Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Ch, H, M, R, Lz||WB, IHC||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Prox1 Antibody, clone 4G10|
|Presentation||Liquid in PBS with 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at 2-8degC in undiluted aliquots for up to 6 months after date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Onecut1 is essential for horizontal cell genesis and retinal integrity. |
Wu, F; Li, R; Umino, Y; Kaczynski, TJ; Sapkota, D; Li, S; Xiang, M; Fliesler, SJ; Sherry, DM; Gannon, M; Solessio, E; Mu, X
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 13053-65, 13065a 2013
Horizontal cells are interneurons that synapse with photoreceptors in the outer retina. Their genesis during development is subject to regulation by transcription factors in a hierarchical manner. Previously, we showed that Onecut 1 (Oc1), an atypical homeodomain transcription factor, is expressed in developing horizontal cells (HCs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the mouse retina. Herein, by knocking out Oc1 specifically in the developing retina, we show that the majority (∼80%) of HCs fail to form during early retinal development, implying that Oc1 is essential for HC genesis. However, no other retinal cell types, including RGCs, were affected in the Oc1 knock-out. Analysis of the genetic relationship between Oc1 and other transcription factor genes required for HC development revealed that Oc1 functions downstream of FoxN4, in parallel with Ptf1a, but upstream of Lim1 and Prox1. By in utero electroporation, we found that Oc1 and Ptf1a together are not only essential, but also sufficient for determination of HC fate. In addition, the synaptic connections in the outer plexiform layer are defective in Oc1-null mice, and photoreceptors undergo age-dependent degeneration, indicating that HCs are not only an integral part of the retinal circuitry, but also are essential for the survival of photoreceptors. In sum, these results demonstrate that Oc1 is a critical determinant of HC fate, and reveal that HCs are essential for photoreceptor viability, retinal integrity, and normal visual function.
|Cerebral organoids model human brain development and microcephaly. |
Lancaster, MA; Renner, M; Martin, CA; Wenzel, D; Bicknell, LS; Hurles, ME; Homfray, T; Penninger, JM; Jackson, AP; Knoblich, JA
Nature 501 373-9 2013
The complexity of the human brain has made it difficult to study many brain disorders in model organisms, highlighting the need for an in vitro model of human brain development. Here we have developed a human pluripotent stem cell-derived three-dimensional organoid culture system, termed cerebral organoids, that develop various discrete, although interdependent, brain regions. These include a cerebral cortex containing progenitor populations that organize and produce mature cortical neuron subtypes. Furthermore, cerebral organoids are shown to recapitulate features of human cortical development, namely characteristic progenitor zone organization with abundant outer radial glial stem cells. Finally, we use RNA interference and patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells to model microcephaly, a disorder that has been difficult to recapitulate in mice. We demonstrate premature neuronal differentiation in patient organoids, a defect that could help to explain the disease phenotype. Together, these data show that three-dimensional organoids can recapitulate development and disease even in this most complex human tissue.
|The Spalt family transcription factor Sall3 regulates the development of cone photoreceptors and retinal horizontal interneurons. |
de Melo, J; Peng, GH; Chen, S; Blackshaw, S
Development (Cambridge, England) 138 2325-36 2011
The mammalian retina is a tractable model system for analyzing transcriptional networks that guide neural development. Spalt family zinc-finger transcription factors play a crucial role in photoreceptor specification in Drosophila, but their role in mammalian retinal development has not been investigated. In this study, we show that that the spalt homolog Sall3 is prominently expressed in developing cone photoreceptors and horizontal interneurons of the mouse retina and in a subset of cone bipolar cells. We find that Sall3 is both necessary and sufficient to activate the expression of multiple cone-specific genes, and that Sall3 protein is selectively bound to the promoter regions of these genes. Notably, Sall3 shows more prominent expression in short wavelength-sensitive cones than in medium wavelength-sensitive cones, and that Sall3 selectively activates expression of the short but not the medium wavelength-sensitive cone opsin gene. We further observe that Sall3 regulates the differentiation of horizontal interneurons, which form direct synaptic contacts with cone photoreceptors. Loss of function of Sall3 eliminates expression of the horizontal cell-specific transcription factor Lhx1, resulting in a radial displacement of horizontal cells that partially phenocopies the loss of function of Lhx1. These findings not only demonstrate that Spalt family transcription factors play a conserved role in regulating photoreceptor development in insects and mammals, but also identify Sall3 as a factor that regulates terminal differentiation of both cone photoreceptors and their postsynaptic partners.Full Text Article
|Prox1 regulates the notch1-mediated inhibition of neurogenesis. |
Kaltezioti, V; Kouroupi, G; Oikonomaki, M; Mantouvalou, E; Stergiopoulos, A; Charonis, A; Rohrer, H; Matsas, R; Politis, PK
PLoS biology 8 e1000565 2010
Activation of Notch1 signaling in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) induces self-renewal and inhibits neurogenesis. Upon neuronal differentiation, NPCs overcome this inhibition, express proneural genes to induce Notch ligands, and activate Notch1 in neighboring NPCs. The molecular mechanism that coordinates Notch1 inactivation with initiation of neurogenesis remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence that Prox1, a transcription repressor and downstream target of proneural genes, counteracts Notch1 signaling via direct suppression of Notch1 gene expression. By expression studies in the developing spinal cord of chick and mouse embryo, we showed that Prox1 is limited to neuronal precursors residing between the Notch1+ NPCs and post-mitotic neurons. Physiological levels of Prox1 in this tissue are sufficient to allow binding at Notch1 promoter and they are critical for proper Notch1 transcriptional regulation in vivo. Gain-of-function studies in the chick neural tube and mouse NPCs suggest that Prox1-mediated suppression of Notch1 relieves its inhibition on neurogenesis and allows NPCs to exit the cell cycle and differentiate. Moreover, loss-of-function in the chick neural tube shows that Prox1 is necessary for suppression of Notch1 outside the ventricular zone, inhibition of active Notch signaling, down-regulation of NPC markers, and completion of neuronal differentiation program. Together these data suggest that Prox1 inhibits Notch1 gene expression to control the balance between NPC self-renewal and neuronal differentiation.
|Production of monoclonal antibodies against Prox1. |
Chen, Xiaoren, et al.
Hybridoma (Larchmt), 25: 27-33 (2006) 2006
Prox1 is a divergent homeodomain protein important for the development of the lens, retina, liver, pancreas, and lymphatic vasculature. Prox1 expression is highly upregulated in transformed hepatocytes and has been used as a marker to distinguish lymphatic from blood vasculature. We produced recombinant human Prox1 (amino acids 547-737) fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST) and used it to create two hybridomas, 5G10 and 4G10. Both of these hybridomas produced monoclonal antibodies able to detect Prox1 by immunofluorescence in lenses from diverse terrestrial vertebrates, including humans, rats, chickens, and lizards, although 5G10 was generally more sensitive in this application. Further, 4G10 was able to robustly detect endogenous and recombinant Prox1 in both cell and tissue extracts by Western blotting, while 5G10 was notably less sensitive for this purpose. These monoclonal antibodies will be useful for diverse studies on the role of Prox1 in both normal development and disease processes in terrestrial vertebrates.