Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Av, H, M, Mi, R||IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Application||Anti-Src Antibody, clone GD11 detects level of Src & has been published & validated for use in IP & WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-Src, clone GD11 - 2398906||2398906|
|Anti-Src, clone GD11 - 0702051802||0702051802|
|Anti-Src, clone GD11 - 16458||16458|
|Anti-Src, clone GD11 - 17173||17173|
|Anti-Src, clone GD11 - 17265||17265|
|Anti-Src, clone GD11 - 18016||18016|
|Anti-Src, clone GD11 - 18663||18663|
|Anti-Src, clone GD11 - 19705||19705|
|Anti-Src, clone GD11 - 1982664||1982664|
|Anti-Src, clone GD11 - 2037633||2037633|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Lyn modulates Claudin-2 expression and is a therapeutic target for breast cancer liver metastasis.|
Tabariès, S; Annis, MG; Hsu, BE; Tam, CE; Savage, P; Park, M; Siegel, PM
Oncotarget 6 9476-87 2015
Claudin-2 enhances breast cancer liver metastasis and promotes the development of colorectal cancers. The objective of our current study is to define the regulatory mechanisms controlling Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We evaluated the effect of several Src Family Kinase (SFK) inhibitors or knockdown of individual SFK members on Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We also assessed the potential effects of pan-SFK and SFK-selective inhibitors on the formation of breast cancer liver metastases. This study reveals that pan inhibition of SFK signaling pathways significantly elevated Claudin-2 expression levels in breast cancer cells. In addition, our data demonstrate that pan-SFK inhibitors can enhance breast cancer metastasis to the liver. Knockdown of individual SFK members reveals that loss of Yes or Fyn induces Claudin-2 expression; whereas, diminished Lyn levels impairs Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. The Lyn-selective kinase inhibitor, Bafetinib (INNO-406), acts to reduce Claudin-2 expression and suppress breast cancer liver metastasis. Our findings may have major clinical implications and advise against the treatment of breast cancer patients with broad-acting SFK inhibitors and support the use of Lyn-specific inhibitors.
|STIM1- and Orai1-mediated Ca(2+) oscillation orchestrates invadopodium formation and melanoma invasion.|
Sun, J; Lu, F; He, H; Shen, J; Messina, J; Mathew, R; Wang, D; Sarnaik, AA; Chang, WC; Kim, M; Cheng, H; Yang, S
The Journal of cell biology 207 535-48 2014
Ca(2+) signaling has been increasingly implicated in cancer invasion and metastasis, and yet, the underlying mechanisms remained largely unknown. In this paper, we report that STIM1- and Orai1-mediated Ca(2+) oscillations promote melanoma invasion by orchestrating invadopodium assembly and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Ca(2+) oscillation signals facilitate invadopodial precursor assembly by activating Src. Disruption of Ca(2+) oscillations inhibited invadopodium assembly. Furthermore, STIM1 and Orai1 regulate the proteolysis activity of individual invadopodia. Mechanistically, Orai1 blockade inhibited the recycling of MT1-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) to the plasma membrane and entrapped MT1-MMP in the endocytic compartment to inhibit ECM degradation. STIM1 knockdown significantly inhibited melanoma lung metastasis in a xenograft mouse model, implicating the importance of this pathway in metastatic dissemination. Our findings provide a novel mechanism for Ca(2+)-mediated cancer cell invasion and shed new light on the spatiotemporal organization of store-operated Ca(2+) signals during melanoma invasion and metastasis.
|Pre-clinical efficacy of PU-H71, a novel HSP90 inhibitor, alone and in combination with bortezomib in Ewing sarcoma.|
Ambati, SR; Lopes, EC; Kosugi, K; Mony, U; Zehir, A; Shah, SK; Taldone, T; Moreira, AL; Meyers, PA; Chiosis, G; Moore, MA
Molecular oncology 8 323-36 2014
Ewing sarcoma is characterized by multiple deregulated pathways that mediate cell survival and proliferation. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a critical component of the multi-chaperone complexes that regulate the disposition and activity of a large number of proteins involved in cell-signaling systems. We tested the efficacy of PU-H71, a novel HSP90 inhibitor in Ewing sarcoma cell lines, primary samples, benign mesenchymal stromal cells and hematopoietic stem cells. We performed cell cycle analysis, clonogenic assay, immunoblot analysis and reverse phase protein array in Ewing cell lines and in vivo experiments in NSG and nude mice using the A673 cell line. We noted a significant therapeutic window in the activity of PU-H71 against Ewing cell lines and benign cells. PU-H71 treatment resulted in G2/M phase arrest. Exposure to PU-H71 resulted in depletion of critical proteins including AKT, pERK, RAF-1, c-MYC, c-KIT, IGF1R, hTERT and EWS-FLI1 in Ewing cell lines. Our results indicated that Ewing sarcoma tumor growth and the metastatic burden were significantly reduced in the mice injected with PU-H71 compared to the control mice. We also investigated the effects of bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, alone and in combination with PU-H71 in Ewing sarcoma. Combination index (CI)-Fa plots and normalized isobolograms indicated synergism between PU-H71 and bortezomib. Ewing sarcoma xenografts were significantly inhibited when mice were treated with the combination compared to vehicle or either drug alone. This provides a strong rationale for clinical evaluation of PU-H71 alone and in combination with bortezomib in Ewing sarcoma.
|EGFR inhibitors exacerbate differentiation and cell cycle arrest induced by retinoic acid and vitamin D3 in acute myeloid leukemia cells.|
Lainey, E; Wolfromm, A; Sukkurwala, AQ; Micol, JB; Fenaux, P; Galluzzi, L; Kepp, O; Kroemer, G
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 12 2978-91 2013
By means of an unbiased, automated fluorescence microscopy-based screen, we identified the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors erlotinib and gefitinib as potent enhancers of the differentiation of HL-60 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells exposed to suboptimal concentrations of vitamin A (all-trans retinoic acid, ATRA) or vitamin D (1α,25-hydroxycholecalciferol, VD). Erlotinib and gefitinib alone did not promote differentiation, yet stimulated the acquisition of morphological and biochemical maturation markers (including the expression of CD11b and CD14 as well as increased NADPH oxidase activity) when combined with either ATRA or VD. Moreover, the combination of erlotinib and ATRA or VD synergistically induced all the processes that are normally linked to terminal hematopoietic differentiation, namely, a delayed proliferation arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, cellular senescence, and apoptosis. Erlotinib potently inhibited the (auto)phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14, best known as p38(MAPK)) and SRC family kinases (SFKs). If combined with the administration of ATRA or VD, the inhibition of p38(MAPK) or SFKs with specific pharmacological agents mimicked the pro-differentiation activity of erlotinib. These data were obtained with 2 distinct AML cell lines (HL-60 and MOLM-13 cells) and could be confirmed on primary leukemic blasts isolated from the circulation of AML patients. Altogether, these findings point to a new regimen for the treatment of AML, in which naturally occurring pro-differentiation agents (ATRA or VD) may be combined with EGFR inhibitors.
|Both Kdr and Flt1 play a vital role in hypoxia-induced Src-PLD1-PKCγ-cPLA(2) activation and retinal neovascularization.|
Singh, NK; Hansen, DE; Kundumani-Sridharan, V; Rao, GN
Blood 121 1911-23 2013
To understand the mechanisms of Src-PLD1-PKCγ-cPLA2 activation by vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), we studied the role of Kdr and Flt1. VEGFA, while having no effect on Flt1 phosphorylation, induced Kdr phosphorylation in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMVECs). Depletion of Kdr attenuated VEGFA-induced Src-PLD1-PKCγ-cPLA2 activation. Regardless of its phosphorylation state, downregulation of Flt1 also inhibited VEGFA-induced Src-PLD1-PKCγ-cPLA2 activation, but only modestly. In line with these findings, depletion of either Kdr or Flt1 suppressed VEGFA-induced DNA synthesis, migration, and tube formation, albeit more robustly with Kdr downregulation. Hypoxia induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Kdr and Flt1 in mouse retina, and depletion of Kdr or Flt1 blocked hypoxia-induced Src-PLD1-PKCγ-cPLA2 activation and retinal neovascularization. VEGFB induced Flt1 tyrosine phosphorylation and Src-PLD1-PKCγ-cPLA2 activation in HRMVECs. Hypoxia induced VEGFA and VEGFB expression in retina, and inhibition of their expression blocked hypoxia-induced Kdr and Flt1 activation, respectively. Furthermore, depletion of VEGFA or VEGFB attenuated hypoxia-induced Src-PLD1-PKCγ-cPLA2 activation and retinal neovascularization. These findings suggest that although VEGFA, through Kdr and Flt1, appears to be the major modulator of Src-PLD1-PKCγ-cPLA2 signaling in HRMVECs, facilitating their angiogenic events in vitro, both VEGFA and VEGFB mediate hypoxia-induced Src-PLD1-PKCγ-cPLA2 activation and retinal neovascularization via activation of Kdr and Flt1, respectively.
|The significance of a Cripto-1 positive subpopulation of human melanoma cells exhibiting stem cell-like characteristics.|
Strizzi, L; Margaryan, NV; Gilgur, A; Hardy, KM; Normanno, N; Salomon, DS; Hendrix, MJ
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 12 1450-6 2013
Cripto-1 (CR-1) protein function differs according to cellular or extracellular expression. In this study, we explore the significance of cell surface CR-1 expression in human melanoma cells. Cell surface CR-1-expressing human melanoma cells (CR1-CS+) were selected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and grown in vitro and in vivo in nude mice to study their growth characteristics. The CR1-CS+ melanoma cells were found to express increased levels of Oct4, MDR-1 and activated c-Src compared with cells lacking this subpopulation (CR1-CS-) or unsorted cells, used as control. CR1-CS+ show reduced proliferation rates and diminished spherical colony formation compared with control cells when cultured in vitro. Orthotopic injections of CR1-CS+ in nude mice formed slow growing tumors with histologic variability across different areas of the CR1-CS+ xenografts. CR-1-expressing cells from first generation CR1-CS+ tumors showed significantly increased tumor-forming rate and aggressiveness following subsequent transplants in nude mice. These data demonstrate that within a heterogeneous melanoma cell population there resides a slow proliferating, cell surface CR-1-expressing subpopulation capable of giving rise to a fast growing, aggressive progeny that may contribute to disease recurrence and progression.
|12/15-Lipoxygenase mediates high-fat diet-induced endothelial tight junction disruption and monocyte transmigration: a new role for 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in endothelial cell dysfunction.|
Kundumani-Sridharan, V; Dyukova, E; Hansen, DE; Rao, GN
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 15830-42 2013
A convincing body of evidence suggests that 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) plays a role in atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms of its involvement in the pathogenesis of this disease are not clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to understand the mechanisms by which 12/15-LO mediates endothelial dysfunction. 15(S)-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE), the major 12/15-LO metabolite of arachidonic acid (AA), induced endothelial barrier permeability via Src and Pyk2-dependent zonula occluden (ZO)-2 tyrosine phosphorylation and its dissociation from the tight junction complexes. 15(S)-HETE also stimulated macrophage adhesion to the endothelial monolayer in Src and Pyk2-dependent manner. Ex vivo studies revealed that exposure of arteries from WT mice to AA or 15(S)-HETE led to Src-Pyk2-dependent ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation, tight junction disruption, and macrophage adhesion, whereas the arteries from 12/15-LO knock-out mice are protected from these effects of AA. Feeding WT mice with a high-fat diet induced the expression of 12/15-LO in the arteries leading to tight junction disruption and macrophage adhesion and deletion of the 12/15-LO gene disallowed these effects. Thus, the findings of this study provide the first evidence of the role of 12/15-LO and its AA metabolite, 15(S)-HETE, in high-fat diet-induced endothelial tight junction disruption and macrophage adhesion, the crucial events underlying the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
|Deltamethrin inhibits osteoclast differentiation via regulation of heme oxygenase-1 and NFATc1.|
Hiroshi Sakamoto,Eiko Sakai,Reiko Fumimoto,Yu Yamaguchi,Yutaka Fukuma,Kazuhisa Nishishita,Kuniaki Okamoto,Takayuki Tsukuba
Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA 26 2012
Deltamethrin is a widely used pyrethroid pesticide. Although the cytotoxicity of deltamethrin has been reported, especially in neuronal cells, there is no information concerning the effects of deltamethrin on osteoclasts (OCLs). In this study, we showed that deltamethrin inhibited OCL differentiation in vitro. The effects of deltamethrin on OCL differentiation by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) were investigated in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) or the murine monocytic cell line RAW-D. Treatment with deltamethrin inhibited OCL formation and bone resorption and up-regulated expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an anti-oxidative stress enzyme. Deltamethrin also decreased the protein levels of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic-1 (NFATc1), which is a master regulator for OCL differentiation, and concomitantly reduced the expression levels of Src and cathepsin K, which are transcriptionally regulated by NFATc1. The effects of deltamethrin on intracellular signaling during the OCL differentiation of BMMs indicated that deltamethrin-treated OCLs displayed impaired phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Jun N-terminal kinase, and Akt, and slightly delayed phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B alpha (IκBα) compared with untreated OCLs. Thus, deltamethrin possibly affects bone metabolism by inhibiting OCL differentiation.
|Intracellular amyloid precursor protein sorting and amyloid-β secretion are regulated by Src-mediated phosphorylation of Mint2.|
Chaufty, J; Sullivan, SE; Ho, A
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 9613-25 2012
Mint adaptor proteins bind to the membrane-bound amyloid precursor protein (APP) and affect the production of pathogenic amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that loss of each of the three Mint proteins delays the age-dependent production of amyloid plaques in transgenic mouse models of AD. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying Mints effect on amyloid production are unclear. Because Aβ generation involves the internalization of membrane-bound APP via endosomes and Mints bind directly to the endocytic motif of APP, we proposed that Mints are involved in APP intracellular trafficking, which in turn, affects Aβ generation. Here, we show that APP endocytosis was attenuated in Mint knock-out neurons, revealing a role for Mints in APP trafficking. We also show that the endocytic APP sorting processes are regulated by Src-mediated phosphorylation of Mint2 and that internalized APP is differentially sorted between autophagic and recycling trafficking pathways. A Mint2 phosphomimetic mutant favored endocytosis of APP along the autophagic sorting pathway leading to increased intracellular Aβ accumulation. Conversely, the Mint2 phospho-resistant mutant increased APP localization to the recycling pathway and back to the cell surface thereby enhancing Aβ42 secretion. These results demonstrate that Src-mediated phosphorylation of Mint2 regulates the APP endocytic sorting pathway, providing a mechanism for regulating Aβ secretion.
|S-nitrosylation of c-Src via NMDAR-nNOS module promotes c-Src activation and NR2A phosphorylation in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.|
Li-Juan Tang,Chong Li,Shu-Qun Hu,Yong-Ping Wu,Yan-Yan Zong,Chang-Cheng Sun,Fa Zhang,Guang-Yi Zhang
Molecular and cellular biochemistry 365 2012
Previous studies suggested that activated c-Src promote the tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit NR2A, and thus aggravate the injury induced by transient cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rat hippocampus CA1 region. In this study, we examined the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the activation of c-Src and the tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptor NR2A subunit. The results show that S-nitrosylation and the phosphorylation of c-Src were induced after cerebral I/R in rats, and administration of nNOS inhibitor 7-NI, nNOS antisense oligonucleotides and exogenous NO donor sodium nitroprusside diminished the increased S-nitrosylation and phosphorylation of c-Src during cerebral I/R. The cysteine residues of c-Src modified by S-nitrosylation are Cys489, Cys498, and Cys500. On the other hand, NMDAR antagonist MK-801 could attenuate the S-nitrosylation and activation of c-Src. Taken together, the S-nitrosylation of c-Src is provoked by NO derived from endogenous nNOS, which is activated by Ca(2+) influx from NMDA receptors, and promotes the auto-phosphorylation at tyrosines and further phosphorylates NR2A. The molecular mechanism we outlined here is a novel postsynaptic NMDAR-nNOS/c-Src-mediated signaling amplification, the 'NMDAR-nNOS → NO → SNO-c-Src → p-c-Src → NMDAR-nNOS' cycle, which presents the possibility as a potential therapeutic target for stroke treatment.
|Fluorescent Gelatin Degradation Assays for Investigating Invadopodia Formation|
Newsletters / Publications
|Cellutions Newsletter: 2011, Vol. 2|