Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||IHC||Gp||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Protein Gene Product 9.5 Antibody|
|Presentation||Liquid. Contains 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||50 µL|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Changes in the Distribution of Periodontal Nerve Fibers during Dentition Transition in the Cat.|
Miki, K; Honma, S; Ebara, S; Kumamoto, K; Murakami, S; Wakisaka, S
PloS one 10 e0129826 2015
The periodontal ligament has a rich sensory nerve supply which originates from the trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus. Although various types of mechanoreceptors have been reported in the periodontal ligament, the Ruffini ending is an essential one. It is unknown whether the distribution of periodontal nerve fibers in deciduous teeth is identical to that in permanent teeth or not. Moreover, morphological changes in the distribution of periodontal nerve fibers during resorption of deciduous teeth and eruption of successional permanent teeth in diphyodont animals have not been reported in detail. Therefore, in this study, we examined changes in the distribution of periodontal nerve fibers in the cat during changes in dentition (i.e., deciduous, mixed and permanent dentition) by immunohistochemistry of protein gene product 9.5. During deciduous dentition, periodontal nerve fibers were concentrated at the apical portion, and sparsely distributed in the periodontal ligament of deciduous molars. During mixed dentition, the periodontal nerve fibers of deciduous molars showed degenerative profiles during resorption. In permanent dentition, the periodontal nerve fibers of permanent premolars, the successors of deciduous molars, increased in number. Similar to permanent premolars, the periodontal nerve fibers of permanent molars, having no predecessors, increased in number, and were densely present in the apical portion. The present results indicate that the distribution of periodontal nerve fibers in deciduous dentition is almost identical to that in permanent dentition although the number of periodontal nerve fibers in deciduous dentition was low. The sparse distribution of periodontal nerve fibers in deciduous dentition agrees with clinical evidence that children are less sensitive to tooth stimulation than adults.
|Nociceptin effect on intestinal motility depends on opioid-receptor like-1 receptors and nitric oxide synthase co-localization.|
Sibaev, A; Fichna, J; Saur, D; Yuece, B; Timmermans, JP; Storr, M
World journal of gastrointestinal pharmacology and therapeutics 6 73-83 2015
To study the effect of the opioid-receptor like-1 (ORL1) agonist nociceptin on gastrointestinal (GI) myenteric neurotransmission and motility.Reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were used to localize nociceptin and ORL1 in mouse tissues. Intracellular electrophysiological recordings of excitatory and inhibitory junction potentials (EJP, IJP) were made in a chambered organ bath. Intestinal motility was measured in vivo.Nociceptin accelerated whole and upper GI transit, but slowed colonic expulsion in vivo in an ORL1-dependent manner, as shown using [Nphe(1)]NOC and AS ODN pretreatment. ORL1 and nociceptin immunoreactivity were found on enteric neurons. Nociceptin reduced the EJP and the nitric oxide-sensitive slow IJP in an ORL1-dependent manner, whereas the fast IJP was unchanged. Nociceptin further reduced the spatial spreading of the EJP up to 2 cm.Compounds acting at ORL1 are good candidates for the future treatment of disorders associated with increased colonic transit, such as diarrhea or diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.
|Astrocytes in the rat nucleus tractus solitarii are critical for cardiovascular reflex control.|
Lin, LH; Moore, SA; Jones, SY; McGlashon, J; Talman, WT
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 18608-17 2013
We have shown that an antibody to dopamine-β-hydroxylase conjugated with saporin (anti-DBH-SAP) damages catecholamine neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of rat, attenuates arterial baroreflexes, and leads to lability of arterial blood pressure, damage to cardiac myocytes, and, in some animals, sudden death. However, others have shown that injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a toxin devoid of saporin, also damaged NTS catecholamine neurons but did not lead to these cardiovascular changes. We found similar cardiovascular changes after injecting a different SAP conjugate to target NTS neurons with neurokinin (NK1) receptors. Because ribosome-inactivating proteins may be toxic to glia, we hypothesized that SAP, a ribosome-inactivating protein, might target glia whose loss could account for physiological changes. We tested this hypothesis by assessing effects on select neurons and on glia in the NTS after exposure to SAP, targeted SAP conjugates, or 6-OHDA. SAP and all SAP conjugates led to loss of immunoreactivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein, a marker for astrocytes, in the NTS while 6-OHDA did not. As reported previously, anti-DBH-SAP selectively killed noradrenergic neurons in the NTS while SAP conjugated to stabilized substance P (SSP-SAP) selectively killed neurons with NK1 receptors. In contrast, SAP produced no demonstrable neuronal damage. All injections led to activation of microglia in the NTS; however, only SAP and its conjugates attenuated cardiovascular reflexes while also producing lability of arterial pressure, damage to cardiac myocytes, and in some animals, sudden death. Thus, NTS astrocytes may play a role in mediating cardiovascular reflex transmission through the NTS.
|Bone marrow-derived microglia infiltrate into the paraventricular nucleus of chronic psychological stress-loaded mice.|
Ataka, K; Asakawa, A; Nagaishi, K; Kaimoto, K; Sawada, A; Hayakawa, Y; Tatezawa, R; Inui, A; Fujimiya, M
PloS one 8 e81744 2013
Microglia of the central nervous system act as sentinels and rapidly react to infection or inflammation. The pathophysiological role of bone marrow-derived microglia is of particular interest because they affect neurodegenerative disorders and neuropathic pain. The hypothesis of the current study is that chronic psychological stress (chronic PS) induces the infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia into hypothalamus by means of chemokine axes in brain and bone marrow.Here we show that bone marrow-derived microglia specifically infiltrate the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of mice that received chronic PS. Bone marrow derived-microglia are CX3CR1(low)CCR2(+)CXCR4(high), as distinct from CX3CR1(high)CCR2(-)CXCR4(low) resident microglia, and express higher levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) but lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Chronic PS stimulates the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in PVN neurons, reduces stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the bone marrow and increases the frequency of CXCR4(+) monocytes in peripheral circulation. And then a chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) or a β3-adrenoceptor blockade prevents infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia in the PVN.Chronic PS induces the infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia into PVN, and it is conceivable that the MCP-1/CCR2 axis in PVN and the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in bone marrow are involved in this mechanism.
|Enhanced insulin clearance in mice lacking TRPM8 channels.|
McCoy, DD; Zhou, L; Nguyen, AK; Watts, AG; Donovan, CM; McKemy, DD
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 305 E78-88 2013
Blood glucose concentration is tightly regulated by the rate of insulin secretion and clearance, a process partially controlled by sensory neurons serving as metabolic sensors in relevant tissues. The activity of these neurons is regulated by the products of metabolism which regulate transmitter release, and recent evidence suggests that neuronally expressed ion channels of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family function in this critical process. Here, we report the novel finding that the cold and menthol-gated channel TRPM8 is necessary for proper insulin homeostasis. Mice lacking TRPM8 respond normally to a glucose challenge while exhibiting prolonged hypoglycemia in response to insulin. Additionally, Trpm8-/- mice have increased rates of insulin clearance compared with wild-type animals and increased expression of insulin-degrading enzyme in the liver. TRPM8 channels are not expressed in the liver, but TRPM8-expressing sensory afferents innervate the hepatic portal vein, suggesting a TRPM8-mediated neuronal control of liver insulin clearance. These results demonstrate that TRPM8 is a novel regulator of serum insulin and support the role of sensory innervation in metabolic homeostasis.
|Characterization of behavioral and neuromuscular junction phenotypes in a novel allelic series of SMA mouse models.|
Osborne, M; Gomez, D; Feng, Z; McEwen, C; Beltran, J; Cirillo, K; El-Khodor, B; Lin, MY; Li, Y; Knowlton, WM; McKemy, DD; Bogdanik, L; Butts-Dehm, K; Martens, K; Davis, C; Doty, R; Wardwell, K; Ghavami, A; Kobayashi, D; Ko, CP; Ramboz, S; Lutz, C
Human molecular genetics 21 4431-47 2012
A number of mouse models for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have been genetically engineered to recapitulate the severity of human SMA by using a targeted null mutation at the mouse Smn1 locus coupled with the transgenic addition of varying copy numbers of human SMN2 genes. Although this approach has been useful in modeling severe SMA and very mild SMA, a mouse model of the intermediate form of the disease would provide an additional research tool amenable for drug discovery. In addition, many of the previously engineered SMA strains are multi-allelic by design, containing a combination of transgenes and targeted mutations in the homozygous state, making further genetic manipulation difficult. A new genetic engineering approach was developed whereby variable numbers of SMN2 sequences were incorporated directly into the murine Smn1 locus. Using combinations of these alleles, we generated an allelic series of SMA mouse strains harboring no, one, two, three, four, five, six or eight copies of SMN2. We report here the characterization of SMA mutants in this series that displayed a range in disease severity from embryonic lethal to viable with mild neuromuscular deficits.
|Chronic alcohol consumption induces an overproduction of NO by nNOS- and iNOS-expressing myenteric neurons in the murine small intestine.|
Bagyánszki M, Torfs P, Krecsmarik M, Fekete E, Adriaensen D, Van Nassauw L, Timmermans JP, Kroese AB.
Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society 23 e237-48 2011
Background There are indications that alterations in the nitric oxide (NO) system of relaxation mediate gastrointestinal motor disturbances induced by chronic alcohol consumption (CAC). As CAC is known to inhibit the motility of the mouse small intestine, we investigated in this model if CAC affects basal NO synthesis by myenteric neurons and which NOS isoforms are involved. Methods The instantaneous NO synthesis of individual neurons was optically measured in whole-mount preparations loaded with the NO synthesis indicator DAF-FM, and the expression of nNOS, iNOS and eNOS was determined by immunohistochemistry. Key Results: The DAF-FM recordings showed that CAC induced an increase in neuronal NO synthesis (absolute fluorescence: control 34±12; CAC 140±56; mean±SD; P<0.0004). Neurons of control mice expressed the nNOS (29±3% of total) and iNOS (28±1%) isoforms. eNOS expression was observed in <0.5% of the neurons. Chronic alcohol consumption caused an increase in the proportion of iNOS-expressing neurons (to 33±5%; P<0.01) and a decrease in nNOS-expressing neurons (to 22±3%; P<0.0001), without altering the proportion of NO-producing neurons (control 55±13%; CAC 56± 11%; P=0.82). Conclusions & Inferences: Chronic alcohol consumption induces a marked increase in NO synthesis by jejunal myenteric neurons, accompanied by an up-regulation of iNOS-expressing neurons and a downregulation of nNOS neurons. We conclude that the overproduction of NO may be a direct cause of gastrointestinal motility disturbances.
|The effect of inflammation on the expression and distribution of the MAS-related gene receptors MrgE and MrgF in the murine ileum.|
Avula LR, Buckinx R, Alpaerts K, Costagliola A, Adriaensen D, Van Nassauw L, Timmermans JP.
Histochemistry and cell biology 136 569-85 2011
The MAS-related gene (Mrg) receptor MrgE has been suggested to be expressed at all tissue levels involved in pain sensation and to influence the expression of another Mrg receptor, MrgF. Given the knowledge on the role of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in sensation, and the plasticity of enteric neurons during intestinal inflammation, it can be hypothesized that MrgE is expressed in enteric neurons, and that MrgE and MrgF change expression in intestinal inflammatory conditions. Therefore, we aimed to reveal the expression details of MrgE and MrgF in the murine ileum in normal and inflamed conditions. Using reverse transcriptase-PCR, quantitative-PCR and immunohistochemistry, we compared the ileum of non-inflamed control mice with that of two models of intestinal inflammation, i.e. intestinal schistosomiasis and chemically induced ileitis. MrgE and MrgF mRNAs were detected in control and inflamed conditions. MrgE and MrgF mRNAs showed a trend towards downregulation during intestinal schistosomiasis and a significant reduction during ileitis. MrgE and MrgF receptors were expressed in distinct enteric neuronal subpopulations, such as the sensory, secretomotor and vasodilator neurons, and in nerve fibres in the tunica muscularis and lamina propria of control and inflamed ileum. Only a minor proportion of enteric neurons co-expressed MrgE and MrgF. The number of enteric neurons expressing MrgE and MrgF receptors was significantly reduced during intestinal schistosomiasis and ileitis. This is the first report on the expression of MrgE and MrgF in the ENS in (patho)physiological conditions. The expression of MrgE and MrgF in enteric neurons was negatively affected by inflammation.
|Serotonin receptor diversity in the human colon: Expression of serotonin type 3 receptor subunits 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E.|
Kapeller, J; Möller, D; Lasitschka, F; Autschbach, F; Hovius, R; Rappold, G; Brüss, M; Gershon, MD; Niesler, B
The Journal of comparative neurology 519 420-32 2011
Since the first description of 5-HT₃ receptors more than 50 years ago, there has been speculation about the molecular basis of their receptor heterogeneity. We have cloned the genes encoding novel 5-HT3 subunits 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E and have shown that these subunits are able to form functional heteromeric receptors when coexpressed with the 5-HT3A subunit. However, whether these subunits are actually expressed in human tissue remained to be confirmed. In the current study, we performed immunocytochemistry to locate the 5-HT3A as well as the 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E subunits within the human colon. Western blot analysis was used to confirm subunit expression, and RT-PCR was employed to detect transcripts encoding 5-HT₃ receptor subunits in microdissected tissue samples. This investigation revealed, for the first time, that 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E subunits are coexpressed with 5-HT3A in cell bodies of myenteric neurons. Furthermore, 5-HT3A and 5-HT3D were found to be expressed in submucosal plexus of the human large intestine. These data provide a strong basis for future studies of the roles that specific 5-HT₃ receptor subtypes play in the function of the enteric and central nervous systems and the contribution that specific 5-HT₃ receptors make to the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and dyspepsia.Full Text Article
|Serotonin-immunoreactive neurons and mast cells in the mouse esophagus suggest involvement of serotonin in both motility control and neuroimmune interactions.|
Hempfling C, Neuhuber WL, Wörl J
Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society 2011
Background Serotonin is a major transmitter in the gastrointestinal tract, but little is known about the serotonergic system in the esophagus. Methods The aim of this study was to use multilabel immunofluorescence to characterize serotonin-positive nerve cell bodies and fibers and their relationship with other neuronal and non-neuronal elements in the mouse esophagus. Antibodies against serotonin, vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), and α-bungarotoxin (α-BT), were used. Key Results Serotonin-containing perikarya represented ∼10% of all PGP 9.5-positive myenteric neurons. Serotonin-positive varicose nerve fibers were found in the lamina muscularis mucosae and present on ∼13% of α-BT-labeled motor endplates in addition to VAChT-immunoreactive motor terminals. As ChAT-positive neurons of the compact formation of the nucleus ambiguus were negative for serotonin, serotonin-positive varicosities on motor endplates are presumed to be of enteric origin. On the other hand, cholinergic ambiguus neurons were densely supplied with serotonin-positive varicosities. The tela submucosa and tunica adventitia contained large numbers of serotonin-positive mast cells, a few of which were in close association with serotonin-positive nerve fibers. Conclusions & Inferences The mouse esophagus is endowed with a rich serotonin-positive intrinsic innervation, including enteric co-innervation of striated muscles. Serotonin may modulate vagal motor innervation of esophageal-striated muscles not only at the central level via projections of the raphe nuclei to the nucleus ambiguus but also at the peripheral level via enteric co-innervation. In addition, mast cells represent a non-neuronal source of serotonin, being involved in neuroimmune processes.© 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
|Anti-Protein Gene Product 9.5 - Data Sheet|