Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|M, R||WB, ICC, IHC||Sh||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Affinity purified immunoglobulin. Liquid in PBS.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 6 months after date of receipt. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Functional effects of mutations in the tropomyosin-binding sites of tropomodulin1 and tropomodulin3. |
Lewis, RA; Yamashiro, S; Gokhin, DS; Fowler, VM
Cytoskeleton (Hoboken, N.J.) 71 395-411 2014
Tropomodulins (Tmods) interact with tropomyosins (TMs) via two TM-binding sites and cap the pointed ends of TM-coated actin filaments. To study the functional interplay between TM binding and TM-actin filament capping by Tmods, we introduced disabling mutations into the first, second, or both TM-binding sites of full-length Tmod1 (Tmod1-L27G, Tmod1-I131D, and Tmod1-L27G/I131D, respectively) and full-length Tmod3 (Tmod3-L29G, Tmod3-L134D, and Tmod3-L29G/L134D, respectively). Tmod1 and Tmod3 showed somewhat different TM-binding site utilization, but nearly all TM binding was abolished in Tmod1-L27G/I131D and Tmod3-L29G/L134D. Disruption of Tmod-TM binding had a modest effect on Tmod1's ability and no effect on Tmod3's ability to stabilize TM-actin pointed ends against latrunculin A-induced depolymerization. However, disruption of Tmod-TM binding did significantly impair the ability of Tmod3 to reduce elongation rates at pointed ends with α/βTM, albeit less so with TM5NM1, and not at all with TM5b. For Tmod1, disruption of Tmod-TM binding only slightly impaired its ability to reduce elongation rates with α/βTM and TM5NM1, but not at all with TM5b. Thus, Tmod-TM binding has a greater influence on Tmods' ability to inhibit subunit association as compared to dissociation from TM-actin pointed ends, particularly for α/βTM, with Tmod3's activity being more dependent on TM binding than Tmod1's activity. Nevertheless, disruption of Tmod1-TM binding precluded Tmod1 targeting to thin filament pointed ends in cardiac myocytes, suggesting that the functional effects of Tmod-TM binding on TM-coated actin filament capping can be significantly modulated by the in vivo conformation of the pointed end or other factors in the intracellular environment.
|Injection of vessel-derived stem cells prevents dilated cardiomyopathy and promotes angiogenesis and endogenous cardiac stem cell proliferation in mdx/utrn-/- but not aged mdx mouse models for duchenne muscular dystrophy. |
Chun, JL; O'Brien, R; Song, MH; Wondrasch, BF; Berry, SE
Stem cells translational medicine 2 68-80 2013
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy. DMD patients lack dystrophin protein and develop skeletal muscle pathology and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Approximately 20% succumb to cardiac involvement. We hypothesized that mesoangioblast stem cells (aorta-derived mesoangioblasts [ADMs]) would restore dystrophin and alleviate or prevent DCM in animal models of DMD. ADMs can be induced to express cardiac markers, including Nkx2.5, cardiac tropomyosin, cardiac troponin I, and α-actinin, and adopt cardiomyocyte morphology. Transplantation of ADMs into the heart of mdx/utrn(-/-) mice prior to development of DCM prevented onset of cardiomyopathy, as measured by echocardiography, and resulted in significantly higher CD31 expression, consistent with new vessel formation. Dystrophin-positive cardiomyocytes and increased proliferation of endogenous Nestin(+) cardiac stem cells were detected in ADM-injected heart. Nestin(+) striated cells were also detected in four of five mdx/utrn(-/-) hearts injected with ADMs. In contrast, when ADMs were injected into the heart of aged mdx mice with advanced fibrosis, no functional improvement was detected by echocardiography. Instead, ADMs exacerbated some features of DCM. No dystrophin protein, increase in CD31 expression, or increase in Nestin(+) cell proliferation was detected following ADM injection in aged mdx heart. Dystrophin was observed following transplantation of ADMs into the hearts of young mdx mice, however, suggesting that pathology in aged mdx heart may alter the fate of donor stem cells. In summary, ADMs delay or prevent development of DCM in dystrophin-deficient heart, but timing of stem cell transplantation may be critical for achieving benefit with cell therapy in DMD cardiac muscle.
|Tropomyosin assembly intermediates in the control of microfilament system turnover. |
Staffan Grenklo, Louise Hillberg, Li-Sophie Zhao Rathje, George Pinaev, Clarence E Schutt, Uno Lindberg, Staffan Grenklo, Louise Hillberg, Li-Sophie Zhao Rathje, George Pinaev, Clarence E Schutt, Uno Lindberg
European journal of cell biology 87 905-20 2008
Tropomyosin is a coiled-coil alpha-helical protein, which self-associates in a head-to-tail fashion along polymers of actin to produce thin filaments. Mammalian non-muscle cells express a large number of tropomyosin isoforms, which are differentially regulated during embryogenesis and associated with specialized actin microfilament ensembles in cells. The function of tropomyosin in specifying form and localization of these subcellular structures, and the precise mechanism(s) by which they carry out their functions, is unclear. This paper reports that, while the major fraction of non-muscle cell tropomyosin resides in actin thin filaments of the cytomatrix, the soluble part of the cytoplasm contains tropomyosins in the form of actin-free multimers, which are isoform specific and of high molecular weight (MW(app) 180,000-250,000). Stimulation of motile cells with growth factors induces a rapid, actin polymerization-dependent outgrowth of lamellipodia and filopodia. Concomitantly, the levels of tropomyosin isoform-specific multimers decrease, suggesting their involvement in actin thin filament formation. Malignant tumor cells have drastically altered levels and composition of tropomyosin isoform-specific multimers as well as tropomyosin in the cytomatrix.
|Tissue-specific tropomyosin isoform composition. |
Schevzov, Galina, et al.
J. Histochem. Cytochem., 53: 557-70 (2005) 2005
Four distinct genes encode tropomyosin (Tm) proteins, integral components of the actin microfilament system. In non-muscle cells, over 40 Tm isoforms are derived using alternative splicing. Distinct populations of actin filaments characterized by the composition of these Tm isoforms are found differentially sorted within cells (Gunning et al. 1998b). We hypothesized that these distinct intracellular compartments defined by the association of Tm isoforms may allow for independent regulation of microfilament function. Consequently, to understand the molecular mechanisms that give rise to these different microfilaments and their regulation, a cohort of fully characterized isoform-specific Tm antibodies was required. The characterization protocol initially involved testing the specificity of the antibodies on bacterially produced Tm proteins. We then confirmed that these Tm antibodies can be used to probe the expression and subcellular localization of different Tm isoforms by Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence staining of cells in culture, and immunohistochemistry of paraffin wax-embedded mouse tissues. These Tm antibodies, therefore, have the capacity to monitor specific actin filament populations in a range of experimental systems.
|Sorting of a nonmuscle tropomyosin to a novel cytoskeletal compartment in skeletal muscle results in muscular dystrophy. |
Kee, Anthony J, et al.
J. Cell Biol., 166: 685-96 (2004) 2004
Tropomyosin (Tm) is a key component of the actin cytoskeleton and >40 isoforms have been described in mammals. In addition to the isoforms in the sarcomere, we now report the existence of two nonsarcomeric (NS) isoforms in skeletal muscle. These isoforms are excluded from the thin filament of the sarcomere and are localized to a novel Z-line adjacent structure. Immunostained cross sections indicate that one Tm defines a Z-line adjacent structure common to all myofibers, whereas the second Tm defines a spatially distinct structure unique to muscles that undergo chronic or repetitive contractions. When a Tm (Tm3) that is normally absent from muscle was expressed in mice it became associated with the Z-line adjacent structure. These mice display a muscular dystrophy and ragged-red fiber phenotype, suggestive of disruption of the membrane-associated cytoskeletal network. Our findings raise the possibility that mutations in these tropomyosin and these structures may underpin these types of myopathies.
|Tropomyosin localization reveals distinct populations of microfilaments in neurites and growth cones. |
Schevzov, G, et al.
Mol. Cell. Neurosci., 8: 439-54 (1997) 1997
The functional and structural differences between neurites and growth cones suggests the possibility that distinct microfilament populations may exist in each domain. Tropomyosins are integral components of the actin-based microfilament system. Using antibodies which detect three different sets of tropomyosin isoforms, we found that the vast majority of tropomyosin was found in a microfilament-enriched fraction of cultured cortical neurons, therefore enabling us to use the antisera to evaluate compositional differences in neuritic and growth cone microfilaments. An antibody which reacts with all known nonmuscle isoforms of the alpha Tms gene (Tm5NM1-4) stains both neurites and growth cones, whereas a second antibody against the isoform subset, Tm5NM1-2, reacts only with the neurite. A third antibody which reacts with the Tm5a/5b isoforms encoded by a separate gene from alpha Tms was strongly reactive with both neurites and growth cones in 16-h cultures but only with the neurite shaft in 40-h cultures. Treatment of neurons with cytochalasin B allowed neuritic Tm5NM1-2 to spread into growth cones. Removal of the drug resulted in the disappearance of Tm5NM1-2 from the growth cone, indicating that isoform segregation is an active process dependent on intact microfilaments. Treatment of 40-h cultures with nocodazole resulted in the removal of Tm5NM1-2 from the neurite whereas Tm5a/5b now spread back into the growth cone. We conclude that the organization of Tm5NM1-2 and Tm5a/5b in the neurite is at least partially dependent on microtubule integrity. These results indicate that tropomyosin isoforms Tm5NM1-2, Tm5NM3-4, and Tm5a/5b mark three distinct populations of actin filaments in neurites and growth cones. Further, the composition of microfilaments differs between neurites and growth cones and is subject to temporal regulation.
|Anti-Tropomyosin - Data Sheet|