Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, Vrt||ELISA, ICC, IP, WB, Mplex, DB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG1κ in PBS with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
References | 13 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Embryonic MicroRNA-369 Controls Metabolic Splicing Factors and Urges Cellular Reprograming. |
Konno, M; Koseki, J; Kawamoto, K; Nishida, N; Matsui, H; Dewi, DL; Ozaki, M; Noguchi, Y; Mimori, K; Gotoh, N; Tanuma, N; Shima, H; Doki, Y; Mori, M; Ishii, H
PloS one 10 e0132789 2015
Noncoding microRNAs inhibit translation and lower the transcript stability of coding mRNA, however miR-369 s, in aberrant silencing genomic regions, stabilizes target proteins under cellular stress. We found that in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells led to chromatin methylation of histone H3K4 at the miR-369 region on chromosome 12qF in mice, which is expressed in embryonic cells and is critical for pluripotency. Proteomic analyses revealed that miR-369 stabilized translation of pyruvate kinase (Pkm2) splicing factors such as HNRNPA2B1. Overexpression of miR-369 stimulated Pkm2 splicing and enhanced induction of cellular reprogramming by induced pluripotent stem cell factors, whereas miR-369 knockdown resulted in suppression. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the Argonaute complex contained the fragile X mental retardation-related protein 1 and HNRNPA2B1 in a miR-369-depedent manner. Our findings demonstrate a unique role of the embryonic miR-369-HNRNPA2B1 axis in controlling metabolic enzyme function, and suggest a novel pathway linking epigenetic, transcriptional, and metabolic control in cell reprogramming.
|Mutations in EDM2 selectively affect silencing states of transposons and induce plant developmental plasticity. |
Tsuchiya, T; Eulgem, T
Scientific reports 3 1701 2013
We previously reported on the A. thaliana gene EDM2, which is required for several developmental processes and race-specific immunity. Although EDM2 encodes a nuclear protein with features commonly observed in epigenetic factors, its role in chromatin silencing remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that silencing states of several transposons in edm2 mutants are altered. Levels of their transcripts anti-correlate with those of the repressive epigenetic marks H3K27me1, H3K9me2, and DNA-methylation at CHG sites. In addition, double mutant analysis revealed epistasis between EDM2 and the major histone H3K9-methyltransferase gene KRYPTONITE/SUVH4 in the control of H3K9me2 and CHG methylation. Moreover, we found that the expressivity of several mutant edm2 phenotypes exhibits stochastic variation reminiscent of mutants of known epigenetic modifiers. We propose that EDM2 affects the expression of transposons and developmentally important genes by modulating levels of repressive chromatin marks in a locus dependent manner.
|Id2 complexes with the SNAG domain of Snai1 inhibiting Snai1-mediated repression of integrin β4. |
Chang, C; Yang, X; Pursell, B; Mercurio, AM
Molecular and cellular biology 33 3795-804 2013
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process that underlies development and cancer. Although the EMT involves alterations in the expression of specific integrins that mediate stable adhesion to the basement membrane, such as α6β4, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we report that Snai1 inhibits β4 transcription by increasing repressive histone modification (trimethylation of histone H3 at K27 [H3K27Me3]). Surprisingly, Snai1 is expressed and localized in the nucleus in epithelial cells, but it does not repress β4. We resolved this paradox by discovering that Id2 complexes with the SNAG domain of Snai1 on the β4 promoter and constrains the repressive function of Snai1. Disruption of the complex by depleting Id2 resulted in Snai1-mediated β4 repression with a concomitant increase in H3K27Me3 modification on the β4 promoter. These findings establish a novel function for Id2 in regulating Snai1 that has significant implications for the regulation of epithelial gene expression.
|An alternative polyadenylation mechanism coopted to the Arabidopsis RPP7 gene through intronic retrotransposon domestication. |
Tsuchiya, T; Eulgem, T
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 E3535-43 2013
Transposable elements (TEs) can drive evolution by creating genetic and epigenetic variation. Although examples of adaptive TE insertions are accumulating, proof that epigenetic information carried by such "domesticated" TEs has been coopted to control host gene function is still limited. We show that COPIA-R7, a TE inserted into the Arabidopsis thaliana disease resistance gene RPP7 recruited the histone mark H3K9me2 to this locus. H3K9me2 levels at COPIA-R7 affect the choice between two alternative RPP7 polyadenylation sites in the pre-mRNA and, thereby, influence the critical balance between RPP7-coding and non-RPP7-coding transcript isoforms. Function of RPP7 is fully dependent on high levels of H3K9me2 at COPIA-R7. We present a direct in vivo demonstration for cooption of a TE-associated histone mark to the epigenetic control of pre-mRNA processing and establish a unique mechanism for regulation of plant immune surveillance gene expression. Our results functionally link a histone mark to alternative polyadenylation and the balance between distinct transcript isoforms from a single gene.
|AHT-ChIP-seq: a completely automated robotic protocol for high-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation. |
Aldridge, S; Watt, S; Quail, MA; Rayner, T; Lukk, M; Bimson, MF; Gaffney, D; Odom, DT
Genome biology 14 R124 2013
ChIP-seq is an established manually-performed method for identifying DNA-protein interactions genome-wide. Here, we describe a protocol for automated high-throughput (AHT) ChIP-seq. To demonstrate the quality of data obtained using AHT-ChIP-seq, we applied it to five proteins in mouse livers using a single 96-well plate, demonstrating an extremely high degree of qualitative and quantitative reproducibility among biological and technical replicates. We estimated the optimum and minimum recommended cell numbers required to perform AHT-ChIP-seq by running an additional plate using HepG2 and MCF7 cells. With this protocol, commercially available robotics can perform four hundred experiments in five days.
|Decreased histone H2B monoubiquitination in malignant gastric carcinoma. |
Wang, ZJ; Yang, JL; Wang, YP; Lou, JY; Chen, J; Liu, C; Guo, LD
World journal of gastroenterology 19 8099-107 2013
To investigate H2B monoubiquitination (uH2B) and H3K4 di- and tri-methylation (H3K4-2me, H3K4-3me) levels and their clinical significance in gastric cancer (GC).Immunohistochemistry (IGC) was used to detect the differential levels of uH2B, H3K4-2me and H3K4-3me modifications in GC specimens from chemo/radiotherapy-naïve patients who underwent potentially curative surgical resection (n = 159) and in a random sampling of non-tumor gastric epithelium specimens (normal controls, n = 20). The immunohistochemistry (IHC)-detected modifications were classified as negative, low-level, or high-level using a dual-rated (staining intensity and percentage of positively-stained cells) semi-quantitative method. The relationships between uH2B modification levels and clinicopathological parameters of GC were assessed by a Wilcoxon rank sum test (pairwise comparisons) and the Kruskal-Wallis H test (multiple comparisons). The correlation between uH2B modification and survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the role of uH2B as an independent prognostic factor for survival was assessed by multivariate Cox regression analysis.The presence and level of H3K4-2me and H3K4-3me IHC staining was similar between the normal controls and GC specimens. In contrast, the level of uH2B was significantly lower in the malignant gastric tissues (vs normal control tissues) and decreased along with increases in dedifferentiation (well differentiated greater than moderately differentiated greater than poorly differentiated). The level of uH2B correlated with tumor differentiation (P less than 0.001), Lauren's diffuse- and intestinal-type classification (P less than 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.049) and tumor-node-metastasis stage (P = 0.005). Patients with uH2B+ staining had higher 5-year survival rates than patients with uH2B-staining (52.692 ± 2.452 vs 23.739 ± 5.207, P less than 0.001). The uH2B level was an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific survival (95%CI: 0.237-0.677, P = 0.001).uH2B displays differential IHC staining patterns corresponding to progressive stages of GC. uH2B may contribute to tumorigenesis and could be a potential therapeutic target.
|Transcriptional activation of transposable elements in mouse zygotes is independent of Tet3-mediated 5-methylcytosine oxidation. |
Inoue, A; Matoba, S; Zhang, Y
Cell research 22 1640-9 2012
The methylation state of the paternal genome is rapidly reprogrammed shortly after fertilization. Recent studies have revealed that loss of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in zygotes correlates with appearance of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). This process is mediated by Tet3 and the 5mC oxidation products generated in zygotes are gradually lost during preimplantation development through a replication-dependent dilution process. Despite these findings, the biological significance of Tet3-mediated oxidation of 5mC to 5hmC/5fC/5caC in zygotes is unknown. DNA methylation plays an important role in silencing gene expression including the repression of transposable elements (TEs). Given that the activation of TEs during preimplantation development correlates with loss of DNA methylation, it is believed that paternal DNA demethylation may have an important role in TE activation. Here we examined this hypothesis and found that Tet3-mediated 5mC oxidation does not have a significant contribution to TE activation. We show that the expression of LINE-1 (long interspersed nucleotide element 1) and ERVL (endogenous retroviruses class III) are activated from both paternal and maternal genomes in zygotes. Inhibition of 5mC oxidation by siRNA-mediated depletion of Tet3 affected neither TE activation, nor global transcription in zygotes. Thus, our study provides the first evidence demonstrating that activation of both TEs and global transcription in zygotes are independent of Tet3-mediated 5mC oxidation.
|Regulation of DCC localization by HTZ-1/H2A.Z and DPY-30 does not correlate with H3K4 methylation levels. |
Petty, E; Laughlin, E; Csankovszki, G
PloS one 6 e25973 2011
Dosage compensation is a specialized form of gene regulation that balances sex-chromosome linked gene expression between the sexes. In C. elegans, dosage compensation is achieved by the activity of the dosage compensation complex (DCC). The DCC binds along both X chromosomes in hermaphrodites to down-regulate gene expression by half, limiting X-linked gene products to levels produced in XO males. Sequence motifs enriched on the X chromosome play an important role in targeting the DCC to the X. However, these motifs are not strictly X-specific and therefore other factors, such as the chromatin environment of the X chromosome, are likely to aid in DCC targeting. Previously, we found that loss of HTZ-1 results in partial disruption of dosage compensation localization to the X chromosomes. We wanted to know whether other chromatin components coordinated with HTZ-1 to regulate DCC localization. One candidate is DPY-30, a protein known to play a role in DCC localization. DPY-30 homologs in yeast, flies, and mammals are highly conserved members of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase Set1/MLL complexes. Therefore, we investigated the hypothesis that the dosage compensation function of DPY-30 involves H3K4 methylation. We found that in dpy-30 animals the DCC fails to stably bind chromatin. Interestingly, of all the C. elegans homologs of Set1/MLL complex subunits, only DPY-30 is required for stable DCC binding to chromatin. Additionally, loss of H3K4 methylation does not enhance DCC mislocalization in htz-1 animals. We conclude that DPY-30 and HTZ-1 have unique functions in DCC localization, both of which are largely independent of H3K4 methylation.
|Global mapping of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 reveals specificity and plasticity in lineage fate determination of differentiating CD4+ T cells. |
Wei, G; Wei, L; Zhu, J; Zang, C; Hu-Li, J; Yao, Z; Cui, K; Kanno, Y; Roh, TY; Watford, WT; Schones, DE; Peng, W; Sun, HW; Paul, WE; O'Shea, JJ; Zhao, K
Immunity 30 155-67 2009
Multipotential naive CD4(+) T cells differentiate into distinct lineages including T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, Th17, and inducible T regulatory (iTreg) cells. The remarkable diversity of CD4(+) T cells begs the question whether the observed changes reflect terminal differentiation with heritable epigenetic modifications or plasticity in T cell responses. We generated genome-wide histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) and lysine 27 (H3K27) trimethylation maps in naive, Th1, Th2, Th17, iTreg, and natural Treg (nTreg) cells. We found that although modifications of signature-cytokine genes (Ifng, Il4, and Il17) partially conform to the expectation of lineage commitment, genes encoding transcription factors like Tbx21 exhibit a broad spectrum of epigenetic states, consistent with our demonstration of T-bet and interferon-gamma induction in nTreg cells. Our data suggest an epigenetic mechanism underlying the specificity and plasticity of effector and regulatory T cells and also provide a framework for understanding complexity of CD4(+) T helper cell differentiation.
|The organization of histone H3 modifications as revealed by a panel of specific monoclonal antibodies. |
Kimura, Hiroshi, et al.
Cell Struct. Funct., 33: 61-73 (2008) 2008
|Trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 is an epigenetic mark at regions escaping mammalian X inactivation. |
Khalil, Ahmad M and Driscoll, Daniel J
Epigenetics : official journal of the DNA Methylation Society, 2: 114-8 (2007) 2007
It is now estimated that 150-200 genes clustered in several discrete regions escape X inactivation in somatic cells of human females by unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that although the human female inactive X chromosome is largely devoid of histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), regions that are known to escape X inactivation, including the pseudoautosomal regions, are enriched with this modification. Also, H3K4me3, unlike H3K4me2 and H4 and H3 acetylation, is restricted to discrete regions on metaphase chromosomes. In contrast to humans, there are only a few genes that are known to escape X inactivation in the mouse. Therefore, we examined mouse female somatic cells with H3K4me3 to identify candidate regions with genes that escape X inactivation. We found the mouse female inactive X in somatic cells and the male inactive X in meiosis to have seven discrete regions that are enriched with H3K4me3. Furthermore, RNA polymerase II is largely excluded from the XY body at male pachytene except for several discrete regions on the X and Y suggesting the presence of regions that also escape sex chromosome inactivation during male meiosis.
|Whole-genome mapping of histone H3 Lys4 and 27 trimethylations reveals distinct genomic compartments in human embryonic stem cells. |
Zhao, Xiao Dong, et al.
Cell Stem Cell, 1: 286-98 (2007) 2007
Epigenetic modifications are crucial for proper lineage specification and embryo development. To explore the chromatin modification landscapes in human ES cells, we profiled two histone modifications, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3, by ChIP coupled with the paired-end ditags sequencing strategy. H3K4me3 was found to be a prevalent mark and occurred in close proximity to the promoters of two-thirds of total human genes. Among the H3K27me3 loci identified, 56% are associated with promoters and the vast majority of them are comodified by H3K4me3. By deep-transcript digital counting, 80% of H3K4me3 and 36% of comodified promoters were found to be transcribed. Remarkably, we observed that different combinations of histone methylations are associated with genes from distinct functional categories. These global histone methylation maps provide an epigenetic framework that enables the discovery of novel transcriptional networks and delineation of different genetic compartments of the pluripotent cell genome.
|Arginine methylation at histone H3R2 controls deposition of H3K4 trimethylation. |
Kirmizis, Antonis, et al.
Nature, 449: 928-32 (2007) 2007
|Anti-Trimethyl Histone H3 (Lys4) ChIP-seq Analysis.|