Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|B, H, R||IHC, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 - 2370726||2370726|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 - 2428670||2428670|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 - 2455695||2455695|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 - 2463638||2463638|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 - 1958299||1958299|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 - 1990418||1990418|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 - 2015983||2015983|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 - 2064711||2064711|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 - 2211033||2211033|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 - 2296738||2296738|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 - LV1616764||LV1616764|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 - LV1739991||LV1739991|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 - LV1786429||LV1786429|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 - NG1743745||NG1743745|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 - NG1920468||NG1920468|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 -2517798||2517798|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 -2549403||2549403|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 -2580635||2580635|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 -2621506||2621506|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 -2683924||2683924|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 -2721720||2721720|
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 -2768444||2768444|
References | 94 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Coupled local translation and degradation regulate growth cone collapse. |
Deglincerti, A; Liu, Y; Colak, D; Hengst, U; Xu, G; Jaffrey, SR
Nature communications 6 6888 2015
Local translation mediates axonal responses to Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) and other guidance cues. However, only a subset of the axonal proteome is locally synthesized, whereas most proteins are trafficked from the soma. The reason why only specific proteins are locally synthesized is unknown. Here we show that local protein synthesis and degradation are linked events in growth cones. We find that growth cones exhibit high levels of ubiquitination and that local signalling pathways trigger the ubiquitination and degradation of RhoA, a mediator of Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse. Inhibition of RhoA degradation is sufficient to remove the protein-synthesis requirement for Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse. In addition to RhoA, we find that locally translated proteins are the main targets of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in growth cones. Thus, local protein degradation is a major feature of growth cones and creates a requirement for local translation to replenish proteins needed to maintain growth cone responses.
|AAV-mediated overexpression of neuroserpin in the hippocampus decreases PSD-95 expression but does not affect hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. |
Tsang, VW; Young, D; During, MJ; Birch, NP
PloS one 9 e91050 2014
Neuroserpin is a serine protease inhibitor, or serpin, that is expressed in the nervous system and inhibits the protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Neuroserpin has been suggested to play a role in learning and memory but direct evidence for such a role is lacking. Here we have used an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector expression system to investigate the effect of neuroserpin on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory in the young adult rat. A FLAG-tagged neuroserpin construct was initially characterized by in vitro transcription/translation and transfection into HEK293 cells and shown to interact with tPA and be targeted to the secretory pathway. Targeted injection of a chimeric AAV1/2 vector expressing FLAG-neuroserpin resulted in localized overexpression in the dorsal hippocampus. Neuroserpin overexpression led to the appearance of an unstable neuroserpin:tPA complex in zymographic assays consistent with interaction with endogenous tPA in vivo. Rats overexpressing neuroserpin also showed a significant decrease in the levels of postsynaptic density protein 95, a major postsynaptic scaffolding protein. Three weeks after injection, a range of behavioural tests was performed to measure spatial and associative learning and memory, as well as innate and acquired fear. These tests provided no evidence of a role for neuroserpin in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. In summary this study does not support a role for neuroserpin in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory in young adult rats but does suggest an involvement of neuroserpin in hippocampal synaptic plasticity.
|Structural basis for extracellular cis and trans RPTPσ signal competition in synaptogenesis. |
Coles, CH; Mitakidis, N; Zhang, P; Elegheert, J; Lu, W; Stoker, AW; Nakagawa, T; Craig, AM; Jones, EY; Aricescu, AR
Nature communications 5 5209 2014
Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (RPTPσ) regulates neuronal extension and acts as a presynaptic nexus for multiple protein and proteoglycan interactions during synaptogenesis. Unknown mechanisms govern the shift in RPTPσ function, from outgrowth promotion to synaptic organization. Here, we report crystallographic, electron microscopic and small-angle X-ray scattering analyses, which reveal sufficient inter-domain flexibility in the RPTPσ extracellular region for interaction with both cis (same cell) and trans (opposite cell) ligands. Crystal structures of RPTPσ bound to its postsynaptic ligand TrkC detail an interaction surface partially overlapping the glycosaminoglycan-binding site. Accordingly, heparan sulphate and heparin oligomers compete with TrkC for RPTPσ binding in vitro and disrupt TrkC-dependent synaptic differentiation in neuronal co-culture assays. We propose that transient RPTPσ ectodomain emergence from the presynaptic proteoglycan layer allows capture by TrkC to form a trans-synaptic complex, the consequent reduction in RPTPσ flexibility potentiating interactions with additional ligands to orchestrate excitatory synapse formation.
|Improved application of the electrophoretic tissue clearing technology, CLARITY, to intact solid organs including brain, pancreas, liver, kidney, lung, and intestine. |
Lee, H; Park, JH; Seo, I; Park, SH; Kim, S
BMC developmental biology 14 48 2014
Mapping of tissue structure at the cellular, circuit, and organ-wide scale is important for understanding physiological and biological functions. A bio-electrochemical technique known as CLARITY used for three-dimensional anatomical and phenotypical mapping within transparent intact tissues has been recently developed. This method provided a major advance in understanding the structure-function relationships in circuits of the nervous system and organs by using whole-body clearing. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to improve the original CLARITY procedure and developed specific CLARITY protocols for various intact organs.We determined the optimal conditions for reducing bubble formation, discoloration, and depositing of black particles on the surface of tissue, which allowed production of clearer organ images. We also determined the appropriate replacement cycles of clearing solution for each type of organ, and convincingly demonstrated that 250-280 mA is the ideal range of electrical current for tissue clearing. We then acquired each type of cleared organs including brain, pancreas, liver, lung, kidney, and intestine. Additionally, we determined the images of axon fibers of hippocampal region, the Purkinje layer of cerebellum, and vessels and cellular nuclei of pancreas.CLARITY is an innovative biochemical technology for the structural and molecular analysis of various types of tissue. We developed improved CLARITY methods for clearing of the brain, pancreas, lung, intestine, liver, and kidney, and identified the appropriate experimental conditions for clearing of each specific tissue type. These optimized methods will be useful for the application of CLARITY to various types of organs.
|Specificity of anti-tau antibodies when analyzing mice models of Alzheimer's disease: problems and solutions. |
Petry, FR; Pelletier, J; Bretteville, A; Morin, F; Calon, F; Hébert, SS; Whittington, RA; Planel, E
PloS one 9 e94251 2014
Aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein are found in a group of diseases called tauopathies, which includes Alzheimer's disease. The causes and consequences of tau hyperphosphorylation are routinely investigated in laboratory animals. Mice are the models of choice as they are easily amenable to transgenic technology; consequently, their tau phosphorylation levels are frequently monitored by Western blotting using a panel of monoclonal/polyclonal anti-tau antibodies. Given that mouse secondary antibodies can recognize endogenous mouse immunoglobulins (Igs) and the possible lack of specificity with some polyclonal antibodies, non-specific signals are commonly observed. Here, we characterized the profiles of commonly used anti-tau antibodies in four different mouse models: non-transgenic mice, tau knock-out (TKO) mice, 3xTg-AD mice, and hypothermic mice, the latter a positive control for tau hyperphosphorylation. We identified 3 tau monoclonal antibody categories: type 1, characterized by high non-specificity (AT8, AT180, MC1, MC6, TG-3), type 2, demonstrating low non-specificity (AT270, CP13, CP27, Tau12, TG5), and type 3, with no non-specific signal (DA9, PHF-1, Tau1, Tau46). For polyclonal anti-tau antibodies, some displayed non-specificity (pS262, pS409) while others did not (pS199, pT205, pS396, pS404, pS422, A0024). With monoclonal antibodies, most of the interfering signal was due to endogenous Igs and could be eliminated by different techniques: i) using secondary antibodies designed to bind only non-denatured Igs, ii) preparation of a heat-stable fraction, iii) clearing Igs from the homogenates, and iv) using secondary antibodies that only bind the light chain of Igs. All of these techniques removed the non-specific signal; however, the first and the last methods were easier and more reliable. Overall, our study demonstrates a high risk of artefactual signal when performing Western blotting with routinely used anti-tau antibodies, and proposes several solutions to avoid non-specific results. We strongly recommend the use of negative (i.e., TKO) and positive (i.e., hypothermic) controls in all experiments.
|Regulation of axon growth by the JIP1-AKT axis. |
Dajas-Bailador, F; Bantounas, I; Jones, EV; Whitmarsh, AJ
Journal of cell science 127 230-9 2014
The polarisation of developing neurons to form axons and dendrites is required for the establishment of neuronal connections leading to proper brain function. The protein kinase AKT and the MAP kinase scaffold protein JNK-interacting protein-1 (JIP1) are important regulators of axon formation. Here we report that JIP1 and AKT colocalise in axonal growth cones of cortical neurons and collaborate to promote axon growth. The loss of AKT protein from the growth cone results in the degradation of JIP1 by the proteasome, and the loss of JIP1 promotes a similar fate for AKT. Reduced protein levels of both JIP1 and AKT in the growth cone can be induced by glutamate and this coincides with reduced axon growth, which can be rescued by a stabilized mutant of JIP1 that rescues AKT protein levels. Taken together, our data reveal a collaborative relationship between JIP1 and AKT that is required for axon growth and can be regulated by changes in neuronal activity.
|Gαz regulates BDNF-induction of axon growth in cortical neurons. |
Hultman, R; Kumari, U; Michel, N; Casey, PJ
Molecular and cellular neurosciences 58 53-61 2014
The disruption of neurotransmitter and neurotrophic factor signaling in the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated as the root cause of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, epilepsy, chronic pain, and depression. Therefore, identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms by which neurotransmitter and neurotrophic factor signaling regulates neuronal survival or growth may facilitate identification of more effective therapies for these disorders. Previously, our lab found that the heterotrimeric G protein, Gz, mediates crosstalk between G protein-coupled receptors and neurotrophin signaling in the neural cell line PC12. These data, combined with Gαz expression profiles--predominantly in neuronal cells with higher expression levels corresponding to developmental times of target tissue innervation--suggested that Gαz may play an important role in neurotrophin signaling and neuronal development. Here, we provide evidence in cortical neurons, both manipulated ex vivo and those cultured from Gz knockout mice, that Gαz is localized to axonal growth cones and plays a significant role in the development of axons of cortical neurons in the CNS. Our findings indicate that Gαz inhibits BDNF-stimulated axon growth in cortical neurons, establishing an endogenous role for Gαz in regulating neurotrophin signaling in the CNS.
|MHC class I limits hippocampal synapse density by inhibiting neuronal insulin receptor signaling. |
Dixon-Salazar, TJ; Fourgeaud, L; Tyler, CM; Poole, JR; Park, JJ; Boulanger, LM
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 11844-56 2014
Proteins of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) negatively regulate synapse density in the developing vertebrate brain (Glynn et al., 2011; Elmer et al., 2013; Lee et al., 2014), but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we identify a novel MHCI signaling pathway that involves the inhibition of a known synapse-promoting factor, the insulin receptor. Dominant-negative insulin receptor constructs decrease synapse density in the developing Xenopus visual system (Chiu et al., 2008), and insulin receptor activation increases dendritic spine density in mouse hippocampal neurons in vitro (Lee et al., 2011). We find that genetically reducing cell surface MHCI levels increases synapse density selectively in regions of the hippocampus where insulin receptors are expressed, and occludes the neuronal insulin response by de-repressing insulin receptor signaling. Pharmacologically inhibiting insulin receptor signaling in MHCI-deficient animals rescues synapse density, identifying insulin receptor signaling as a critical mediator of the tonic inhibitory effects of endogenous MHCI on synapse number. Insulin receptors co-immunoprecipitate MHCI from hippocampal lysates, and MHCI unmasks a cytoplasmic epitope of the insulin receptor that mediates downstream signaling. These results identify an important role for an MHCI-insulin receptor signaling pathway in circuit patterning in the developing brain, and suggest that changes in MHCI expression could unexpectedly regulate neuronal insulin sensitivity in the aging and diseased brain.
|Interaction of PDK1 with phosphoinositides is essential for neuronal differentiation but dispensable for neuronal survival. |
Zurashvili, T; Cordón-Barris, L; Ruiz-Babot, G; Zhou, X; Lizcano, JM; Gómez, N; Giménez-Llort, L; Bayascas, JR
Molecular and cellular biology 33 1027-40 2013
3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) operates in cells in response to phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)] production by activating a number of AGC kinases, including protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt. Both PDK1 and PKB contain pleckstrin homology (PH) domains that interact with the PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) second messenger. Disrupting the interaction of the PDK1 PH domain with phosphoinositides by expressing the PDK1 K465E knock-in mutation resulted in mice with reduced PKB activation. We explored the physiological consequences of this biochemical lesion in the central nervous system. The PDK1 knock-in mice displayed a reduced brain size due to a reduction in neuronal cell size rather than cell number. Reduced BDNF-induced phosphorylation of PKB at Thr308, the PDK1 site, was observed in the mutant neurons, which was not rate limiting for the phosphorylation of those PKB substrates governing neuronal survival and apoptosis, such as FOXO1 or glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Accordingly, the integrity of the PDK1 PH domain was not essential to support the survival of different embryonic neuronal populations analyzed. In contrast, PKB-mediated phosphorylation of PRAS40 and TSC2, allowing optimal mTORC1 activation and brain-specific kinase (BRSK) protein synthesis, was markedly reduced in the mutant mice, leading to impaired neuronal growth and differentiation.
|Synchronous symmetry breaking in neurons with different neurite counts. |
Wissner-Gross, ZD; Scott, MA; Steinmeyer, JD; Yanik, MF
PloS one 8 e54905 2013
As neurons develop, several immature processes (i.e., neurites) grow out of the cell body. Over time, each neuron breaks symmetry when only one of its neurites grows much longer than the rest, becoming an axon. This symmetry breaking is an important step in neurodevelopment, and aberrant symmetry breaking is associated with several neuropsychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia and autism. However, the effects of neurite count in neuronal symmetry breaking have never been studied. Existing models for neuronal polarization disagree: some predict that neurons with more neurites polarize up to several days later than neurons with fewer neurites, while others predict that neurons with different neurite counts polarize synchronously. We experimentally find that neurons with different neurite counts polarize synchronously. We also show that despite the significant differences among the previously proposed models, they all agree with our experimental findings when the expression levels of the proteins responsible for symmetry breaking increase with neurite count. Consistent with these results, we observe that the expression levels of two of these proteins, HRas and shootin1, significantly correlate with neurite count. This coordinated symmetry breaking we observed among neurons with different neurite counts may be important for synchronized polarization of neurons in developing organisms.
|Enrichment of GABARAP relative to LC3 in the axonal initial segments of neurons. |
Koike, M; Tanida, I; Nanao, T; Tada, N; Iwata, J; Ueno, T; Kominami, E; Uchiyama, Y
PloS one 8 e63568 2013
GABAA receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) was initially identified as a protein that interacts with GABAA receptor. Although LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3), a GABARAP homolog, has been localized in the dendrites and cell bodies of neurons under normal conditions, the subcellular distribution of GABARAP in neurons remains unclear. Subcellular fractionation indicated that endogenous GABARAP was localized to the microsome-enriched and synaptic vesicle-enriched fractions of mouse brain as GABARAP-I, an unlipidated form. To investigate the distribution of GABARAP in neurons, we generated GFP-GABARAP transgenic mice. Immunohistochemistry in these transgenic mice showed that positive signals for GFP-GABARAP were widely distributed in neurons in various brain regions, including the hippocampus and cerebellum. Interestingly, intense diffuse and/or fibrillary expression of GFP-GABARAP was detected along the axonal initial segments (AIS) of hippocampal pyramidal neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells, in addition to the cell bodies and dendrites of these neurons. In contrast, only slight amounts of LC3 were detected along the AIS of these neurons, while diffuse and/or fibrillary staining for LC3 was mainly detected in their cell bodies and dendrites. These results indicated that, compared with LC3, GABARAP is enriched in the AIS, in addition to the cell bodies and dendrites, of these hippocampal pyramidal neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells.
|An enzyme-generated fragment of tau measured in serum shows an inverse correlation to cognitive function. |
Henriksen, K; Wang, Y; Sørensen, MG; Barascuk, N; Suhy, J; Pedersen, JT; Duffin, KL; Dean, RA; Pajak, M; Christiansen, C; Zheng, Q; Karsdal, MA
PloS one 8 e64990 2013
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurological disease characterized by pathological proteolytic cleavage of tau protein, which appears to initiate death of the neurons. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a proteolytic fragment of the tau protein could serve as blood-based biomarker of cognitive function in AD.We developed a highly sensitive ELISA assay specifically detecting an A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10)-generated fragment of tau (Tau-A). We characterized the assay in detail with to respect specificity and reactivity in healthy human serum. We used samples from the Tg4510 tau transgenic mice, which over-express the tau mutant P301L and exhibit a tauopathy with similarities to that observed in AD. We used serum samples from 21 well-characterized Alzheimer's patients, and we correlated the Tau-A levels to cognitive function.The Tau-A ELISA specifically detected the cleavage sequence at the N-terminus of a fragment of tau generated by ADAM10 with no cross-reactivity to intact tau or brain extracts. In brain extracts from Tg4510 mice compared to wt controls we found 10-fold higher levels of Tau-A (pless than 0.001), which indicates a pathological relevance of this marker. In serum from healthy individuals we found robust and reproducible levels of Tau-A, indicating that the analyte is present in serum. In serum from AD patients an inverse correlation (R² = 0.46, pless than 0.001) between the cognitive assessment score (Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS)) and Tau-A levels was observed.Based on the hypothesis that tau is cleaved proteolytically and then released into the blood, we here provide evidence for the presence of an ADAM10-generated tau fragment (Tau-A) in serum. In addition, the levels of Tau-A showed an inverse correlation to cognitive function, which could indicate that this marker is a serum marker with pathological relevance for AD.
|The cellular and synaptic location of activated TrkB in mouse hippocampus during limbic epileptogenesis. |
Helgager, J; Liu, G; McNamara, JO
The Journal of comparative neurology 521 499-521, Spc1 2013
Understanding the mechanisms of limbic epileptogenesis in cellular and molecular terms may provide novel therapeutic targets for its prevention. The neurotrophin receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) is thought to be critical for limbic epileptogenesis. Enhanced activation of TrkB, revealed by immunodetection of enhanced phosphorylated TrkB (pTrkB), a surrogate measure of its activation, has been identified within the hippocampus in multiple animal models. Knowledge of the cellular locale of activated TrkB is necessary to elucidate its functional consequences. Using an antibody selective to pTrkB in conjunction with confocal microscopy and cellular markers, we determined the cellular and subcellular locale of enhanced pTrkB induced by status epilepticus (SE) evoked by infusion of kainic acid into the amygdala of adult mice. SE induced enhanced pTrkB immunoreactivity in two distinct populations of principal neurons within the hippocampus-the dentate granule cells and CA1 pyramidal cells. Enhanced immunoreactivity within granule cells was found within mossy fiber axons and giant synaptic boutons. By contrast, enhanced immunoreactivity was found within apical dendritic shafts and spines of CA1 pyramidal cells. A common feature of this enhanced pTrkB at these cellular locales is its localization to excitatory synapses between excitatory neurons, presynaptically in the granule cells and postsynaptically in CA1 pyramidal cells. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is one cellular consequence of TrkB activation at these excitatory synapses that may promote epileptogenesis.
|Rapid accumulation of endogenous tau oligomers in a rat model of traumatic brain injury: possible link between traumatic brain injury and sporadic tauopathies. |
Hawkins, BE; Krishnamurthy, S; Castillo-Carranza, DL; Sengupta, U; Prough, DS; Jackson, GR; DeWitt, DS; Kayed, R
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 17042-50 2013
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious problem that affects millions of people in the United States alone. Multiple concussions or even a single moderate to severe TBI can also predispose individuals to develop a pathologically distinct form of tauopathy-related dementia at an early age. No effective treatments are currently available for TBI or TBI-related dementia; moreover, only recently has insight been gained regarding the mechanisms behind their connection. Here, we used antibodies to detect oligomeric and phosphorylated Tau proteins in a non-transgenic rodent model of parasagittal fluid percussion injury. Oligomeric and phosphorylated Tau proteins were detected 4 and 24 h and 2 weeks post-TBI in injured, but not sham control rats. These findings suggest that diagnostic tools and therapeutics that target only toxic forms of Tau may provide earlier detection and safe, more effective treatments for tauopathies associated with repetitive neurotrauma.
|A novel Hap1-Tsc1 interaction regulates neuronal mTORC1 signaling and morphogenesis in the brain. |
Mejia, LA; Litterman, N; Ikeuchi, Y; de la Torre-Ubieta, L; Bennett, EJ; Zhang, C; Harper, JW; Bonni, A
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 18015-21 2013
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a leading genetic cause of autism. The TSC proteins Tsc1 and Tsc2 control the mTORC1 signaling pathway in diverse cells, but how the mTORC1 pathway is specifically regulated in neurons remains to be elucidated. Here, using an interaction proteomics approach in neural cells including neurons, we uncover the brain-enriched protein huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1) as a novel functional partner of Tsc1. Knockdown of Hap1 promotes specification of supernumerary axons in primary hippocampal neurons and profoundly impairs the positioning of pyramidal neurons in the mouse hippocampus in vivo. The Hap1 knockdown-induced phenotypes in primary neurons and in vivo recapitulate the phenotypes induced by Tsc1 knockdown. We also find that Hap1 knockdown in hippocampal neurons induces the downregulation of Tsc1 and stimulates the activity of mTORC1, as reflected by phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6. Inhibition of mTORC1 activity suppresses the Hap1 knockdown-induced polarity phenotype in hippocampal neurons. Collectively, these findings define a novel link between Hap1 and Tsc1 that regulates neuronal mTORC1 signaling and neuronal morphogenesis, with implications for our understanding of developmental disorders of cognition.
|Spg20-/- mice reveal multimodal functions for Troyer syndrome protein spartin in lipid droplet maintenance, cytokinesis and BMP signaling. |
Renvoisé, B; Stadler, J; Singh, R; Bakowska, JC; Blackstone, C
Human molecular genetics 21 3604-18 2012
Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs; SPG1-48) are inherited neurological disorders characterized by lower extremity spasticity and weakness. Loss-of-function mutations in the SPG20 gene encoding spartin cause autosomal recessive Troyer syndrome (SPG20), which has additional features of short stature, cognitive deficits and distal amyotrophy. To identify cellular impairments underlying Troyer syndrome, we generated Spg20-/- mice, which exhibit progressive gait defects. Although gross central nervous system pathology appeared largely normal, cerebral cortical neurons cultured from neonatal Spg20-/- mice exhibited increased axon branching, a phenotype suppressed by reintroducing spartin and which required its interaction with the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III protein IST1. Analysis of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway in Spg20-/- embryonic fibroblasts indicated that Smad1/5 phosphorylation is modestly elevated, possibly due to alterations in BMP receptor trafficking. Cytokinesis was impaired in embryonic fibroblasts cultured from Spg20-/- mice, and binucleated chondrocytes were prominent in epiphyseal growth plates of bones in Spg20-/- mice, perhaps explaining the short stature of patients. Finally, adipose tissue from Spg20-/- female mice exhibited increased lipid droplet (LD) numbers and alterations in perilipin levels, supporting a role for spartin in LD maintenance. Taken together, our results support multimodal functions for spartin that provide important insights into HSP pathogenesis.
|Differential neurite outgrowth is required for axon specification by cultured hippocampal neurons. |
Yamamoto, H; Demura, T; Morita, M; Banker, GA; Tanii, T; Nakamura, S
Journal of neurochemistry 123 904-10 2012
Formation of an axon is the first morphological evidence of neuronal polarization, visible as a profound outgrowth of the axon compared with sibling neurites. One unsolved question on the mechanism of axon formation is the role of axon outgrowth in axon specification. This question was difficult to assess, because neurons freely extend their neurites in a conventional culture. Here, we leveraged surface nano/micro-modification techniques to fabricate a template substrate for constraining neurite lengths of cultured neurons. Using the template, we asked (i) Do neurons polarize even if all neurites cannot grow sufficiently long? (ii) Would the neurite be fated to become an axon if only one was allowed to grow long? A pattern with symmetrical short paths (20 μm) was used to address the former question, and an asymmetrical pattern with one path extended to 100 μm for the latter. Axon formation was evaluated by tau-1/MAP2 immunostaining and live-cell imaging of constitutively-active kinesin-1. We found that (1) neurons cannot polarize when extension of all neurites is restricted and that (2) when only a single neurite is permitted to grow long, neurons polarize and the longest neurite becomes the axon. These results provide clear evidence that axon outgrowth is required for its specification.
|Spatiotemporal distribution of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor 2 in mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus. |
An, S; Tsai, C; Ronecker, J; Bayly, A; Herzog, ED
The Journal of comparative neurology 520 2730-41 2012
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) signaling is critical for circadian rhythms. For example, the expression of VIP and its main receptor, VPAC2R, is necessary for maintaining synchronous daily rhythms among neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a master circadian pacemaker in animals. Where and when VPAC2R protein is expressed in the SCN and other brain areas has not been examined. Using immunohistochemistry, we characterized a new antibody and found that VPAC2R was highly enriched in the SCN and detectable at low levels in many brain areas. Within the SCN, VPAC2R was circadian, peaking in the subjective morning, and abundantly expressed from the rostral to caudal margins with more in the dorsomedial than ventrolateral area. VPAC2R was found in nearly all SCN cells including neurons expressing either VIP or vasopressin (AVP). SCN neurons mainly expressed VPAC2R in their somata and dendrites, not axons. Finally, constant light increased VIP and AVP expression, but not VPAC2R. We conclude that the circadian clock, not the ambient light level, regulates VPAC2R protein localization. These results are consistent with VPAC2R playing a role in VIP signaling at all times of day, broadly throughout the brain and in all SCN cells.
|Functional characterization and axonal transport of quantum dot labeled BDNF. |
Xie, W; Zhang, K; Cui, B
Integrative biology : quantitative biosciences from nano to macro 4 953-60 2012
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the growth, development and maintenance of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Exogenous BDNF activates its membrane receptors at the axon terminal, and subsequently sends regulation signals to the cell body. To understand how a BDNF signal propagates in neurons, it is important to follow the trafficking of BDNF after it is internalized at the axon terminal. Here we labeled BDNF with bright, photostable quantum dots (QD-BDNF) and followed the axonal transport of QD-BDNF in real time in hippocampal neurons. We showed that QD-BDNF was able to bind BDNF receptors and activate downstream signaling pathways. When QD-BDNF was applied to the distal axons of hippocampal neurons, it was observed to be actively transported toward the cell body at an average speed of 1.11 ± 0.05 μm s(-1). A closer examination revealed that QD-BDNF was transported by both discrete endosomes and multivesicular body-like structures. Our results showed that QD-BDNF could be used to track the movement of exogenous BDNF in neurons over long distances and to study the signaling organelles that contain BDNF.
|Distribution of protocadherin 9 protein in the developing mouse nervous system. |
H Asahina,A Masuba,S Hirano,K Yuri
Neuroscience 225 2012
Protocadherin 9 (Pcdh9) is a member of the protocadherin family, which includes many members involved in various phenomena, such as cell-cell adhesion, neural projection, and synapse formation. Here, we identified Pcdh9 protein in the mouse brain and examined its distribution during neural development. Pcdh9, with a molecular weight of approximately 180kDa, was localized at cell-cell contact sites in COS-1 cells transfected with Pcdh9 cDNA. In cultured neurons, it was detected at the growth cone and at adhesion sites along neurites. In the E13.5 brain, prominent Pcdh9 immunoreactivity was detected in the dorsal thalamus along with other regions including the vestibulocochlear nerve. As development proceeded (E15.5-P1), Pcdh9 immunoreactivity became observable in various brain regions but was restricted to certain fiber tracts and brain nuclei. Interestingly, many Pcdh9-positive brain nuclei and fascicles belonged to the vestibular (e.g. vestibulocochlear nerve, vestibular nuclei, and the vestibulocerebellum) and oculomotor systems (medial longitudinal fascicles, oculomotor nucleus, trochlear nucleus, and interstitial nucleus of Cajal). In addition, we examined the distribution of Pcdh9 protein in the olfactory bulb, retina, spinal cord, and dorsal root ganglion. In these regions, Pcdh9 and OL-protocadherin proteins were differentially distributed, with the difference highlighted in the olfactory bulb, where they were enriched in different subsets of glomeruli. In the mature retina, Pcdh9 immunoreactivity was detected in distinct sublaminae of the inner and outer plexiform layers. In the dorsal root ganglion, only certain subsets of neurons showed Pcdh9 immunoreactivity. These results suggest that Pcdh9 might be involved in formation of specific neural circuits during neural development.
|Axonopathy is associated with complex axonal transport defects in a model of multiple sclerosis. |
Mihaela Kreutzer,Frauke Seehusen,Robert Kreutzer,Kidsadagorn Pringproa,Maren Kummerfeld,Peter Claus,Ulrich Deschl,Arno Kalkul,Andreas Beineke,Wolfgang Baumgärtner,Reiner Ulrich
Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland) 22 2012
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease characterized by myelin and axonal pathology. In a viral model of MS, we tested whether axonopathy initiation and development are based on an impaired transport of neurofilaments. Spinal cords of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-infected and mock-infected mice and TMEV infected neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells were analyzed by microarray analysis, light microscopy and electron and laser confocal microscopy. In vivo axonal accumulation of non-phosphorylated neurofilaments after TMEV infection revealed a temporal development caused by the impairments of the axonal traffic consisting of the downregulation of kinesin family member 5A, dynein cytoplasmic heavy chain 1, tau-1 and β-tubulin III expression. In addition, alterations of the protein metabolism were also noticed. In vitro, the TMEV-infected N1E-115 cells developed tandem-repeated swellings similar to in vivo alterations. Furthermore, the hypothesis of an underlying axonal self-destruction program involving nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide depletion was supported by molecular findings. The obtained data indicate that neurofilament accumulation in TME is mainly the result of dysregulation of their axonal transport machinery and impairment of neurofilament phosphorylation and protein metabolism. The present findings allow a more precise understanding of the complex interactions responsible for initiation and development of axonopathies in inflammatory degenerative diseases.
|The serine protease inhibitor neuroserpin regulates the growth and maturation of hippocampal neurons through a non-inhibitory mechanism. |
Tet Woo Lee,Johanna M Montgomery,Nigel P Birch
Journal of neurochemistry 121 2012
Neuroserpin is a brain-specific serine protease inhibitor that is expressed in the developing and adult nervous system. Its expression profile led to suggestions that it played roles in neuronal growth and connectivity. In this study, we provide direct evidence to support a role for neuroserpin in axon and dendritic growth. We report that axon growth is enhanced while axon and dendrite diameter are reduced following neuroserpin treatment of hippocampal neurons. More complex effects are seen on dendritic growth and branching with neuroserpin-stimulating dendritic growth and branching in young neurons but switching to an inhibitory response in older neurons. The protease inhibitory activity of neuroserpin is not required to activate changes in neuronal morphology and a proportion of responses are modulated by an antagonist to the LRP1 receptor. Collectively, these findings support a key role for neuroserpin as a regulator of neuronal development through a non-inhibitory mechanism and suggest a basis for neuroserpin's effects on complex emotional behaviours and recent link to schizophrenia.
|Herpes simplex virus type 1 induces nuclear accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in neuronal cells. |
Gema Alvarez,Jesús Aldudo,María Alonso,Soraya Santana,Fernando Valdivieso
Journal of neuroscience research 90 2012
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus that remains latent in host neurons. Viral DNA replication is a highly structured process in which the redistribution of nuclear proteins plays an important role. Although tau is most widely known as a microtubule-associated protein found in a hyperphosphorylated state in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), this protein has also been detected at other sites such as the nucleolus. Here, we establish that HSV-1 infection gives rise to an increase in tau phosphorylation and that hyperphosphorylated tau accumulates in the nucleus, forming defined structures in HSV-1-infected neuronal cells reminiscent of the common sites of viral DNA replication. When tau expression in human neuroblastoma cells was specifically inhibited using an adenoviral vector expressing a short hairpin RNA to tau, viral DNA replication was not affected, indicating that tau is not required for HSV-1 growth in neuronal cells. Given that HSV-1 is considered a risk factor for AD, our results suggest a new way in which to understand the relationships between HSV-1 infection and the pathogenic mechanisms leading to AD.
|Rescue of the genetically engineered Cul4b mutant mouse as a potential model for human X-linked mental retardation. |
Chen, CY; Tsai, MS; Lin, CY; Yu, IS; Chen, YT; Lin, SR; Juan, LW; Chen, YT; Hsu, HM; Lee, LJ; Lin, SW
Human molecular genetics 21 4270-85 2012
Mutation in CUL4B, which encodes a scaffold protein of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, has been found in patients with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). However, early deletion of Cul4b in mice causes prenatal lethality, which has frustrated attempts to characterize the phenotypes in vivo. In this report, we successfully rescued Cul4b mutant mice by crossing female mice in which exons 4-5 of Cul4b were flanked by loxP sequences with Sox2-Cre male mice. In Cul4b-deficient (Cul4b(Δ)/Y) mice, no CUL4B protein was detected in any of the major organs, including the brain. In the hippocampus, the levels of CUL4A, CUL4B substrates (TOP1, β-catenin, cyclin E and WDR5) and neuronal markers (MAP2, tau-1, GAP-43, PSD95 and syn-1) were not sensitive to Cul4b deletion, whereas the number of parvalbumin (PV)-positive GABAergic interneurons was decreased in Cul4b(Δ)/Y mice, especially in the dentate gyrus (DG). Some dendritic features, including the complexity, diameter and spine density in the CA1 and DG hippocampal neurons, were also affected by Cul4b deletion. Together, the decrease in the number of PV-positive neurons and altered dendritic properties in Cul4b(Δ)/Y mice imply a reduction in inhibitory regulation and dendritic integration in the hippocampal neural circuit, which lead to increased epileptic susceptibility and spatial learning deficits. Our results identify Cul4b(Δ)/Y mice as a potential model for the non-syndromic model of XLMR that replicates the CUL4B-associated MR and is valuable for the development of a therapeutic strategy for treating MR.
|Calsyntenin-1 shelters APP from proteolytic processing during anterograde axonal transport. |
Steuble, M; Diep, TM; Schätzle, P; Ludwig, A; Tagaya, M; Kunz, B; Sonderegger, P
Biology open 1 761-74 2012
Endocytosis of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) is thought to represent the major source of substrate for the production of the amyloidogenic Aβ peptide by the β-secretase BACE1. The irreversible nature of proteolytic cleavage implies the existence of an efficient replenishment route for APP from its sites of synthesis to the cell surface. We recently found that APP exits the trans-Golgi network in intimate association with calsyntenin-1, a transmembrane cargo-docking protein for Kinesin-1-mediated vesicular transport. Here we characterized the function of calsyntenin-1 in neuronal APP transport using selective immunoisolation of intracellular trafficking organelles, immunocytochemistry, live-imaging, and RNAi. We found that APP is co-transported with calsyntenin-1 along axons to early endosomes in the central region of growth cones in carriers that exclude the α-secretase ADAM10. Intriguingly, calsyntenin-1/APP organelles contained BACE1, suggesting premature cleavage of APP along its anterograde path. However, we found that APP contained in calsyntenin-1/APP organelles was stable. We further analyzed vesicular trafficking of APP in cultured hippocampal neurons, in which calsyntenin-1 was reduced by RNAi. We found a markedly increased co-localization of APP and ADAM10 in axons and growth cones, along with increased proteolytic processing of APP and Aβ secretion in these neurons. This suggested that the reduced capacity for calsyntenin-1-dependent APP transport resulted in mis-sorting of APP into additional axonal carriers and, therefore, the premature encounter of unprotected APP with its ectodomain proteases. In combination, our results characterize calsyntenin-1/APP organelles as carriers for sheltered anterograde axonal transport of APP.
|Isolation and culture of neurons and astrocytes from the mouse brain cortex. |
Kim HJ, Magrané J.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 793 63-75 2011
Many experimental animal models of human neurodegenerative diseases have been developed to understand the events leading toward neuronal dysfunction and death. However, definitive comprehension of the molecular and cellular mechanisms in these animal models is problematic because of the complexity of the intact nervous tissue. Primary neuronal cultures prepared from rodent nervous tissues represent a powerful tool not only to study the individual contribution of different cell types (such as neurons or glia) to disease progression, but also to investigate the role of neuron-glia interactions during development and pathogenesis of disease. Here, we describe a method to isolate and culture neurons and astrocytes from the mouse cerebral cortex, and we also present a practical application for transfection and subsequent immunofluorescence.
|NMDA mediated contextual conditioning changes miRNA expression. |
Kye, MJ; Neveu, P; Lee, YS; Zhou, M; Steen, JA; Sahin, M; Kosik, KS; Silva, AJ
PloS one 6 e24682 2011
We measured the expression of 187 miRNAs using quantitative real time PCR in the hippocampal CA1 region of contextually conditioned mice and cultured embryonic rat hippocampal neurons after neuronal stimulation with either NMDA or bicuculline. Many of the changes in miRNA expression after these three types of stimulation were similar. Surprisingly, the expression level of half of the 187 measured miRNAs was changed in response to contextual conditioning in an NMDA receptor-dependent manner. Genes that control miRNA biogenesis and components of the RISC also exhibited activity induced expression changes and are likely to contribute to the widespread changes in the miRNA profile. The widespread changes in miRNA expression are consistent with the finding that genes up-regulated by contextual conditioning have longer 3' UTRs and more predicted binding sites for miRNAs. Among the miRNAs that changed their expression after contextual conditioning, several inhibit inhibitors of the mTOR pathway. These findings point to a role for miRNAs in learning and memory that includes mTOR-dependent modulation of protein synthesis.
|The E3-ubiquitin ligase TRIM2 regulates neuronal polarization. |
Khazaei, Mohammad R, et al.
J. Neurochem., 117: 29-37 (2011) 2011
The establishment of a polarized morphology with a single axon and multiple dendrites is an essential step during neuronal differentiation. This cellular polarization is largely depending on changes in the dynamics of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Here, we show that the tripartite motif (TRIM)-NHL protein TRIM2 is regulating axon specification in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, where one of several initially indistinguishable neurites is selected to become the axon. Suppression of TRIM2 by RNA interference results in the loss of neuronal polarity while over-expression of TRIM2 induces the specification of multiple axons. TRIM2 conducts its function during neuronal polarization by ubiquitination of the neurofilament light chain. Together, our results imply an important function of TRIM2 for axon outgrowth during development.
|Interaction of survival of motor neuron (SMN) and HuD proteins with mRNA cpg15 rescues motor neuron axonal deficits. |
Akten, B; Kye, MJ; Hao, le T; Wertz, MH; Singh, S; Nie, D; Huang, J; Merianda, TT; Twiss, JL; Beattie, CE; Steen, JA; Sahin, M
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108 10337-42 2011
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), caused by the deletion of the SMN1 gene, is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. SMN protein is present at high levels in both axons and growth cones, and loss of its function disrupts axonal extension and pathfinding. SMN is known to associate with the RNA-binding protein hnRNP-R, and together they are responsible for the transport and/or local translation of β-actin mRNA in the growth cones of motor neurons. However, the full complement of SMN-interacting proteins in neurons remains unknown. Here we used mass spectrometry to identify HuD as a novel neuronal SMN-interacting partner. HuD is a neuron-specific RNA-binding protein that interacts with mRNAs, including candidate plasticity-related gene 15 (cpg15). We show that SMN and HuD form a complex in spinal motor axons, and that both interact with cpg15 mRNA in neurons. CPG15 is highly expressed in the developing ventral spinal cord and can promote motor axon branching and neuromuscular synapse formation, suggesting a crucial role in the development of motor axons and neuromuscular junctions. Cpg15 mRNA previously has been shown to localize into axonal processes. Here we show that SMN deficiency reduces cpg15 mRNA levels in neurons, and, more importantly, cpg15 overexpression partially rescues the SMN-deficiency phenotype in zebrafish. Our results provide insight into the function of SMN protein in axons and also identify potential targets for the study of mechanisms that lead to the SMA pathology and related neuromuscular diseases.
|Neural stem cells maintain their stemness through protein kinase C ζ-mediated inhibition of TRIM32. |
Hillje, Anna-Lena, et al.
Stem Cells, 29: 1437-47 (2011) 2011
Several studies over the last couple of years have delivered insights into the mechanisms that drive neuronal differentiation. However, the mechanisms that ensure the maintenance of stemness characteristics in neural stem cells over several rounds of cell divisions are still largely unknown. Here, we provide evidence that the neuronal fate determinant TRIM32 binds to the protein kinase C ζ. Through this interaction, TRIM32 is retained in the cytoplasm. However, during differentiation, this interaction is abrogated and TRIM32 translocates to the nucleus to initiate neuronal differentiation by targeting c-Myc for proteasomal degradation.
|Gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons extend complex highly branched dendritic trees outside the blood-brain barrier. |
Herde, MK; Geist, K; Campbell, RE; Herbison, AE
Endocrinology 152 3832-41 2011
GnRH neurons project axons to the median eminence to control pituitary release of gonadotropins and, as such, represent the principal output neurons of the neuronal network controlling fertility. It is well established that the GnRH neurons exhibit a simple bipolar morphology with one or two long dendrites. Using adult GnRH-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice and juxtacellular cell filling, we report here that a subpopulation of GnRH neurons located in the rostral preoptic area exhibit extremely complex branching dendritic trees that fill the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). The dendritic nature of these processes was demonstrated at both light and electron microscopic levels by the presence of spines, dendritic ultrastructure, and synapses. Further, electrophysiological recordings showed that GnRH neurons were excited by glutamate as well as kisspeptin puffed onto their dendrites located within the OVLT. Using iv injection of horseradish peroxidase, a molecule unable to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB), we show that GnRH neuron cell bodies and dendrites within 100 μm of the OVLT reside outside the BBB. Approximately 85% of GnRH neurons in this area express c-Fos at the time of the GnRH surge. These observations demonstrate that GnRH neurons extend complex, highly branched dendritic trees beyond the BBB into the OVLT, where they will be able to sense directly molecules circulating in the bloodstream. This indicates a new mechanism for the modulation of GnRH neurons that extends considerably the range of factors that are integrated by these neurons for the control of fertility.
|Young coconut juice, a potential therapeutic agent that could significantly reduce some pathologies associated with Alzheimer's disease: novel findings. |
Radenahmad, N; Saleh, F; Sawangjaroen, K; Vongvatcharanon, U; Subhadhirasakul, P; Rundorn, W; Withyachumnarnkul, B; Connor, JR
The British journal of nutrition 105 738-46 2011
Brains from ovariectomised (ovx) rats can display features similar to those observed in menopausal women with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and oestrogen seems to play a key role. Preliminary studies on young coconut juice (YCJ) have reported the presence of oestrogen-like components in it. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of YCJ on the AD pathological changes in the brains of ovx rats. Rat groups included sham-operated, ovx, ovx+oestradiol benzoate (EB) and ovx+YCJ. Brain sections (4 μm) were taken and were immunostained with β-amyloid (Aβ) 1-42, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (an intermediate neurofilament of astrocytes) and Tau-1 antibodies. Aβ 1-42, GFAP and Tau-1 are considered as reliable biomarkers of amyloidosis, astrogliosis and tauopathy (neurofibrillary tangles), respectively, which in turn are characteristic features associated with AD. The serum oestradiol (E2) level was measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay technique. YCJ restored the serum E2 to levels significantly (P less than 0·001) higher than that of the ovx group, and even that of the sham group. Aβ deposition was significantly (P less than 0·0001) reduced in the cerebral cortex of the YCJ group, as compared with the ovx group and with the sham and ovx+EB groups (P less than 0·01). A similar trend was observed in relation to GFAP expression in the cerebral cortex and to Tau-1 expression in the hippocampus. This is a novel study demonstrating that YCJ could have positive future implications in the prevention and treatment of AD in menopausal women.
|Nerve terminal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors initiate quantal GABA release from perisomatic interneurons by activating axonal T-type (Cav3) Ca²⁺ channels and Ca²⁺ release from stores. |
Tang, AH; Karson, MA; Nagode, DA; McIntosh, JM; Uebele, VN; Renger, JJ; Klugmann, M; Milner, TA; Alger, BE
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 13546-61 2011
Release of conventional neurotransmitters is mainly controlled by calcium (Ca²⁺) influx via high-voltage-activated (HVA), Ca(v)2, channels ("N-, P/Q-, or R-types") that are opened by action potentials. Regulation of transmission by subthreshold depolarizations does occur, but there is little evidence that low-voltage-activated, Ca(v)3 ("T-type"), channels take part. GABA release from cortical perisomatic-targeting interneurons affects numerous physiological processes, and yet its underlying control mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated whether T-type Ca²⁺ channels are involved in regulating GABA transmission from these cells in rat hippocampal CA1 using a combination of whole-cell voltage-clamp, multiple-fluorescence confocal microscopy, dual-immunolabeling electron-microscopy, and optogenetic methods. We show that Ca(v)3.1, T-type Ca²⁺ channels can be activated by α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that are located on the synaptic regions of the GABAergic perisomatic-targeting interneuronal axons, including the parvalbumin-expressing cells. Asynchronous, quantal GABA release can be triggered by Ca²⁺ influx through presynaptic T-type Ca²⁺ channels, augmented by Ca²⁺ from internal stores, following focal microiontophoretic activation of the α3β4 nAChRs. The resulting GABA release can inhibit pyramidal cells. The T-type Ca²⁺ channel-dependent mechanism is not dependent on, or accompanied by, HVA channel Ca²⁺ influx, and is insensitive to agonists of cannabinoid, μ-opioid, or GABA(B) receptors. It may therefore operate in parallel with the normal HVA-dependent processes. The results reveal new aspects of the regulation of GABA transmission and contribute to a deeper understanding of ACh and nicotine actions in CNS.
|Androgen Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and the Fat-Bone Axis in Young Men and Women. |
Ponce-González JG, Guadalupe-Grau A, Rodríguez-González FG, Dorado C, Olmedillas H, Fuentes T, Rodríguez-García L, Díaz-Chico BN, Calbet JA
Journal of andrology 2011
Androgen receptor (AR) CAGn (polyglutamine) and GGNn (polyglycine) repeat polymorphisms determine part of the androgenic effect and may influence adiposity. The association between fat mass, and its regional distribution, with the AR CAGn and GGNn polymorphisms was studied in 319 and 78 physically active non-smoker men and women (mean ± SD: 28.3 ± 7.6 and 24.8 ± 6.2 years old, respectively). The length of CAG and GGN repeats was determined by PCR and fragment analysis, and confirmed by DNA sequencing of selected samples. Men were grouped as CAG short (CAGS) if harbouring repeat lengths ≤21, the rest as CAG long (CAGL). The corresponding cut-off CAG number for women was 22. GGN was considered short (GGNS) if GGN ≤23, the rest as GGN long (GGNL). No association between AR polymorphisms and adiposity or the hormonal variables was observed in men. Neither was there a difference in the studied variables between men harboring CAGL+GGNL, CAGS+GGNS, CAGS+GGNL, and CAGn of whole-cell voltage-clamp, multiple-fluorescence confocal microscopy, dual-immunolabeling electron-microscopy, and optogenetic methods. We show that Ca(v)3.1, T-type Ca(2+) channels can be activated by α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that are located on the synaptic regions of the GABAergic perisomatic-targeting interneuronal axons, including the parvalbumin-expressing cells. Asynchronous, quantal GABA release can be triggered by Ca(2+) influx through presynaptic T-type Ca(2+) channels, augmented by Ca(2+) from internal stores, following focal microiontophoretic activation of the α3β4 nAChRs. The resulting GABA release can inhibit pyramidal cells. The T-type Ca(2+) channel-dependent mechanism is not dependent on, or accompanied by, HVA channel Ca(2+) influx, and is insensitive to agonists of cannabinoid, μ-opioid, or GABA(B) receptors. It may therefore operate in parallel with the normal HVA-dependent processes. The results reveal new aspects of the regulation of GABA transmission and contribute to a deeper understanding of ACh and nicotine actions in CNS.
|An inverted method for culturing dissociated mouse hippocampal neurons. |
Chen WS, Yueh CY, Huang YA, Hwang E
Neurosci Res 2011
Dissociated hippocampal neuron culture has long been the model system of choice for many neuroscientists. The ability to culture dissociated hippocampal neurons from genetically modified mice provides an invaluable tool for studying many neuronal processes. In this study, we established a novel method to culture dissociated hippocampal neurons from embryonic and neonatal mice. Dissociated neurons were cultured in a microchamber between the glass coverslip and the plastic cell container without the use of glial feeder cells. Our method significantly simplifies the preparation while produces healthy and long-lived neuronal cultures that are difficult to achieve without the use of feeder cells.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.
|Centrosome motility is essential for initial axon formation in the neocortex. |
de Anda, FC; Meletis, K; Ge, X; Rei, D; Tsai, LH
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 10391-406 2010
The mechanisms underlying the normal development of neuronal morphology remain a fundamental question in neurobiology. Studies in cultured neurons have suggested that the position of the centrosome and the Golgi may predict the site of axon outgrowth. During neuronal migration in the developing cortex, however, the centrosome and Golgi are oriented toward the cortical plate at a time when axons grow toward the ventricular zone. In the current work, we use in situ live imaging to demonstrate that the centrosome and the accompanying polarized cytoplasm exhibit apical translocation in newborn cortical neurons preceding initial axon outgrowth. Disruption of centrosomal activity or downregulation of the centriolar satellite protein PCM-1 affects axon formation. We further show that downregulation of the centrosomal protein Cep120 impairs microtubule organization, resulting in increased centrosome motility. Decreased centrosome motility resulting from microtubule stabilization causes an aberrant centrosomal localization, leading to misplaced axonal outgrowth. Our results reveal the dynamic nature of the centrosome in developing cortical neurons, and implicate centrosome translocation and microtubule organization during the multipolar stage as important determinants of axon formation.
|Hypothermia-induced neurite outgrowth is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. |
Schmitt KR, Boato F, Diestel A, Hechler D, Kruglov A, Berger F, Hendrix S
Brain Pathol 20 771-9. Epub 2010 Dec 8. 2010
Systemic or brain-selective hypothermia is a well-established method for neuroprotection after brain trauma. There is increasing evidence that hypothermia exerts beneficial effects on the brain and may also support regenerative responses after brain damage. Here, we have investigated whether hypothermia influences neurite outgrowth in vitro via modulation of the post-injury cytokine milieu. Organotypic brain slices were incubated: deep hypothermia (2 h at 17 degrees C), rewarming (2 h up to 37 degrees C), normothermia (20 h at 37 degrees C). Neurite density and cytokine release (IL 1beta, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha) were investigated after 24 h. For functional analysis mice deficient in NT-3/NT-4 and TNF-alpha as well as the TNF-alpha inhibitor etanercept were used. Hypothermia led to a significant increase of neurite outgrowth, which was independent of neurotrophin signaling. In contrast to other cytokines investigated, TNF-alpha secretion by organotypic brain slices was significantly increased after deep hypothermia. Moreover, hypothermia-induced neurite extension was abolished after administration of the TNF-alpha inhibitor and in TNF-alpha knockout mice. We demonstrate that TNF-alpha is responsible for inducing neurite outgrowth in the context of deep hypothermia and rewarming. These data suggest that hypothermia not only exerts protective effects in the CNS but may also support neurite outgrowth as a potential mechanism of regeneration.
|SynCAM 1 participates in axo-dendritic contact assembly and shapes neuronal growth cones. |
Stagi M, Fogel AI, Biederer T
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107 7568-73 Epub 2010 Apr 5 2010
Neuronal growth cones are highly motile structures that tip developing neurites and explore their surroundings before axo-dendritic contact and synaptogenesis. However, the membrane proteins organizing these processes remain insufficiently understood. Here we identify that the synaptic cell adhesion molecule 1 (SynCAM 1), an immunoglobulin superfamily member, is already expressed in developing neurons and localizes to their growth cones. Upon interaction of growth cones with target neurites, SynCAM 1 rapidly assembles at these contacts to form stable adhesive clusters. Synaptic markers can also be detected at these sites. Addressing the functions of SynCAM 1 in growth cones preceding contact, we determine that it is required and sufficient to restrict the number of active filopodia. Further, SynCAM 1 negatively regulates the morphological complexity of migrating growth cones. Focal adhesion kinase, a binding partner of SynCAM 1, is implicated in its morphogenetic activities. These results reveal that SynCAM 1 acts in developing neurons to shape migrating growth cones and contributes to the adhesive differentiation of their axo-dendritic contacts.
|Par1bMARK2 phosphorylates kinesin-like motor protein GAKINKIF13B to regulate axon formation. |
Y Yoshimura, T Terabayashi, H Miki
Molecular and cellular biology 2010
Here we report that Par1b/MARK2 regulates axon formation via phosphorylation of a kinesin superfamily protein GAKIN/KIF13B. Accumulating evidence indicated the importance of the evolutionarily conserved kinase Par1b in the regulation of cell polarity. Using hippocampal neurons in culture, it has been shown that Par1b regulates axon specification, but the underlining mechanism remains uncharacterized. We identify GAKIN/KIF13B as a novel Par1b-binding protein and reveal that GAKIN/KIF13B is a physiological substrate for Par1b, and the phosphorylation sites are conserved from Drosophila. In hippocampal neurons, GAKIN/KIF13B accumulates at the distal part of the microtubules in the tips of axons, but not of dendrites. Overexpression of GAKIN/KIF13B by itself can induce the formation of extra axons, which is inhibited by the co-expression of Par1b in a manner dependent on its kinase activity. In contrast, siRNA-mediated knockdown of GAKIN/KIF13B severely retards neurite extension and promotes axonless phenotype. The extra axon phenotype caused by Par1b-siRNA is suppressed by co-introduction of GAKIN/KIF13B-siRNA, thus placing the GAKIN/KIF13B function at the downstream of Par1b. We also find that GAKIN/KIF13B acts downstream of the PI3K signaling via Par1b-phosphorylation. These results reveal that GAKIN/KIF13B is a key intermediate linking Par1b to the regulation of axon formation.,
|Integration of human model neurons (NT2) into embryonic chick nervous system. |
Podrygajlo G, Wiegreffe C, Scaal M, Bicker G
Dev Dyn 239 496-504. 2010
Postmitotic neurons were generated from the human NT2 teratocarcinoma cell line in a novel cell aggregate differentiation procedure. Approximately a third of the differentiated neurons expressed cell markers related to cholinergic neurotransmission. To examine whether this human cell model system can be directed toward a motoneuronal fate, postmitotic neurons were co-cultured with mouse myotubes. Outgrowing neuronal processes established close contact with the myotubes and formed neuromuscular junction-like structures that bound alpha-bungarotoxin. To determine how grafted precursor cells and neurons respond to embryonic nerve tissue, NT2 cells at different stages of neural development were injected into chick embryo neural tube and brain. Grafted NT2 neurons populated both parts of the nervous system, sometimes migrating away from the site of injection. The neural tube appeared to be more permissive for neurite extensions than the brain. Moreover, extending neurites of spinal grafts were approaching the ventral roots, thus resembling motoneuronal projections.
|Bex1 is involved in the regeneration of axons after injury. |
Khazaei, MR; Halfter, H; Karimzadeh, F; Koo, JH; Margolis, FL; Young, P
Journal of neurochemistry 115 910-20 2010
Successful axonal regeneration is a complex process determined by both axonal environment and endogenous neural capability of the regenerating axons in the central and the peripheral nervous systems. Numerous external inhibitory factors inhibit axonal regeneration after injury. In response, neurons express various regeneration-associated genes to overcome this inhibition and increase the intrinsic growth capacity. In the present study, we show that the brain-expressed X-linked (Bex1) protein was over-expressed as a result of peripheral axonal damage. Bex1 antagonized the axon outgrowth inhibitory effect of myelin-associated glycoprotein. The involvement of Bex1 in axon regeneration was further confirmed in vivo. We have demonstrated that Bex1 knock-out mice showed lower capability for regeneration after peripheral nerve injury than wild-type animals. Wild-type mice could recover from sciatic nerve injury much faster than Bex1 knock-out mice. Our findings suggest that Bex1 could be considered as regeneration-associated gene.
|Functional and immunocytochemical characterization of the creatine transporter in rat hippocampal neurons. |
Joanna R Dodd,Nigel P Birch,Henry J Waldvogel,David L Christie
Journal of neurochemistry 115 2010
Creatine uptake by neurons requires a specific creatine transporter (CRT). The purpose of the present work was to investigate the activity and localization of the CRT in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons obtained from 18-day rat embryos. Creatine uptake increased as the neurons differentiated in culture. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed most of the CRT was associated with dendrites, although some CRT was present in axons and axon terminals. Neurons contained high levels of Na(+)-dependent creatine transport activity (K(m) = 45.5 ?M; V(max), 1719 pmol creatine/min/mg protein) which was inhibited by competitive inhibitors of the CRT. The IC(50) for guanidinoacetate, a precursor of creatine, was 712 ?M, ? 15-fold higher than the K(m) for creatine. Incubation of neurons with 1 mM creatine resulted in the accumulation of high levels of creatine which affected the V(max) but not the K(m) for creatine transport. The rate of creatine release from neurons increased in the absence of Na(+) showing the importance of the electrochemical gradient for creatine retention. This is the first detailed study of the CRT in neurons and identifies primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons as a good model for future studies of the CRT in relation to the effects of creatine on neuronal function and viability.
|Loss of Necdin impairs myosin activation and delays cell polarization. |
Bush JR, Wevrick R
Genesis 48 540-53. 2010
NDN is one of several genes inactivated in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a developmental disorder characterized by obesity, hypotonia, and developmental delay. We demonstrate that loss of Necdin in murine and human fibroblasts impairs polarity initiation through a Cdc42-myosin-dependent pathway, thereby reducing cell migration. We identified defective polarization in both primary neuron cultures and in the developing limb in Ndn-null mice. Ndn-null neurons fail to activate myosin light chain and display defective polarization with respect to a brain-derived neurotrophic factor gradient. Pax3+ muscle progenitors in Ndn-null developing forelimbs display defective polarization, do not adequately migrate into the dorsal limb bud, and extensor muscles are consequently smaller. These results provide strong evidence that Necdin is a key protein regulating polarization of the cytoskeleton during development. Furthermore, this is the first demonstration of a cellular defect in PWS and suggests a novel molecular mechanism to explain neurological and muscular pathophysiologies in PWS.
|The NIMA-family kinase Nek3 regulates microtubule acetylation in neurons. |
Chang, J; Baloh, RH; Milbrandt, J
Journal of cell science 122 2274-82 2009
NIMA-related kinases (Neks) belong to a large family of Ser/Thr kinases that have critical roles in coordinating microtubule dynamics during ciliogenesis and mitotic progression. The Nek kinases are also expressed in neurons, whose axonal projections are, similarly to cilia, microtubule-abundant structures that extend from the cell body. We therefore investigated whether Nek kinases have additional, non-mitotic roles in neurons. We found that Nek3 influences neuronal morphogenesis and polarity through effects on microtubules. Nek3 is expressed in the cytoplasm and axons of neurons and is phosphorylated at Thr475 located in the C-terminal PEST domain, which regulates its catalytic activity. Although exogenous expression of wild-type or phosphomimic (T475D) Nek3 in cultured neurons has no discernible impact, expression of a phospho-defective mutant (T475A) or PEST-truncated Nek3 leads to distorted neuronal morphology with disturbed polarity and deacetylation of microtubules via HDAC6 in its kinase-dependent manner. Thus, the phosphorylation at Thr475 serves as a regulatory switch that alters Nek3 function. The deacetylation of microtubules in neurons by unphosphorylated Nek3 raises the possibility that it could have a role in disorders where axonal degeneration is an important component.
|Phosphorylation of the par polarity complex protein Par3 at serine 962 is mediated by aurora a and regulates its function in neuronal polarity. |
Khazaei MR, Puschel AW
The Journal of biological chemistry 284 33571-9 2009
The Aurora kinases are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that perform important functions during the cell cycle. Recently, it was shown that Drosophila Aurora A also regulates the asymmetric localization of Numb to the basal and the partitioning-defective (Par) complex to the apical cortex of neuroblasts by phosphorylating Par6. Here, we show that Aurora A is required for neuronal polarity. Suppression of Aurora A by RNA interference results in the loss of neuronal polarity. Aurora A interacts directly with the atypical protein kinase C binding domain of Par3 and phosphorylates it at serine 962. The phosphorylation of Par3 at serine 962 contributes to its function in the establishment of neuronal polarity.Full Text Article
|Rnd1 regulates axon extension by enhancing the microtubule destabilizing activity of SCG10. |
Li, YH; Ghavampur, S; Bondallaz, P; Will, L; Grenningloh, G; Püschel, AW
The Journal of biological chemistry 284 363-71 2009
The GTPase Rnd1 affects actin dynamics antagonistically to Rho and has been implicated in the regulation of neurite outgrowth, dendrite development, and axon guidance. Here we show that Rnd1 interacts with the microtubule regulator SCG10. This interaction requires a central domain of SCG10 comprising about 40 amino acids located within the N-terminal-half of a putative alpha-helical domain and is independent of phosphorylation at the four identified phosphorylation sites that regulate SCG10 activity. Rnd1 enhances the microtubule destabilizing activity of SCG10 and both proteins colocalize in neurons. Knockdown of Rnd1 or SCG10 by RNAi suppressed axon extension, indicating a critical role for both proteins during neuronal differentiation. Overexpression of Rnd1 in neurons induces the formation of multiple axons. The effect of Rnd1 on axon extension depends on SCG10. These results indicate that SCG10 acts as an effector downstream of Rnd1 to regulate axon extensions by modulating microtubule organization.
|Myosin-II negatively regulates minor process extension and the temporal development of neuronal polarity. |
K M Kollins,J Hu,P C Bridgman,Y Q Huang,G Gallo
Developmental neurobiology 69 2009
The earliest stage in the development of neuronal polarity is characterized by extension of undifferentiated minor processes (MPs), which subsequently differentiate into the axon and dendrites. We investigated the role of the myosin II motor protein in MP extension using forebrain and hippocampal neuron cultures. Chronic treatment of neurons with the myosin II ATPase inhibitor blebbistatin increased MP length, which was also seen in myosin IIB knockouts. Through live-cell imaging, we demonstrate that myosin II inhibition triggers rapid minor process extension to a maximum length range. Myosin II activity is determined by phosphorylation of its regulatory light chains (rMLC) and mediated by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) or RhoA-kinase (ROCK). Pharmacological inhibition of MLCK or ROCK increased MP length moderately, with combined inhibition of these kinases resulting in an additive increase in MP length similar to the effect of direct inhibition of myosin II. Selective inhibition of RhoA signaling upstream of ROCK, with cell-permeable C3 transferase, increased both the length and number of MPs. To determine whether myosin II affected development of neuronal polarity, MP differentiation was examined in cultures treated with direct or indirect myosin II inhibitors. Significantly, inhibition of myosin II, MLCK, or ROCK accelerated the development of neuronal polarity. Increased myosin II activity, through constitutively active MLCK or RhoA, decreased both the length and number of MPs and, consequently, delayed or abolished the development of neuronal polarity. Together, these data indicate that myosin II negatively regulates MP extension, and the developmental time course for axonogenesis.Full Text Article
|Repression of tau hyperphosphorylation by chronic endurance exercise in aged transgenic mouse model of tauopathies. |
Yea-Hyun Leem,Hwa-Ja Lim,Sun-Bo Shim,Joon-Yong Cho,Bum-Soo Kim,Pyung-Lim Han
Journal of neuroscience research 87 2009
The present study was undertaken to investigate whether chronic endurance exercise affects tau phosphorylation levels in the brain with Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology. To address this, the transgenic (Tg) mouse model of tauopathies, Tg-NSE/htau23, which expresses human tau23 in the brain, was chosen. Animals were subjected to chronic exercise for 3 months from 16 months of age. The exercised Tg mouse groups were treadmill run at speeds of 12 m/min (intermediate exercise group) or 19 m/min (high exercise group) for 1 hr/day, 5 days/week, during the 3-month period. Chronic endurance exercise in Tg mice increased the expression of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and also their enzymatic activities in the brain. In parallel, chronic exercise in Tg mice up-regulated the expression of phospho-PKCalpha, phospho-AKT, and phospho-PI3K, and down-regulated the expressions of phospho-PKA, phosphor-p38, phospho-JNK, and phospho-ERK. Moreover, chronic exercise up-regulated both cytosolic and nuclear levels of beta-catenin, and the expression of T-cell factor-4 (Tcf-4) and cyclin D1 in the brain. As a consequence of such changes, the levels of phospho-tau in the brain of Tg mice were markedly decreased after exercise. Immunohistochemical analysis showed an exercised-induced decrease of the phospho-tau levels in the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus. These results suggest that chronic endurance exercise may provide a therapeutic potential to alleviate the tau pathology.
|Transmembrane and ubiquitin-like domain-containing protein 1 (Tmub1/HOPS) facilitates surface expression of GluR2-containing AMPA receptors. |
Yang, H; Takagi, H; Konishi, Y; Ageta, H; Ikegami, K; Yao, I; Sato, S; Hatanaka, K; Inokuchi, K; Seog, DH; Setou, M
PloS one 3 e2809 2008
Some ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain-containing proteins are known to play roles in receptor trafficking. Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPARs) undergo constitutive cycling between the intracellular compartment and the cell surface in the central nervous system. However, the function of UBL domain-containing proteins in the recycling of the AMPARs to the synaptic surface has not yet been reported.Here, we report that the Transmembrane and ubiquitin-like domain-containing 1 (Tmub1) protein, formerly known as the Hepatocyte Odd Protein Shuttling (HOPS) protein, which is abundantly expressed in the brain and which exists in a synaptosomal membrane fraction, facilitates the recycling of the AMPAR subunit GluR2 to the cell surface. Neurons transfected with Tmub1/HOPS-RNAi plasmids showed a significant reduction in the AMPAR current as compared to their control neurons. Consistently, the synaptic surface expression of GluR2, but not of GluR1, was significantly decreased in the neurons transfected with the Tmub1/HOPS-RNAi and increased in the neurons overexpressing EGFP-Tmub1/HOPS. The altered surface expression of GluR2 was speculated to be due to the altered surface-recycling of the internalized GluR2 in our recycling assay. Eventually, we found that GluR2 and glutamate receptor interacting protein (GRIP) were coimmunoprecipitated by the anti-Tmub1/HOPS antibody from the mouse brain. Taken together, these observations show that the Tmub1/HOPS plays a role in regulating basal synaptic transmission; it contributes to maintain the synaptic surface number of the GluR2-containing AMPARs by facilitating the recycling of GluR2 to the plasma membrane.
|Rheb and mTOR regulate neuronal polarity through Rap1B. |
Li, Ying-Hua, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 283: 33784-92 (2008) 2008
The development of polarized hippocampal neurons with a single axon and multiple dendrites depends on the activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and the GTPase Rap1B. Here we show that PI3K regulates axon specification and elongation through the GTPase Rheb and its target mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Overexpression of Rheb induces the formation of multiple axons, whereas its suppression by RNA interference blocks axon specification. mTOR is a central regulator of translation that phosphorylates eIF4E-binding proteins like 4E-BP1. Axon formation was suppressed by inhibition of mTOR and expression of mTOR-insensitive 4E-BP1 mutants. Inhibition of PI3K or mTOR reduced the level of Rap1B, which acts downstream of Rheb and mTOR. The ubiquitin E3 ligase Smurf2 mediates the restriction of Rap1B by initiating its degradation. Suppression of Smruf2 by RNA interference is able to compensate the loss of Rheb. These results indicate that the mTOR pathway is required to counteract the Smurf2-initiated degradation of Rap1B during the establishment of neuronal polarity.
|Identification of a developmentally regulated pathway of membrane retrieval in neuronal growth cones. |
Bonanomi, D; Fornasiero, EF; Valdez, G; Halegoua, S; Benfenati, F; Menegon, A; Valtorta, F
Journal of cell science 121 3757-69 2008
The growth-cone plasma membrane constantly reconfigures during axon navigation and upon target recognition. The identity and regulation of the membrane pathway(s) participating in remodeling of the growth-cone surface remain elusive. Here, we identify a constitutive, high-capacity plasma-membrane-recycling activity in the axonal growth cones, which is mediated by a novel bulk endocytic pathway that is mechanistically related to macropinocytosis. This pathway generates large compartments at sites of intense actin-based membrane ruffling through the actions of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, the small GTPase Rac1 and the pinocytic chaperone Pincher. At early developmental stages, bulk endocytosis is the primary endocytic pathway for rapid retrieval of the growth-cone plasma membrane. At later stages, during the onset of synaptogenesis, an intrinsic program of maturation leads to downregulation of basal bulk endocytosis and the emergence of depolarization-induced synaptic-vesicle exo-endocytosis. We propose that the control of bulk membrane retrieval contributes to the homeostatic regulation of the axonal plasma membrane and to growth-cone remodeling during axonal outgrowth. In addition, we suggest that the downregulation of bulk endocytosis during synaptogenesis might contribute to the preservation of synaptic-vesicle specificity.Full Text Article
|Pyramidal neuron polarity axis is defined at the bipolar stage. |
Calderon de Anda, F; Gärtner, A; Tsai, LH; Dotti, CG
Journal of cell science 121 178-85 2008
In situ observations of the development of hippocampal and cortical neurons indicate that final axon-dendrite identity is defined at the time of generation of the first two, oppositely positioned, neurites. Quite differently, in vitro studies demonstrated that axonal fate is defined by the stochastic selection of one of the multiple minor neurites for fast outgrowth. By analyzing the fate of all neurites, starting at the time of emergence from the cell body, we demonstrate that polarity is defined at the bipolar stage, with one of the two first-appearing neurites acquiring axonal fate, irrespective of how many other neurites later form. The first two neurites have, as in vivo, the highest growth potential, as cutting the axon results in the growth of a new axon from the neurite at the opposite pole, and cutting this induces regrowth from the first. This temporal and spatial hierarchical definition of polarized growth, together with the bipolar organization of microtubule dynamics and membrane transport preceding it, is consistent with polarity being initiated by an intrinsic program. In this scenario, molecules required for axon specification would act at one of the first two neurites and extrinsic cues will be required for final commitment of polarity.
|Synapses are regulated by the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase Fer in a pathway mediated by p120catenin, Fer, SHP-2, and beta-catenin. |
Seung-Hye Lee, I-Feng Peng, Yu Gie Ng, Masahiro Yanagisawa, Shernaz X Bamji, Lisa P Elia, Janne Balsamo, Jack Lilien, Panos Z Anastasiadis, Erik M Ullian, Louis F Reichardt, Seung-Hye Lee, I-Feng Peng, Yu Gie Ng, Masahiro Yanagisawa, Shernaz X Bamji, Lisa P Elia, Janne Balsamo, Jack Lilien, Panos Z Anastasiadis, Erik M Ullian, Louis F Reichardt, Seung-Hye Lee, I-Feng Peng, Yu Gie Ng, Masahiro Yanagisawa, Shernaz X Bamji, Lisa P Elia, Janne Balsamo, Jack Lilien, Panos Z Anastasiadis, Erik M Ullian, Louis F Reichardt
The Journal of cell biology 183 893-908 2008
Localization of presynaptic components to synaptic sites is critical for hippocampal synapse formation. Cell adhesion-regulated signaling is important for synaptic development and function, but little is known about differentiation of the presynaptic compartment. In this study, we describe a pathway that promotes presynaptic development involving p120catenin (p120ctn), the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase Fer, the protein phosphatase SHP-2, and beta-catenin. Presynaptic Fer depletion prevents localization of active zone constituents and synaptic vesicles and inhibits excitatory synapse formation and synaptic transmission. Depletion of p120ctn or SHP-2 similarly disrupts synaptic vesicle localization with active SHP-2, restoring synapse formation in the absence of Fer. Fer or SHP-2 depletion results in elevated tyrosine phosphorylation of beta-catenin. beta-Catenin overexpression restores normal synaptic vesicle localization in the absence of Fer or SHP-2. Our results indicate that a presynaptic signaling pathway through p120ctn, Fer, SHP-2, and beta-catenin promotes excitatory synapse development and function.Full Text Article
|Long-range axonal calcium sweep induces axon retraction. |
Yamada, RX; Sasaki, T; Ichikawa, J; Koyama, R; Matsuki, N; Ikegaya, Y
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 4613-8 2008
Axon guidance molecules trigger a cascade of local signal in growth cones and evoke various morphologic responses, including axon attraction, repulsion, elongation, and retraction. However, little is known about whether subcellular compartments, other than axonal growth cones, control axon outgrowth. We found that in isolated dentate granule cells, local application of glutamate to the somatodendritic areas, but not the axon itself, induced rapid axon retraction, during which a calcium wave propagated from the somata to the axon terminals. The calcium wave and axon retraction were both inhibited by blockade of voltage-sensitive calcium channels and intracellular calcium dynamics. A combination of perisomatic application of calcium ionophore and depolarizing current injection induced axonal calcium sweep and axon retraction. Thus, perisomatic environments can modulate axon behavior through long-range intracellular communication.
|Reduction of Crk and CrkL expression blocks reelin-induced dendritogenesis. |
Matsuki, T; Pramatarova, A; Howell, BW
Journal of cell science 121 1869-75 2008
The reelin signaling pathway regulates nervous system function after birth, in addition to its role in regulating neuronal positioning during embryogenesis. The receptor-dependent, reelin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the Dab1 docking protein is an established prerequisite for biological responses to this ligand. Here we show that the inactivation of a conditional Dab1 allele reduces process complexity in correctly positioned neurons in the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus after birth. Reelin stimulation of cultured hippocampal neurons enhances dendritogenesis by approximately twofold and in a manner dependent on Src family kinases. This enhancement is blocked by reducing expression of Crk family proteins, adaptor molecules that interact with Dab1 in a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent manner. Retrovirally expressed inhibitory RNAs used to reduce Crk and CrkL expression did not block BDNF-enhanced dendritogenesis or influence axonogenesis. Together, this demonstrates that the Crk family proteins are important downstream components of the reelin signaling pathway in the regulation of postnatal hippocampal dendritogenesis.Full Text Article
|Identification of a caspase-derived N-terminal tau fragment in cellular and animal Alzheimer's disease models. |
Corsetti, V, et al.
Mol. Cell. Neurosci., 38: 381-92 (2008) 2008
Biochemical modifications of tau proteins have been proposed to be among the earliest neurobiological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and correlate better with cognitive symptoms than do beta-amyloid plaques. We have recently reported that adenovirus-mediated overexpression of the NH2 26-230aa tau fragment evokes a potent NMDA-mediated neurotoxic effect in primary neuronal cultures. In order to assess whether such N-terminal tau fragment(s) are indeed produced during apoptosis or neurodegeneration in vivo, we attempted to ascertain their presence in cell and animal models using an anti-tau antibody directed against the N-terminal sequence of human protein located downstream of the caspase(s)-cleavage site DRKD(25)-QGGYTMHQDQ. We provide biochemical evidence that a caspase(s)-cleaved NH2-terminal tau fragment of 20-22 kDa, consistent with the size of the NH2 26-230aa neurotoxic fragment of tau, is generated in vitro in differentiated human SH-SY5Y cells undergoing apoptosis by BDNF withdrawal or following treatment with staurosporine. In addition this NH2-terminally cleaved tau fragment, whose expression correlates with a significant up-regulation of caspase(s) activity, is also specifically detected in vivo in the hippocampus of 15 month-old AD11 transgenic mice, a model in which a progressive AD-like neurodegeneration is induced by the expression of transgenic anti-NGF antibodies. The results support the idea that aberrant activation of caspase(s), following apoptotic stimuli or neurodegeneration insults, may produce one or more toxic NH2 tau fragments, that further contribute to propagate and increase cellular dysfunctions in AD.
|ABCG1 and ABCG4 are coexpressed in neurons and astrocytes of the CNS and regulate cholesterol homeostasis through SREBP-2. |
Tarr, Paul T and Edwards, Peter A
J. Lipid Res., 49: 169-82 (2008) 2008
Here, we describe the initial characterization of Abcg4(-/-) mice and identify overlapping functions of ABCG4 and ABCG1 in the brain. Histological examination of tissues from Abcg4(+/-)/nlsLacZ and Abcg1(+/-)/nlsLacZ mice demonstrates that coexpression of Abcg4 and Abcg1 is restricted to neurons and astrocytes of the central nervous system (CNS). Interestingly, Abcg4 mRNA is undetectable outside the CNS, in contrast with the broad tissue and cellular expression of Abcg1. We also used primary astrocytes, microglia, neurons, and macrophages to demonstrate that the expression of Abcg1, but not Abcg4, is induced after the activation of liver X receptor. Cellular localization studies demonstrated that both proteins reside in RhoB-positive endocytic vesicle membranes. Furthermore, overexpression of either ABCG1 or ABCG4 increased the processing of sterol-regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) to the transcriptionally active protein, thus accounting for the observed increase in the expression of SREBP-2 target genes and cholesterol synthesis. Consistent with these latter results, we show that the expression levels of the same SREBP-2 target genes are repressed in the brains of Abcg1(-/-) and, to a lesser extent, Abcg4(-/-) mice. Based on the results of the current study, we propose that ABCG1 and ABCG4 mediate the intracellular vesicular transport of cholesterol/sterols within both neurons and astrocytes to regulate cholesterol transport in the brain.
|Histone deacetylase inhibition-mediated differentiation of RGC-5 cells and interaction with survival. |
Schwechter, BR; Millet, LE; Levin, LA
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 48 2845-57 2007
The acetylation state of histones is modulated by histone deacetylase (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferase and is an important component in regulating gene transcription, including neuronal differentiation. The authors studied the relationship between histone acetylation and the differentiation and survival of the RGC-5 cell line and compared it with nontranscriptional-dependent differentiation with staurosporine.The retinal ganglion cell line RGC-5 was treated with trichostatin A (TSA), other HDAC inhibitors, and staurosporine; differentiation, neuritogenesis, neurotrophic factor dependence, and dependence on RNA transcription were assessed.TSA caused significant differentiation and neuritogenesis. Differences between HDAC inhibition and staurosporine differentiation included the proportion of differentiated cells, cell viability, cell morphology, and transcriptional dependence. HDAC inhibition, but not staurosporine differentiation, resulted in RGC-5 cells that were neurotrophic factor dependent.These results implicate two different mechanisms for RGC-5 differentiation, with a common downstream effect on neurite outgrowth but a differential effect on neurotrophic factor dependence.Full Text Article
|Interaction of the N-terminal domain of the AMPA receptor GluR4 subunit with the neuronal pentraxin NP1 mediates GluR4 synaptic recruitment. |
Sia, GM; Béïque, JC; Rumbaugh, G; Cho, R; Worley, PF; Huganir, RL
Neuron 55 87-102 2007
Synaptogenesis requires recruitment of neurotransmitter receptors to developing postsynaptic specializations. We developed a coculture system reconstituting artificial synapses between neurons and nonneuronal cells to investigate the molecular components required for AMPA-receptor recruitment to synapses. With this system, we find that excitatory axons specifically express factors that recruit the AMPA receptor GluR4 subunit to sites of contact between axons and GluR4-transfected nonneuronal cells. Furthermore, the N-terminal domain (NTD) of GluR4 is necessary and sufficient for its recruitment to these artificial synapses and also for GluR4 recruitment to native synapses. Moreover, we show that axonally derived neuronal pentraxins NP1 and NPR are required for GluR4 recruitment to artificial and native synapses. RNAi knockdown and knockout of the neuronal pentraxins significantly decreases GluR4 targeting to synapses. Our results indicate that NP1 and NPR secreted from presynaptic neurons bind to the GluR4 NTD and are critical trans-synaptic factors for GluR4 recruitment to synapses.
|Reduced functional deficits, neuroinflammation, and secondary tissue damage after treatment of stroke by nonerythropoietic erythropoietin derivatives. |
Villa, P; van Beek, J; Larsen, AK; Gerwien, J; Christensen, S; Cerami, A; Brines, M; Leist, M; Ghezzi, P; Torup, L
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 27 552-63 2007
Carbamylerythropoietin (CEPO) does not bind to the classical erythropoietin (EPO) receptor. Nevertheless, similarly to EPO, CEPO promotes neuroprotection on the histologic level in short-term stroke models. In the present study, we investigated whether CEPO and other nonerythropoietic EPO analogs could enhance functional recovery and promote long-term histologic protection after experimental focal cerebral ischemia. Rats were treated with the compounds after focal cerebral ischemia. Animals survived 1, 7, or 60 days and underwent behavioral testing (sensorimotor and foot-fault tests). Brain sections were stained and analyzed for Iba-1, myeloperoxidase, Tau-1, CD68 (ED1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Fluoro-Jade B staining, and overall infarct volumes. Treatment with CEPO reduced perifocal microglial activation (Pless than 0.05), polymorphomonuclear cell infiltration (Pless than 0.05), and white matter damage (Pless than 0.01) at 1 day after occlusion. Carbamylerythropoietin-treated rats showed better functional recovery relative to vehicle-treated animals as assessed 1, 7, 14, 28, and 50 days after stroke. Both GFAP and CD68 were decreased within the ipsilateral thalamus of CEPO-treated animals 60 days postoperatively (Pless than 0.01 and Pless than 0.05, respectively). Furthermore, behavioral analysis showed efficacy of CEPO treatment even if administered 24 h after the stroke. Other nonerythropoietic derivatives such as carbamylated darbepoetin alfa and the mutant EPO-S100E were also found to protect against ischemic damage and to improve postischemic neurologic function. In conclusion, these results show that postischemic intravenous treatment with nonerythropoietic EPO derivatives leads to improved functional recovery, which may be linked to their long-term effects against neuroinflammation and secondary tissue damage.
|Ena/VASP Is Required for neuritogenesis in the developing cortex. |
Kwiatkowski, Adam V, et al.
Neuron, 56: 441-55 (2007) 2007
Mammalian cortical development involves neuronal migration and neuritogenesis; this latter process forms the structural precursors to axons and dendrites. Elucidating the pathways that regulate the cytoskeleton to drive these processes is fundamental to our understanding of cortical development. Here we show that loss of all three murine Ena/VASP proteins, a family of actin regulatory proteins, causes neuronal ectopias, alters intralayer positioning in the cortical plate, and, surprisingly, blocks axon fiber tract formation during corticogenesis. Cortical fiber tract defects in the absence of Ena/VASP arise from a failure in neurite initiation, a prerequisite for axon formation. Neurite initiation defects in Ena/VASP-deficient neurons are preceded by a failure to form bundled actin filaments and filopodia. These findings provide insight into the regulation of neurite formation and the role of the actin cytoskeleton during cortical development.
|Amyloid-like aggregates of neuronal tau induced by formaldehyde promote apoptosis of neuronal cells. |
Nie, CL; Wang, XS; Liu, Y; Perrett, S; He, RQ
BMC neuroscience 8 9 2007
The microtubule associated protein tau is the principle component of neurofibrillar tangles, which are a characteristic marker in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease; similar lesions are also observed after chronic alcohol abuse. Formaldehyde is a common environmental contaminant and also a metabolite of methanol. Although many studies have been done on methanol and formaldehyde intoxication, none of these address the contribution of protein misfolding to the pathological mechanism, in particular the effect of formaldehyde on protein conformation and polymerization.We found that unlike the typical globular protein BSA, the natively-unfolded structure of human neuronal tau was induced to misfold and aggregate in the presence of ~0.01% formaldehyde, leading to formation of amyloid-like deposits that appeared as densely staining granules by electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, and bound the amyloid-specific dyes thioflavin T and Congo Red. The amyloid-like aggregates of tau were found to induce apoptosis in the neurotypic cell line SH-SY5Y and in rat hippocampal cells, as observed by Hoechst 33258 staining, assay of caspase-3 activity, and flow cytometry using Annexin V and Propidium Iodide staining. Further experiments showed that Congo Red specifically attenuated the caspase-3 activity induced by amyloid-like deposits of tau.The results suggest that low concentrations of formaldehyde can induce human tau protein to form neurotoxic aggregates, which could play a role in the induction of tauopathies.Full Text Article
|Somatodendritic localization of EFA6A, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ADP-ribosylation factor 6, and its possible interaction with alpha-actinin in dendritic spines. |
Hiroyuki Sakagami, Takashi Honma, Jun Sukegawa, Yuji Owada, Teruyuki Yanagisawa, Hisatake Kondo
The European journal of neuroscience 25 618-28 2007
EFA6A is a member of the guanine nucleotide exchange factors that can specifically activate ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6). In this study, we identified alpha-actinin-1 as a possible interacting protein with EFA6A by the yeast two-hybrid screening with its C-terminal region as bait. The central region of alpha-actinin-1 containing a part of spectrin repeat 1 and spectrin repeats 2-3 is responsible for this interaction. In the hippocampal formation, EFA6A immunoreactivity occurred at a high level as numerous fine puncta in the strata oriens, radiatum, lacunosum-moleculare of the hippocampal CA1-3 subfields and the dentate molecular layer, whereas the immunoreactivity was faint in the neuronal cell layers and the stratum lucidum, the mossy fiber-recipient layer of the CA3 subfield. Double-immunofluorescent analyses revealed a partial overlapping of EFA6A and alpha-actinin at the dendritic spines of in vivo and cultured hippocampal neurons. Our present findings suggest that EFA6A may form a protein complex with alpha-actinin and activate ARF6 in close proximity of the actin cytoskeleton and membrane proteins in the dendritic spines.
|Ubiquitination of the GTPase Rap1B by the ubiquitin ligase Smurf2 is required for the establishment of neuronal polarity. |
Jens C Schwamborn, Myriam Müller, Annemarie Hm Becker, Andreas W Püschel
The EMBO journal 26 1410-22 2007
The development of a polarised morphology with multiple dendrites and a single axon is an essential step in the differentiation of neurons. The establishment of neuronal polarity is directed by the sequential activity of the GTPases Rap1B and Cdc42. Rap1B is initially present in all neurites of unpolarised neurons, but becomes restricted to the tip of a single process during the establishment of neuronal polarity where it specifies axonal identity. Here, we show that the ubiquitin ligases Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor-1 (Smurf1) and Smurf2 are essential for neurite growth and neuronal polarity, respectively, and regulate the GTPases Rho and Rap1B in hippocampal neurons. Smurf2 is required for the restriction of Rap1B to a single neurite. Smurf2 ubiquitinates inactive Rap1B and initiates its degradation through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway (UPS). Degradation of Rap1B restricts it to a single neurite and thereby ensures that neurons extend a single axon.Full Text Article
|Mice deficient in collapsin response mediator protein-1 exhibit impaired long-term potentiation and impaired spatial learning and memory. |
Su, KY; Chien, WL; Fu, WM; Yu, IS; Huang, HP; Huang, PH; Lin, SR; Shih, JY; Lin, YL; Hsueh, YP; Yang, PC; Lin, SW
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27 2513-24 2007
Collapsing response mediator protein-1 (CRMP-1) was initially identified in brain and has been implicated in plexin-dependent neuronal function. The high amino acid sequence identity among the five CRMPs has hindered determination of the functions of each individual CRMP. We generated viable and fertile CRMP-1 knock-out (CRMP-1(-/-)) mice with no evidence of gross abnormality in the major organs. CRMP-1(-/-) mice exhibited intense microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) staining in the proximal portion of the dendrites, but reduced and disorganized MAP2 staining in the distal dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. Immunoreactivity to GAP-43 (growth-associated protein-43) and PSD95 (postsynaptic density-95) (a postsynaptic membrane adherent cytoskeletal protein) was also decreased in the CA1 region of the knock-out mice. These changes were consistent with the mutant mice showing a reduction in long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region and impaired performance in hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory tests. CRMP-1(-/-) mice showed a normal synapsin I labeling pattern in CA1 and normal paired-pulse facilitation. These findings provide the first evidence suggesting that CRMP-1 may be involved in proper neurite outgrowth in the adult hippocampus and that loss of CRMP-1 may affect LTP maintenance and spatial learning and memory.
|Cryopreservation of granule cells from the postnatal rat hippocampus. |
Junya Ichikawa, Ryuji X Yamada, Rieko Muramatsu, Yuji Ikegaya, Norio Matsuki, Ryuta Koyama
Journal of pharmacological sciences 104 387-91 2007
Although primary cultures of neurons are essential methods for cell biological and pharmacological researches, many animals must be sacrificed for each experiment. Here we introduce a novel system to cryopreserve hippocampal granule cells (GCs) prepared from postnatal rats. Being thawed after as long as 60 days of cryopreservation, GCs expressed the mature neuronal marker MAP-2 and elongated single tau-1-positive axons and multiple tau-1-negative dendrites. These properties closely resembled intact GCs in primary cultures, providing the advantage of being able to repeatedly prepare stable cultures with a single sacrifice of animals.
|The interaction of mPar3 with the ubiquitin ligase Smurf2 is required for the establishment of neuronal polarity. |
Schwamborn, JC; Khazaei, MR; Püschel, AW
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 35259-68 2007
The Par polarity complex consisting of the evolutionarily conserved proteins mPar3, mPar6, and aPKC regulates cell polarity in many cell types including neurons. Here we show that mPar3 is required for the establishment of neuronal polarity and links the Smurf2 to Kinesin-2. The HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligase Smurf2 ensures that neurons extend only a single axon by initiating the degradation of inactive Rap1B through the ubiquitin/proteasome system. Its interaction with mPar3 is required to localize Smurf2 to growth cones and restrict Rap1B to the axon. Interfering with the binding of mPar3 to Kinesin-2 or Smurf2 to mPar3 and knockdown of mPar3 by RNAi disrupt the establishment of neuronal polarity through the failure to restrict Rap1B to a single neurite.
|Calsyntenin-1 docks vesicular cargo to kinesin-1. |
Konecna, A; Frischknecht, R; Kinter, J; Ludwig, A; Steuble, M; Meskenaite, V; Indermühle, M; Engel, M; Cen, C; Mateos, JM; Streit, P; Sonderegger, P
Molecular biology of the cell 17 3651-63 2006
We identified a direct interaction between the neuronal transmembrane protein calsyntenin-1 and the light chain of Kinesin-1 (KLC1). GST pulldowns demonstrated that two highly conserved segments in the cytoplasmic domain of calsyntenin-1 mediate binding to the tetratricopeptide repeats of KLC1. A complex containing calsyntenin-1 and the Kinesin-1 motor was isolated from developing mouse brain and immunoelectron microscopy located calsyntenin-1 in association with tubulovesicular organelles in axonal fiber tracts. In primary neuronal cultures, calsyntenin-1-containing organelles were aligned along microtubules and partially colocalized with Kinesin-1. Using live imaging, we showed that these organelles are transported along axons with a velocity and processivity typical for fast axonal transport. Point mutations in the two kinesin-binding segments of calsyntenin-1 significantly reduced binding to KLC1 in vitro, and vesicles bearing mutated calsyntenin-1 exhibited a markedly altered anterograde axonal transport. In summary, our results indicate that calsyntenin-1 links a certain type of vesicular and tubulovesicular organelles to the Kinesin-1 motor.
|Soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor prevents Sema3F-induced collapse of axonal and dendritic growth cones of dentate granule cells. |
Ryuji X Yamada, Norio Matsuki, Yuji Ikegaya
Biological pharmaceutical bulletin 29 796-8 2006
Controlling axon and dendrite elongation is critical in developing precise neural circuits. Using isolated cultures of dentate granule neurons, we succeeded in simultaneously monitoring the behaviors of axonal and dendritic outgrowth. Our previous study shows that cAMP contributes differentially to Sema3F-induced responses of axons and dendrites, but we report here that the cGMP modulation does not have such a striking axo-dendritic difference. Treatment with Sema3F induced collapse of about 90% growth cones, and pretreatment with 1 muM LY83583, an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase, partially alleviated the collapse of both axons and dendrites. Thus, unlike cAMP, cGMP modulates axonal and dendritic extension in a similar manner.
|Nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate-mediated growth cone collapse of dentate granule cells. |
Ryuji X Yamada, Norio Matsuki, Yuji Ikegaya
Neuroreport 17 661-5 2006
Controlling axon and dendrite elongation is critical in developing precise neural circuits. Using isolated cultures of dentate granule neurons, we established an experimental system that can simultaneously monitor the behaviors of axonal and dendritic outgrowth. Our previous study shows that axons and dendrites respond differentially to manipulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling, but we report here that cyclic guanosine monophosphate exerts similar effects on axons and dendrites; that is, both axonal and dendritic growth cones collapsed after activation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling. In addition, nitric oxide donor-induced growth-cone collapse was prevented by the inhibition of cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling, and this effect again did not differ between axons and dendrites. Thus, unlike cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cyclic guanosine monophosphate modulates extending axons and dendrites in a similar manner.
|L1-mediated branching is regulated by two ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-binding sites, the RSLE region and a novel juxtamembrane ERM-binding region. |
Cheng, Ling, et al.
J. Neurosci., 25: 395-403 (2005) 2005
We investigated how the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 mediates neurite outgrowth through L1-L1 homophilic interactions. Wild-type L1 and L1 with mutations in the cytoplasmic domain (CD) were introduced into L1 knock-out neurons, and transfected neurons were grown on an L1 substrate. Neurite length and branching were compared between wild-type L1 and L1CD mutations. Surprisingly, the L1CD is not required for L1-mediated neurite outgrowth but plays a critical role in neurite branching, through both the juxtamembrane region and the RSLE region. We demonstrate that both regions serve as ezrin-moesin-radixin-binding sites. A truncation mutant that deletes 110 of 114 amino acids of the L1CD still supports neurite outgrowth on an L1 substrate, suggesting that a coreceptor binds to L1 in cis and mediates neurite outgrowth and that L1-ankyrin interactions are not essential for neurite initiation or outgrowth. These data are consistent with a model in which L1 can influence L1-mediated neurite outgrowth and branching through both the L1CD and a coreceptor.
|Both the establishment and the maintenance of neuronal polarity require active mechanisms: critical roles of GSK-3beta and its upstream regulators. |
Jiang, Hui, et al.
Cell, 120: 123-35 (2005) 2005
Axon-dendrite polarity is a cardinal feature of neuronal morphology essential for information flow. Here we report a differential distribution of GSK-3beta activity in the axon versus the dendrites. A constitutively active GSK-3beta mutant inhibited axon formation, whereas multiple axons formed from a single neuron when GSK-3beta activity was reduced by pharmacological inhibitors, a peptide inhibitor, or siRNAs. An active mechanism for maintaining neuronal polarity was revealed by the conversion of preexisting dendrites into axons upon GSK-3 inhibition. Biochemical and functional data show that the Akt kinase and the PTEN phosphatase are upstream of GSK-3beta in determining neuronal polarity. Our results demonstrate that there are active mechanisms for maintaining as well as establishing neuronal polarity, indicate that GSK-3beta relays signaling from Akt and PTEN to play critical roles in neuronal polarity, and suggest that application of GSK-3beta inhibitors can be a novel approach to promote generation of new axons after neural injuries.
|GSK-3beta regulates phosphorylation of CRMP-2 and neuronal polarity. |
Yoshimura, Takeshi, et al.
Cell, 120: 137-49 (2005) 2005
Neurons are highly polarized and comprised of two structurally and functionally distinct parts, an axon and dendrites. We previously showed that collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) is critical for specifying axon/dendrite fate, possibly by promoting neurite elongation via microtubule assembly. Here, we showed that glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) phosphorylated CRMP-2 at Thr-514 and inactivated it. The expression of the nonphosphorylated form of CRMP-2 or inhibition of GSK-3beta induced the formation of multiple axon-like neurites in hippocampal neurons. The expression of constitutively active GSK-3beta impaired neuronal polarization, whereas the nonphosphorylated form of CRMP-2 counteracted the inhibitory effects of GSK-3beta, indicating that GSK-3beta regulates neuronal polarity through the phosphorylation of CRMP-2. Treatment of hippocampal neurons with neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) induced inactivation of GSK-3beta and dephosphorylation of CRMP-2. Knockdown of CRMP-2 inhibited NT-3-induced axon outgrowth. These results suggest that NT-3 decreases phosphorylated CRMP-2 and increases nonphosphorylated active CRMP-2, thereby promoting axon outgrowth.
|Mammalian SAD kinases are required for neuronal polarization. |
Kishi, Masashi, et al.
Science, 307: 929-32 (2005) 2005
Electrical activity in neurons is generally initiated in dendritic processes then propagated along axons to synapses, where it is passed to other neurons. Major structural features of neurons-their dendrites and axons-are thus related to their fundamental functions: the receipt and transmission of information. The acquisition of these distinct properties by dendrites and axons, called polarization, is a critical step in neuronal differentiation. We show here that SAD-A and SAD-B, mammalian orthologs of a kinase needed for presynaptic differentiation in Caenorhabditis elegans, are required for neuronal polarization. These kinases will provide entry points for unraveling signaling mechanisms that polarize neurons.
|Interaction of nonreceptor tyrosine-kinase Fer and p120 catenin is involved in neuronal polarization. |
Mol. Cells, 20: 256-62 (2005) 2005
The neuronal cytoskeleton is essential for establishment of neuronal polarity, but mechanisms controlling generation of polarity in the cytoskeleton are poorly understood. The nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, Fer, has been shown to bind to microtubules and to interact with several actin-regulatory proteins. Furthermore, Fer binds p120 catenin and has been shown to regulate cadherin function by modulating cadherin-beta-catenin interaction. Here we show involvement of Fer in neuronal polarization and neurite development. Fer is concentrated in growth cones together with cadherin, beta-catenin, and cortactin in stage 2 hippocampal neurons. Inhibition of Fer-p120 catenin interaction with a cell-permeable inhibitory peptide (FerP) increases neurite branching. In addition, the peptide significantly delays conversion of one of several dendrites into an axon in early stage hippocampal neurons. FerP-treated growth cones also exhibit modified localization of the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton. Together, this indicates that the Fer-p120 interaction is required for normal neuronal polarization and neurite development.
|Centrosome localization determines neuronal polarity. |
Froylan Calderon de Anda, Giulia Pollarolo, Jorge Santos Da Silva, Paola G Camoletto, Fabian Feiguin, Carlos G Dotti
Nature 436 704-8 2005
Neuronal polarization occurs shortly after mitosis. In neurons differentiating in vitro, axon formation follows the segregation of growth-promoting activities to only one of the multiple neurites that form after mitosis. It is unresolved whether such spatial restriction makes use of an intrinsic program, like during C. elegans embryo polarization, or is extrinsic and cue-mediated, as in migratory cells. Here we show that in hippocampal neurons in vitro, the axon consistently arises from the neurite that develops first after mitosis. Centrosomes, the Golgi apparatus and endosomes cluster together close to the area where the first neurite will form, which is in turn opposite from the plane of the last mitotic division. We show that the polarized activities of these organelles are necessary and sufficient for neuronal polarization: (1) polarized microtubule polymerization and membrane transport precedes first neurite formation, (2) neurons with more than one centrosome sprout more than one axon and (3) suppression of centrosome-mediated functions precludes polarization. We conclude that asymmetric centrosome-mediated dynamics in the early post-mitotic stage instruct neuronal polarity, implying that pre-mitotic mechanisms with a role in division orientation may in turn participate in this event.
|cAMP differentially regulates axonal and dendritic development of dentate granule cells. |
Yamada, RX; Matsuki, N; Ikegaya, Y
The Journal of biological chemistry 280 38020-8 2005
Neurite polarity is a morphological characteristic of dentate gyrus granule cells, which extend axons to the hilar region and dendrites in the opposite direction, i.e. to the molecular layer. This remarkable polarity must require a differential system for axon and dendrite guidance. Here, we report that the axon and dendrites of a granule cell are differentially responsive to cAMP. In developing cultures of dispersed granule cells, dendritic growth cones were increased in number after pharmacological activation of cAMP signaling and decreased after blockade of cAMP signaling. Activation of cAMP signaling antagonized dendritic collapse induced by the potent repellents Sema3F and glutamate. In contrast to dendrites, axons were protected from Sema3F-induced collapse when cAMP signaling was inhibited. Axonal and dendritic growth cones both expressed type 1 adenylyl cyclase, but only axons showed a cAMP increase in response to Sema3F, and the elevated cAMP was sufficient to collapse axonal growth cones. Thus, the axons and dendrites of dentate granule cells differ in the regulation of cAMP levels as well as responsiveness to cAMP. cAMP may be crucial for shaping the information flow polarity in the dentate gyrus circuit.
|Differential trafficking of GluR7 kainate receptor subunit splice variants. |
Jaskolski, F; Normand, E; Mulle, C; Coussen, F
The Journal of biological chemistry 280 22968-76 2005
Kainate receptors (KARs) are heteromeric ionotropic glutamate receptors that play a variety of roles in the regulation of synaptic network activity. The function of glutamate receptors (GluRs) is highly dependent on their surface density in specific neuronal domains. Alternative splicing is known to regulate surface expression of GluR5 and GluR6 subunits. The KAR subunit GluR7 exists under different splice variant isoforms in the C-terminal domain (GluR7a and GluR7b). Here we have studied the trafficking of GluR7 splice variants in cultured hippocampal neurons from wild-type and KAR mutant mice. We have found that alternative splicing regulates surface expression of GluR7-containing KARs. GluR7a and GluR7b differentially traffic from the ER to the plasma membrane. GluR7a is highly expressed at the plasma membrane, and its trafficking is dependent on a stretch of positively charged amino acids also found in GluR6a. In contrast, GluR7b is detected at the plasma membrane at a low level and retained mostly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The RXR motif of GluR7b does not act as an ER retention motif, at variance with other receptors and ion channels, but might be involved during the assembly process. Like GluR6a, GluR7a promotes surface expression of ER-retained subunit splice variants when assembled in heteromeric KARs. However, our results also suggest that this positive regulation of KAR trafficking is limited by the ability of different combinations of subunits to form heteromeric receptor assemblies. These data further define the complex rules that govern membrane delivery and subcellular distribution of KARs.
|Brain-derived neurotrophic factor induces hyperexcitable reentrant circuits in the dentate gyrus. |
Koyama, R; Yamada, MK; Fujisawa, S; Katoh-Semba, R; Matsuki, N; Ikegaya, Y
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 24 7215-24 2004
Aberrant sprouting and synaptic reorganization of the mossy fiber (MF) axons are commonly found in the hippocampus of temporal lobe epilepsy patients and result in the formation of excitatory feedback loops in the dentate gyrus, a putative cellular basis for recurrent epileptic seizures. Using ex vivo hippocampal cultures, we show that prolonged hyperactivity induces MF sprouting and the resultant network reorganizations and that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is necessary and sufficient to evoke these pathogenic plasticities. Hyperexcitation induced an upregulation of BDNF protein expression in the MF pathway, an effect mediated by L-type Ca2+ channels. The neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinase (Trk)B inhibitor K252a or function-blocking anti-BDNF antibody prevented hyperactivity-induced MF sprouting. Even under blockade of neural activity, local application of BDNF to the hilus, but not other subregions, was capable of initiating MF axonal remodeling, eventually leading to dentate hyperexcitability. Transfecting granule cells with dominant-negative TrkB prevented axonal branching. Thus, excessive activation of L-type Ca2+ channels causes granule cells to express BDNF, and extracellularly released BDNF stimulates TrkB receptors present on the hilar segment of the MFs to induce axonal branching, which may establish hyperexcitable dentate circuits.
|Developmental switch in axon guidance modes of hippocampal mossy fibers in vitro. |
Ryuta Koyama, Maki K Yamada, Nobuyoshi Nishiyama, Norio Matsuki, Yuji Ikegaya
Developmental biology 267 29-42 2004
Hippocampal mossy fibers (MFs), axons of dentate granule cells, run through a narrow strip, called the stratum lucidum, and make synaptic contacts with CA3 pyramidal cells. This stereotyped pathfinding is assumed to require a tightly controlled guidance system, but the responsible mechanisms have not been proven directly. To clarify the cellular basis for the MF pathfinding, microslices of the dentate gyrus (DG) and Ammon's horn (AH) were topographically arranged in an organotypic explant coculture system. When collagen gels were interposed between DG and AH slices prepared from postnatal day 6 (P6) rats, the MFs passed across this intervening gap and reached CA3 stratum lucidum. Even when the recipient AH was chemically pre-fixed with paraformaldehyde, the axons were still capable of accessing their normal target area only if the DG and AH slices were directly juxtaposed without a collagen bridge. The data imply that diffusible and contact cues are both involved in MF guidance. To determine how these different cues contribute to MF pathfinding during development, a P6 DG slice was apposed simultaneously to two AH slices prepared from P0 and P13 rats. MFs projected normally to both the host slices, whereas they rarely invaded P0 AH when the two hosts were fixed. Early in development, therefore, the MFs are guided mainly by a chemoattractant gradient, and thereafter, they can find their trajectories by a contact factor, probably via fasciculation with pre-established MFs. The present study proposes a dynamic paradigm in CNS axon pathfinding, that is, developmental changes in axon guidance cues.
|Reversible paired helical filament-like phosphorylation of tau is an adaptive process associated with neuronal plasticity in hibernating animals. |
Arendt, Thomas, et al.
J. Neurosci., 23: 6972-81 (2003) 2003
Neurofibrillary pathology [paired helical filaments (PHFs)] formed by the microtubule-associated protein tau in a hyperphosphorylated form is a major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. The process of tau phosphorylation, thought to be of critical importance for PHF formation, and its potential link to neurodegeneration, however, is not understood very well, mostly because of the lack of a physiological in vivo model of PHF-like tau phosphorylation. Here we describe the formation of highly phosphorylated tau, containing a number of PHF-like epitopes in torpor during hibernation. PHF-like phosphorylation of tau was not associated with fibril formation and was fully reversible after arousal. Distribution of PHF-like tau followed a consistent pattern, being most intense in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and isocortical areas. Within the hippocampus, a particularly high labeling was seen in CA3 pyramidal cells. Somewhat lesser reactivity was present in CA1 neurons while dentate gyrus granule cells were not reactive. Formation of PHF-like tau in CA3 neurons was paralleled by the regression of synaptic contacts of the mossy fiber system terminating on CA3 apical dendrites. Mossy fiber afferentation was re-established during arousal, concomitantly with the decrease of PHF-like tau in CA3 neurons. These findings implicate an essential link between neuronal plasticity and PHF-like phosphorylation of tau. The repeated formation and degradation of PHF-like tau might, thus, represent a physiological mechanism not necessarily associated with pathological effects. Hibernation will, therefore, be a valuable model to study the regulation of PHF-like tau-phosphorylation and its cell biological sequelae under physiological in vivo conditions.
|Aberrant Cdk5 activation by p25 triggers pathological events leading to neurodegeneration and neurofibrillary tangles. |
Cruz, Jonathan C, et al.
Neuron, 40: 471-83 (2003) 2003
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and its regulatory subunit p35 are integral players in the proper development of the mammalian central nervous system. Proteolytic cleavage of p35 generates p25, leading to aberrant Cdk5 activation. The accumulation of p25 is implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases. In primary neurons, p25 causes apoptosis and tau hyperphosphorylation. Current mouse models expressing p25, however, fail to rigorously recapitulate these phenotypes in vivo. Here, we generated inducible transgenic mouse lines overexpressing p25 in the postnatal forebrain. Induction of p25 preferentially directed Cdk5 to pathological substrates. These animals exhibited neuronal loss in the cortex and hippocampus, accompanied by forebrain atrophy, astrogliosis, and caspase-3 activation. Endogenous tau was hyperphosphorylated at many epitopes, aggregated tau accumulated, and neurofibrillary pathology developed progressively in these animals. Our cumulative findings provide compelling evidence that in vivo deregulation of Cdk5 by p25 plays a causative role in neurodegeneration and the development of neurofibrillary pathology.
|Peripherin-mediated death of motor neurons rescued by overexpression of neurofilament NF-H proteins. |
Jean-Martin Beaulieu, Jean-Pierre Julien, Jean-Martin Beaulieu, Jean-Pierre Julien
Journal of neurochemistry 85 248-56 2003
In previous studies, we showed that overexpression of peripherin, a neuronal intermediate filament (IF) protein, in mice deficient for neurofilament light (NF-L) subunits induced a progressive adult-onset degeneration of spinal motor neurons characterized by the presence of IF inclusion bodies reminiscent of axonal spheroids found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In contrast, the overexpression of human neurofilament heavy (NF-H) proteins provoked the formation of massive perikaryal IF protein accumulations with no loss of motor neurons. To further investigate the toxic properties of IF protein inclusions, we generated NF-L null mice that co-express both peripherin and NF-H transgenes. The axonal count in L5 ventral roots from 6 and 8-month-old transgenic mice showed that NF-H overexpression rescued the peripherin-mediated degeneration of motor neurons. Our analysis suggests that the protective effect of extra NF-H proteins is related to the sequestration of peripherin into the perikaryon of motor neurons, thereby abolishing the development of axonal IF inclusions that might block transport. These findings illustrate the importance of IF protein stoichiometry in formation, localization and toxicity of neuronal inclusion bodies.
|Gradients of substrate-bound laminin orient axonal specification of neurons. |
Dertinger, SK; Jiang, X; Li, Z; Murthy, VN; Whitesides, GM
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99 12542-7 2002
Little is known about the influence of substrate-bound gradients on neuronal development, since it has been difficult to fabricate gradients over the distances typically required for biological studies (a few hundred micrometers). This article demonstrates a generally applicable technique for the fabrication of substrate-bound gradients of proteins with complex shapes, using laminar flows in microchannels. Gradients that range from pure laminin to pure BSA were formed in solution by using a network of microchannels, and these proteins were allowed to adsorb onto a homogeneous layer of poly-l-lysine. Rat hippocampal neurons were cultivated on these substrate-bound gradients. Analysis of optical images of these neurons showed that axon specification is oriented in the direction of increasing surface density of laminin. Linear gradients in laminin adsorbed from a gradient in solution having a slope of nabla [laminin] greater than about 0.06 microg (ml.microm)(-1) (defined by dividing the change of concentration of laminin in solution over the distance of the gradient) orient axon specification, whereas those with nabla [laminin] less than about 0.06 microg (ml.microm)(-1) have no effect.
|Presenilin binding protein is associated with neurofibrillary alterations in Alzheimer's disease and stimulates tau phosphorylation. |
Q Chen, H Yoshida, D Schubert, P Maher, M Mallory, E Masliah
The American journal of pathology 159 1597-602 2001
A novel presenilin binding protein, PBP, has recently been identified. PBP is localized to the particulate fraction of extracts of Alzheimer's disease brain but is found in the soluble fractions of brain from age matched normal controls. It is shown here that PBP is associated with neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease brain. In addition, the expression of PBP increases the phosphorylation of tau in cultured cells. Therefore PBP may have a regulatory role in tau phosphorylation and in the genesis of neurofibrillary tangles.Full Text Article
|Multiple isoforms of human microtubule-associated protein tau: sequences and localization in neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's disease. |
Goedert, M, et al.
Neuron, 3: 519-26 (1989) 1989
We have determined the sequences of isoforms of human tau protein, which differ from previously reported forms by insertions of 29 or 58 amino acids in the amino-terminal region. Complementary DNA cloning shows that the insertions occur in combination with both three and four tandem repeats. RNAase protection assays indicate that transcripts encoding isoforms with the insertions are expressed in an adult-specific manner. Transcripts encoding four tandem repeats are also expressed in an adult-specific manner, whereas mRNAs encoding three tandem repeats are expressed throughout life, including in fetal brain. The levels of transcripts encoding the 29 or 58 amino acid inserts were not significantly changed in cerebral cortex from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Antisera raised against synthetic peptides corresponding to these different human tau isoforms demonstrate that multiple tau protein isoforms are incorporated into the neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's disease.
|Phosphorylation determines two distinct species of Tau in the central nervous system. |
Papasozomenos, S C and Binder, L I
Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton, 8: 210-26 (1987) 1987
The monoclonal antibody, Tau-1, which had previously been used to localize tau to the axonal compartment in brain has been reutilized for light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry following phosphatase treatment of tissue. We report here that a significant quantity of tau in the central nervous system is phosphorylated in situ at or near the Tau-1 epitope, preventing the binding of the Tau-1 antibody. Upon removal of this/these phosphate group(s), however, Tau-1 was observed in the somatodendritic compartment of neurons as well as in axons. Furthermore, intense staining was also observed in astrocytes and in perineuronal glial cells. This immunoreactivity was present along the lengths of microtubules and on ribosomes (polysomes). Treatment of immunoblots of extracts of whole cerebral cortex with phosphatase confirmed the immunohistochemical results in that a 50-65% increase in Tau-1 binding to the tau region of the blot was noted. Moreover, a novel monoclonal antibody, Tau-2, was also used in these experiments. This antibody binds only to tau and localizes along microtubules in axons, somata, dendrites, and astrocytes and on ribosomes (polysomes) without phosphatase pretreatment.
|The expression and distribution of the microtubule-associated proteins tau and microtubule-associated protein 2 in hippocampal neurons in the rat in situ and in cell culture. |
Dotti, C G, et al.
Neuroscience, 23: 121-30 (1987) 1987
Using a monoclonal antibody against the microtubule-associated protein tau we compared the distribution and the biochemical maturation of this protein in hippocampal pyramidal neurons in the rat in tau and in culture. In tissue sections from mature animals tau was localized heterogeneously within neurons. It was concentrated in axons; dendrites and somata showed little or no staining. In hippocampal cultures ranging from 12 h to 4 weeks in vitro tau was present in neurons but not in glial cells, as it is in situ. Within cultured neurons, however, tau was not compartmentalized but was present throughout the dendrites, axons and somata. Immunoblotting experiments showed that the biochemical maturation of tau that occurs in situ also failed to occur in culture. The young form of tau persisted, and the adult forms did not develop. In contrast the biochemical maturation and the compartmentalization of microtubule-associated protein 2 occurred normally in hippocampal cultures. These results show that the biochemical maturation and the intraneuronal compartmentalization of these two microtubule-associated proteins are independently controlled. Despite the non-restricted distribution of tau in hippocampal neurons in culture, and despite the presence of only the immature isoform which has a lessened stimulatory effect on microtubule polymerization, axons and dendrites appear to grow normally and to exhibit appropriate functional properties.
|Neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer disease share antigenic determinants with the axonal microtubule-associated protein tau (tau) |
Wood, J G, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 83: 4040-3 (1986) 1986
The relationship of the neurofibrillary tangle, found in Alzheimer disease and aged brains, to normal or abnormal cytoskeletal proteins remains elusive. Although immunohistochemical studies have yielded disparate results, most antigenic determinants localized to neurofibrillary tangles are cytoskeletal constituents normally present in neuronal perikarya or dendrites. We report light and electron microscopic immunolabeling of neurofibrillary tangles by a monoclonal antibody to the microtubule-associated protein tau (tau). Dephosphorylation of tissue slices not only increased the number of tau-positive tangles but also produced marked positive immunoreactivity of neuritic plaques. The localization of tau, an axonal protein, to neurofibrillary tangles in the perikaryon in particular suggests that abnormal synthesis, modification, or aggregation of tau may induce aberrant cytoskeletal--cell organelle interactions, subsequent interference with axonal flow, and resultant tangle formation.
|Abnormal phosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau (tau) in Alzheimer cytoskeletal pathology. |
Grundke-Iqbal, I, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 83: 4913-7 (1986) 1986
A monoclonal antibody to the microtubule-associated protein tau (tau) labeled some neurofibrillary tangles and plaque neurites, the two major locations of paired-helical filaments (PHF), in Alzheimer disease brain. The antibody also labeled isolated PHF that had been repeatedly washed with NaDodSO4. Dephosphorylation of the tissue sections with alkaline phosphatase prior to immunolabeling dramatically increased the number of tangles and plaques recognized by the antibody. The plaque core amyloid was not stained in either dephosphorylated or nondephosphorylated tissue sections. On immunoblots PHF polypeptides were labeled readily only when dephosphorylated. In contrast, a commercially available monoclonal antibody to a phosphorylated epitope of neurofilaments that labeled the tangles and the plaque neurites in tissue did not label any PHF polypeptides on immunoblots. The PHF polypeptides, labeled with the monoclonal antibody to tau, electrophoresed with those polypeptides recognized by antibodies to isolated PHF. The antibody to tau-labeled microtubules from normal human brains assembled in vitro but identically treated Alzheimer brain preparations had to be dephosphorylated to be completely recognized by this antibody. These findings suggest that tau in Alzheimer brain is an abnormally phosphorylated protein component of PHF.
|Differential localization of MAP-2 and tau in mammalian neurons in situ. |
Binder, L I, et al.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 466: 145-66 (1986) 1986
|The distribution of tau in the mammalian central nervous system. |
Binder, L I, et al.
J. Cell Biol., 101: 1371-8 (1985) 1985
We have determined the biochemical and immunocytochemical localization of the heterogeneous microtubule-associated protein tau using a monoclonal antibody that binds to all of the tau polypeptides in both bovine and rat brain. Using immunoblot assays and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we have shown tau to be more abundant in bovine white matter extracts and microtubules than in extracts and microtubules from an enriched gray matter region of the brain. On a per mole basis, twice-cycled microtubules from white matter contained three times more tau than did twice-cycled microtubules from gray matter. Immunohistochemical studies that compared the localization of tau with that of MAP2 and tubulin demonstrated that tau was restricted to axons, extending the results of the biochemical studies. Tau localization was not observed in glia, which indicated that, at least in brain, tau is neuron specific. These observations indicate that tau may help define a subpopulation of microtubules that is restricted to axons. Furthermore, the monoclonal antibody described in this report should prove very useful to investigators studying axonal sprouting and growth because it is an exclusive axonal marker.
|Heterogeneity of microtubule-associated proteins and brain development. |
Francon, J, et al.
Eur. J. Biochem., 129: 465-71 (1982) 1982
Developmental changes in the composition of brain microtubule-associated proteins have been studied in three species: the rat and the mouse, which are characterized by post-natal brain development, and the guinea-pig, whose brain is mature at birth. 1. At an adult stage, and whatever the species, two major microtubule-associated proteins, which have been referred to MAP2 and tau, have been identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Rat tau is composed of four closely spaced bands; mouse tau contains only three components with one of them being present in higher proportion than the others; adult guinea-pig tau is essentially present as a single band. 2. Microtubule-associated proteins were also prepared at different stages of brain development. In the three species only two bands were seen in the tau region at immature stages of development (fast tau and slow tau). However adult tau factors progressively replace the young entities. In contrast, only small changes were seen in the proportion of MAP2. 3. Peptide mapping analysis of the purified tau entities confirmed that the four adult rat proteins are very similar. In contrast, peptide mapping of the two young rat tau proteins were very different from each other and from those of the adult ones. Peptide mappings of young and adult MAP2 were only slightly different. 4. The activities of young tau proteins and young MAP2 in promoting pure tubulin assembly were much lower than those of the adult ones. Young fast tau and young slow tau were purified and both show to be active in promoting pure tubulin polymerization. 5. These data demonstrate the existence of two types of heterogeneity of microtubule-associated proteins: plurality of protein species at every stage of brain development and changes in composition and activity dependent on development.
|Microtubule assembly in the absence of added nucleotides. |
Shelanski, M L, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 70: 765-8 (1973) 1973
Microtubule assembly is enhanced by the addition of 1 M sucrose or 4 M glycerol to the reassembly mixture. Tubulin can be purified from guinea pig brain readily and in good yield by two cycles of assembly in glycerol-containing solutions. The tubules assembled in glycerol and sucrose are more stable than tubules formed in the absence of these compounds. Assembly occurs in glycerol or sucrose in the absence of ATP or GTP, but is greatly accelarated by their presence.
|Anti-Tau-1, clone PC1C6 - Data Sheet|
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