Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Av, H, M, Mi, R||IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Application||Anti-Src Antibody, clone GD11 detects level of Src & has been published & validated for use in IP & WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
References | 66 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Lyn modulates Claudin-2 expression and is a therapeutic target for breast cancer liver metastasis. |
Tabariès, S; Annis, MG; Hsu, BE; Tam, CE; Savage, P; Park, M; Siegel, PM
Oncotarget 6 9476-87 2015
Claudin-2 enhances breast cancer liver metastasis and promotes the development of colorectal cancers. The objective of our current study is to define the regulatory mechanisms controlling Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We evaluated the effect of several Src Family Kinase (SFK) inhibitors or knockdown of individual SFK members on Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We also assessed the potential effects of pan-SFK and SFK-selective inhibitors on the formation of breast cancer liver metastases. This study reveals that pan inhibition of SFK signaling pathways significantly elevated Claudin-2 expression levels in breast cancer cells. In addition, our data demonstrate that pan-SFK inhibitors can enhance breast cancer metastasis to the liver. Knockdown of individual SFK members reveals that loss of Yes or Fyn induces Claudin-2 expression; whereas, diminished Lyn levels impairs Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. The Lyn-selective kinase inhibitor, Bafetinib (INNO-406), acts to reduce Claudin-2 expression and suppress breast cancer liver metastasis. Our findings may have major clinical implications and advise against the treatment of breast cancer patients with broad-acting SFK inhibitors and support the use of Lyn-specific inhibitors.
|STIM1- and Orai1-mediated Ca(2+) oscillation orchestrates invadopodium formation and melanoma invasion. |
Sun, J; Lu, F; He, H; Shen, J; Messina, J; Mathew, R; Wang, D; Sarnaik, AA; Chang, WC; Kim, M; Cheng, H; Yang, S
The Journal of cell biology 207 535-48 2014
Ca(2+) signaling has been increasingly implicated in cancer invasion and metastasis, and yet, the underlying mechanisms remained largely unknown. In this paper, we report that STIM1- and Orai1-mediated Ca(2+) oscillations promote melanoma invasion by orchestrating invadopodium assembly and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Ca(2+) oscillation signals facilitate invadopodial precursor assembly by activating Src. Disruption of Ca(2+) oscillations inhibited invadopodium assembly. Furthermore, STIM1 and Orai1 regulate the proteolysis activity of individual invadopodia. Mechanistically, Orai1 blockade inhibited the recycling of MT1-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) to the plasma membrane and entrapped MT1-MMP in the endocytic compartment to inhibit ECM degradation. STIM1 knockdown significantly inhibited melanoma lung metastasis in a xenograft mouse model, implicating the importance of this pathway in metastatic dissemination. Our findings provide a novel mechanism for Ca(2+)-mediated cancer cell invasion and shed new light on the spatiotemporal organization of store-operated Ca(2+) signals during melanoma invasion and metastasis.
|Pre-clinical efficacy of PU-H71, a novel HSP90 inhibitor, alone and in combination with bortezomib in Ewing sarcoma. |
Ambati, SR; Lopes, EC; Kosugi, K; Mony, U; Zehir, A; Shah, SK; Taldone, T; Moreira, AL; Meyers, PA; Chiosis, G; Moore, MA
Molecular oncology 8 323-36 2014
Ewing sarcoma is characterized by multiple deregulated pathways that mediate cell survival and proliferation. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a critical component of the multi-chaperone complexes that regulate the disposition and activity of a large number of proteins involved in cell-signaling systems. We tested the efficacy of PU-H71, a novel HSP90 inhibitor in Ewing sarcoma cell lines, primary samples, benign mesenchymal stromal cells and hematopoietic stem cells. We performed cell cycle analysis, clonogenic assay, immunoblot analysis and reverse phase protein array in Ewing cell lines and in vivo experiments in NSG and nude mice using the A673 cell line. We noted a significant therapeutic window in the activity of PU-H71 against Ewing cell lines and benign cells. PU-H71 treatment resulted in G2/M phase arrest. Exposure to PU-H71 resulted in depletion of critical proteins including AKT, pERK, RAF-1, c-MYC, c-KIT, IGF1R, hTERT and EWS-FLI1 in Ewing cell lines. Our results indicated that Ewing sarcoma tumor growth and the metastatic burden were significantly reduced in the mice injected with PU-H71 compared to the control mice. We also investigated the effects of bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, alone and in combination with PU-H71 in Ewing sarcoma. Combination index (CI)-Fa plots and normalized isobolograms indicated synergism between PU-H71 and bortezomib. Ewing sarcoma xenografts were significantly inhibited when mice were treated with the combination compared to vehicle or either drug alone. This provides a strong rationale for clinical evaluation of PU-H71 alone and in combination with bortezomib in Ewing sarcoma.
|EGFR inhibitors exacerbate differentiation and cell cycle arrest induced by retinoic acid and vitamin D3 in acute myeloid leukemia cells. |
Lainey, E; Wolfromm, A; Sukkurwala, AQ; Micol, JB; Fenaux, P; Galluzzi, L; Kepp, O; Kroemer, G
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 12 2978-91 2013
By means of an unbiased, automated fluorescence microscopy-based screen, we identified the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors erlotinib and gefitinib as potent enhancers of the differentiation of HL-60 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells exposed to suboptimal concentrations of vitamin A (all-trans retinoic acid, ATRA) or vitamin D (1α,25-hydroxycholecalciferol, VD). Erlotinib and gefitinib alone did not promote differentiation, yet stimulated the acquisition of morphological and biochemical maturation markers (including the expression of CD11b and CD14 as well as increased NADPH oxidase activity) when combined with either ATRA or VD. Moreover, the combination of erlotinib and ATRA or VD synergistically induced all the processes that are normally linked to terminal hematopoietic differentiation, namely, a delayed proliferation arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, cellular senescence, and apoptosis. Erlotinib potently inhibited the (auto)phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14, best known as p38(MAPK)) and SRC family kinases (SFKs). If combined with the administration of ATRA or VD, the inhibition of p38(MAPK) or SFKs with specific pharmacological agents mimicked the pro-differentiation activity of erlotinib. These data were obtained with 2 distinct AML cell lines (HL-60 and MOLM-13 cells) and could be confirmed on primary leukemic blasts isolated from the circulation of AML patients. Altogether, these findings point to a new regimen for the treatment of AML, in which naturally occurring pro-differentiation agents (ATRA or VD) may be combined with EGFR inhibitors.
|Both Kdr and Flt1 play a vital role in hypoxia-induced Src-PLD1-PKCγ-cPLA(2) activation and retinal neovascularization. |
Singh, NK; Hansen, DE; Kundumani-Sridharan, V; Rao, GN
Blood 121 1911-23 2013
To understand the mechanisms of Src-PLD1-PKCγ-cPLA2 activation by vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), we studied the role of Kdr and Flt1. VEGFA, while having no effect on Flt1 phosphorylation, induced Kdr phosphorylation in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMVECs). Depletion of Kdr attenuated VEGFA-induced Src-PLD1-PKCγ-cPLA2 activation. Regardless of its phosphorylation state, downregulation of Flt1 also inhibited VEGFA-induced Src-PLD1-PKCγ-cPLA2 activation, but only modestly. In line with these findings, depletion of either Kdr or Flt1 suppressed VEGFA-induced DNA synthesis, migration, and tube formation, albeit more robustly with Kdr downregulation. Hypoxia induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Kdr and Flt1 in mouse retina, and depletion of Kdr or Flt1 blocked hypoxia-induced Src-PLD1-PKCγ-cPLA2 activation and retinal neovascularization. VEGFB induced Flt1 tyrosine phosphorylation and Src-PLD1-PKCγ-cPLA2 activation in HRMVECs. Hypoxia induced VEGFA and VEGFB expression in retina, and inhibition of their expression blocked hypoxia-induced Kdr and Flt1 activation, respectively. Furthermore, depletion of VEGFA or VEGFB attenuated hypoxia-induced Src-PLD1-PKCγ-cPLA2 activation and retinal neovascularization. These findings suggest that although VEGFA, through Kdr and Flt1, appears to be the major modulator of Src-PLD1-PKCγ-cPLA2 signaling in HRMVECs, facilitating their angiogenic events in vitro, both VEGFA and VEGFB mediate hypoxia-induced Src-PLD1-PKCγ-cPLA2 activation and retinal neovascularization via activation of Kdr and Flt1, respectively.
|The significance of a Cripto-1 positive subpopulation of human melanoma cells exhibiting stem cell-like characteristics. |
Strizzi, L; Margaryan, NV; Gilgur, A; Hardy, KM; Normanno, N; Salomon, DS; Hendrix, MJ
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 12 1450-6 2013
Cripto-1 (CR-1) protein function differs according to cellular or extracellular expression. In this study, we explore the significance of cell surface CR-1 expression in human melanoma cells. Cell surface CR-1-expressing human melanoma cells (CR1-CS+) were selected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and grown in vitro and in vivo in nude mice to study their growth characteristics. The CR1-CS+ melanoma cells were found to express increased levels of Oct4, MDR-1 and activated c-Src compared with cells lacking this subpopulation (CR1-CS-) or unsorted cells, used as control. CR1-CS+ show reduced proliferation rates and diminished spherical colony formation compared with control cells when cultured in vitro. Orthotopic injections of CR1-CS+ in nude mice formed slow growing tumors with histologic variability across different areas of the CR1-CS+ xenografts. CR-1-expressing cells from first generation CR1-CS+ tumors showed significantly increased tumor-forming rate and aggressiveness following subsequent transplants in nude mice. These data demonstrate that within a heterogeneous melanoma cell population there resides a slow proliferating, cell surface CR-1-expressing subpopulation capable of giving rise to a fast growing, aggressive progeny that may contribute to disease recurrence and progression.
|12/15-Lipoxygenase mediates high-fat diet-induced endothelial tight junction disruption and monocyte transmigration: a new role for 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in endothelial cell dysfunction. |
Kundumani-Sridharan, V; Dyukova, E; Hansen, DE; Rao, GN
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 15830-42 2013
A convincing body of evidence suggests that 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) plays a role in atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms of its involvement in the pathogenesis of this disease are not clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to understand the mechanisms by which 12/15-LO mediates endothelial dysfunction. 15(S)-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE), the major 12/15-LO metabolite of arachidonic acid (AA), induced endothelial barrier permeability via Src and Pyk2-dependent zonula occluden (ZO)-2 tyrosine phosphorylation and its dissociation from the tight junction complexes. 15(S)-HETE also stimulated macrophage adhesion to the endothelial monolayer in Src and Pyk2-dependent manner. Ex vivo studies revealed that exposure of arteries from WT mice to AA or 15(S)-HETE led to Src-Pyk2-dependent ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation, tight junction disruption, and macrophage adhesion, whereas the arteries from 12/15-LO knock-out mice are protected from these effects of AA. Feeding WT mice with a high-fat diet induced the expression of 12/15-LO in the arteries leading to tight junction disruption and macrophage adhesion and deletion of the 12/15-LO gene disallowed these effects. Thus, the findings of this study provide the first evidence of the role of 12/15-LO and its AA metabolite, 15(S)-HETE, in high-fat diet-induced endothelial tight junction disruption and macrophage adhesion, the crucial events underlying the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
|Focal adhesion kinase contributes to proliferative potential of ErbB2 mammary tumour cells but is dispensable for ErbB2 mammary tumour induction in vivo. |
Lahlou, H; Sanguin-Gendreau, V; Frame, MC; Muller, WJ
Breast cancer research : BCR 14 R36 2012
Activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is hypothesized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of human breast cancer.To directly evaluate the role of FAK in mammary tumour progression, we have used a conditional FAK mouse model and mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV)-driven Cre recombinase strain to inactivate FAK in the mammary epithelium of a transgenic mouse model of ErbB2 breast cancer.Although mammary epithelial disruption of FAK in this model resulted in both a delay in onset and a decrease in the number of neoplastic lesions, mammary tumours occurred in 100% of virgin female mice. All of the tumours and derived metastases that developed were proficient for FAK due to the absence of Cre recombinase expression. The hyperplastic epithelia where Cre-mediated recombination of FAK could be detected exhibited a profound proliferative defect. Consistent with these observations, disruption of FAK in established tumour cells resulted in reduced tumour growth that was associated with impaired proliferation. To avoid the selection for FAK-proficient ErbB2 tumour epithelia through escape of Cre-mediated recombination, we next intercrossed the FAK conditional mice with a separate MMTV-driven ErbB2 strain that co-expressed ErbB2 and Cre recombinase on the same transcriptional unit.While a delay in tumour induction was noted, FAK-deficient tumours arose in 100% of female animals indicating that FAK is dispensable for ErbB2 tumour initiation. In addition, the FAK-null ErbB2 tumours retained their metastatic potential. We further demonstrated that the FAK-related Pyk2 kinase is still expressed in these tumours and is associated with its downstream regulator p130Cas. These observations indicate that Pyk2 can functionally substitute for FAK in ErbB2 mammary tumour progression.
|Cholinergic signaling inhibits oxalate transport by human intestinal T84 cells. |
Hassan, HA; Cheng, M; Aronson, PS
American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 302 C46-58 2012
Urolithiasis remains a very common disease in Western countries. Seventy to eighty percent of kidney stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and minor changes in urinary oxalate affect stone risk. Intestinal oxalate secretion mediated by anion exchanger SLC26A6 plays a major constitutive role in limiting net absorption of ingested oxalate, thereby preventing hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Using the relatively selective PKC-δ inhibitor rottlerin, we had previously found that PKC-δ activation inhibits Slc26a6 activity in mouse duodenal tissue. To identify a model system to study physiologic agonists upstream of PKC-δ, we characterized the human intestinal cell line T84. Knockdown studies demonstrated that endogenous SLC26A6 mediates most of the oxalate transport by T84 cells. Cholinergic stimulation with carbachol modulates intestinal ion transport through signaling pathways including PKC activation. We therefore examined whether carbachol affects oxalate transport in T84 cells. We found that carbachol significantly inhibited oxalate transport by T84 cells, an effect blocked by rottlerin. Carbachol also led to significant translocation of PKC-δ from the cytosol to the membrane of T84 cells. Using pharmacological inhibitors, we observed that carbachol inhibits oxalate transport through the M(3) muscarinic receptor and phospholipase C. Utilizing the Src inhibitor PP2 and phosphorylation studies, we found that the observed regulation downstream of PKC-δ is partially mediated by c-Src. Biotinylation studies revealed that carbachol inhibits oxalate transport by reducing SLC26A6 surface expression. We conclude that carbachol negatively regulates oxalate transport by reducing SLC26A6 surface expression in T84 cells through signaling pathways including the M(3) muscarinic receptor, phospholipase C, PKC-δ, and c-Src.
|Deltamethrin inhibits osteoclast differentiation via regulation of heme oxygenase-1 and NFATc1. |
Hiroshi Sakamoto,Eiko Sakai,Reiko Fumimoto,Yu Yamaguchi,Yutaka Fukuma,Kazuhisa Nishishita,Kuniaki Okamoto,Takayuki Tsukuba
Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA 26 2012
Deltamethrin is a widely used pyrethroid pesticide. Although the cytotoxicity of deltamethrin has been reported, especially in neuronal cells, there is no information concerning the effects of deltamethrin on osteoclasts (OCLs). In this study, we showed that deltamethrin inhibited OCL differentiation in vitro. The effects of deltamethrin on OCL differentiation by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) were investigated in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) or the murine monocytic cell line RAW-D. Treatment with deltamethrin inhibited OCL formation and bone resorption and up-regulated expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an anti-oxidative stress enzyme. Deltamethrin also decreased the protein levels of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic-1 (NFATc1), which is a master regulator for OCL differentiation, and concomitantly reduced the expression levels of Src and cathepsin K, which are transcriptionally regulated by NFATc1. The effects of deltamethrin on intracellular signaling during the OCL differentiation of BMMs indicated that deltamethrin-treated OCLs displayed impaired phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Jun N-terminal kinase, and Akt, and slightly delayed phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B alpha (IκBα) compared with untreated OCLs. Thus, deltamethrin possibly affects bone metabolism by inhibiting OCL differentiation.
|Intracellular amyloid precursor protein sorting and amyloid-β secretion are regulated by Src-mediated phosphorylation of Mint2. |
Chaufty, J; Sullivan, SE; Ho, A
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 9613-25 2012
Mint adaptor proteins bind to the membrane-bound amyloid precursor protein (APP) and affect the production of pathogenic amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that loss of each of the three Mint proteins delays the age-dependent production of amyloid plaques in transgenic mouse models of AD. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying Mints effect on amyloid production are unclear. Because Aβ generation involves the internalization of membrane-bound APP via endosomes and Mints bind directly to the endocytic motif of APP, we proposed that Mints are involved in APP intracellular trafficking, which in turn, affects Aβ generation. Here, we show that APP endocytosis was attenuated in Mint knock-out neurons, revealing a role for Mints in APP trafficking. We also show that the endocytic APP sorting processes are regulated by Src-mediated phosphorylation of Mint2 and that internalized APP is differentially sorted between autophagic and recycling trafficking pathways. A Mint2 phosphomimetic mutant favored endocytosis of APP along the autophagic sorting pathway leading to increased intracellular Aβ accumulation. Conversely, the Mint2 phospho-resistant mutant increased APP localization to the recycling pathway and back to the cell surface thereby enhancing Aβ42 secretion. These results demonstrate that Src-mediated phosphorylation of Mint2 regulates the APP endocytic sorting pathway, providing a mechanism for regulating Aβ secretion.
|S-nitrosylation of c-Src via NMDAR-nNOS module promotes c-Src activation and NR2A phosphorylation in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. |
Li-Juan Tang,Chong Li,Shu-Qun Hu,Yong-Ping Wu,Yan-Yan Zong,Chang-Cheng Sun,Fa Zhang,Guang-Yi Zhang
Molecular and cellular biochemistry 365 2012
Previous studies suggested that activated c-Src promote the tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit NR2A, and thus aggravate the injury induced by transient cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rat hippocampus CA1 region. In this study, we examined the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the activation of c-Src and the tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptor NR2A subunit. The results show that S-nitrosylation and the phosphorylation of c-Src were induced after cerebral I/R in rats, and administration of nNOS inhibitor 7-NI, nNOS antisense oligonucleotides and exogenous NO donor sodium nitroprusside diminished the increased S-nitrosylation and phosphorylation of c-Src during cerebral I/R. The cysteine residues of c-Src modified by S-nitrosylation are Cys489, Cys498, and Cys500. On the other hand, NMDAR antagonist MK-801 could attenuate the S-nitrosylation and activation of c-Src. Taken together, the S-nitrosylation of c-Src is provoked by NO derived from endogenous nNOS, which is activated by Ca(2+) influx from NMDA receptors, and promotes the auto-phosphorylation at tyrosines and further phosphorylates NR2A. The molecular mechanism we outlined here is a novel postsynaptic NMDAR-nNOS/c-Src-mediated signaling amplification, the 'NMDAR-nNOS → NO → SNO-c-Src → p-c-Src → NMDAR-nNOS' cycle, which presents the possibility as a potential therapeutic target for stroke treatment.
|Identification of MET and SRC activation in melanoma cell lines showing primary resistance to PLX4032. |
Vergani, E; Vallacchi, V; Frigerio, S; Deho, P; Mondellini, P; Perego, P; Cassinelli, G; Lanzi, C; Testi, MA; Rivoltini, L; Bongarzone, I; Rodolfo, M
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 13 1132-42 2011
PLX4032/vemurafenib is a first-in-class small-molecule BRAF(V600E) inhibitor with clinical activity in patients with BRAF mutant melanoma. Nevertheless, drug resistance develops in treated patients, and strategies to overcome primary and acquired resistance are required. To explore the molecular mechanisms involved in primary resistance to PLX4032, we investigated its effects on cell proliferation and signaling in a panel of 27 genetically characterized patient-derived melanoma cell lines. Cell sensitivity to PLX4032 was dependent on BRAF(V600E) and independent from other gene alterations that commonly occur in melanoma such as PTEN loss, BRAF, and MITF gene amplification. Two cell lines lacking sensitivity to PLX4032 and harboring a different set of genetic alterations were studied as models of primary resistance. Treatment with the MEK inhibitor UO126 but not with PLX4032 inhibited cell growth and ERK activation. Resistance to PLX4032 was maintained after CRAF down-regulation by siRNA indicating alternative activation of MEK-ERK signaling. Genetic characterization by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and analysis of phosphotyrosine signaling by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis revealed the activation of MET and SRC signaling, associated with the amplification of MET and of CTNNB1 and CCND1 genes, respectively. The combination of PLX4032 with drugs or siRNA targeting MET was effective in inhibiting cell growth and reducing cell invasion and migration in melanoma cells with MET amplification; similar effects were observed after targeting SRC in the other cell line, indicating a role for MET and SRC signaling in primary resistance to PLX4032. Our results support the development of classification of melanoma in molecular subtypes for more effective therapies.
|Alkylation of cysteine 468 in Stat3 defines a novel site for therapeutic development. |
Buettner, R; Corzano, R; Rashid, R; Lin, J; Senthil, M; Hedvat, M; Schroeder, A; Mao, A; Herrmann, A; Yim, J; Li, H; Yuan, YC; Yakushijin, K; Yakushijin, F; Vaidehi, N; Moore, R; Gugiu, G; Lee, TD; Yip, R; Chen, Y; Jove, R; Horne, D; Williams, JC
ACS chemical biology 6 432-43 2011
Stat3 is a latent transcription factor that promotes cell survival and proliferation and is often constitutively active in multiple cancers. Inhibition of Stat3 signaling pathways suppresses cell survival signals and leads to apoptosis in cancer cells, suggesting direct inhibition of Stat3 function is a viable therapeutic approach. Herein, we identify a small molecule, C48, as a selective Stat3-family member inhibitor. To determine its mechanism of action, we used site-directed mutagenesis and multiple biochemical techniques to show that C48 alkylates Cys468 in Stat3, a residue at the DNA-binding interface. We further demonstrate that C48 blocks accumulation of activated Stat3 in the nucleus in tumor cell lines that overexpress active Stat3, leading to impressive inhibition of tumor growth in mouse models. Collectively, these findings suggest Cys468 in Stat3 represents a novel site for therapeutic intervention and demonstrates the promise of alkylation as a potentially effective chemical approach for Stat3-dependent cancers.
|Breast Cancer Cells Proliferation Is Regulated by Tyrosine Phosphatase SHP1 through c-jun N-Terminal Kinase and Cooperative Induction of RFX-1 and |
Amin S, Kumar A, Nilchi L, Wright K, Kozlowski M
Molecular cancer research : MCR 9 1112-25. Epub 2011 Jun 30. 2011
In this study, we show that proliferation of breast cancer cells is suppressed by IGF-1-activated JNK MAPK pathway. The molecular mechanism by which c-jun-NH,-kinase (JNK) activation induces antiproliferative signals in IGF-1-stimulated breast cancer cells remains unknown. Tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 is known to negatively regulate signal transduction pathways activated by cell surface receptors including IGF-1. Moreover, SHP1 transcript and protein levels are increased in epithelial tumors. Therefore, we hypothesized that IGF-activated JNK induces expression of SHP1 in breast cancer cells. To further clarify the role of SHP1 in tumor growth, we correlated the proliferation rates of breast adenocarcinoma cells with SHP1 expression and JNK activation. We show that proliferation of serum- or IGF-1-stimulated breast adenocarcinoma cells is negatively regulated by SHP1 and show for the first time that IGF-1-activated JNK induces SHP1 expression in MCF-7 cells used as experimental model. In an attempt to understand the mechanism by which serum- or IGF-1-activated JNK induces SHP1 expression resulting in suppression of cell proliferation, we reveal for the first time that in serum- or IGF-1-stimulated breast cancer MCF-7 cells, JNK induces SHP1 expression through the binding of AP-4 and RFX-1 transcription factors to the epithelial tissue-specific SHP1 promoter. Overall, we show for the first time that IGF-1-stimulated proliferation of breast adenocarcinoma cells is negatively regulated by SHP1 through activation of JNK. Mol Cancer Res; 9(8); 1112-25. ©2011 AACR.
|Latent KSHV infection increases the vascular permeability of human endothelial cells. |
Christophe Guilluy,Zhigang Zhang,Prasanna M Bhende,Lisa Sharek,Ling Wang,Keith Burridge,Blossom Damania
Blood 118 2011
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with 3 different human malignancies: Kaposi sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman disease. The KS lesion is driven by KSHV-infected endothelial cells and is highly dependent on autocrine and paracrine factors for survival and growth. We report that latent KSHV infection increases the vascular permeability of endothelial cells. Endothelial cells with latent KSHV infection display increased Rac1 activation and activation of its downstream modulator, p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1). The KSHV-infected cells also exhibit increases in tyrosine phosphorylation of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin and β-catenin, whereas total levels of these proteins remained unchanged, suggesting that latent infection disrupted endothelial cell junctions. Consistent with these findings, we found that KSHV-infected endothelial cells displayed increased permeability compared with uninfected endothelial cells. Knockdown of Rac1 and inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulted in decreased permeability in the KSHV-infected endothelial cells. We further demonstrate that the KSHV K1 protein can activate Rac1. Rac1 was also highly activated in KSHV-infected endothelial cells and KS tumors. In conclusion, KSHV latent infection increases Rac1 and PAK1 activity in endothelial cells, resulting in the phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and β-catenin and leading to the disassembly of cell junctions and to increased vascular permeability of the infected endothelial cells.
|Spatial association of the Cav1.2 calcium channel with α5β1-integrin. |
Chao, JT; Gui, P; Zamponi, GW; Davis, GE; Davis, MJ
American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 300 C477-89 2011
Engagement of α(5)β(1)-integrin by fibronectin (FN) acutely enhances Cav1.2 channel (Ca(L)) current in rat arteriolar smooth muscle and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293-T) expressing Ca(L). Using coimmunoprecipitation strategies, we show that coassociation of Ca(L) with α(5)- or β(1)-integrin in HEK293-T cells is specific and depends on cell adhesion to FN. In rat arteriolar smooth muscle, coassociations between Ca(L) and α(5)β(1)-integrin and between Ca(L) and phosphorylated c-Src are also revealed and enhanced by FN treatment. Using site-directed mutagenesis of Ca(L) heterologously expressed in HEK293-T cells, we identified two regions of Ca(L) required for these interactions: 1) COOH-terminal residues Ser(1901) and Tyr(2122), known to be phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA) and c-Src, respectively; and 2) two proline-rich domains (PRDs) near the middle of the COOH terminus. Immunofluorescence confocal imaging revealed a moderate degree of wild-type Ca(L) colocalization with β(1)-integrin on the plasma membrane. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that 1) upon ligation by FN, Ca(L) associates with α(5)β(1)-integrin in a macromolecular complex including PKA, c-Src, and potentially other protein kinases; 2) phosphorylation of Ca(L) at Y(2122) and/or S(1901) is required for association of Ca(L) with α(5)β(1)-integrin; and 3) c-Src, via binding to PRDs that reside in the II-III linker region and/or the COOH terminus of Ca(L), mediates current potentiation following α(5)β(1)-integrin engagement. These findings provide new evidence for how interactions between α(5)β(1)-integrin and FN can modulate Ca(L) entry and consequently alter the physiological function of multiple types of excitable cells.
|The human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir inhibits lung cancer cells, in part, by inhibition of survivin. |
Srirangam, A; Milani, M; Mitra, R; Guo, Z; Rodriguez, M; Kathuria, H; Fukuda, S; Rizzardi, A; Schmechel, S; Skalnik, DG; Pelus, LM; Potter, DA
Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 6 661-70 2011
Ritonavir is a potential therapeutic agent in lung cancer, but its targets in lung adenocarcinoma are unknown, as are candidate biomarkers for its activity.RNAi was used to identify genes whose expression affects ritonavir sensitivity. Synergy between ritonavir, gemcitabine, and cisplatin was tested by isobologram analysis.Ritonavir inhibits growth of K-ras mutant lung adenocarcinoma lines A549, H522, H23, and K-ras wild-type line H838. Ritonavir causes G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis. Associated with G0/G1 arrest, ritonavir down-regulates cyclin-dependent kinases, cyclin D1, and retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. Associated with induction of apoptosis, ritonavir reduces survivin messenger RNA and protein levels more than twofold. Ritonavir inhibits phosphorylation of c-Src and signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 3, which are important events for survivin gene expression and cell growth, and induces cleavage of PARP1. Although knock down of survivin, c-Src, or signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 3 inhibits cell growth, only survivin knock down enhances ritonavir inhibition of growth and survivin overexpression promotes ritonavir resistance. Ritonavir was tested in combination with gemcitabine or cisplatin, exhibiting synergistic and additive effects, respectively. The combination of ritonavir/gemcitabine/cisplatin is synergistic in the A549 line and additive in the H522 line, at clinically feasible ritonavir concentrations (less than 10 μM).Ritonavir is of interest for lung adenocarcinoma therapeutics, and survivin is an important target and potential biomarker for its sensitivity. Ritonavir cooperation with gemcitabine/cisplatin might be explained by involvement of PARP1 in repair of cisplatin-mediated DNA damage and survivin in repair of gemcitabine-mediated double-stranded DNA breaks.
|CYP3A4 mediates growth of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells in part by inducing nuclear translocation of phospho-Stat3 through biosynthesis of (±)-14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET). |
Mitra, R; Guo, Z; Milani, M; Mesaros, C; Rodriguez, M; Nguyen, J; Luo, X; Clarke, D; Lamba, J; Schuetz, E; Donner, DB; Puli, N; Falck, JR; Capdevila, J; Gupta, K; Blair, IA; Potter, DA
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 17543-59 2011
CYP3A4 expression in breast cancer correlates with decreased overall survival, but the mechanisms are unknown. Cytochrome P450 gene profiling by RNAi silencing demonstrates that CYP3A or 2C8 gene expression is specifically required for growth of the breast cancer lines MCF7, T47D, and MDA-MB-231. CYP3A4 silencing blocks the cell cycle at the G(2)/M checkpoint and induces apoptosis in the MCF7 line, thereby inhibiting anchorage-dependent growth and survival. CYP3A4 was profiled for NADPH-dependent arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and synthesized AA epoxygenase products (±)-8,9-, (±)-11,12-, and (±)-14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) (total turnover of ∼2 pmol/pmol CYP3A4/min) but not hydroxylase products (±)-15-, (±)-19-, or 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Furthermore, eicosanoid profiling revealed that MCF7 cells synthesize EETs in a CYP3A4-dependent manner. The (±)-14,15-EET regioisomer selectively rescues breast cancer cells from CYP3A4 silencing in a concentration-dependent fashion and promotes mitogenesis and anchorage-dependent cloning. Stat3 (Tyr-705) phosphorylation was inhibited by CYP3A4 silencing, providing a potential mechanism for CYP3A4 involvement in breast cancer cell growth. Silencing Stat3 blocks breast cancer cell growth and abrogates (±)-14,15-EET-induced proliferation, indicating a Stat3 requirement for (±)-14,15-EET-mediated cell growth. Although silencing of CYP3A4 reduces nuclear Tyr(P)-705-Stat3, (±)-14,15-EET restores this signaling process and promotes Tyr(P)-705-Stat3 translocation to the nucleus, suggesting that (±)-14,15-EET may be involved in an autocrine/paracrine pathway driving cell growth. These studies indicate that CYP3A4 is a highly active AA epoxygenase that promotes Stat3-mediated breast cancer cell growth in part through (±)-14,15-EET biosynthesis. Furthermore, these studies indicate an essential role for Stat3 as a mediator of epoxygenase activity in breast cancer.
|Quantification of beta-catenin signaling components in colon cancer cell lines, tissue sections, and microdissected tumor cells using reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. |
Chen, Y; Gruidl, M; Remily-Wood, E; Liu, RZ; Eschrich, S; Lloyd, M; Nasir, A; Bui, MM; Huang, E; Shibata, D; Yeatman, T; Koomen, JM
Journal of proteome research 9 4215-27 2010
Reaction monitoring mass spectrometry has emerged as a powerful tool for targeted detection and quantification of proteins in clinical samples. Here, we report the use of gel electrophoresis for protein fractionation and liquid chromatography coupled to multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-MRM) screening for quantitative analysis of components from the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, which contributes to colon tumor formation and progression. In silico tools are used to design LC-MRM screens for each target protein. Following successful peptide detection, stable isotope labeled peptides are synthesized and developed as internal standards. Then, the assays are implemented in colon cancer cell lines to achieve detection in minimal amounts of cells, compatible with direct translation to clinical specimens. Selected assays are compared with qualitative results from immunoblotting (Westerns) and translated to individual frozen colon tissue sections and laser capture microdissected tumor cells. This LC-MRM platform has been translated from in vitro models to clinical specimens, forming the basis for future experiments in patient assessment.
|A Technical Assessment of the Utility of Reverse Phase Protein Arrays for the Study of the Functional Proteome in Non-microdissected Human Breast Cancers. |
Hennessy, BT; Lu, Y; Gonzalez-Angulo, AM; Carey, MS; Myhre, S; Ju, Z; Davies, MA; Liu, W; Coombes, K; Meric-Bernstam, F; Bedrosian, I; McGahren, M; Agarwal, R; Zhang, F; Overgaard, J; Alsner, J; Neve, RM; Kuo, WL; Gray, JW; Borresen-Dale, AL; Mills, GB
Clinical proteomics 6 129-51 2010
The lack of large panels of validated antibodies, tissue handling variability, and intratumoral heterogeneity potentially hamper comprehensive study of the functional proteome in non-microdissected solid tumors. The purpose of this study was to address these concerns and to demonstrate clinical utility for the functional analysis of proteins in non-microdissected breast tumors using reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA).Herein, 82 antibodies that recognize kinase and steroid signaling proteins and effectors were validated for RPPA. Intraslide and interslide coefficients of variability were less than 15%. Multiple sites in non-microdissected breast tumors were analyzed using RPPA after intervals of up to 24 h on the benchtop at room temperature following surgical resection.Twenty-one of 82 total and phosphoproteins demonstrated time-dependent instability at room temperature with most variability occurring at later time points between 6 and 24 h. However, the 82-protein functional proteomic "fingerprint" was robust in most tumors even when maintained at room temperature for 24 h before freezing. In repeat samples from each tumor, intratumoral protein levels were markedly less variable than intertumoral levels. Indeed, an independent analysis of prognostic biomarkers in tissue from multiple tumor sites accurately and reproducibly predicted patient outcomes. Significant correlations were observed between RPPA and immunohistochemistry. However, RPPA demonstrated a superior dynamic range. Classification of 128 breast cancers using RPPA identified six subgroups with markedly different patient outcomes that demonstrated a significant correlation with breast cancer subtypes identified by transcriptional profiling.Thus, the robustness of RPPA and stability of the functional proteomic "fingerprint" facilitate the study of the functional proteome in non-microdissected breast tumors.Full Text Article
|PLD1-dependent PKCgamma activation downstream to Src is essential for the development of pathologic retinal neovascularization. |
Zhang, Q; Wang, D; Kundumani-Sridharan, V; Gadiparthi, L; Johnson, DA; Tigyi, GJ; Rao, GN
Blood 116 1377-85 2010
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) appears to be an important mediator of pathologic retinal angiogenesis. In understanding the mechanisms of pathologic retinal neovascularization, we found that VEGF activates PLD1 in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells, and this event is dependent on Src. In addition, VEGF activates protein kinase C-gamma (PKCgamma) via Src-dependent PLD1 stimulation. Inhibition of Src, PLD1, or PKCgamma via pharmacologic, dominant negative mutant, or siRNA approaches significantly attenuated VEGF-induced human retinal microvascular endothelial cell migration, proliferation, and tube formation. Hypoxia also induced Src-PLD1-PKCgamma signaling in retina, leading to retinal neovascularization. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated down-regulation of VEGF inhibited hypoxia-induced Src-PLD1-PKCgamma activation and neovascularization. Blockade of Src-PLD1-PKCgamma signaling via the siRNA approach also suppressed hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization. Thus, these observations demonstrate, for the first time, that Src-dependent PLD1-PKCgamma activation plays an important role in pathologic retinal angiogenesis.Full Text Article
|Defining the ATM-mediated barrier to tumorigenesis in somatic mammary cells following ErbB2 activation. |
Reddy JP, Peddibhotla S, Bu W, Zhao J, Haricharan S, Du YC, Podsypanina K, Rosen JM, Donehower LA, Li Y
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107 3728-33. Epub 2010 Feb 3. 2010
p53, apoptosis, and senescence are frequently activated in preneoplastic lesions and are barriers to progression to malignancy. These barriers have been suggested to result from an ATM-mediated DNA damage response (DDR), which may follow oncogene-induced hyperproliferation and ensuing DNA replication stress. To elucidate the currently untested role of DDR in breast cancer initiation, we examined the effect of oncogene expression in several murine models of breast cancer. We did not observe a detectable DDR in early hyperplastic lesions arising in transgenic mice expressing several different oncogenes. However, DDR signaling was strongly induced in preneoplastic lesions arising from individual mammary cells transduced in vivo by retroviruses expressing either PyMT or ErbB2. Thus, activation of an oncogene after normal tissue development causes a DDR. Furthermore, in this somatic ErbB2 tumor model, ATM, and thus DDR, is required for p53 stabilization, apoptosis, and senescence. In palpable tumors in this model, p53 stabilization and apoptosis are lost, but unexpectedly senescence remains in many tumor cells. Thus, this murine model fully recapitulates early DDR signaling; the eventual suppression of its endpoints in tumorigenesis provides compelling evidence that ErbB2-induced aberrant mammary cell proliferation leads to an ATM-mediated DDR that activates apoptosis and senescence, and at least the former must be overcome to progress to malignancy. This in vivo study also uncovers an unexpected effect of ErbB2 activation previously known for its prosurvival roles, and suggests that protection of the ATM-mediated DDR-p53 signaling pathway may be important in breast cancer prevention.
|Laminin-332-beta1 integrin interactions negatively regulate invadopodia. |
Liu S, Yamashita H, Weidow B, Weaver AM, Quaranta V
J Cell Physiol 223 134-42. 2010
Adhesion of epithelial cells to basement membranes (BM) occurs through two major structures: actin-associated focal contacts and keratin-associated hemidesmosomes, both of which form on laminin-332 (Ln-332). In epithelial-derived cancer cells, additional actin-linked structures with putative adhesive properties, invadopodia, are frequently present and mediate BM degradation. A recent study proposed that BM invasion requires a proper combination of focal contacts and invadopodia for invading cells to gain traction through degraded BM, and suggested that these structures may compete for common molecular components such as Src kinase. In this study, we tested the role of the Ln-332 in regulating invadopodia in 804G rat bladder carcinoma cells, a cell line that secretes Ln-332 and forms all three types of adhesions. Expression of shRNA to Ln-332 gamma2 chain (gamma2-kd) led to increased numbers of invadopodia and enhanced extracellular matrix degradation. Replating gamma2-kd cells on Ln-332 or collagen-I fully recovered cell spreading and inhibition of invadopodia. Inhibition of alpha3 or beta1, but not alpha6 or beta4, phenocopied the effect of gamma2-kd, suggesting that alpha3beta1-mediated focal contacts, rather than alpha6beta4-mediated hemidesmosome pathways, intersect with invadopodia regulation. gamma2-kd cells exhibited alterations in focal contact-type structures and in activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Src kinase. Inhibition of FAK also increased invadopodia number, which was reversible with Src inhibition. These data are consistent with a model whereby actin-based adhesions can limit the availability of active Src that is capable of invadopodia initiation and identifies Ln-332-beta1 interactions as a potent upstream regulator that limits cell invasion.
|A novel role for activating transcription factor-2 in 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-induced angiogenesis. |
Zhao, T; Wang, D; Cheranov, SY; Karpurapu, M; Chava, KR; Kundumani-Sridharan, V; Johnson, DA; Penn, JS; Rao, GN
Journal of lipid research 50 521-33 2009
To investigate the mechanisms underlying 15(S)-HETE-induced angiogenesis, we have studied the role of the small GTPase, Rac1. We find that 15(S)-HETE activated Rac1 in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMVEC) in a time-dependent manner. Blockade of Rac1 by adenovirus-mediated expression of its dominant negative mutant suppressed HRMVEC migration as well as tube formation and Matrigel plug angiogenesis. 15(S)-HETE stimulated Src in HRMVEC in a time-dependent manner and blockade of its activation inhibited 15(S)-HETE-induced Rac1 stimulation in HRMVEC and the migration and tube formation of these cells as well as Matrigel plug angiogenesis. 15(S)-HETE stimulated JNK1 in Src-Rac1-dependent manner in HRMVEC and adenovirus-mediated expression of its dominant negative mutant suppressed the migration and tube formation of these cells and Matrigel plug angiogenesis. 15(S)-HETE activated ATF-2 in HRMVEC in Src-Rac1-JNK1-dependent manner and interference with its activation via adenovirus-mediated expression of its dominant negative mutant abrogated migration and tube formation of HRMVEC and Matrigel plug angiogenesis. In addition, 15(S)-HETE-induced MEK1 stimulation was found to be dependent on Src-Rac1 activation. Blockade of MEK1 activation inhibited 15(S)-HETE-induced JNK1 activity and ATF-2 phosphorylation. Together, these findings show that 15(S)-HETE activates ATF-2 via the Src-Rac1-MEK1-JNK1 signaling axis in HRMVEC leading to their angiogenic differentiation.Full Text Article
|The Src inhibitor AZD0530 reversibly inhibits the formation and activity of human osteoclasts. |
Teun J de Vries, Margriet G Mullender, Marion A van Duin, Cornelis M Semeins, Neil James, Tim P Green, Vincent Everts, Jenneke Klein-Nulend, Teun J de Vries, Margriet G Mullender, Marion A van Duin, Cornelis M Semeins, Neil James, Tim P Green, Vincent Everts, Jenneke Klein-Nulend, Teun J de Vries, Margriet G Mullender, Marion A van Duin, Cornelis M Semeins, Neil James, Tim P Green, Vincent Everts, Jenneke Klein-Nulend
Molecular cancer research : MCR 7 476-88 2009
Tumor cells in the bone microenvironment are able to initiate a vicious cycle of bone degradation by mobilizing osteoclasts, multinucleated cells specialized in bone degradation. c-Src is highly expressed both in tumors and in osteoclasts. Therefore, drugs like AZD0530, designed to inhibit Src activity, could selectively interfere with both tumor and osteoclast activity. Here we explored the effects of AZD0530 on human osteoclast differentiation and activity. The effect on osteoclasts formed in vivo was assessed in mouse fetal calvarial explants and in isolated rabbit osteoclasts, where it dose-dependently inhibited osteoclast activity. Its effect on formation and activity of human osteoclasts in vitro was determined in cocultures of human osteoblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. AZD0530 was most effective in inhibiting osteoclast-like cell formation when present at the onset of osteoclastogenesis, suggesting that Src activity is important during the initial phase of osteoclast formation. Formation of active phosphorylated c-Src, which was highly present in osteoclast-like cells in cocultures and in peripheral blood mononuclear cell monocultures, was significantly reduced by AZD0530. Furthermore, it reversibly prevented osteoclast precursor migration from the osteoblast layer to the bone surface and subsequent formation of actin rings and resorption pits. These data suggest that Src is pivotal for the formation and activity of human osteoclasts, probably through its effect on the distribution of the actin microfilament system. The reversible effect of AZD0530 on osteoclast formation and activity makes it a promising candidate to temper osteoclastic bone degradation in bone diseases with enhanced osteoclast activity such as osteolytic metastatic bone disease.
|Complete focal adhesion kinase deficiency in the mammary gland causes ductal dilation and aberrant branching morphogenesis through defects in Rho kinase-dependent cell contractility. |
MH van Miltenburg, R Lalai, H de Bont, E van Waaij, H Beggs, EH Danen, B van de Water
The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 23 3482-93 2009
The adult, virgin mammary gland is a highly organized branched ductal network comprising two major cell types: myoepithelial and luminal epithelial cells. To study the role and mechanism of focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-mediated signaling in mammary gland development and differentiation, we used a conditional Fak-knockout mammary epithelial cell (MEC) transplantation model. Conditional Cre recombinase (Cre)-mediated Fak deletion in primary cultured MECs isolated from FAK(lox/lox)/Rosa26Cre-ERT2 donor mice caused loss of FAK in all mammary cells. Transplantation of Fak-knockout MECs in a cleared mammary fat pad of immune-deficient recipient mice resulted in development of new but dilated virgin ducts with a disrupted myoepithelial and luminal epithelial cell multilayer and aberrant ductal morphogenesis during pregnancy. In the absence of FAK, MECs spread poorly, showed enhanced Rho kinase (ROCK)-mediated cytoskeletal contractility, and failed to respond to receptor-mediated cytoskeletal remodeling. Likewise, FAK deficiency fully inhibited branching morphogenesis of mammary gland organoids in a ROCK-dependent manner. Altogether these data suggest a model in which FAK coordinates contractile forces in MECs to maintain the bilayered cellular organization of myoepithelial and luminal epithelial cells in ducts, thus allowing proper mammary gland development and function.
|Src-dependent STAT-3-mediated expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 is required for 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration. |
HS Potula, D Wang, DV Quyen, NK Singh, V Kundumani-Sridharan, M Karpurapu, EA Park, WC Glasgow, GN Rao
The Journal of biological chemistry 284 31142-55 2009
To understand the role of human 15-lipoxygenase 1 (15-LOX1) in vascular wall remodeling, we have studied the effect of the major 15-LOX1 metabolite of arachidonic acid, 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE), on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration both in vitro and in vivo. Among 5(S)-HETE, 12(S)-HETE, and 15(S)-HETE, 15(S)-HETE potentially stimulated more vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration. In addition, 15(S)-HETE-induced VSMC migration was dependent on Src-mediated activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3). 15(S)-HETE also induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression via Src-STAT-3 signaling, and neutralizing anti-MCP-1 antibodies completely negated 15(S)-HETE-induced VSMC migration. Cloning and characterization of a 2.6-kb MCP-1 promoter revealed the presence of four putative STAT-binding sites, and the site that is proximal to the transcription start site was found to be essential for 15(S)-HETE-induced Src-STAT-3-mediated MCP-1 expression. Rat carotid arteries that were subjected to balloon injury and transduced with Ad-15-LOX1 upon exposure to [(3)H]arachidonic acid ex vivo produced 15-HETE as a major eicosanoid and enhanced balloon injury-induced expression of MCP-1 in smooth muscle cells in Src and STAT-3-dependent manner in vivo. Adenovirus-mediated delivery of 15-LOX1 into rat carotid artery also led to recruitment and homing of macrophages to medial region in response to injury. In addition, transduction of Ad-15-LOX1 into arteries enhanced balloon injury-induced smooth muscle cell migration from media to intima and neointima formation. These results show for the first time that 15-LOX1-15(S)-HETE axis plays a major role in vascular wall remodeling after balloon angioplasty.Full Text Article
|Inhibition of Src family kinases with dasatinib blocks migration and invasion of human melanoma cells. |
Buettner, R; Mesa, T; Vultur, A; Lee, F; Jove, R
Molecular cancer research : MCR 6 1766-74 2008
Src family kinases (SFK) are involved in regulating a multitude of biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and survival, depending on the cellular context. Therefore, although SFKs are currently being investigated as potential targets for treatment strategies in various cancers, the biological responses to inhibition of SFK signaling in any given tumor type are not predictable. Dasatinib (BMS-354825) is a dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor with potent antiproliferative activity against hematologic malignancies harboring activated BCR-ABL. In this study, we show that dasatinib blocks migration and invasion of human melanoma cells without affecting proliferation and survival. Moreover, dasatinib completely inhibits SFK kinase activity at low nanomolar concentrations in all eight human melanoma cell lines investigated. In addition, two known downstream targets of SFKs, focal adhesion kinase and Crk-associated substrate (p130(CAS)), are inhibited with similar concentrations and kinetics. Consistent with inhibition of these signaling pathways and invasion, dasatinib down-regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9. We also provide evidence that dasatinib directly inhibits kinase activity of the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase, which is overexpressed and/or overactive in many solid tumors, including melanoma. Thus, SFKs and downstream signaling are implicated as having key roles in migration and invasion of melanoma cells.
|RAGE recycles at the plasma membrane in S100B secretory vesicles and promotes Schwann cells morphological changes. |
Lorena Perrone,Gianfranco Peluso,Mariarosa Ab Melone
Journal of cellular physiology 217 2008
RAGE is a multiligand receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily involved in regeneration of injured peripheral nerve and cell motility. RAGE is implicated in the development of various chronic diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders, inflammatory responses, and diabetic complications. The correlation between RAGE endocytic trafficking and RAGE function is still uninvestigated. S100B is one of the ligands of RAGE. The molecular mechanisms responsible of S100B translocation in exocytic vesicles are still poorly investigated. In the present study we elucidate the role of RAGE endocytic trafficking in promoting S100B secretion in Schwann cells. Here we show that RAGE-induced secretion of S100B requires phosphorylated caveolin1-dependent endocytosis of RAGE. Endocytosis of RAGE in response to ligand binding promotes the fusion of endosomes with S100B-positive secretory vesicles. Src promotes the fusion of endosomes with S100B-secretory vesicles. Inhibition of src induces RAGE degradation. RAGE-mediated src activation induces cav1 phosphorylation and relocalization in the perinuclear compartment. RAGE signaling and recycling are required for S100-induced Schwann cells morphological changes and are inhibited by high-glucose, suggesting a possible link between diabetes and peripheral nerve injury. Indeed, high glucose inhibits RAGE-mediated src activation. Src inhibition blocks RAGE recycling, S100B secretion, and morphological changes. In summary, we identified a novel pathway of vesicular trafficking required for the amplification of RAGE signaling and cytoskeleton dynamics that is potentially involved in the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve.
|Tyrosine phosphorylation of HPK1 by activated Src promotes ischemic brain injury in rat hippocampal CA1 region. |
Ting Li,Xiu-Ju Yu,Guang-Yi Zhang
FEBS letters 582 2008
Hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1) is a hematopoietic cell-restricted member of the Ste20 serine/threonine kinase super family. We recently reported that HPK1 is involved in c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway by sequential activation of MLK3-MKK7-JNK3 after cerebral ischemia. Here, we used 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl) pyrazolo [3,4-d] pyrimidine (PP2) and MK801 to investigate the events upstream of HPK1 in ischemic brain injury. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblot results showed that PP2 and MK801 significantly decreased the activation of Src, HPK1, MLK3, JNK3 and c-Jun, respectively, during ischemia/reperfusion. Histology and TUNEL staining showed PP2 or MK801 protects against neuron death after brain ischemia. We speculate that this unique signaling pathway through the tyrosine phosphorylation of HPK1 promotes ischemic brain injury by activated Src via N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor and, ultimately, the activation of the MLK3-MKK7-JNK3 pathway after cerebral ischemia.
|Large-scale quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis of detergent-resistant membrane proteins from rat renal collecting duct. |
Yu, MJ; Pisitkun, T; Wang, G; Aranda, JF; Gonzales, PA; Tchapyjnikov, D; Shen, RF; Alonso, MA; Knepper, MA
American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 295 C661-78 2008
In the renal collecting duct, vasopressin controls transport of water and solutes via regulation of membrane transporters such as aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and the epithelial urea transporter UT-A. To discover proteins potentially involved in vasopressin action in rat kidney collecting ducts, we enriched membrane "raft" proteins by harvesting detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) of the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells. Proteins were identified and quantified with LC-MS/MS. A total of 814 proteins were identified in the DRM fractions. Of these, 186, including several characteristic raft proteins, were enriched in the DRMs. Immunoblotting confirmed DRM enrichment of representative proteins. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of rat IMCDs with antibodies to DRM proteins demonstrated heterogeneity of raft subdomains: MAL2 (apical region), RalA (predominant basolateral labeling), caveolin-2 (punctate labeling distributed throughout the cells), and flotillin-1 (discrete labeling of large intracellular structures). The DRM proteome included GPI-anchored, doubly acylated, singly acylated, cholesterol-binding, and integral membrane proteins (IMPs). The IMPs were, on average, much smaller and more hydrophobic than IMPs identified in non-DRM-enriched IMCD. The content of serine 256-phosphorylated AQP2 was greater in DRM than in non-DRM fractions. Vasopressin did not change the DRM-to-non-DRM ratio of most proteins, whether quantified by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, n=22) or immunoblotting (n=6). However, Rab7 and annexin-2 showed small increases in the DRM fraction in response to vasopressin. In accord with the long-term goal of creating a systems-level analysis of transport regulation, this study has identified a large number of membrane-associated proteins expressed in the IMCD that have potential roles in vasopressin action.Full Text Article
|Compartmentalization of signaling-competent epidermal growth factor receptors in endosomes. |
Balbis, A; Parmar, A; Wang, Y; Baquiran, G; Posner, BI
Endocrinology 148 2944-54 2007
In this study, the preparation of detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) and the immunoisolation of intracellular vesicles enriched in raft markers were used to investigate the effect of physiological doses of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in vivo on the compartmentalization and activation of EGF receptor (EGFR) in rat liver endosomes. Both of these techniques show that after EGF administration, a distinctive population of intracellular EGFR, which was characterized by a high level of tyrosine phosphorylation, accumulated in endosomes. EGFR recruited to early endosomes were more tyrosine phosphorylated than those from late endosomes. However, the level of tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR in DRMs isolated from early and late endosomes was comparable, suggesting that EGFR in endosomal DRMs are more resistant to tyrosine dephosphorylation. In accordance with the higher level of Tyr phosphorylation, EGF induced an augmented recruitment of Grb2 and Shc to endosomal DRMs compared with whole endosomes. Furthermore, a proteomic analysis identified a selective increase of many alpha-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins in endosomal DRMs in response to EGF. These observations suggest that a distinctive pool of endocytic EGFR, potentially competent for signaling, is actively trafficking through intracellular compartments with the characteristic of lipid rafts.
|Activation of GABA receptors attenuates neuronal apoptosis through inhibiting the tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2A by Src after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. |
F Zhang,C Li,R Wang,D Han,Q-G Zhang,C Zhou,H-M Yu,G-Y Zhang
Neuroscience 150 2007
Cerebral ischemia can induce both the increase of excitation and the decrease of inhibition, which leads to neuronal excitotoxicity. Since glutamatergic and GABAergic transmissions work by each counterbalancing the function of the other, enhancing GABAergic activity should balance excessive glutamatergic excitation. But the potential mechanisms underlying these effects are obscure. Here, we used two GABA agonists, muscimol and baclofen, and performed immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation and histology analysis to evaluate the neuroprotective effects by stimulating GABA receptors in rat four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) ischemic model, and to investigate the potential mechanism. Our results indicate that whether in global cerebral ischemia in vivo, or in oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro, coapplication of muscimol with baclofen can protect neurons from neuronal death through down-regulating the function of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors via attenuating the tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2A subunit. We further elucidate that the phosphorylation level of Src kinase and the interaction among Src, post-synaptic density protein 95 and NR2A were also suppressed by coapplication of muscimol with baclofen. Both MK-801, a specific antagonist of NMDA receptors, and chelerythrine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), could down-regulate the phosphorylation of NR2A via inhibiting the activation of Src and PKC respectively. These results suggest that the modified pattern of dynamic balance between excitation and inhibition by coactivation of the GABA receptors in cerebral ischemia can attenuate the excitatory NMDAR via inhibiting a novel postsynaptic NMDAR/Src-mediated signal amplification, the 'NMDAR-Ca(2+) --> PKC --> Src --> NMDAR-Ca(2+)' cycle.
|Difluoro analogue of UCS15A triggers activation of exogenously expressed c-Src in HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. |
Noor Atatreh,Jane Barraclough,Arkadiusz Welman,Christopher Cawthorne,Richard A Bryce,Caroline Dive,Sally Freeman
Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry 22 2007
UCS 15A, an antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sp., has been reported to specifically disrupt SH3 domain-mediated interactions in eukaryotic cells. Interestingly, in the case of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src, UCS15A was effective in suppressing the SH3 domain-mediated intermolecular rather than intramolecular interactions, and thus prevented Src interactions with certain downstream effectors without affecting Src kinase activity. Here the synthesis of a novel difluoro analogue of UCS15A is described. The effects of this compound (8) on Src activity were tested in HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells engineered for inducible expression of c-Src. The presence of compound (8) resulted in the increased activity of the induced c-Src implicating that (8) acts as a c-Src activator in vivo. These observations are supported by computer modelling studies which suggest that the aldehyde group of (8) may covalently bind to a lysine residue in the SH2-kinase linker region situated in the proximity of the SH3 domain, which could promote a conformational change resulting in increased Src activity.
|Increases in c-Yes expression level and activity promote motility but not proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells. |
Barraclough, J; Hodgkinson, C; Hogg, A; Dive, C; Welman, A
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 9 745-54 2007
Increases in the levels and/or activity of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases c-Src and c-Yes are often associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. The physiological consequences of increased c-Yes activity during the early and late stages of tumorigenesis, in addition to the degree of redundancy between c-Yes and c-Src in colorectal cancer cells, remain elusive. To study the consequences of increases in c-Yes levels and activity in later stages of colorectal carcinogenesis, we developed human colorectal cancer cell lines in which c-Yes levels and activity can be inducibly increased by a tightly controlled expression of wild-type c-Yes or by constitutively active mutants of c-Yes, c-YesY537F, and c-Yes Delta t6aa. c-Yes induction resulted in increased cell motility but did not promote proliferation either in vitro or in vivo. These results suggest that in later stages of colorectal carcinogenesis, elevations in c-Yes levels/activity may promote cancer spread and metastasis rather than tumor growth.Full Text Article
|State and role of SRC family kinases in replication of herpes simplex virus 1. |
Liang, Y; Roizman, B
Journal of virology 80 3349-59 2006
An earlier report showed that infected cell protein no. 0 (ICP0) of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) interacts with the SH3 domains of a recently discovered adaptor protein, CIN85. Here, we report the following. (i) ICP0 also interacts with other SH3 domain-containing proteins and, in particular, with nonneuronal members of the Src kinase family. (ii) HSV-1 infection enhanced the activating phosphorylation of Tyr416 of the members of the Src kinase family, modestly enhanced the kinase activity of Src, and posttranslationally modified at least one additional member of the Src kinase family by phosphorylation in a manner dependent on the viral gene products ICP0, unique short 3 (U(S)3), and unique long 13 (U(L)13). (iii) To define the roles of Src kinase family members, we examined the accumulation of viral proteins, DNA, and mRNA and virus yields from wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts and sibling cells lacking Src, Fyn, and Yes (SYF-); a mutant cell line, +Src, in which Src was restored to SYF- cells; and the mutant cell line (CSK-) lacking the negative regulator Csk gene of the Src kinase family. Representative alpha, beta, and gamma2 proteins accumulated in the largest amounts in SYF- cells and the smallest amounts in +Src compared to wild-type cells. The CSK- cells yielded smaller amounts of the gamma2 protein and at least 10-fold less virus than wild-type cells. We conclude that HSV-1 proteins regulate the activities of Src family kinases to achieve optimal viral yields in the course of viral replication.
|Fibroblast growth factor-2 is a downstream mediator of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling in 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid-induced angiogenesis. |
Zhang, B; Cao, H; Rao, GN
The Journal of biological chemistry 281 905-14 2006
To determine the efficacy of cytochrome P450 2C9 metabolites of arachidonic acid, viz. 5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), in inducing angiogenesis, we have studied their effects on human dermal microvascular endothelial cell (HDMVEC) tube formation and migration. All four EETs stimulated HDMVEC tube formation and migration in a dose-dependent manner. Because 14,15-EET was found to be slightly more efficacious than 5,6-, 8,9-, and 11,12-EETs in stimulating HDMVEC tube formation and migration, we next focused on elucidation of the signaling mechanisms underlying its angiogenic activity. 14,15-EET stimulated Akt and S6K1 phosphorylation in Src- and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent manner in HDMVECs. Inhibition of Src and PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling by both pharmacological and dominant-negative mutant approaches suppressed 14,15-EET-induced HDMVEC tube formation and migration in vitro and Matrigel plug angiogenesis in vivo. In addition, 14,15-EET induced the expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in Src- and PI3K-Akt-dependent and mTOR-independent manner in HDMVECs. Neutralizing anti-FGF-2 antibodies completely suppressed 14,15-EET-induced HDMVEC tube formation and migration in vitro and Matrigel plug angiogenesis in vivo. Together, these results show for the first time that Src and PI3K-Akt signaling via targeting in parallel with FGF-2 expression and mTOR-S6K1 activation plays an indispensable role in 14,15-EET-induced angiogenesis.
|Differential effects of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and neurturin in RET/GFRalpha1-expressing cells. |
Rebecca Hui Kwan Lee, Wai Lap Wong, Chin Ho Chan, Siu Yuen Chan
Journal of neuroscience research 83 80-90 2006
The c-ret protooncogene, RET, encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase. RET is activated by members of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family of ligands, which include GDNF, neurturin, artemin, and persephin. The ligands bind RET through GDNF family receptor alpha, termed GFRalpha1-4. Despite the importance of RET signaling in the development of the enteric nervous system and the kidney, the differential signaling mechanisms between RET ligands are poorly established. It has been suggested that signal specificity is achieved through binding of the ligand to its preferred GFRalpha. To compare the signaling profiles of GDNF and neurturin, we have identified a cell line, NG108-15, which endogenously expresses RET and GFRalpha1 but not GFRalpha2-4. Immunoblot data showed that GDNF caused a transient activation, whereas neurturin caused a sustained activation, of both p44/p42 MAP kinases and PLCgamma. Under serum starvation, NG108-15 cells differentiate and form neurites. Neurturin but not GDNF stimulated neurite outgrowth, which could be blocked by the selective PLC inhibitor U73122. On the other hand, GDNF but not neurturin promoted cell survival, and this could be blocked by the p44/p42 MAP kinase inhibitor PD98059. Our findings not only show the differential signaling of GDNF and neurturin but also suggest that this can be achieved through binding to the same GFRalpha subtype, leading to distinct biological responses.
|Collagen type I induces disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts and promotes proliferation of pancreatic carcinoma cells. |
Koenig, A; Mueller, C; Hasel, C; Adler, G; Menke, A
Cancer research 66 4662-71 2006
Pancreatic cancer is characterized by its invasiveness, early metastasis, and the production of large amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM). We analyzed the influence of type I collagen and fibronectin on the regulation of cellular adhesion in pancreatic cancer cell lines to characterize the role of ECM proteins in the development of pancreatic cancer. We show that collagen type I is able to initiate a disruption of the E-cadherin adhesion complex in pancreatic carcinoma cells. This is due to the increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the complex protein beta-catenin, which correlates with collagen type I-dependent activation of the focal adhesion kinase and its association with the E-cadherin complex. The activation and recruitment of focal adhesion kinase to the E-cadherin complex depends on the interaction of type I collagen with beta1-containing integrins and an integrin-mediated activation of the cellular kinase Src. The disassembly of the E-cadherin adhesion complex correlates with the nuclear translocation of beta-catenin, which leads to an increasing expression of the beta-catenin-Lef/Tcf target genes, cyclin D1 and c-myc. In addition to that, cells grown on collagen type I show enhanced cell proliferation. We show that components of the ECM, produced by the tumor, contribute to invasiveness and metastasis by reducing E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and enhance proliferation in pancreatic tumor cells.
|Tyrosine phosphorylation modulates binding preference to cyclin-dependent kinases and subcellular localization of p27Kip1 in the acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line NB4. |
Kardinal, C; Dangers, M; Kardinal, A; Koch, A; Brandt, DT; Tamura, T; Welte, K
Blood 107 1133-40 2006
We have investigated the role of tyrosine phosphorylation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor p27Kip1 using the acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line NB4 together with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Short-term G-CSF stimulation resulted in a rapid tyrosine dephosphorylation of p27Kip1 accompanied by a change in its binding preferences to cdks. On G-CSF stimulation, p27Kip1 dissociated from cdk4 and associated with cdk2. Binding assays with recombinant p27Kip1 confirmed that tyrosine-phosphorylated p27Kip1 preferentially bound to cdk4, whereas unphosphorylated protein preferentially associated with cdk2. In addition, studies with p27Kip1 point mutations revealed a decisive role of Tyr88 and Tyr89 in binding to cdk4. Furthermore, phosphorylation of Tyr88 and Tyr89 was accompanied by strong nuclear translocation of p27Kip1. Taken together, this report provides the first evidence that tyrosine phosphorylation of p27Kip1 plays a crucial role in binding to cdks and its subcellular localization. Moreover, both effects are mediated by application of G-CSF.
|Opposing effects of beta-arrestin1 and beta-arrestin2 on activation and degradation of Src induced by protease-activated receptor 1. |
Kuo, Fang-Ting, et al.
Cell. Signal., 18: 1914-23 (2006) 2006
Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), a G protein-coupled receptor for thrombin, is irreversibly proteolytically activated. beta-Arrestin1 and beta-arrestin2 have been reported to have different effects on signal desensitization and transduction of PAR1. In this study, we investigated whether beta-arrestin1 and beta-arrestin2 regulate Src-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) induced by PAR1 in HEK 293 cells. Our results show that PAR1-mediated activation of Src and ERK1/2 in HEK 293 cells was increased with overexpression of beta-arrestin1 or depletion of beta-arrestin2. PAR1-mediated activation of Src and ERK1/2 in HEK 293 cells was decreased or eliminated with depletion of beta-arrestin1 or overexpression of beta-arrestin2. Furthermore, depletion of beta-arrestin2 blocked PAR1-induced degradation of Src. Thus, beta-arrestin1 and beta-arrestin2 have opposing roles in regulating the activation of Src induced by PAR1. beta-Arrestin2 also appears to promote PAR1-induced degradation of Src. This degradation of Src provides a possible mechanism for terminating PAR1 signaling.
|Characterization of heparin affin regulatory peptide signaling in human endothelial cells. |
Polykratis, A; Katsoris, P; Courty, J; Papadimitriou, E
The Journal of biological chemistry 280 22454-61 2005
Heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP) is an 18-kDa secreted growth factor that has a high affinity for heparin and a potent role on tumor growth and angiogenesis. We have previously reported that HARP is mitogenic for different types of endothelial cells and also affects cell migration and differentiation (12). In this study we examined the signaling pathways involved in the migration and tube formation on matrigel of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) induced by HARP. We report for the first time that receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta (RPTPbeta/zeta), which is a receptor for HARP in neuronal cell types, is also expressed in HUVEC. We also document that HARP signaling through RPTPbeta/zeta leads to activation of Src kinase, focal adhesion kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and Erk1/2. Sodium orthovanadate, chondroitin sulfate-C, PP1, wortmannin, LY294002, and U0126 inhibit HARP-mediated signaling and HUVEC migration and tube formation. In addition, RPTPbeta/zeta suppression using small interfering RNA technology interrupts intracellular signals and HUVEC migration and tube formation induced by HARP. These results establish the role of RPTPbeta/zeta as a receptor of HARP in HUVEC and elucidate the HARP signaling pathway in endothelial cells.
|Src kinase activates endothelial nitric-oxide synthase by phosphorylating Tyr-83. |
Fulton, D; Church, JE; Ruan, L; Li, C; Sood, SG; Kemp, BE; Jennings, IG; Venema, RC
The Journal of biological chemistry 280 35943-52 2005
The endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) is regulated in part by serine/threonine phosphorylation, but eNOS tyrosine phosphorylation is less well understood. In the present study we have examined the tyrosine phosphorylation of eNOS in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) exposed to oxidant stress. Hydrogen peroxide and pervanadate (PV) treatment stimulates eNOS tyrosine phosphorylation in BAECs. Phosphorylation is blocked by the Src kinase family inhibitor, 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2). Moreover, eNOS and c-Src can be coimmunoprecipitated from BAEC lysates by antibodies directed against either protein. Domain mapping and site-directed mutagenesis studies in COS-7 cells transfected with either eNOS alone and then treated with PV or cotransfected with eNOS and constitutively active v-Src identified Tyr-83 (bovine sequence) as the major eNOS tyrosine phosphorylation site. Tyr-83 phosphorylation is associated with a 3-fold increase in basal NO release from cotransfected cells. Furthermore, the Y83F eNOS mutation attenuated thapsigargin-stimulated NO production. Taken together, these data indicate that Src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of eNOS at Tyr-83 modulates eNOS activity in endothelial cells.
|Regulation of proteins affecting NMDA receptor-induced excitotoxicity in a Huntington's mouse model. |
Jarabek, BR; Yasuda, RP; Wolfe, BB
Brain : a journal of neurology 127 505-16 2004
Symptoms of Huntington's disease may be caused by a toxic insult triggered by the mutant human huntingtin (Htt) protein itself, by a maladaptive protective mechanism initiated in response to an insult, or by a combination of these. We observed a protection from N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-induced excitotoxicity in striata of symptomatic N171-82Q mice, a new transgenic model of Huntington's disease. The goal of this study was to determine if NMDA receptor-mediated signalling pathways are altered in these mice. Multiple proteins of NMDA receptor and dopamine D1 receptor pathways are being regulated in ways predictive of the protection we observe. Although examining NMDA receptor subunit proteins showed no change in NR1, NR2A, or NR2B in the striata of the symptomatic mice, we observed a decrease in phosphorylation of NR1 at Ser897, previously reported to decrease NMDA receptor current. The dopamine D1 receptor, responsible for protein kinase A activation and subsequent phosphorylation of Ser897 of NR1, also showed an age-related decrease. Other proteins regulated in this disease were associated with PSD-95-like scaffolding proteins of the NMDA receptor. Specifically, we observed a decrease in membrane-associated neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), a decrease in PSD-95-like proteins, which link nNOS to the NMDA receptor complex, and a decrease in citron, a protein associated with dendritic spine formation. From these data, we conclude that the N171-82Q mice seem to be regulating, in a protective direction, many of the known effector pathways of NMDA receptor-induced excitotoxicity. These regulations, although seemingly effective in decreasing neuronal death, may in fact be causing some of the symptoms associated with the disease.
|Src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-1 induces its association with membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase. |
Labrecque, L; Nyalendo, C; Langlois, S; Durocher, Y; Roghi, C; Murphy, G; Gingras, D; Béliveau, R
The Journal of biological chemistry 279 52132-40 2004
We have recently shown that stimulation of endothelial cells with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces dissociation of caveolin-1 from the VEGFR-2 receptor, followed by Src family kinase-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of the protein (Labrecque, L., Royal, I., Surprenant, D. S., Patterson, C., Gingras, D., and Beliveau, R. (2003) Mol. Biol. Cell 14, 334-347). In this study, we provide evidence that the VEGF-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-1 induces interaction of the protein with the membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). This interaction requires the phosphorylation of caveolin-1 on tyrosine 14 by members of the Src family of protein kinases, such as Src and Fyn, because it is completely abolished by expression of a catalytically inactive Src mutant or by site-directed mutagenesis of tyrosine 14 of caveolin-1. Most interestingly, the association of MT1-MMP with phosphorylated caveolin-1 induced the recruitment of Src and a concomitant inhibition of the kinase activity of the enzyme, suggesting that this complex may be involved in the negative regulation of Src activity. The association of MT1-MMP with phosphorylated caveolin-1 occurs in caveolae membranes and involves the cytoplasmic domain of MT1-MMP because it was markedly reduced by mutation of Cys574 and Val582 residues of the cytoplasmic tail of the enzyme. Most interestingly, the reduction of the interaction between MT1-MMP and caveolin-1 by using these mutants also decreases MT1-MMP-dependent cell locomotion. Overall these results indicate that MT1-MMP associates with tyrosine-phosphorylated caveolin-1 and that this complex may play an important role in MT1-MMP regulation and function.
|Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 activity by caveolin-1 and plasma membrane cholesterol. |
Labrecque, L; Royal, I; Surprenant, DS; Patterson, C; Gingras, D; Béliveau, R
Molecular biology of the cell 14 334-47 2003
The stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) by tumor-derived VEGF represents a key event in the initiation of angiogenesis. In this work, we report that VEGFR-2 is localized in endothelial caveolae, associated with caveolin-1, and that this complex is rapidly dissociated upon stimulation with VEGF. The kinetics of caveolin-1 dissociation correlated with those of VEGF-dependent VEGFR-2 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that caveolin-1 acts as a negative regulator of VEGF R-2 activity. Interestingly, we observed that in an overexpression system in which VEGFR-2 is constitutively active, caveolin-1 overexpression inhibits VEGFR-2 activity but allows VEGFR-2 to undergo VEGF-dependent activation, suggesting that caveolin-1 can confer ligand dependency to a receptor system. Removal of caveolin and VEGFR-2 from caveolae by cholesterol depletion resulted in an increase in both basal and VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR-2, but led to the inhibition of VEGF-induced ERK activation and endothelial cell migration, suggesting that localization of VEGFR-2 to these domains is crucial for VEGF-mediated signaling. Dissociation of the VEGFR-2/caveolin-1 complex by VEGF or cyclodextrin led to a PP2-sensitive phosphorylation of caveolin-1 on tyrosine 14, suggesting the participation of Src family kinases in this process. Overall, these results suggest that caveolin-1 plays multiple roles in the VEGF-induced signaling cascade.Full Text Article
|c-Src-dependent activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by arsenic. Role in carcinogenesis. |
Simeonova, Petia P, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 277: 2945-50 (2002) 2002
|The role of p42/44 MAPK and protein kinase B in connective tissue growth factor induced extracellular matrix protein production, cell migration, and actin cytoskeletal rearrangement in human mesangial cells. |
Crean, JK; Finlay, D; Murphy, M; Moss, C; Godson, C; Martin, F; Brady, HR
The Journal of biological chemistry 277 44187-94 2002
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a member of an emerging family of immediate-early gene products that coordinate complex biological processes during differentiation and tissue repair. Here we describe the role of CTGF in integrin-mediated adhesive signaling and the production of extracellular matrix components in human mesangial cells. The addition of CTGF to primary mesangial cells induced fibronectin production, cell migration, and cytoskeletal rearrangement. These functional responses were associated with recruitment of Src and phosphorylation of p42/44 MAPK and protein kinase B. The inhibition of CTGF-induced p42/44 MAPK or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B pathway activities abrogated the induction of fibronectin expression. In addition, anti-beta(3) integrin antibodies attenuated the activation of both the p42/44 MAPK and protein kinase B and the increase in fibronectin levels. CTGF also induced mesangial cell migration via a beta(3) integrin-dependent mechanism that was similarly sensitive to the inhibition of the p42/44 MAPK and PI3K pathways, and it promoted the adhesion of the mesangial cells to type I collagen via up-regulation of alpha(1) integrin. Transient actin cytoskeletal disassembly was observed following treatment with the ligand over the course of a 24-h period. CTGF induced the loss of focal adhesions from the mesangial cell as evidenced by the loss of punctate vinculin. However, these processes are p42/44 MAPK and PI3K pathway-independent. Our data support the hypothesis that CTGF mediates a number of its biological effects by the induction of signaling processes via beta(3) integrin. However, others such as actin cytoskeleton disassembly are modulated in a beta(3) integrin/MAPK/PI3K-independent manner, indicating that CTGF is a complex pleiotropic factor with the potential to amplify primary pathophysiological responses.
|Plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase associates with the cytoskeleton in activated platelets through a PDZ-binding domain. |
Zabe, M and Dean, W L
J. Biol. Chem., 276: 14704-9 (2001) 2001
The plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) plays an essential role in maintaining low cytosolic Ca(2+) in resting platelets. During platelet activation PMCA is phosphorylated transiently on tyrosine residues resulting in inhibition of the pump that enhances elevation of Ca(2+). Tyrosine phosphorylation of many proteins during platelet activation results in their association with the cytoskeleton. Consequently, in the present study we asked if PMCA interacts with the platelet cytoskeleton. We observed that very little PMCA is associated with the cytoskeleton in resting platelets but that approximately 80% of total PMCA (PMCA1b + PMCA4b) is redistributed to the cytoskeleton upon activation with thrombin. Tyrosine phosphorylation of PMCA during activation was not associated with the redistribution because tyrosine-phosphorylated PMCA was not translocated specifically to the cytoskeleton. Because PMCA b-splice isoforms have C-terminal PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 homology domain (PDZ)-binding domains, a C-terminal peptide was used to disrupt potential PDZ domain interactions. Activation of saponin-permeabilized platelets in the presence of the peptide led to a significant decrease of PMCA in the cytoskeleton. PMCA associated with the cytoskeleton retained Ca(2+)-ATPase activity. These results suggest that during activation active PMCA is recruited to the cytoskeleton by interaction with PDZ domains and that this association provides a microenvironment with a reduced Ca(2+) concentration.
|Parallel regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3) and MKK6 in Gq-signaling cascade. |
Yamauchi, J; Tsujimoto, G; Kaziro, Y; Itoh, H
The Journal of biological chemistry 276 23362-72 2001
Heterotrimeric G protein G(q) stimulates the activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in mammalian cells. To investigate the signaling mechanism whereby alpha and betagamma subunits of G(q) activate p38 MAPK, we introduced kinase-deficient mutants of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3), MKK4, and MKK6 into human embryonal kidney 293 cells. The activation of p38 MAPK by Galpha(q) and Gbetagamma was blocked by kinase-deficient MKK3 and MKK6 but not by kinase-deficient MKK4. In addition, Galpha(q) and Gbetagamma stimulated MKK3 and MKK6 activities. The MKK3 and MKK6 activations by Galpha(q), but not by Gbetagamma, were dependent on phospholipase C and c-Src. Galpha(q) stimulated MKK3 in a Rac- and Cdc42-dependent manner and MKK6 in a Rho-dependent manner. On the other hand, Gbetagamma activated MKK3 in a Rac- and Cdc42-dependent manner and MKK6 in a Rho-, Rac-, and Cdc42-dependent manner. Gbetagamma-induced MKK3 and MKK6 activations were dependent on a tyrosine kinase other than c-Src. These results suggest that Galpha(q) and Gbetagamma stimulate the activity of p38 MAPK by regulating MKK3 and MKK6 through parallel signaling pathways.
|Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of the dual adaptor for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides by the Src family of tyrosine kinase |
Dowler, S., et al
Biochem J, 349:605-10 (2000) 2000
|G alpha(i) and G alpha(o) are target proteins of reactive oxygen species |
Nishida, M., et al
Nature, 408:492-5 (2000) 2000
|Integrin activation and focal complex formation in cardiac hypertrophy. |
Laser, M; Willey, CD; Jiang, W; Cooper, G; Menick, DR; Zile, MR; Kuppuswamy, D
The Journal of biological chemistry 275 35624-30 2000
Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by both remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and hypertrophic growth of the cardiocytes. Here we show increased expression and cytoskeletal association of the ECM proteins fibronectin and vitronectin in pressure-overloaded feline myocardium. These changes are accompanied by cytoskeletal binding and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at Tyr-397 and Tyr-925, c-Src at Tyr-416, recruitment of the adapter proteins p130(Cas), Shc, and Nck, and activation of the extracellular-regulated kinases ERK1/2. A synthetic peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif of fibronectin and vitronectin was used to stimulate adult feline cardiomyocytes cultured on laminin or within a type-I collagen matrix. Whereas cardiocytes under both conditions showed RGD-stimulated ERK1/2 activation, only collagen-embedded cells exhibited cytoskeletal assembly of FAK, c-Src, Nck, and Shc. In RGD-stimulated collagen-embedded cells, FAK was phosphorylated only at Tyr-397 and c-Src association occurred without Tyr-416 phosphorylation and p130(Cas) association. Therefore, c-Src activation is not required for its cytoskeletal binding but may be important for additional phosphorylation of FAK. Overall, our study suggests that multiple signaling pathways originate in pressure-overloaded heart following integrin engagement with ECM proteins, including focal complex formation and ERK1/2 activation, and many of these pathways can be activated in cardiomyocytes via RGD-stimulated integrin activation.
|Volume expansion stimulates p72(syk) and p56(lyn) in skate erythrocytes. |
Musch, M W, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 274: 7923-8 (1999) 1999
Hypotonic volume expansion of skate erythrocytes rapidly stimulates the tyrosine phosphorylation of band 3, the membrane protein thought to mediate the osmotically sensitive taurine efflux. Skate erythrocytes possess numerous tyrosine kinases including p59fyn, p56lyn, pp60(src), and p72(syk), demonstrated by immune complex assays measuring autocatalytic kinase activity. Inclusion of the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 in this assay showed that only Syk and Lyn can directly phosphorylate the cytoplasmic domain of band 3. Upon cell volume expansion, Syk activity was increased as assessed by three different assays (immune complex assay measuring autophosphorylation, assay of the level of phosphotyrosine of the immunoprecipitated kinase, and assay of level of 32P in the kinase immunoprecipitated from cells prelabeled with 32PO4 and then volume-expanded). The tyrosine kinase Lyn was also stimulated by volume expansion, most notably when analyzed by the latter two methods. Volume expansion stimulated a large increase in the ability of Syk to phosphorylate band 3 at times that coincide with the stimulation of taurine flux. The stilbene piceatannol inhibited Syk preferentially over Lyn and other tyrosine kinases and inhibited volume-stimulated taurine efflux in a concentration-dependent manner similar to that for the inhibition of Syk. Two major phosphorylation peaks were detected in tryptic digests of cdb3 separated by reverse phase HPLC. Edman degradation demonstrated a phosphotyrosine in a YXXL motif. In conclusion, p72(syk) appears to be a strong candidate as a pivotal signal-transducing step in the volume-activated taurine efflux in skate red cells. The level of band-3 phosphorylation may be regulated, in addition, by a protein-tyrosine phosphatase of the 1B variety.
|Suppression of ultraviolet irradiation-induced apoptosis by overexpression of focal adhesion kinase in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. |
P C Chan, J F Lai, C H Cheng, M J Tang, C C Chiu, H C Chen
The Journal of biological chemistry 274 26901-6 1999
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been implicated to play a role in suppression of apoptosis. In this study, we have demonstrated that UV irradiation induced cleavage of FAK and two of its interacting proteins Src and p130(Cas) in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, concomitant with an increase in cell death. The cleavage of these proteins upon UV irradiation was completely inhibited by ZVAD-FMK, a broad range inhibitor of caspases, and apparently delayed by Bcl2 overexpression. To examine if FAK plays a role in suppressing UV-induced apoptosis, stable Madin-Darby canine kidney cell lines overexpressing FAK were established. Our results showed that a marked (30-40%) increase in cell survival upon UV irradiation was achieved by this strategy. In our efforts to determine the mechanism by which FAK transduces survival signals to the downstream, we found that a FAK mutant deficient in binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase failed to promote cell survival. Moreover, the expression of the Src homology 3 domain of p130(Cas), which competed with endogenous p130(Cas) for FAK binding, abrogated the FAK-promoted cell survival. Together, these results suggest that the integrity of FAK and its binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and p130(Cas) are required for FAK to exert its antiapoptotic function.
|A requirement for caveolin-1 and associated kinase Fyn in integrin signaling and anchorage-dependent cell growth |
Wary, K. K., et al
Cell, 94:625-34 (1998) 1998
|Protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha regulates Src family kinases and alters cell-substratum adhesion |
Harder, K. W., et al
J Biol Chem, 273:31890-900 (1998) 1998
|Immunoblotting (Western), Immunoprecipitation||9822658|
|Fluoroaluminate induces activation and association of Src and Pyk2 tyrosine kinases in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. |
M Jeschke, G J Standke, M Scaronuscarona
The Journal of biological chemistry 273 11354-61 1998
Fluoride is known to increase bone mass in vivo, probably through stimulation of osteoblast proliferation; however, the mechanisms of fluoroaluminate action in osteoblasts have not yet been elucidated. We have previously shown that in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, fluoroaluminate stimulates G protein-mediated protein tyrosine phosphorylation (Scaronuscarona, M., Standke, G. J. R., Jeschke, M., and Rohner, D. (1997) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 235, 680-684). Although the Ser/Thr kinases Erk1, Erk2, and p70(S6K) were activated in response to fluoroaluminate, the identity of fluoroaluminate-activated tyrosine kinase(s) remained elusive. In this study, we show that in MC3T3-E1 cells, fluoroaluminate induces a 110-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein that we identify as Pyk2, a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase related to Fak (focal adhesion kinase). The tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The autophosphorylation activity of Pyk2 increased 3-fold and reached its maximum within 10 min of fluoroaluminate treatment. Fluoroaluminate also induced activation of Src and the association of Pyk2 with Src. The phosphorylation of Src-associated Pyk2 increased >20-fold in in vitro kinase assays, suggesting that Pyk2 is phosphorylated by Src. Although MC3T3-E1 cells express much more Fak than Pyk2, Src preferentially associated with Pyk2. In vitro, Pyk2 bound to the Src SH2 domain, suggesting that this interaction mediates the Src-Pyk2 association in cells. These data indicate that osteoblastic cells express Pyk2, which is tyrosine-phosphorylated and activated in response to G protein activation by fluoroaluminate, and that the mechanism of Pyk2 activation most likely involves Src. Thus, Src and Pyk2 are tyrosine kinases involved in G protein-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation in osteoblastic cells and may be important for the osteogenic action of fluoroaluminate.
|Association of tyrosine-phosphorylated c-Src with the cytoskeleton of hypertrophying myocardium |
Kuppuswamy, D., et al
J Biol Chem, 272:4500-8 (1997) 1997
|Immunoblotting (Western), Immunoprecipitation||9020175|
|1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates phospholipase C-gamma in rat colonocytes: role of c-Src in PLC-gamma activation. |
Khare, S; Bolt, MJ; Wali, RK; Skarosi, SF; Roy, HK; Niedziela, S; Scaglione-Sewell, B; Aquino, B; Abraham, C; Sitrin, MD; Brasitus, TA; Bissonnette, M
The Journal of clinical investigation 99 1831-41 1997
Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D3) rapidly stimulated polyphosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis, raised intracellular Ca2+, and activated two Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, PKC-alpha and -betaII in the rat large intestine. We also showed that the direct addition of 1,25(OH)2D3 to isolated colonic membranes failed to stimulate PI hydrolysis, but required secosteroid treatment of intact colonocytes, suggesting the involvement of a soluble factor. Furthermore, this PI hydrolysis was restricted to the basal lateral plasma membrane of these cells. In the present studies, therefore, we examined whether polyphosphoinositide-phospholipase C-gamma (PI-PLC-gamma), a predominantly cytosolic isoform of PI-PLC, was involved in the hydrolysis of colonic membrane PI by 1,25(OH)2D3. This isoform has been shown to be activated and membrane-associated by tyrosine phosphorylation. We found that 1,25(OH)2D3 caused a significant increase in the biochemical activity, particulate association, and the tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma, specifically in the basal lateral membranes. This secosteroid also induced a twofold increase in the activity of Src, a proximate activator of PLC-gamma in other cells, with peaks at 1 and 9 min in association with Src tyrosine dephosphorylation. 1,25(OH)2D3 also increased the physical association of activated c-Src with PLC-gamma. In addition, Src isolated from colonocytes treated with 1,25(OH)2D3, demonstrated an increased ability to phosphorylate exogenous PLC-gamma in vitro. Inhibition of 1,25(OH)2D3-induced Src activation by PP1, a specific Src family protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocked the ability of this secosteroid to stimulate the translocation and tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma in the basolateral membrane (BLM). Src activation was lost in D deficiency, and was reversibly restored with the in vivo repletion of 1,25(OH)2D3. These studies demonstrate for the first time that 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulates PLC-gamma as well as c-Src in rat colonocytes, and indicate that PLC-gamma is a direct substrate of secosteroid-activated c-Src in these cells.
|Mechanical strain induces pp60src activation and translocation to cytoskeleton in fetal rat lung cells. |
Liu, M, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 271: 7066-71 (1996) 1996
We have previously shown that mechanical strain-induced fetal rat lung cell proliferation is transduced via the phospholipase C-gamma-protein kinase C pathway. In the present study, we found that protein-tyrosine kinase activity of fetal lung cells increased after a short period of strain, which was accompanied by tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins of approximately 110-130 kDa. Several components of this complex were identified as pp60srcsubstrates. Strain increased pp60src activity in the cytoskeletal fraction, which coincided with a shift in subcellular distribution of pp60src from the Triton-soluble to the cytoskeletal fraction. Strain-induced pp60src translocation did not appear to be mediated via the focal adhesion kinase-paxillin pathway. In contrast, strain increased the association between pp60src and the actin filament-associated protein of 110 kDa. Preincubation of cells with herbimycin A, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, abolished strain-induced phospholipase C-gamma1 tyrosine phosphorylation and its coimmunoprecipitation with pp60src. It also inhibited strain-induced DNA synthesis. These results suggest that activation of pp60src is an upstream event of the phospholipase C-gamma-protein kinase C pathway that may represent an important mechanism by which mechanical perturbations are converted to biological reactions in fetal lung cells.
|Possible role for serine/threonine phosphorylation in the regulation of the heteroprotein complex between the hsp90 stress protein and the pp60v-src tyrosine kinase |
Mimnaugh, E. G., et al
J Biol Chem, 270:28654-9 (1995) 1995
|pp60c-src expression is induced by activation of normal human T lymphocytes. |
Branch, D R and Mills, G B
J. Immunol., 154: 3678-85 (1995) 1995
We have re-examined whether pp60c-src, the normal cellular homologue of the transforming protein of Rous sarcoma virus, is present in human T cells. By in vitro immune-complex kinase assay or Western blotting with the anti-pp60c-src mAbs 327 or GD11, pp60c-src was found to be present in lysates of T cell lines, including the Jurkat T cell line. The 327 and GD11 mAbs have been reported to be specific for pp60c-src and not to cross-react with other src family members or other kinases. Furthermore, the size of the pp60c-src bands present on Western blotting and in vitro kinase assay were clearly different from those of p56lck or p59fyn. In addition, pp60c-src is detected in the HTLV-I-derived T cell lines S1T and C8, which lack expression of p56lck and p59fyn. RNase protection assays confirmed that pp60c-src mRNA is present in Jurkat T cells. We also found pp60c-src protein to be constitutively present in freshly isolated thymocytes. In contrast, pp60c-src was absent, or present at extremely low levels, in normal, resting peripheral blood T lymphocytes, which is in agreement with previous findings. However, after stimulation of resting T cells with the mitogenic lectin PHA or with Ab to the TCR complex, pp60c-src expression is induced in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, with peak expression detectable 12 to 24 h after T cell activation. The levels of pp60c-src are low in all T cells except Jurkat, where levels of pp60c-src are comparable to levels found in a glioblastoma cell line (T98G). Nevertheless, significant levels of pp60c-src kinase activity are readily detectable in thymocytes and activated normal T cells as well as in T cell lines. The finding that pp60c-src is inducible following activation through the TCR suggests that pp60c-src may play a specific role in the normal T cell activation pathway.
|Association of the amino-terminal half of c-Src with focal adhesions alters their properties and is regulated by phosphorylation of tyrosine 527 |
Kaplan, K. B., et al
Embo J, 13:4745-56 (1994) 1994
|Immunoprecipitation, Immunoblotting (Western)||7525268|
|Monoclonal antibodies to Rous sarcoma virus pp60src react with enzymatically active cellular pp60src of avian and mammalian origin |
Parsons, S. J., et al
J Virol, 51:272-82 (1984) 1984
|Fluorescent Gelatin Degradation Assays for Investigating Invadopodia Formation|
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