Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R, Ch||IHC, WB, ChIP, ChIP-seq, ICC, IF||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal antibody in buffer containing PBS with 0.05% sodium azide|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 6 months at 2-8°C in undiluted aliquots from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Anti-Sox9 Antibody SDS
|Anti-Sox9 - 2383973||2383973|
|Anti-Sox9 - 2424751||2424751|
|Anti-Sox9 - 2462860||2462860|
|Anti-Sox9 - 1969702||1969702|
|Anti-Sox9 - 1997395||1997395|
|Anti-Sox9 - 2031330||2031330|
|Anti-Sox9 - 2065999||2065999|
|Anti-Sox9 - 2167153||2167153|
|Anti-Sox9 - 2262679||2262679|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Characterization of the neural stem cell gene regulatory network identifies OLIG2 as a multifunctional regulator of self-renewal.|
Mateo, JL; van den Berg, DL; Haeussler, M; Drechsel, D; Gaber, ZB; Castro, DS; Robson, P; Crawford, GE; Flicek, P; Ettwiller, L; Wittbrodt, J; Guillemot, F; Martynoga, B
Genome research 25 41-56 2015
The gene regulatory network (GRN) that supports neural stem cell (NS cell) self-renewal has so far been poorly characterized. Knowledge of the central transcription factors (TFs), the noncoding gene regulatory regions that they bind to, and the genes whose expression they modulate will be crucial in unlocking the full therapeutic potential of these cells. Here, we use DNase-seq in combination with analysis of histone modifications to identify multiple classes of epigenetically and functionally distinct cis-regulatory elements (CREs). Through motif analysis and ChIP-seq, we identify several of the crucial TF regulators of NS cells. At the core of the network are TFs of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), nuclear factor I (NFI), SOX, and FOX families, with CREs often densely bound by several of these different TFs. We use machine learning to highlight several crucial regulatory features of the network that underpin NS cell self-renewal and multipotency. We validate our predictions by functional analysis of the bHLH TF OLIG2. This TF makes an important contribution to NS cell self-renewal by concurrently activating pro-proliferation genes and preventing the untimely activation of genes promoting neuronal differentiation and stem cell quiescence.
|Hair follicle bulge cultures yield class III β-tubulin-positive melanoglial cells.|
Locher, H; Saadah, N; de Groot, S; de Groot, JC; Frijns, JH; Huisman, MA
Histochemistry and cell biology 144 87-91 2015
Class III β-tubulin (TUBB3)-positive cells from the hair follicle bulge are thought to be neuronal cells derived from a local neural crest stem cell. However, TUBB3 has recently been shown to be expressed in the melanocytic lineage. To evaluate the neural-crest-associated immunophenotype of TUBB3-positive cells from hair follicle bulge explants, we dissected hair follicle bulges out from mouse whisker pads and cultured for 1 month and assessed outgrowing cells by means of immunocytochemistry using the biomarkers TUBB3, nestin, NGFR, SOX9, TYRP1 and laminin. Large amounts of TUBB3-positive cells could be cultured that co-expressed nestin, NGFR, SOX9 and, to a lesser degree, TYRP1, matching a melanoglial phenotype. In addition, a small population of TUBB3-negative but laminin-positive cells was found, which presumably are of glial origin. It can be concluded that cells of melanoglial origin can easily be obtained from hair follicle bulge explants. These cells may be of use in experimental animal or human disease and wound healing models. Notably, the TUBB3-positive cells are of melanoglial rather than neuronal origin.
|The acinar differentiation determinant PTF1A inhibits initiation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.|
Krah, NM; De La O, JP; Swift, GH; Hoang, CQ; Willet, SG; Chen Pan, F; Cash, GM; Bronner, MP; Wright, CV; MacDonald, RJ; Murtaugh, LC
eLife 4 2015
Understanding the initiation and progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) may provide therapeutic strategies for this deadly disease. Recently, we and others made the surprising finding that PDAC and its preinvasive precursors, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), arise via reprogramming of mature acinar cells. We therefore hypothesized that the master regulator of acinar differentiation, PTF1A, could play a central role in suppressing PDAC initiation. In this study, we demonstrate that PTF1A expression is lost in both mouse and human PanINs, and that this downregulation is functionally imperative in mice for acinar reprogramming by oncogenic KRAS. Loss of Ptf1a alone is sufficient to induce acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, potentiate inflammation, and induce a KRAS-permissive, PDAC-like gene expression profile. As a result, Ptf1a-deficient acinar cells are dramatically sensitized to KRAS transformation, and reduced Ptf1a greatly accelerates development of invasive PDAC. Together, these data indicate that cell differentiation regulators constitute a new tumor suppressive mechanism in the pancreas.
|LINE-1 Mediated Insertion into Poc1a (Protein of Centriole 1 A) Causes Growth Insufficiency and Male Infertility in Mice.|
Geister, KA; Brinkmeier, ML; Cheung, LY; Wendt, J; Oatley, MJ; Burgess, DL; Kozloff, KM; Cavalcoli, JD; Oatley, JM; Camper, SA
PLoS genetics 11 e1005569 2015
Skeletal dysplasias are a common, genetically heterogeneous cause of short stature that can result from disruptions in many cellular processes. We report the identification of the lesion responsible for skeletal dysplasia and male infertility in the spontaneous, recessive mouse mutant chagun. We determined that Poc1a, encoding protein of the centriole 1a, is disrupted by the insertion of a processed Cenpw cDNA, which is flanked by target site duplications, suggestive of a LINE-1 retrotransposon-mediated event. Mutant fibroblasts have impaired cilia formation and multipolar spindles. Male infertility is caused by defective spermatogenesis early in meiosis and progressive germ cell loss. Spermatogonial stem cell transplantation studies revealed that Poc1a is essential for normal function of both Sertoli cells and germ cells. The proliferative zone of the growth plate is small and disorganized because chondrocytes fail to re-align after cell division and undergo increased apoptosis. Poc1a and several other genes associated with centrosome function can affect the skeleton and lead to skeletal dysplasias and primordial dwarfisms. This mouse mutant reveals how centrosome dysfunction contributes to defects in skeletal growth and male infertility.
|Spontaneous development of hepatocellular carcinoma with cancer stem cell properties in PR-SET7-deficient livers.|
Nikolaou, KC; Moulos, P; Chalepakis, G; Hatzis, P; Oda, H; Reinberg, D; Talianidis, I
The EMBO journal 34 430-47 2015
PR-SET7-mediated histone 4 lysine 20 methylation has been implicated in mitotic condensation, DNA damage response and replication licensing. Here, we show that PR-SET7 function in the liver is pivotal for maintaining genome integrity. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of PR-SET7 in mouse embryos resulted in G2 phase arrest followed by massive cell death and defect in liver organogenesis. Inactivation at postnatal stages caused cell duplication-dependent hepatocyte necrosis, accompanied by inflammation, fibrosis and compensatory growth induction of neighboring hepatocytes and resident ductal progenitor cells. Prolonged necrotic regenerative cycles coupled with oncogenic STAT3 activation led to the spontaneous development of hepatic tumors composed of cells with cancer stem cell characteristics. These include a capacity to self-renew in culture or in xenografts and the ability to differentiate to phenotypically distinct hepatic cells. Hepatocellular carcinoma in PR-SET7-deficient mice displays a cancer stem cell gene signature specified by the co-expression of ductal progenitor markers and oncofetal genes.
|Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Biomarkers Linked to Lung Metastatic Potential and Cell Stemness.|
Ruiz de Garibay, G; Herranz, C; Llorente, A; Boni, J; Serra-Musach, J; Mateo, F; Aguilar, H; Gómez-Baldó, L; Petit, A; Vidal, A; Climent, F; Hernández-Losa, J; Cordero, Á; González-Suárez, E; Sánchez-Mut, JV; Esteller, M; Llatjós, R; Varela, M; López, JI; García, N; Extremera, AI; Gumà, A; Ortega, R; Plà, MJ; Fernández, A; Pernas, S; Falo, C; Morilla, I; Campos, M; Gil, M; Román, A; Molina-Molina, M; Ussetti, P; Laporta, R; Valenzuela, C; Ancochea, J; Xaubet, A; Casanova, Á; Pujana, MA
PloS one 10 e0132546 2015
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung-metastasizing neoplasm caused by the proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells that commonly carry loss-of-function mutations in either the tuberous sclerosis complex 1 or 2 (TSC1 or TSC2) genes. While allosteric inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has shown substantial clinical benefit, complementary therapies are required to improve response and/or to treat specific patients. However, there is a lack of LAM biomarkers that could potentially be used to monitor the disease and to develop other targeted therapies. We hypothesized that the mediators of cancer metastasis to lung, particularly in breast cancer, also play a relevant role in LAM. Analyses across independent breast cancer datasets revealed associations between low TSC1/2 expression, altered mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway signaling, and metastasis to lung. Subsequently, immunohistochemical analyses of 23 LAM lesions revealed positivity in all cases for the lung metastasis mediators fascin 1 (FSCN1) and inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID1). Moreover, assessment of breast cancer stem or luminal progenitor cell biomarkers showed positivity in most LAM tissue for the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), integrin-ß3 (ITGB3/CD61), and/or the sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) proteins. The immunohistochemical analyses also provided evidence of heterogeneity between and within LAM cases. The analysis of Tsc2-deficient cells revealed relative over-expression of FSCN1 and ID1; however, Tsc2-deficient cells did not show higher sensitivity to ID1-based cancer inhibitors. Collectively, the results of this study reveal novel LAM biomarkers linked to breast cancer metastasis to lung and to cell stemness, which in turn might guide the assessment of additional or complementary therapeutic opportunities for LAM.
|Neurite Mistargeting and Inverse Order of Intraretinal Vascular Plexus Formation Precede Subretinal Vascularization in Vldlr Mutant Mice.|
Johnson, V; Xiang, M; Chen, Z; Junge, HJ
PloS one 10 e0132013 2015
In the retina blood vessels are required to support a high metabolic rate, however, uncontrolled vascular growth can lead to impaired vision and blindness. Subretinal vascularization (SRV), one type of pathological vessel growth, occurs in retinal angiomatous proliferation and proliferative macular telangiectasia. In these diseases SRV originates from blood vessels within the retina. We use mice with a targeted disruption in the Vldl-receptor (Vldlr) gene as a model to study SRV with retinal origin. We find that Vldlr mRNA is strongly expressed in the neuroretina, and we observe both vascular and neuronal phenotypes in Vldlr-/- mice. Unexpectedly, horizontal cell (HC) neurites are mistargeted prior to SRV in this model, and the majority of vascular lesions are associated with mistargeted neurites. In Foxn4-/- mice, which lack HCs and display reduced amacrine cell (AC) numbers, we find severe defects in intraretinal capillary development. However, SRV is not suppressed in Foxn4-/-;Vldlr-/- mice, which reveals that mistargeted HC neurites are not required for vascular lesion formation. In the absence of VLDLR, the intraretinal capillary plexuses form in an inverse order compared to normal development, and subsequent to this early defect, vascular proliferation is increased. We conclude that SRV in the Vldlr-/- model is associated with mistargeted neurites and that SRV is preceded by altered retinal vascular development.
|Key pathways regulated by HoxA9,10,11/HoxD9,10,11 during limb development.|
Raines, AM; Magella, B; Adam, M; Potter, SS
BMC developmental biology 15 28 2015
The 39 mammalian Hox genes show problematic patterns of functional overlap. In order to more fully define the developmental roles of Hox genes it is necessary to remove multiple combinations of paralogous and flanking genes. In addition, the downstream molecular pathways regulated by Hox genes during limb development remain incompletely delineated.In this report we examine limb development in mice with frameshift mutations in six Hox genes, Hoxa9,10,11 and Hoxd9,10,11. The mice were made with a novel recombineering method that allows the simultaneous targeting of frameshift mutations into multiple flanking genes. The Hoxa9,10,11 (-/-) /Hoxd9,10,11 (-/-) mutant mice show a reduced ulna and radius that is more severe than seen in Hoxa11 (-/-)/Hoxd11 (-/-) mice, indicating a minor role for the flanking Hox9,10 genes in zeugopod development, as well as their primary function in stylopod development. The mutant mice also show severe reduction of Shh expression in the zone of polarizing activity, and decreased Fgf8 expression in the apical ectodermal ridge, thereby better defining the roles of these specific Hox genes in the regulation of critical signaling centers during limb development. Importantly, we also used laser capture microdissection coupled with RNA-Seq to characterize the gene expression programs in wild type and mutant limbs. Resting, proliferative and hypertrophic compartments of E15.5 forelimb zeugopods were examined. The results provide an RNA-Seq characterization of the progression of gene expression patterns during normal endochondral bone formation. In addition of the Hox mutants showed strongly altered expression of Pknox2, Zfp467, Gdf5, Bmpr1b, Dkk3, Igf1, Hand2, Shox2, Runx3, Bmp7 and Lef1, all of which have been previously shown to play important roles in bone formation.The recombineering based frameshift mutation of the six flanking and paralogous Hoxa9,10,11 and Hoxd9,10,11 genes provides a resource for the analysis of their overlapping functions. Analysis of the Hoxa9,10,11 (-/-) /Hoxd9,10,11 (-/-) mutant limbs confirms and extends the results of previous studies using mice with Hox mutations in single paralogous groups or with entire Hox cluster deletions. The RNA-Seq analysis of specific compartments of the normal and mutant limbs defines the multiple key perturbed pathways downstream of these Hox genes.
|Non-viral generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells by a six-factor-in-one-vector approach.|
Debowski, K; Warthemann, R; Lentes, J; Salinas-Riester, G; Dressel, R; Langenstroth, D; Gromoll, J; Sasaki, E; Behr, R
PloS one 10 e0118424 2015
Groundbreaking studies showed that differentiated somatic cells of mouse and human origin could be reverted to a stable pluripotent state by the ectopic expression of only four proteins. The resulting pluripotent cells, called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, could be an alternative to embryonic stem cells, which are under continuous ethical debate. Hence, iPS cell-derived functional cells such as neurons may become the key for an effective treatment of currently incurable degenerative diseases. However, besides the requirement of efficacy testing of the therapy also its long-term safety needs to be carefully evaluated in settings mirroring the clinical situation in an optimal way. In this context, we chose the long-lived common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) as a non-human primate species to generate iPS cells. The marmoset monkey is frequently used in biomedical research and is gaining more and more preclinical relevance due to the increasing number of disease models. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first-time generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells from postnatal skin fibroblasts by non-viral means. We used the transposon-based, fully reversible piggyback system. We cloned the marmoset monkey reprogramming factors and established robust and reproducible reprogramming protocols with a six-factor-in-one-construct approach. We generated six individual iPS cell lines and characterized them in comparison with marmoset monkey embryonic stem cells. The generated iPS cells are morphologically indistinguishable from marmoset ES cells. The iPS cells are fully reprogrammed as demonstrated by differentiation assays, pluripotency marker expression and transcriptome analysis. They are stable for numerous passages (more than 80) and exhibit euploidy. In summary, we have established efficient non-viral reprogramming protocols for the derivation of stable marmoset monkey iPS cells, which can be used to develop and test cell replacement therapies in preclinical settings.
|Repression of Igf1 expression by Ezh2 prevents basal cell differentiation in the developing lung.|
Galvis, LA; Holik, AZ; Short, KM; Pasquet, J; Lun, AT; Blewitt, ME; Smyth, IM; Ritchie, ME; Asselin-Labat, ML
Development (Cambridge, England) 142 1458-69 2015
Epigenetic mechanisms involved in the establishment of lung epithelial cell lineage identities during development are largely unknown. Here, we explored the role of the histone methyltransferase Ezh2 during lung lineage determination. Loss of Ezh2 in the lung epithelium leads to defective lung formation and perinatal mortality. We show that Ezh2 is crucial for airway lineage specification and alveolarization. Using optical projection tomography imaging, we found that branching morphogenesis is affected in Ezh2 conditional knockout mice and the remaining bronchioles are abnormal, lacking terminally differentiated secretory club cells. Remarkably, RNA-seq analysis revealed the upregulation of basal genes in Ezh2-deficient epithelium. Three-dimensional imaging for keratin 5 further showed the unexpected presence of a layer of basal cells from the proximal airways to the distal bronchioles in E16.5 embryos. ChIP-seq analysis indicated the presence of Ezh2-mediated repressive marks on the genomic loci of some but not all basal genes, suggesting an indirect mechanism of action of Ezh2. We found that loss of Ezh2 de-represses insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) expression and that modulation of IGF1 signaling ex vivo in wild-type lungs could induce basal cell differentiation. Altogether, our work reveals an unexpected role for Ezh2 in controlling basal cell fate determination in the embryonic lung endoderm, mediated in part by repression of Igf1 expression.
|SNAP i.d. 2.0 System Brochure|
|Anti-Sox9 - Data Sheet|