signaling in striatum. In contrast, the PDE10A inhibitor, papaverine, had no effect on TH phosphorylation or dopamine turnover, but instead robustly increased DARPP-32 Thr34 and GluR1 Ser845 phosphorylation in striatal neurons. Inhibition of PDE10A by papaverine activated cAMP/PKA signaling in both striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons, resulting in potentiation of dopamine D(1) receptor signaling and inhibition of dopamine D(2) receptor signaling. These biochemical results are supported by immunohistochemical data demonstrating differential localization of PDE10A and PDE4 in striatum. These data underscore the importance of individual brain-enriched cyclic-nucleotide PDE isoforms as therapeutic targets for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders affecting dopamine neurotransmission.Full Text Article
|Regulation of serine (Ser)-31 and Ser40 tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation during morphine withdrawal in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and nucleus tractus solitarius-A2 cell group: role of ERK1/2. |
Cristina Núñez, M Luisa Laorden, M Victoria Milanés
Endocrinology 148 5780-93 2007
Our previous studies have shown that naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal increases the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity, which is dependent on a hyperactivity of noradrenergic pathways [nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) A(2)] innervating the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Short-term regulation of catecholamine biosynthesis occurs through phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which enhances enzymatic activity. In the present study, the effect of morphine withdrawal on site-specific TH phosphorylation in the PVN and NTS-A(2) was determined by quantitative blot immunolabeling and immunohistochemistry using phosphorylation state-specific antibodies. We show that naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal phosphorylates TH at Serine (Ser)-31 but not Ser40 in PVN and NTS-A(2), which is associated with both an increase in total TH immunoreactivity in NTS-A(2) and an enhanced TH activity in the PVN. In addition, we demonstrated that TH neurons phosphorylated at Ser31 coexpress c-Fos in NTS-A(2). We then tested whether pharmacological inhibition of ERK activation by ERK kinase contributes to morphine withdrawal-induced phosphorylation of TH at Ser31. We show that the ability of morphine withdrawal to stimulate phosphorylation at this seryl residue is reduced by SL327, an inhibitor of ERK(1/2) activation. These results suggest that morphine withdrawal increases noradrenaline turnover in the PVN, at least in part, via ERK(1/2)-dependent phosphorylation of TH at Ser31.
|Alpha-synuclein activation of protein phosphatase 2A reduces tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation in dopaminergic cells. |
Peng, X; Peng, XM; Tehranian, R; Dietrich, P; Stefanis, L; Perez, RG
Journal of cell science 118 3523-30 2005
alpha-Synuclein is an abundant presynaptic protein implicated in neuronal plasticity and neurodegenerative diseases. Although the function of alpha-synuclein is not thoroughly elucidated, we found that alpha-synuclein regulates dopamine synthesis by binding to and inhibiting tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. Understanding alpha-synuclein function in dopaminergic cells should add to our knowledge of this key protein, which is implicated in Parkinson's disease and other disorders. Herein, we report a mechanism by which alpha-synuclein diminishes tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation and activity in stably transfected dopaminergic cells. Short-term regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase depends on the phosphorylation of key seryl residues in the amino-terminal regulatory domain of the protein. Of these, Ser40 contributes significantly to tyrosine hydroxylase activation and dopamine synthesis. We observed that alpha-synuclein overexpression caused reduced Ser40 phosphorylation in MN9D cells and inducible PC12 cells. Ser40 is phosphorylated chiefly by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase PKA and dephosphorylated almost exclusively by the protein phosphatase, PP2A. Therefore, we measured the impact of alpha-synuclein overexpression on levels and activity of PKA and PP2A in our cells. PKA was unaffected by alpha-synuclein. PP2A protein levels also were unchanged, however, the activity of PP2A increased in parallel with alpha-synuclein expression. Inhibition of PP2A dramatically increased Ser40 phosphorylation only in alpha-synuclein overexpressors in which alpha-synuclein was also found to co-immunoprecipitate with PP2A. Together the data reveal a functional interaction between alpha-synuclein and PP2A that leads to PP2A activation and underscores a key role for alpha-synuclein in protein phosphorylation.
|Activity-dependent phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in dopaminergic neurons of the rat retina. |
Witkovsky, Paul, et al.
J. Neurosci., 24: 4242-9 (2004) 2004
We studied in vivo activity-dependent phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the rat retina. TH phosphorylation (TH-P) was evaluated by immunocytochemistry, using antibodies specific for each of three regulated phosphorylation sites. TH synthesis rate was measured by dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) accumulation in the presence of NSD-1015, an inhibitor of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. TH-P was increased markedly by light or after intraocular injection of GABA(A) and glycine inhibitors. All three phosphospecific antibodies responded similarly to test drugs or light. A 30 min exposure to light increased DOPA accumulation by threefold over that seen after 30 min in darkness. Immunostaining to an anti-panNa channel antibody was found in all parts of the DA neuron. TTX blocked TH-P induced by light or GABA/glycine inhibitors but only in varicosities of the DA axon plexus, not in perikarya or dendrites. Veratridine increased TH-P in all parts of the DA neuron. The distribution of the monoamine vesicular transporter 2 was shown by immunocytochemistry to reside in varicosities of the DA plexus but not in dendrites, indicating that the varicosities are sites of dopamine release. Collectively, these data indicate that, in the retina, dopamine synthesis in varicosities is affected by the spiking activity of retinal neurons, possibly including that of the DA neurons themselves.
|Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase, phosphoSer 40 - Data Sheet|