Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||ELISA, IF, IH(P)||Gt||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Respiratory Syncytial Virus Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified immunoglobulin in PBS (0.01 M, pH 7.2) with 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||1 mL|
References | 17 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Intranasal immunization with W 80 5EC adjuvanted recombinant RSV rF-ptn enhances clearance of respiratory syncytial virus in a mouse model. |
Passmore, C; Makidon, PE; O'Konek, JJ; Zahn, JA; Pannu, J; Hamouda, T; Bitko, V; Myc, A; Lukacs, NW; Fattom, A; Baker, JR
Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics 10 615-22 2014
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a ubiquitous virus that infects almost all people by age two and is a major source of respiratory illness in infants, the elderly and others with compromised immune systems. Currently there is no available vaccine. Prior efforts using formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) were associated with enhanced respiratory disease upon viral exposure following clinical vaccine trials. Several researchers and pharmaceutical companies have utilized vector-associated live attenuated RSV vaccines in pre-clinical and clinical studies. Another attractive approach, however, is a subunit vaccine which would be easier to produce and quality control. Our group has previously demonstrated in a murine model of infection that intranasal immunization with nanoemulsion-inactivated and adjuvanted RSV induces humoral and cellular immune responses, resulting in protection against RSV infection. The present studies characterize the immune responses elicited by intranasal RSV F protein adjuvanted with nanoemulsion. Intranasal application of nanoemulsion adjuvanted F protein induced a rapid and robust systemic and mucosal antibody response, as well as protection against subsequent RSV challenge. Importantly, RSV challenge in immunized animals did not elicit airway hyper-reactivity, a Th2-skewed immune response or immunopathology associated with hypersensitivity reactions with formalin-inactivated vaccine. These results suggest that RSV F protein adjuvanted with nanoemulsion may be a good mucosal vaccine candidate. Formulating RSV F protein in nanoemulsion creates a well-defined and well-controlled vaccine that can be delivered intranasally to induce T cell mediated immunity without inducing enhanced disease associated with the mouse model of FI-RSV vaccination and infection.
|Protection and mechanism of action of a novel human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate based on the extracellular domain of small hydrophobic protein. |
Schepens, B; Sedeyn, K; Vande Ginste, L; De Baets, S; Schotsaert, M; Roose, K; Houspie, L; Van Ranst, M; Gilbert, B; van Rooijen, N; Fiers, W; Piedra, P; Saelens, X
EMBO molecular medicine 6 1436-54 2014
Infections with human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) occur globally in all age groups and can have devastating consequences in young infants. We demonstrate that a vaccine based on the extracellular domain (SHe) of the small hydrophobic (SH) protein of HRSV, reduced viral replication in challenged laboratory mice and in cotton rats. We show that this suppression of viral replication can be transferred by serum and depends on a functional IgG receptor compartment with a major contribution of FcγRI and FcγRIII. Using a conditional cell depletion method, we provide evidence that alveolar macrophages are involved in the protection by SHe-specific antibodies. HRSV-infected cells abundantly express SH on the cell surface and are likely the prime target of the humoral immune response elicited by SHe-based vaccination. Finally, natural infection of humans and experimental infection of mice or cotton rats does not induce a strong immune response against HRSV SHe. Using SHe as a vaccine antigen induces immune protection against HRSV by a mechanism that differs from the natural immune response and from other HRSV vaccination strategies explored to date. Hence, HRSV vaccine candidates that aim at inducing protective neutralizing antibodies or T-cell responses could be complemented with a SHe-based antigen to further improve immune protection.
|Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in elderly mice results in altered antiviral gene expression and enhanced pathology. |
Wong, TM; Boyapalle, S; Sampayo, V; Nguyen, HD; Bedi, R; Kamath, SG; Moore, ML; Mohapatra, S; Mohapatra, SS
PloS one 9 e88764 2014
Elderly persons are more susceptible to RSV-induced pneumonia than young people, but the molecular mechanism underlying this susceptibility is not well understood. In this study, we used an aged mouse model of RSV-induced pneumonia to examine how aging alters the lung pathology, modulates antiviral gene expressions, and the production of inflammatory cytokines in response to RSV infection. Young (2-3 months) and aged (19-21 months) mice were intranasally infected with mucogenic or non-mucogenic RSV strains, lung histology was examined, and gene expression was analyzed. Upon infection with mucogenic strains of RSV, leukocyte infiltration in the airways was elevated and prolonged in aged mice compared to young mice. Minitab factorial analysis identified several antiviral genes that are influenced by age, infection, and a combination of both factors. The expression of five antiviral genes, including pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and osteopontin (OPN), was altered by both age and infection, while age was associated with the expression of 15 antiviral genes. Both kinetics and magnitude of antiviral gene expression were diminished as a result of older age. In addition to delays in cytokine signaling and pattern recognition receptor induction, we found TLR7/8 signaling to be impaired in alveolar macrophages in aged mice. In vivo, induction of IL-1β and OPN were delayed but prolonged in aged mice upon RSV infection compared to young. In conclusion, this study demonstrates inherent differences in response to RSV infection in young vs. aged mice, accompanied by delayed antiviral gene induction and cytokine signaling.
|Recombinant influenza virus carrying the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F85-93 CTL epitope reduces RSV replication in mice. |
De Baets, S; Schepens, B; Sedeyn, K; Schotsaert, M; Roose, K; Bogaert, P; Fiers, W; Saelens, X
Journal of virology 87 3314-23 2013
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants worldwide. Despite decades of research, there is still no registered vaccine available for this major pathogen. We investigated the protective efficacy of a recombinant influenza virus, PR8/NA-F(85-93), that carries the RSV CD8(+) T cell epitope F(85-93) in its neuraminidase stalk. F(85-93)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were induced in mice after a single intranasal immunization with PR8/NA-F(85-93) virus, and these CTLs provided a significant reduction in the lung viral load upon a subsequent challenge with RSV. To avoid influenza-induced morbidity, we treated mice with matrix protein 2 (M2e)-specific monoclonal antibodies before PR8/NA-F(85-93) virus infection. Treatment with anti-M2e antibodies reduced the infiltration of immune cells in the lungs upon PR8/NA-F(85-93) infection, whereas the formation of inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue was not affected. Moreover, this treatment prevented body weight loss yet still permitted the induction of RSV F-specific T cell responses and significantly reduced RSV replication upon challenge. These results demonstrate that it is possible to take advantage of the infection-permissive protection of M2e-specific antibodies against influenza A virus to induce heterologous CD8(+) T cell-mediated immunity by an influenza A virus vector expressing the RSV F(85-93) epitope.
|Host cell entry of respiratory syncytial virus involves macropinocytosis followed by proteolytic activation of the F protein. |
Krzyzaniak, MA; Zumstein, MT; Gerez, JA; Picotti, P; Helenius, A
PLoS pathogens 9 e1003309 2013
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a highly pathogenic member of the Paramyxoviridae that causes severe respiratory tract infections. Reports in the literature have indicated that to infect cells the incoming viruses either fuse their envelope directly with the plasma membrane or exploit clathrin-mediated endocytosis. To study the entry process in human tissue culture cells (HeLa, A549), we used fluorescence microscopy and developed quantitative, FACS-based assays to follow virus binding to cells, endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, membrane fusion, and infection. A variety of perturbants were employed to characterize the cellular processes involved. We found that immediately after binding to cells RSV activated a signaling cascade involving the EGF receptor, Cdc42, PAK1, and downstream effectors. This led to a series of dramatic actin rearrangements; the cells rounded up, plasma membrane blebs were formed, and there was a significant increase in fluid uptake. If these effects were inhibited using compounds targeting Na⁺/H⁺ exchangers, myosin II, PAK1, and other factors, no infection was observed. The RSV was rapidly and efficiently internalized by an actin-dependent process that had all hallmarks of macropinocytosis. Rather than fusing with the plasma membrane, the viruses thus entered Rab5-positive, fluid-filled macropinosomes, and fused with the membranes of these on the average 50 min after internalization. Rab5 was required for infection. To find an explanation for the endocytosis requirement, which is unusual among paramyxoviruses, we analyzed the fusion protein, F, and could show that, although already cleaved by a furin family protease once, it underwent a second, critical proteolytic cleavage after internalization. This cleavage by a furin-like protease removed a small peptide from the F1 subunits, and made the virus infectious.
|Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) suppression of glucocorticoid receptor phosphorylation does not account for repression of transactivation. |
Webster Marketon, JI; Corry, J
FEBS open bio 3 305-9 2013
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced bronchiolitis in infants, although inflammatory in nature, is not responsive to glucocorticoids. We have recently shown that RSV-infected lung epithelial cells have impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated transactivation. In this study, we show that the N-terminal region of GR is required for RSV repression of GR transactivation and that RSV infection of lung epithelial cells reduces ligand-dependent GR phosphorylation at serine 211 and serine 226. However, we also show that these changes in GR phosphorylation do not account for the RSV repression of GR transactivation suggesting other regions of the GR N-terminus must also be involved.
|Differential pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus clinical isolates in BALB/c mice. |
Stokes, KL; Chi, MH; Sakamoto, K; Newcomb, DC; Currier, MG; Huckabee, MM; Lee, S; Goleniewska, K; Pretto, C; Williams, JV; Hotard, A; Sherrill, TP; Peebles, RS; Moore, ML
Journal of virology 85 5782-93 2011
Airway mucus is a hallmark of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract illness. Laboratory RSV strains differentially induce airway mucus production in mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that RSV strains differ in pathogenesis by screening six low-passage RSV clinical isolates for mucogenicity and virulence in BALB/cJ mice. The RSV clinical isolates induced variable disease severity, lung interleukin-13 (IL-13) levels, and gob-5 levels in BALB/cJ mice. We chose two of these clinical isolates for further study. Infection of BALB/cJ mice with RSV A2001/2-20 (2-20) resulted in greater disease severity, higher lung IL-13 levels, and higher lung gob-5 levels than infection with RSV strains A2, line 19, Long, and A2001/3-12 (3-12). Like the line 19 RSV strain, the 2-20 clinical isolate induced airway mucin expression in BALB/cJ mice. The 2-20 and 3-12 RSV clinical isolates had higher lung viral loads than laboratory RSV strains at 1 day postinfection (p.i.). This increased viral load correlated with higher viral antigen levels in the bronchiolar epithelium and greater histopathologic changes at 1 day p.i. The A2 RSV strain had the highest peak viral load at day 4 p.i. RSV 2-20 infection caused epithelial desquamation, bronchiolitis, airway hyperresponsiveness, and increased breathing effort in BALB/cJ mice. We found that RSV clinical isolates induce variable pathogenesis in mice, and we established a mouse model of clinical isolate strain-dependent RSV pathogenesis that recapitulates key features of RSV disease.
|Respiratory syncytial virus represses glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene activation. |
Hinzey, A; Alexander, J; Corry, J; Adams, KM; Claggett, AM; Traylor, ZP; Davis, IC; Webster Marketon, JI
Endocrinology 152 483-94 2011
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of bronchiolitis in infants. Although antiinflammatory in nature, glucocorticoids have been shown to be ineffective in the treatment of RSV-induced bronchiolitis and wheezing. In addition, the effectiveness of glucocorticoids at inhibiting RSV-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in cell culture has been questioned. In this study, we have investigated the effect of RSV infection on glucocorticoid-induced gene activation in lung epithelium-derived cells. We show that RSV infection inhibits dexamethasone induction of three glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-regulated genes (glucocorticoid-inducible leucine zipper, FK506 binding protein, and MAPK phosphatase 1) in A549, BEAS-2B cells, and primary small airway epithelial cells. UV irradiation of the virus prevents this repression, suggesting that viral replication is required. RSV is known to activate the nuclear factor κB (NFκB) pathway, which is mutually antagonistic towards the GR pathway. However, specific inhibition of NFκB had no effect on the repression of GR-induced genes by RSV infection, indicating that RSV repression of GR is independent of NFκB. RSV infection of A549 cells does not alter GR protein levels or GR nuclear translocation but does reduce GR binding to the promoters of the glucocorticoid responsive genes analyzed in this study. Repression of GR by RSV infection may account for the apparent clinical ineffectiveness of glucocorticoids in RSV bronchiolitis therapy. In addition, this data adds to our previously published data suggesting that GR may be a general target for infectious agents. Identifying the mechanisms through which this suppression occurs may lead to the development of novel therapeutics.Full Text Article
|Nanobodies® specific for respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein protect against infection by inhibition of fusion. |
Schepens, B; Ibañez, LI; De Baets, S; Hultberg, A; Bogaert, P; De Bleser, P; Vervalle, F; Verrips, T; Melero, J; Vandevelde, W; Vanlandschoot, P; Saelens, X
The Journal of infectious diseases 204 1692-701 2011
Despite the medical importance of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections, there is no vaccine or therapeutic agent available. Prophylactic administration of palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal RSV fusion (F) protein-specific antibody, can protect high-risk children. Previously, we have demonstrated that RSV can be neutralized by picomolar concentrations of a camelid immunoglobulin single-variable domain that binds the RSV protein F (F-VHHb nanobodies). Here, we investigated the mechanism by which these nanobodies neutralize RSV and tested their antiviral activity in vivo. We demonstrate that bivalent RSV F-specific nanobodies neutralize RSV infection by inhibiting fusion without affecting viral attachment. The ability of RSV F-specific nanobodies to protect against RSV infection was investigated in vivo. Intranasal administration of bivalent RSV F-specific nanobodies protected BALB/c mice from RSV infection, and associated pulmonary inflammation. Moreover, therapeutic treatment with these nanobodies after RSV infection could reduce viral replication and reduced pulmonary inflammation. Thus, nanobodies are promising therapeutic molecules for treatment of RSV.
|Respiratory syncytial virus glycoproteins uptake occurs through clathrin-mediated endocytosis in a human epithelial cell line. |
Abel Gutiérrez-Ortega,Carla Sánchez-Hernández,Beatriz Gómez-García
Virology journal 5 2008
Cell-surface viral proteins most frequently enter the cell through clathrin or caveolae endocytosis. Respiratory syncytial virus antigen internalization by immune cells is via caveolin, however, uptake of paramyxovirus cell membrane proteins by non-immune cells is done through clathrin-coated pits. In this work, the uptake of respiratory syncytial virus cell surface glycoproteins by non-immune human epithelial cells was investigated through indirect immunofluorescence with polyclonal anti-RSV antibody and confocal lasser-scanner microscopy. Clathrin and caveolae internalization pathways were monitored through specific inhibitors monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD), respectively. Internalization of RSV antigens was inhibited by MDC but not by MBCD, implying that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the major uptake route of RSV antigens by an epithelial human cell line.Full Text Article
|Recombinant simian varicella viruses expressing respiratory syncytial virus antigens are immunogenic. |
Ward, TM; Traina-Dorge, V; Davis, KA; Gray, WL
The Journal of general virology 89 741-50 2008
Recombinant simian varicella viruses (rSVVs) were engineered to express respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antigens. The RSV surface glycoprotein G and second matrix protein M2 (22k) genes were cloned into the SVV genome, and recombinant viruses were characterized in vitro and in vivo. rSVVs were also engineered to express the membrane-anchored or secreted forms of the RSV-G protein as well as an RSV G lacking its chemokine mimicry motif (CX3C), which may have different effects on priming the host immune response. The RSV genes were efficiently expressed in rSVV/RSV-infected Vero cells as RSV-G and -M2 transcripts were detected by RT-PCR, and RSV antigens were detected by immunofluorescence and immunoblot assays. The rSVVs replicated efficiently in Vero cell culture. Rhesus macaques immunized with rSVV/RSV-G and rSVV/RSV-M2 vaccines produced antibody responses to SVV and RSV antigens. The results demonstrate that recombinant varicella viruses are suitable vectors for the expression of RSV antigens and may represent a novel vaccine strategy for immunization against both pathogens.
|Inhibition of respiratory syncytial virus infection with intranasal siRNA nanoparticles targeting the viral NS1 gene. |
Weidong Zhang, Hong Yang, Xiaoyuan Kong, Subhra Mohapatra, Homero San Juan-Vergara, Gary Hellermann, Sumita Behera, Rajeswari Singam, Richard F Lockey, Shyam S Mohapatra
Nature medicine 11 56-62 2005
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is one of the major causes of respiratory tract infection for which no vaccine or antiviral treatment is available. The RSV NS1 protein seems to antagonize the host interferon (IFN) response; however, its mechanism is unknown. Here, we used a plasmid-borne small interfering RNA targeting the NS1 gene (siNS1) to examine the role of NS1 in modulating RSV infection. RSV replication was reduced in A549 cells, but not IFN-deficient Vero cells, transfected with siNS1. siNS1 induced upregulated expression of IFN-beta and IFN-inducible genes in A549 cells. siNS1-transfected human dendritic cells, upon RSV infection, produced elevated type-1 IFN and induced differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells to T helper type 1 (TH1) cells. Mice treated intranasally with siNS1 nanoparticles before or after infection with RSV showed substantially decreased virus titers in the lung and decreased inflammation and airway reactivity compared to controls. Thus, siNS1 nanoparticles may provide an effective inhibition of RSV infection in humans.
|Protein kinase C-alpha activity is required for respiratory syncytial virus fusion to human bronchial epithelial cells. |
San-Juan-Vergara, H; Peeples, ME; Lockey, RF; Mohapatra, SS
Journal of virology 78 13717-26 2004
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection activates protein kinase C (PKC), but the precise PKC isoform(s) involved and its role(s) remain to be elucidated. On the basis of the activation kinetics of different signaling pathways and the effect of various PKC inhibitors, it was reasoned that PKC activation is important in the early stages of RSV infection, especially RSV fusion and/or replication. Herein, the role of PKC-alpha during the early stages of RSV infection in normal human bronchial epithelial cells is determined. The results show that the blocking of PKC-alpha activation by classical inhibitors, pseudosubstrate peptides, or the overexpression of dominant-negative mutants of PKC-alpha in these cells leads to significantly decreased RSV infection. RSV induces phosphorylation, activation, and cytoplasm-to-membrane translocation of PKC-alpha. Also, PKC-alpha colocalizes with virus particles and is required for RSV fusion to the cell membrane. Thus, PKC-alpha could provide a new pharmacological target for controlling RSV infection.Full Text Article
|Profilin is required for viral morphogenesis, syncytium formation, and cell-specific stress fiber induction by respiratory syncytial virus. |
Bitko, Vira, et al.
BMC Microbiol., 3: 9 (2003) 2003
BACKGROUND: Actin is required for the gene expression and morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a clinically important Pneumovirus of the Paramyxoviridae family. In HEp-2 cells, RSV infection also induces actin stress fibers, which may be important in the immunopathology of the RSV disease. Profilin, a major regulator of actin polymerization, stimulates viral transcription in vitro. Thus, we tested the role of profilin in RSV growth and RSV-actin interactions in cultured cells (ex vivo). RESULTS: We tested three cell lines: HEp-2 (human), A549 (human), and L2 (rat). In all three, RSV grew well and produced fused cells (syncytium), and two RSV proteins, namely, the phosphoprotein P and the nucleocapsid protein N, associated with profilin. In contrast, induction of actin stress fibers by RSV occurred in HEp-2 and L2 cells, but not in A549. Knockdown of profilin by RNA interference had a small effect on viral macromolecule synthesis but strongly inhibited maturation of progeny virions, cell fusion, and induction of stress fibers. CONCLUSIONS: Profilin plays a cardinal role in RSV-mediated cell fusion and viral maturation. In contrast, interaction of profilin with the viral transcriptional proteins P and N may only nominally activate viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Stress fiber formation is a cell-specific response to infection, requiring profilin and perhaps other signaling molecules that are absent in certain cell lines. Stress fibers per se play no role in RSV replication in cell culture. Clearly, the cellular architecture controls multiple steps of host-RSV interaction, some of which are regulated by profilin.
|IL-13-induced airway hyperreactivity during respiratory syncytial virus infection is STAT6 dependent. |
K K Tekkanat, H F Maassab, D S Cho, J J Lai, A John, A Berlin, M H Kaplan, N W Lukacs, K K Tekkanat, H F Maassab, D S Cho, J J Lai, A John, A Berlin, M H Kaplan, N W Lukacs
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 166 3542-8 2001
Airway damage and hyperreactivity induced during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection can have a prolonged effect in infants and young children. These infections can alter the long-term function of the lung and may lead to severe asthma-like responses. In these studies, the role of IL-13 in inducing and maintaining a prolonged airway hyperreactivity response was examined using a mouse model of primary RSV infection. Using this model, there was evidence of significant airway epithelial cell damage and sloughing, along with mucus production. The airway hyperreactivity response was significantly increased by 8 days postinfection, peaked during days 10-12, and began to resolve by day 14. When the local production of Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines was examined, there was a significant increase, primarily in IL-13, as the viral response progressed. Treatment of RSV-infected mice with anti-IL-13 substantially inhibited airway hyperreactivity. Anti-IL-4 treatment had no effect on the RSV-induced responses. Interestingly, when IL-13 was neutralized, an early increase in IL-12 production was observed within the lungs, as was a significantly lower level of viral Ags, suggesting that IL-13 may be regulating an important antiviral pathway. The examination of RSV-induced airway hyperreactivity in STAT6(-/-) mice demonstrated a significant attenuation of the response, similar to the anti-IL-13 treatment. In addition, STAT6(-/-) mice had a significant alteration of mucus-producing cells in the airway. Altogether, these studies suggest that a primary factor leading to chronic RSV-induced airway dysfunction may be the inappropriate production of IL-13.
|Recurrent respiratory syncytial virus infections in allergen-sensitized mice lead to persistent airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. |
H Matsuse, A K Behera, M Kumar, H Rabb, R F Lockey, S S Mohapatra
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 164 6583-92 2000
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is considered a risk factor for bronchial asthma; however, the synergy between allergen sensitization and RSV infection in the development of pulmonary inflammation and asthma has been controversial. In this study the effects of primary and recurrent RSV infection on allergic asthma were examined in a group of control, RSV-infected, Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) allergen-sensitized, and Df allergen-sensitized plus RSV-infected BALB/c mice. Primary RSV infection in Df-sensitized mice transiently increases airway responsiveness, which is accompanied by increases in eosinophilic infiltration, the expression of ICAM-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) in the lung tissue. A secondary RSV infection persistently enhances airway responsiveness in Df-sensitized mice, with a concomitant increase in MIP-1alpha and RSV Ag load in lung tissues. Bulk cultures of thoracic lymph node mononuclear cells demonstrate that acute RSV infection augments both Th1- and Th2-like cytokines, whereas secondary and tertiary infections shift the cytokine profile in favor of the Th2-like cytokine response in Df-sensitized mice. The elevated total serum IgE level in the Df-sensitized mice persists following only RSV reinfection. Thus, recurrent RSV infections in Df-sensitized mice augment the synthesis of Th2-like cytokines, total serum IgE Abs, and MIP-1alpha, which are responsible for persistent airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness, both of which are characteristics of asthma.
|Intranasal IFN-gamma gene transfer protects BALB/c mice against respiratory syncytial virus infection. |
M Kumar, A K Behera, H Matsuse, R F Lockey, S S Mohapatra, M Kumar, A K Behera, H Matsuse, R F Lockey, S S Mohapatra
Vaccine 18 558-67 1999
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major respiratory pathogen in infants, young children and the elderly and causes severe bronchiolitis and asthma. In an effort to develop a preventive IFN-gamma therapy against RSV infection, an intranasal gene transfer strategy was utilized. Intranasal administration of a plasmid expressing the IFN-gamma cDNA (pIFN-gamma) resulted in the expression of IFN-gamma in murine lungs and decreased RSV replication. The mice administered with pIFN-gamma and then infected with RSV exhibited a significant decrease in broncho-alveolar lavage lymphocyte and neutrophil counts. A significant reduction in epithelial cell damage, infiltration of mononuclear cells in the peribronchiolar and perivascular regions, and thickening of the septa was observed in the lungs of mice treated with pIFN-gamma when compared to controls. These results suggest that intranasal IFN-gamma gene transfer results in decreased RSV replication and pulmonary inflammation and may be useful against RSV infection.
|Anti-Respiratory Syncytial Virus - Data Sheet|
|GOAT ANTI-RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS (RSV)|