Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, Po, R, Rb, Lz, M||IHC||R||Culture Supernatant||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Serotonin Antibody, clone YC5/45|
|Presentation||UnPurified tissue culture supernatant containing 0.01% thimerosal as a perservative.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY - 2420369||2420369|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY - 2459042||2459042|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN - 3174881||3174881|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN -2521483||2521483|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN -2618326||2618326|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN -2707839||2707839|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN -2746554||2746554|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN -2757200||2757200|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN -2817172||2817172|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN 0 -2677897||2677897|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|3-D imaging and illustration of mouse intestinal neurovascular complex.|
Fu, YY; Peng, SJ; Lin, HY; Pasricha, PJ; Tang, SC
American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 304 G1-11 2013
Because of the dispersed nature of nerves and blood vessels, standard histology cannot provide a global and associated observation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and vascular network. We prepared transparent mouse intestine and combined vessel painting and three-dimensional (3-D) neurohistology for joint visualization of the ENS and vasculature. Cardiac perfusion of the fluorescent wheat germ agglutinin (vessel painting) was used to label the ileal blood vessels. The pan-neuronal marker PGP9.5, sympathetic neuronal marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), serotonin, and glial markers S100B and GFAP were used as the immunostaining targets of neural tissues. The fluorescently labeled specimens were immersed in the optical clearing solution to improve photon penetration for 3-D confocal microscopy. Notably, we simultaneously revealed the ileal microstructure, vasculature, and innervation with micrometer-level resolution. Four examples are given: 1) the morphology of the TH-labeled sympathetic nerves: sparse in epithelium, perivascular at the submucosa, and intraganglionic at myenteric plexus; 2) distinct patterns of the extrinsic perivascular and intrinsic pericryptic innervation at the submucosal-mucosal interface; 3) different associations of serotonin cells with the mucosal neurovascular elements in the villi and crypts; and 4) the periganglionic capillary network at the myenteric plexus and its contact with glial fibers. Our 3-D imaging approach provides a useful tool to simultaneously reveal the nerves and blood vessels in a space continuum for panoramic illustration and analysis of the neurovascular complex to better understand the intestinal physiology and diseases.
|Presenilin1 regulates histamine neuron development and behavior in zebrafish, danio rerio.|
Sundvik, M; Chen, YC; Panula, P
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 1589-97 2013
Modulatory neurotransmitters, including the histaminergic system, are essential in mediating cognitive functions affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The roles of disease genes associated with AD, most importantly the presenilin1 gene (psen1), are poorly understood. We studied the role of psen1 in plasticity of the brain histaminergic system using a novel psen1 mutant zebrafish, Danio rerio. We found that in psen1(-/-) zebrafish, the histaminergic system is altered throughout life. At 7 d postfertilization (dpf) the histamine neuron number was reduced in psen1(-/-) compared with wild-type (WT) fish; at 2 months of age the histamine neuron number was at the same level as that in WT fish. In 1-year-old zebrafish, the histamine neuron number was significantly increased in psen1(-/-) fish compared with WT fish. These changes in histamine neuron number were accompanied by changes in histamine-driven behaviors. Treatment with DAPT, a γ-secretase inhibitor, similarly interfered with the development of the histaminergic neurons. We also assessed the expression of γ-secretase-regulated Notch1a mRNA and β-catenin at different time points. Notch1a mRNA level was reduced in psen1(-/-) compared with WT fish, whereas β-catenin was slightly upregulated in the hypothalamus of psen1(-/-) compared with WT fish at 7 dpf. The results reveal a life-long brain plasticity in both the structure of the histaminergic system and its functions induced by altered Notch1a activity as a consequence of psen1 mutation. The new histaminergic neurons in aging zebrafish brain may arise as a result of phenotypic plasticity or represent newly differentiated stem cells.
|Monoaminergic modulation of photoreception in ascidian: evidence for a proto-hypothalamo-retinal territory.|
Razy-Krajka, F; Brown, ER; Horie, T; Callebert, J; Sasakura, Y; Joly, JS; Kusakabe, TG; Vernier, P
BMC biology 10 45 2012
The retina of craniates/vertebrates has been proposed to derive from a photoreceptor prosencephalic territory in ancestral chordates, but the evolutionary origin of the different cell types making the retina is disputed. Except for photoreceptors, the existence of homologs of retinal cells remains uncertain outside vertebrates.The expression of genes expressed in the sensory vesicle of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis including those encoding components of the monoaminergic neurotransmission systems, was analyzed by in situ hybridization or in vivo transfection of the corresponding regulatory elements driving fluorescent reporters. Modulation of photic responses by monoamines was studied by electrophysiology combined with pharmacological treatments.We show that many molecular characteristics of dopamine-synthesizing cells located in the vicinity of photoreceptors in the sensory vesicle of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis are similar to those of amacrine dopamine cells of the vertebrate retina. The ascidian dopamine cells share with vertebrate amacrine cells the expression of the key-transcription factor Ptf1a, as well as that of dopamine-synthesizing enzymes. Surprisingly, the ascidian dopamine cells accumulate serotonin via a functional serotonin transporter, as some amacrine cells also do. Moreover, dopamine cells located in the vicinity of the photoreceptors modulate the light-off induced swimming behavior of ascidian larvae by acting on alpha2-like receptors, instead of dopamine receptors, supporting a role in the modulation of the photic response. These cells are located in a territory of the ascidian sensory vesicle expressing genes found both in the retina and the hypothalamus of vertebrates (six3/6, Rx, meis, pax6, visual cycle proteins).We propose that the dopamine cells of the ascidian larva derive from an ancestral multifunctional cell population located in the periventricular, photoreceptive field of the anterior neural tube of chordates, which also gives rise to both anterior hypothalamus and the retina in craniates/vertebrates. It also shows that the existence of multiple cell types associated with photic responses predates the formation of the vertebrate retina.
|The dorsal raphe modulates sensory responsiveness during arousal in zebrafish.|
Yokogawa, T; Hannan, MC; Burgess, HA
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 15205-15 2012
During waking behavior, animals adapt their state of arousal in response to environmental pressures. Sensory processing is regulated in aroused states, and several lines of evidence imply that this is mediated at least partly by the serotonergic system. However, there is little information directly showing that serotonergic function is required for state-dependent modulation of sensory processing. Here we find that zebrafish larvae can maintain a short-term state of arousal during which neurons in the dorsal raphe modulate sensory responsiveness to behaviorally relevant visual cues. After a brief exposure to water flow, larvae show elevated activity and heightened sensitivity to perceived motion. Calcium imaging of neuronal activity after flow revealed increased activity in serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe. Genetic ablation of these neurons abolished the increase in visual sensitivity during arousal without affecting baseline visual function or locomotor activity. We traced projections from the dorsal raphe to a major visual area, the optic tectum. Laser ablation of the tectum demonstrated that this structure, like the dorsal raphe, is required for improved visual sensitivity during arousal. These findings reveal that serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe have a state-dependent role in matching sensory responsiveness to behavioral context.
|Organizational effects of oxytocin on serotonin innervation.|
Jennifer L Eaton,Laura Roache,Khanhbao N Nguyen,Bruce S Cushing,Emma Troyer,Eros Papademetriou,Mary Ann Raghanti
Developmental psychobiology 54 2012
Oxytocin (OT) has an organizational effect within the central nervous system and can have long-lasting effects on the expression of social behavior. OT has recently been implicated in modulating the release of serotonin through activation of receptors in the raphe nuclei. Here we test the hypothesis that OT can have an organizational effect on the serotonergic system. Male prairie voles received an intraperitoneal injection on postnatal day 1 with 3.0 or .3?µg OT, an OT antagonist, or a saline control. Brains were collected on day 21 and immunostained for serotonin. Serotonin axons were quantified in the anterior hypothalamus, cortical amygdala, medial amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and ventromedial hypothalamus. Males treated with 3.0?µg OT displayed significantly higher serotonin axon length densities in the anterior hypothalamus, cortical amygdala, and the ventromedial hypothalamus than control males. These results support the hypothesis that OT has an organizational effect on the serotonin system during the neonatal period, and that these effects are site-specific.
|Overexpression of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors enhances neuronal differentiation of fetal human neural progenitor cells in various ways.|
Serre, A; Snyder, EY; Mallet, J; Buchet, D
Stem cells and development 21 539-53 2012
In a perspective of regenerative medicine, multipotent human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) offer a therapeutic advantage over pluripotent stem cells in that they are already invariantly "neurally committed" and lack tumorigenicity. However, some of their intrinsic properties, such as slow differentiation and uncontrolled multipotency, remain among the obstacles to their routine use for transplantation. Although rodent NPCs have been genetically modified in vitro to overcome some of these limitations, the translation of this strategy to human cells remains in its early stages. In the present study, we compare the actions of 4 basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors on the proliferation, specification, and terminal differentiation of hNPCs isolated from the fetal dorsal telencephalon. Consistent with their proneural activity, Ngn1, Ngn2, Ngn3, and Mash1 prompted rapid commitment of the cells. The Ngns induced a decrease in proliferation, whereas Mash1 maintained committed progenitors in a proliferative state. As opposed to Ngn1 and Ngn3, which had no effect on glial differentiation, Ngn2 induced an increase in astrocytes in addition to neurons, whereas Mash1 led to both neuronal and oligodendroglial specification. GABAergic, cholinergic, and motor neuron differentiations were considerably increased by overexpression of Ngn2 and, to a lesser extent, of Ngn3 and Mash1. Thus, we provide evidence that hNPCs can be efficiently, rapidly, and safely expanded in vitro as well as rapidly differentiated toward mature neural (typically neuronal) lineages by the overexpression of select proneural genes.
|Organisation and chemical neuroanatomy of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) olfactory bulb.|
Ngwenya A, Patzke N, Ihunwo AO, Manger PR.
Brain structure & function 216 403-16 2011
The olfactory system of mammals can be divided into a main and accessory olfactory system with initial processing for each system occurring in the olfactory bulb. The main and accessory olfactory bulbs have similar structural features, even though they appear to be functionally independent. In mammals the main olfactory bulb (MOB) is also one of two established sites of lifelong generation of new cells. The present study describes the histological and immunohistochemical neuroanatomy of the olfactory bulb of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). The morphology of MOB of the elephant does not differ significantly from that described in other mammals; however, it lacks the internal plexiform layer. In addition, the glomeruli of the glomerular layer are organised in 2-4 "honey-combed" layers, a feature not commonly observed. The cell types and structures revealed with immunohistochemical stains (parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, tyrosine hydroxylase, orexin-A, glial fibrillary acidic protein) were similar to other mammals. Neurogenesis was examined using the neurogenic marker doublecortin. Migration of newly generated cells was observed in most layers of the MOB. No accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) was observed. Based on the general anatomy and the immunohistochemical observations, it is evident that the morphology of the African elephant MOB is, for the most part, similar to that of all mammals, although very large in absolute size.
|Synaptic connections between GABAergic elements and serotonergic terminals or projecting neurons in the ventrolateral orbital cortex.|
Huo, FQ; Chen, T; Lv, BC; Wang, J; Zhang, T; Qu, CL; Li, YQ; Tang, JS
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 19 1263-72 2009
The ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) is part of an endogenous analgesic system, consisting of the spinal cord-thalamic nucleus submedius-VLO periaqueductal gray (PAG)-spinal cord loop. The present study examined morphological connections of GABAergic (gamma-aminobutyric acidergic) neurons and serotonergic projection terminals from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), as well as the relationship between GABAergic terminals and VLO neurons projecting to the PAG, by using anterograde and retrograde tracing combined with immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy methods. Results indicate that the majority (93%) of GABAergic neurons in the VLO also express the 5-HT(1A) (5-hydroxytryptamine 1A) receptor, and serotonergic terminals originating from the DR nucleus made symmetrical synapses with GABAergic neuronal cell bodies and dendrites within the VLO. GABAergic terminals also made symmetrical synapses with neurons expressing GABA(A) receptors and projecting to the PAG. These results suggest that a local neuronal circuit, consisting of 5-HTergic terminals, GABAergic interneurons, and projection neurons, exists in the VLO, and provides morphological evidence for the hypothesis that GABAergic modulation is involved in 5-HT(1A) receptor activation-evoked antinociception.
|Axonal projections originating from raphe serotonergic neurons in the developing and adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, using transgenics to visualize raphe-specific pet1 expression.|
Christina Lillesaar,Christian Stigloher,Birgit Tannhäuser,Mario F Wullimann,Laure Bally-Cuif
The Journal of comparative neurology 512 2009
Serotonin is a major central nervous modulator of physiology and behavior and plays fundamental roles during development and plasticity of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). Understanding the developmental control and functions of serotonergic neurons is therefore an important task. In all vertebrates, prominent serotonergic neurons are found in the superior and inferior raphe nuclei in the hindbrain innervating most CNS regions. In addition, all vertebrates except for mammals harbor other serotonergic centers, including several populations in the diencephalon. This, in combination with the intricate and wide distribution of serotonergic fibers, makes it difficult to sort out serotonergic innervation originating from the raphe from that of other serotonergic cell populations. To resolve this issue, we isolated the regulatory elements of the zebrafish raphe-specific gene pet1 and used them to drive expression of an eGFP transgene in the raphe population of serotonergic neurons. With this approach together with retrograde tracing we 1) describe in detail the development, anatomical organization, and projection pattern of zebrafish pet1-positive neurons compared with their mammalian counterparts, 2) identify a new serotonergic population in the ventrolateral zebrafish hindbrain, and 3) reveal some extent of functional subdivisions within the zebrafish superior raphe complex. Together, our results reveal for the first time the specific innervation pattern of the zebrafish raphe and, thus, provide a new model and various tools to investigate further the role of raphe serotonergic neurons in vertebrates.
|Source, topography and excitatory effects of GABAergic innervation in cockroach salivary glands.|
Rotte, C; Witte, J; Blenau, W; Baumann, O; Walz, B
The Journal of experimental biology 212 126-36 2009
Cockroach salivary glands are innervated by dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. Both transmitters elicit saliva secretion. We studied the distribution pattern of neurons containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and their physiological role. Immunofluorescence revealed a GABA-immunoreactive axon that originates within the subesophageal ganglion at the salivary neuron 2 (SN2) and this extends within the salivary duct nerve towards the salivary gland. GABA-positive fibers form a network on most acinar lobules and a dense plexus in the interior of a minor fraction of acinar lobules. Co-staining with anti-synapsin revealed that some putative GABAergic terminals seem to make pre-synaptic contacts with GABA-negative release sites. Many putative GABAergic release sites are at some distance from other synapses and at distance from the acinar tissue. Intracellular recordings from isolated salivary glands have revealed that GABA does not affect the basolateral membrane potential of the acinar cells directly. When applied during salivary duct nerve stimulation, GABA enhances the electrical response of the acinar cells and increases the rates of fluid and protein secretion. The effect on electrical cell responses is mimicked by the GABA(B) receptor agonists baclofen and SKF97541, and blocked by the GABA(B) receptor antagonists CGP52432 and CGP54626. These findings indicate that GABA has a modulatory role in the control of salivation, acting presynaptically on serotonergic and/or dopaminergic neurotransmission.
|Anti-Serotonin, clone YC5/45 - Data Sheet|