|HOXA13 Is essential for placental vascular patterning and labyrinth endothelial specification. |
Shaut, CA; Keene, DR; Sorensen, LK; Li, DY; Stadler, HS
In eutherian mammals, embryonic growth and survival is dependent on the formation of the placenta, an organ that facilitates the efficient exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and metabolic waste between the maternal and fetal blood supplies. Key to the placenta's function is the formation of its vascular labyrinth, a series of finely branched vessels whose molecular ontogeny remains largely undefined. In this report, we demonstrate that HOXA13 plays an essential role in labyrinth vessel formation. In the absence of HOXA13 function, placental endothelial cell morphology is altered, causing a loss in vessel wall integrity, edema of the embryonic blood vessels, and mid-gestational lethality. Microarray analysis of wild-type and mutant placentas revealed significant changes in endothelial gene expression profiles. Notably, pro-vascular genes, including Tie2 and Foxf1, exhibited reduced expression in the mutant endothelia, which also exhibited elevated expression of genes normally expressed in lymphatic or sinusoidal endothelia. ChIP analysis of HOXA13-DNA complexes in the placenta confirmed that HOXA13 binds the Tie2 and Foxf1 promoters in vivo. In vitro, HOXA13 binds sequences present in the Tie2 and Foxf1 promoters with high affinity (K(d) = 27-42 nM) and HOXA13 can use these bound promoter regions to direct gene expression. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that HOXA13 directly regulates Tie2 and Foxf1 in the placental labyrinth endothelia, providing a functional explanation for the mid-gestational lethality exhibited by Hoxa13 mutant embryos as well as a novel transcriptional program necessary for the specification of the labyrinth vascular endothelia.Full Text Article
|Tie2 receptor expression and phosphorylation in cultured cells and mouse tissues. |
Koblizek, T I, et al.
Eur. J. Biochem., 244: 774-9 (1997)
Accumulating experimental evidence indicates that endothelial cell growth and blood vessel morphogenesis are processes that are governed by the activity of specifically expressed receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). We have used two new rat monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to study the expression and phosphorylation of one such receptor, mouse Tie2 (tyrosine kinase that contains immunoglobulin-like loops and epidermal-growth-factor-similar domains 2]), in transfected cells, endothelioma cell lines and mouse tissues. The Tie2 receptor was found to be constitutively autophosphorylated when over-expressed in COS7 cells. In contrast, the endogenous Tie2 protein was not phosphorylated in endothelioma cell lines. However, in these cell lines, Tie2 could be induced to become tyrosine phosphorylated, and this activation was found to be independent of Tie1. Studying Tie2 receptor activity during angiogenesis in mouse development, the receptor was only weakly phosphorylated in the early postnatal mouse brain whereas a stronger activation could be detected in mouse embryos at day 10.5 post coitum.
|tie2, a putative protein tyrosine kinase from a new class of cell surface receptor. |
Runting, A S, et al.
Growth Factors, 9: 99-105 (1993)
The cDNA of a novel mouse cell surface receptor (tie2) has been isolated from a mouse lung library. The predicted amino acid sequence of tie2 encodes a protein of 1122 amino acids, with an extracellular domain and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain bisected by a transmembrane region. The extracellular domain consists of two Ig-like domains, three cysteine-rich domains and three fibronectin type III repeats whilst the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain has a short insert region of 15 amino acids. In vitro transcription/translation of the tie2 cDNA demonstrates that it encodes a glycoprotein of some 145 kDa. The tie2 protein exhibits a high degree of similarity to the cell surface receptor tie, (Partanen, J. et al., (1992) Mol. Cell. Biol., 12, 1698-1707), and together with this protein defines a new class of cell surface receptor.