Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R, Ma, Pl, Su||ICC, IH(P), WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal in buffer containing liquid PBS.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||50 µg|
|Anti-Tubulin, Detyrosinated - 2074022||2074022|
|Anti-Tubulin, Detyrosinated - 2383953||2383953|
|Anti-Tubulin, Detyrosinated - 2442213||2442213|
|Anti-Tubulin, Detyrosinated - 1951917||1951917|
|Anti-Tubulin, Detyrosinated - 1972274||1972274|
|Anti-Tubulin, Detyrosinated - 1991230||1991230|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|AMPK activation promotes lipid droplet dispersion on detyrosinated microtubules to increase mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.|
Herms, A; Bosch, M; Reddy, BJ; Schieber, NL; Fajardo, A; Rupérez, C; Fernández-Vidal, A; Ferguson, C; Rentero, C; Tebar, F; Enrich, C; Parton, RG; Gross, SP; Pol, A
Nature communications 6 7176 2015
Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular organelles that provide fatty acids (FAs) to cellular processes including synthesis of membranes and production of metabolic energy. While known to move bidirectionally along microtubules (MTs), the role of LD motion and whether it facilitates interaction with other organelles are unclear. Here we show that during nutrient starvation, LDs and mitochondria relocate on detyrosinated MT from the cell centre to adopt a dispersed distribution. In the cell periphery, LD-mitochondria interactions increase and LDs efficiently supply FAs for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. This cellular adaptation requires the activation of the energy sensor AMPK, which in response to starvation simultaneously increases LD motion, reorganizes the network of detyrosinated MTs and activates mitochondria. In conclusion, we describe the existence of a specialized cellular network connecting the cellular energetic status and MT dynamics to coordinate the functioning of LDs and mitochondria during nutrient scarcity.
|Using the avian mutant talpid2 as a disease model for understanding the oral-facial phenotypes of oral-facial-digital syndrome.|
Schock, EN; Chang, CF; Struve, JN; Chang, YT; Chang, J; Delany, ME; Brugmann, SA
Disease models & mechanisms 8 855-66 2015
Oral-facial-digital syndrome (OFD) is a ciliopathy that is characterized by oral-facial abnormalities, including cleft lip and/or palate, broad nasal root, dental anomalies, micrognathia and glossal defects. In addition, these individuals have several other characteristic abnormalities that are typical of a ciliopathy, including polysyndactyly, polycystic kidneys and hypoplasia of the cerebellum. Recently, a subset of OFD cases in humans has been linked to mutations in the centriolar protein C2 Ca(2+)-dependent domain-containing 3 (C2CD3). Our previous work identified mutations in C2CD3 as the causal genetic lesion for the avian talpid(2) mutant. Based on this common genetic etiology, we re-examined the talpid(2) mutant biochemically and phenotypically for characteristics of OFD. We found that, as in OFD-affected individuals, protein-protein interactions between C2CD3 and oral-facial-digital syndrome 1 protein (OFD1) are reduced in talpid(2) cells. Furthermore, we found that all common phenotypes were conserved between OFD-affected individuals and avian talpid(2) mutants. In light of these findings, we utilized the talpid(2) model to examine the cellular basis for the oral-facial phenotypes present in OFD. Specifically, we examined the development and differentiation of cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs) when C2CD3-dependent ciliogenesis was impaired. Our studies suggest that although disruptions of C2CD3-dependent ciliogenesis do not affect CNCC specification or proliferation, CNCC migration and differentiation are disrupted. Loss of C2CD3-dependent ciliogenesis affects the dispersion and directional persistence of migratory CNCCs. Furthermore, loss of C2CD3-dependent ciliogenesis results in dysmorphic and enlarged CNCC-derived facial cartilages. Thus, these findings suggest that aberrant CNCC migration and differentiation could contribute to the pathology of oral-facial defects in OFD.
|Shh Signaling through the Primary Cilium Modulates Rat Oligodendrocyte Differentiation.|
Falcón-Urrutia, P; Carrasco, CM; Lois, P; Palma, V; Roth, AD
PloS one 10 e0133567 2015
Primary Cilia (PC) are a very likely place for signal integration where multiple signaling pathways converge. Two major signaling pathways clearly shown to signal through the PC, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and PDGF-Rα, are particularly important for the proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocytes, suggesting that their interaction occurs in or around this organelle. We identified PC in rat oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and found that, while easily detectable in early OPCs, PC are lost as these cells progress to terminal differentiation. We confirmed the interaction between these pathways, as cyclopamine inhibition of Hedgehog function impairs both PDGF-mediated OPC proliferation and Shh-dependent cell branching. However, we failed to detect PDGF-Rα localization into the PC. Remarkably, ciliobrevin-mediated disruption of PC and reduction of OPC process extension was counteracted by recombinant Shh treatment, while PDGF had no effect. Therefore, while PDGF-Rα-dependent OPC proliferation and survival most probably does not initiate at the PC, still the integrity of this organelle and cilium-centered pathway is necessary for OPC survival and differentiation.
|A Mec17-Myosin II Effector Axis Coordinates Microtubule Acetylation and Actin Dynamics to Control Primary Cilium Biogenesis.|
Rao, Y; Hao, R; Wang, B; Yao, TP
PloS one 9 e114087 2014
Primary cilia are specialized, acetylated microtubule-based signaling processes. Cilium assembly is activated by cellular quiescence and requires reconfiguration of microtubules, the actin cytoskeleton, and vesicular trafficking machinery. How these components are coordinated to activate ciliogenesis remains unknown. Here we identify the microtubule acetyltransferase Mec-17 and myosin II motors as the key effectors in primary cilium biogenesis. We found that myosin IIB (Myh10) is required for cilium formation; however, myosin IIA (Myh9) suppresses it. Myh10 binds and antagonizes Myh9 to increase actin dynamics, which facilitates the assembly of the pericentrosomal preciliary complex (PPC) that supplies materials for cilium growth. Importantly, Myh10 expression is upregulated by serum-starvation and this induction requires Mec-17, which is itself accumulated upon cellular quiescence. Pharmacological stimulation of microtubule acetylation also induces Myh10 expression and cilium formation. Thus cellular quiescence induces Mec17 to couple the production of acetylated microtubules and Myh10, whose accumulation overcomes the inhibitory role of Myh9 and initiates ciliogenesis.
|Effects of α-tubulin K40 acetylation and detyrosination on kinesin-1 motility in a purified system.|
Kaul, N; Soppina, V; Verhey, KJ
Biophysical journal 106 2636-43 2014
Long-range transport in cells is achieved primarily through motor-based transport along a network of microtubule tracks. Targeted transport by kinesin motors can be correlated with posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of the tubulin subunits in specific microtubules. To directly examine the influence of specific PTMs on kinesin-1 motility, we generated tubulin subunits that were either enriched in or lacking acetylation of α-tubulin lysine 40 (K40) or detyrosination of the α-tubulin C-terminal tail. We show that K40 acetylation does not result in significant changes in kinesin-1's landing rate or motility parameters (velocity and run length) across experimental conditions. In contrast, detyrosination causes a moderate increase in kinesin-1's landing rate. The fact that the effects of detyrosination are dampened by prior K40 acetylation indicates that the combination of PTMs may be an important aspect of the functional output of microtubule heterogeneity. Importantly, our results indicate that the moderate influences that single PTMs have on kinesin-1 in vitro do not explain the strong correlation between specific PTMs and kinesin-1 transport in cells. Thus, additional mechanisms for regulating kinesin-1 transport in cells must be explored in future work.
|The cellular and molecular etiology of the craniofacial defects in the avian ciliopathic mutant talpid2.|
Chang, CF; Schock, EN; O'Hare, EA; Dodgson, J; Cheng, HH; Muir, WM; Edelmann, RE; Delany, ME; Brugmann, SA
Development (Cambridge, England) 141 3003-12 2014
talpid(2) is an avian autosomal recessive mutant with a myriad of congenital malformations, including polydactyly and facial clefting. Although phenotypically similar to talpid(3), talpid(2) has a distinct facial phenotype and an unknown cellular, molecular and genetic basis. We set out to determine the etiology of the craniofacial phenotype of this mutant. We confirmed that primary cilia were disrupted in talpid(2) mutants. Molecularly, we found disruptions in Hedgehog signaling. Post-translational processing of GLI2 and GLI3 was aberrant in the developing facial prominences. Although both GLI2 and GLI3 processing were disrupted in talpid(2) mutants, only GLI3 activator levels were significantly altered in the nucleus. Through additional fine mapping and whole-genome sequencing, we determined that the talpid(2) phenotype was linked to a 1.4 Mb region on GGA1q that contained the gene encoding the ciliary protein C2CD3. We cloned the avian ortholog of C2CD3 and found its expression was ubiquitous, but most robust in the developing limbs and facial prominences. Furthermore, we found that C2CD3 is localized proximal to the ciliary axoneme and is important for docking the mother centriole to the ciliary vesicle and cell membrane. Finally, we identified a 19 bp deletion in talpid(2) C2CD3 that produces a premature stop codon, and thus a truncated protein, as the likely causal allele for the phenotype. Together, these data provide insight into the cellular, molecular and genetic etiology of the talpid(2) phenotype. Our data suggest that, although the talpid(2) and talpid(3) mutations affect a common ciliogenesis pathway, they are caused by mutations in different ciliary proteins that result in differences in craniofacial phenotype.
|ATMIN is a transcriptional regulator of both lung morphogenesis and ciliogenesis.|
Goggolidou, P; Stevens, JL; Agueci, F; Keynton, J; Wheway, G; Grimes, DT; Patel, SH; Hilton, H; Morthorst, SK; DiPaolo, A; Williams, DJ; Sanderson, J; Khoronenkova, SV; Powles-Glover, N; Ermakov, A; Esapa, CT; Romero, R; Dianov, GL; Briscoe, J; Johnson, CA; Pedersen, LB; Norris, DP
Development (Cambridge, England) 141 3966-77 2014
Initially identified in DNA damage repair, ATM-interactor (ATMIN) further functions as a transcriptional regulator of lung morphogenesis. Here we analyse three mouse mutants, Atmin(gpg6/gpg6), Atmin(H210Q/H210Q) and Dynll1(GT/GT), revealing how ATMIN and its transcriptional target dynein light chain LC8-type 1 (DYNLL1) are required for normal lung morphogenesis and ciliogenesis. Expression screening of ciliogenic genes confirmed Dynll1 to be controlled by ATMIN and further revealed moderately altered expression of known intraflagellar transport (IFT) protein-encoding loci in Atmin mutant embryos. Significantly, Dynll1(GT/GT) embryonic cilia exhibited shortening and bulging, highly similar to the characterised retrograde IFT phenotype of Dync2h1. Depletion of ATMIN or DYNLL1 in cultured cells recapitulated the in vivo ciliogenesis phenotypes and expression of DYNLL1 or the related DYNLL2 rescued the effects of loss of ATMIN, demonstrating that ATMIN primarily promotes ciliogenesis by regulating Dynll1 expression. Furthermore, DYNLL1 as well as DYNLL2 localised to cilia in puncta, consistent with IFT particles, and physically interacted with WDR34, a mammalian homologue of the Chlamydomonas cytoplasmic dynein 2 intermediate chain that also localised to the cilium. This study extends the established Atmin-Dynll1 relationship into a developmental and a ciliary context, uncovering a novel series of interactions between DYNLL1, WDR34 and ATMIN. This identifies potential novel components of cytoplasmic dynein 2 and furthermore provides fresh insights into the molecular pathogenesis of human skeletal ciliopathies.
|HIV-1 induces the formation of stable microtubules to enhance early infection.|
Sabo, Y; Walsh, D; Barry, DS; Tinaztepe, S; de Los Santos, K; Goff, SP; Gundersen, GG; Naghavi, MH
Cell host & microbe 14 535-46 2013
Stable microtubule (MT) subsets form distinct networks from dynamic MTs and acquire distinguishing posttranslational modifications, notably detyrosination and acetylation. Acting as specialized tracks for vesicle and macromolecular transport, their formation is regulated by the end-binding protein EB1, which recruits proteins that stabilize MTs. We show that HIV-1 induces the formation of acetylated and detyrosinated stable MTs early in infection. Although the MT depolymerizing agent nocodazole affected dynamic MTs, HIV-1 particles localized to nocodazole-resistant stable MTs, and infection was minimally affected. EB1 depletion or expression of an EB1 carboxy-terminal fragment that acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of MT stabilization prevented HIV-1-induced stable MT formation and suppressed early viral infection. Furthermore, we show that the HIV-1 matrix protein targets the EB1-binding protein Kif4 to induce MT stabilization. Our findings illustrate how specialized MT-binding proteins mediate MT stabilization by HIV-1 and the importance of stable MT subsets in viral infection.
|α2-Chimaerin regulates a key axon guidance transition during development of the oculomotor projection.|
Clark, C; Austen, O; Poparic, I; Guthrie, S
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 16540-51 2013
The ocular motor system consists of three nerves which innervate six muscles to control eye movements. In humans, defective development of this system leads to eye movement disorders, such as Duane Retraction Syndrome, which can result from mutations in the α2-chimaerin signaling molecule. We have used the zebrafish to model the role of α2-chimaerin during development of the ocular motor system. We first mapped ocular motor spatiotemporal development, which occurs between 24 and 72 h postfertilization (hpf), with the oculomotor nerve following an invariant sequence of growth and branching to its muscle targets. We identified 52 hpf as a key axon guidance "transition," when oculomotor axons reach the orbit and select their muscle targets. Live imaging and quantitation showed that, at 52 hpf, axons undergo a switch in behavior, with striking changes in the dynamics of filopodia. We tested the role of α2-chimaerin in this guidance process and found that axons expressing gain-of-function α2-chimaerin isoforms failed to undergo the 52 hpf transition in filopodial dynamics, leading to axon stalling. α2-chimaerin loss of function led to ecotopic and misguided branching and hypoplasia of oculomotor axons; embryos had defective eye movements as measured by the optokinetic reflex. Manipulation of chimaerin signaling in oculomotor neurons in vitro led to changes in microtubule stability. These findings demonstrate that a correct level of α2-chimaerin signaling is required for key oculomotor axon guidance decisions, and provide a zebrafish model for Duane Retraction Syndrome.
|Tubulin acetyltransferase αTAT1 destabilizes microtubules independently of its acetylation activity.|
Kalebic, N; Martinez, C; Perlas, E; Hublitz, P; Bilbao-Cortes, D; Fiedorczuk, K; Andolfo, A; Heppenstall, PA
Molecular and cellular biology 33 1114-23 2013
Acetylation of α-tubulin at lysine 40 (K40) is a well-conserved posttranslational modification that marks long-lived microtubules but has poorly understood functional significance. Recently, αTAT1, a member of the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily, has been identified as an α-tubulin acetyltransferase in ciliated organisms. Here, we explored the function of αTAT1 with the aim of understanding the consequences of αTAT1-mediated microtubule acetylation. We demonstrate that α-tubulin is the major target of αTAT1 but that αTAT1 also acetylates itself in a regulatory mechanism that is required for effective modification of tubulin. We further show that in mammalian cells, αTAT1 promotes microtubule destabilization and accelerates microtubule dynamics. Intriguingly, this effect persists in an αTAT1 mutant with no acetyltransferase activity, suggesting that interaction of αTAT1 with microtubules, rather than acetylation per se, is the critical factor regulating microtubule stability. Our data demonstrate that αTAT1 has cellular functions that extend beyond its classical enzymatic activity as an α-tubulin acetyltransferase.
|Anti-Tubulin, Detyrosinated - Data Sheet|