Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||IHC||Gp||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Protein Gene Product 9.5 Antibody|
|Presentation||Liquid. Contains 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||50 µL|
References | 19 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Changes in the Distribution of Periodontal Nerve Fibers during Dentition Transition in the Cat. |
Miki, K; Honma, S; Ebara, S; Kumamoto, K; Murakami, S; Wakisaka, S
PloS one 10 e0129826 2015
The periodontal ligament has a rich sensory nerve supply which originates from the trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus. Although various types of mechanoreceptors have been reported in the periodontal ligament, the Ruffini ending is an essential one. It is unknown whether the distribution of periodontal nerve fibers in deciduous teeth is identical to that in permanent teeth or not. Moreover, morphological changes in the distribution of periodontal nerve fibers during resorption of deciduous teeth and eruption of successional permanent teeth in diphyodont animals have not been reported in detail. Therefore, in this study, we examined changes in the distribution of periodontal nerve fibers in the cat during changes in dentition (i.e., deciduous, mixed and permanent dentition) by immunohistochemistry of protein gene product 9.5. During deciduous dentition, periodontal nerve fibers were concentrated at the apical portion, and sparsely distributed in the periodontal ligament of deciduous molars. During mixed dentition, the periodontal nerve fibers of deciduous molars showed degenerative profiles during resorption. In permanent dentition, the periodontal nerve fibers of permanent premolars, the successors of deciduous molars, increased in number. Similar to permanent premolars, the periodontal nerve fibers of permanent molars, having no predecessors, increased in number, and were densely present in the apical portion. The present results indicate that the distribution of periodontal nerve fibers in deciduous dentition is almost identical to that in permanent dentition although the number of periodontal nerve fibers in deciduous dentition was low. The sparse distribution of periodontal nerve fibers in deciduous dentition agrees with clinical evidence that children are less sensitive to tooth stimulation than adults.
|Nociceptin effect on intestinal motility depends on opioid-receptor like-1 receptors and nitric oxide synthase co-localization. |
Sibaev, A; Fichna, J; Saur, D; Yuece, B; Timmermans, JP; Storr, M
World journal of gastrointestinal pharmacology and therapeutics 6 73-83 2015
To study the effect of the opioid-receptor like-1 (ORL1) agonist nociceptin on gastrointestinal (GI) myenteric neurotransmission and motility.Reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were used to localize nociceptin and ORL1 in mouse tissues. Intracellular electrophysiological recordings of excitatory and inhibitory junction potentials (EJP, IJP) were made in a chambered organ bath. Intestinal motility was measured in vivo.Nociceptin accelerated whole and upper GI transit, but slowed colonic expulsion in vivo in an ORL1-dependent manner, as shown using [Nphe(1)]NOC and AS ODN pretreatment. ORL1 and nociceptin immunoreactivity were found on enteric neurons. Nociceptin reduced the EJP and the nitric oxide-sensitive slow IJP in an ORL1-dependent manner, whereas the fast IJP was unchanged. Nociceptin further reduced the spatial spreading of the EJP up to 2 cm.Compounds acting at ORL1 are good candidates for the future treatment of disorders associated with increased colonic transit, such as diarrhea or diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.
|Enhanced insulin clearance in mice lacking TRPM8 channels. |
McCoy, DD; Zhou, L; Nguyen, AK; Watts, AG; Donovan, CM; McKemy, DD
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 305 E78-88 2013
Blood glucose concentration is tightly regulated by the rate of insulin secretion and clearance, a process partially controlled by sensory neurons serving as metabolic sensors in relevant tissues. The activity of these neurons is regulated by the products of metabolism which regulate transmitter release, and recent evidence suggests that neuronally expressed ion channels of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family function in this critical process. Here, we report the novel finding that the cold and menthol-gated channel TRPM8 is necessary for proper insulin homeostasis. Mice lacking TRPM8 respond normally to a glucose challenge while exhibiting prolonged hypoglycemia in response to insulin. Additionally, Trpm8-/- mice have increased rates of insulin clearance compared with wild-type animals and increased expression of insulin-degrading enzyme in the liver. TRPM8 channels are not expressed in the liver, but TRPM8-expressing sensory afferents innervate the hepatic portal vein, suggesting a TRPM8-mediated neuronal control of liver insulin clearance. These results demonstrate that TRPM8 is a novel regulator of serum insulin and support the role of sensory innervation in metabolic homeostasis.
|Astrocytes in the rat nucleus tractus solitarii are critical for cardiovascular reflex control. |
Lin, LH; Moore, SA; Jones, SY; McGlashon, J; Talman, WT
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 18608-17 2013
We have shown that an antibody to dopamine-β-hydroxylase conjugated with saporin (anti-DBH-SAP) damages catecholamine neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of rat, attenuates arterial baroreflexes, and leads to lability of arterial blood pressure, damage to cardiac myocytes, and, in some animals, sudden death. However, others have shown that injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a toxin devoid of saporin, also damaged NTS catecholamine neurons but did not lead to these cardiovascular changes. We found similar cardiovascular changes after injecting a different SAP conjugate to target NTS neurons with neurokinin (NK1) receptors. Because ribosome-inactivating proteins may be toxic to glia, we hypothesized that SAP, a ribosome-inactivating protein, might target glia whose loss could account for physiological changes. We tested this hypothesis by assessing effects on select neurons and on glia in the NTS after exposure to SAP, targeted SAP conjugates, or 6-OHDA. SAP and all SAP conjugates led to loss of immunoreactivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein, a marker for astrocytes, in the NTS while 6-OHDA did not. As reported previously, anti-DBH-SAP selectively killed noradrenergic neurons in the NTS while SAP conjugated to stabilized substance P (SSP-SAP) selectively killed neurons with NK1 receptors. In contrast, SAP produced no demonstrable neuronal damage. All injections led to activation of microglia in the NTS; however, only SAP and its conjugates attenuated cardiovascular reflexes while also producing lability of arterial pressure, damage to cardiac myocytes, and in some animals, sudden death. Thus, NTS astrocytes may play a role in mediating cardiovascular reflex transmission through the NTS.
|Bone marrow-derived microglia infiltrate into the paraventricular nucleus of chronic psychological stress-loaded mice. |
Ataka, K; Asakawa, A; Nagaishi, K; Kaimoto, K; Sawada, A; Hayakawa, Y; Tatezawa, R; Inui, A; Fujimiya, M
PloS one 8 e81744 2013
Microglia of the central nervous system act as sentinels and rapidly react to infection or inflammation. The pathophysiological role of bone marrow-derived microglia is of particular interest because they affect neurodegenerative disorders and neuropathic pain. The hypothesis of the current study is that chronic psychological stress (chronic PS) induces the infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia into hypothalamus by means of chemokine axes in brain and bone marrow.Here we show that bone marrow-derived microglia specifically infiltrate the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of mice that received chronic PS. Bone marrow derived-microglia are CX3CR1(low)CCR2(+)CXCR4(high), as distinct from CX3CR1(high)CCR2(-)CXCR4(low) resident microglia, and express higher levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) but lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Chronic PS stimulates the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in PVN neurons, reduces stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the bone marrow and increases the frequency of CXCR4(+) monocytes in peripheral circulation. And then a chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) or a β3-adrenoceptor blockade prevents infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia in the PVN.Chronic PS induces the infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia into PVN, and it is conceivable that the MCP-1/CCR2 axis in PVN and the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in bone marrow are involved in this mechanism.
|Characterization of behavioral and neuromuscular junction phenotypes in a novel allelic series of SMA mouse models. |
Osborne, M; Gomez, D; Feng, Z; McEwen, C; Beltran, J; Cirillo, K; El-Khodor, B; Lin, MY; Li, Y; Knowlton, WM; McKemy, DD; Bogdanik, L; Butts-Dehm, K; Martens, K; Davis, C; Doty, R; Wardwell, K; Ghavami, A; Kobayashi, D; Ko, CP; Ramboz, S; Lutz, C
Human molecular genetics 21 4431-47 2012
A number of mouse models for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have been genetically engineered to recapitulate the severity of human SMA by using a targeted null mutation at the mouse Smn1 locus coupled with the transgenic addition of varying copy numbers of human SMN2 genes. Although this approach has been useful in modeling severe SMA and very mild SMA, a mouse model of the intermediate form of the disease would provide an additional research tool amenable for drug discovery. In addition, many of the previously engineered SMA strains are multi-allelic by design, containing a combination of transgenes and targeted mutations in the homozygous state, making further genetic manipulation difficult. A new genetic engineering approach was developed whereby variable numbers of SMN2 sequences were incorporated directly into the murine Smn1 locus. Using combinations of these alleles, we generated an allelic series of SMA mouse strains harboring no, one, two, three, four, five, six or eight copies of SMN2. We report here the characterization of SMA mutants in this series that displayed a range in disease severity from embryonic lethal to viable with mild neuromuscular deficits.
|Chronic alcohol consumption induces an overproduction of NO by nNOS- and iNOS-expressing myenteric neurons in the murine small intestine. |
Bagyánszki M, Torfs P, Krecsmarik M, Fekete E, Adriaensen D, Van Nassauw L, Timmermans JP, Kroese AB.
Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society 23 e237-48 2011
Background There are indications that alterations in the nitric oxide (NO) system of relaxation mediate gastrointestinal motor disturbances induced by chronic alcohol consumption (CAC). As CAC is known to inhibit the motility of the mouse small intestine, we investigated in this model if CAC affects basal NO synthesis by myenteric neurons and which NOS isoforms are involved. Methods The instantaneous NO synthesis of individual neurons was optically measured in whole-mount preparations loaded with the NO synthesis indicator DAF-FM, and the expression of nNOS, iNOS and eNOS was determined by immunohistochemistry. Key Results: The DAF-FM recordings showed that CAC induced an increase in neuronal NO synthesis (absolute fluorescence: control 34±12; CAC 140±56; mean±SD; P<0.0004). Neurons of control mice expressed the nNOS (29±3% of total) and iNOS (28±1%) isoforms. eNOS expression was observed in <0.5% of the neurons. Chronic alcohol consumption caused an increase in the proportion of iNOS-expressing neurons (to 33±5%; P<0.01) and a decrease in nNOS-expressing neurons (to 22±3%; P<0.0001), without altering the proportion of NO-producing neurons (control 55±13%; CAC 56± 11%; P=0.82). Conclusions & Inferences: Chronic alcohol consumption induces a marked increase in NO synthesis by jejunal myenteric neurons, accompanied by an up-regulation of iNOS-expressing neurons and a downregulation of nNOS neurons. We conclude that the overproduction of NO may be a direct cause of gastrointestinal motility disturbances.
|The effect of inflammation on the expression and distribution of the MAS-related gene receptors MrgE and MrgF in the murine ileum. |
Avula LR, Buckinx R, Alpaerts K, Costagliola A, Adriaensen D, Van Nassauw L, Timmermans JP.
Histochemistry and cell biology 136 569-85 2011
The MAS-related gene (Mrg) receptor MrgE has been suggested to be expressed at all tissue levels involved in pain sensation and to influence the expression of another Mrg receptor, MrgF. Given the knowledge on the role of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in sensation, and the plasticity of enteric neurons during intestinal inflammation, it can be hypothesized that MrgE is expressed in enteric neurons, and that MrgE and MrgF change expression in intestinal inflammatory conditions. Therefore, we aimed to reveal the expression details of MrgE and MrgF in the murine ileum in normal and inflamed conditions. Using reverse transcriptase-PCR, quantitative-PCR and immunohistochemistry, we compared the ileum of non-inflamed control mice with that of two models of intestinal inflammation, i.e. intestinal schistosomiasis and chemically induced ileitis. MrgE and MrgF mRNAs were detected in control and inflamed conditions. MrgE and MrgF mRNAs showed a trend towards downregulation during intestinal schistosomiasis and a significant reduction during ileitis. MrgE and MrgF receptors were expressed in distinct enteric neuronal subpopulations, such as the sensory, secretomotor and vasodilator neurons, and in nerve fibres in the tunica muscularis and lamina propria of control and inflamed ileum. Only a minor proportion of enteric neurons co-expressed MrgE and MrgF. The number of enteric neurons expressing MrgE and MrgF receptors was significantly reduced during intestinal schistosomiasis and ileitis. This is the first report on the expression of MrgE and MrgF in the ENS in (patho)physiological conditions. The expression of MrgE and MrgF in enteric neurons was negatively affected by inflammation.
|Serotonin receptor diversity in the human colon: Expression of serotonin type 3 receptor subunits 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E. |
Kapeller, J; Möller, D; Lasitschka, F; Autschbach, F; Hovius, R; Rappold, G; Brüss, M; Gershon, MD; Niesler, B
The Journal of comparative neurology 519 420-32 2011
Since the first description of 5-HT₃ receptors more than 50 years ago, there has been speculation about the molecular basis of their receptor heterogeneity. We have cloned the genes encoding novel 5-HT3 subunits 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E and have shown that these subunits are able to form functional heteromeric receptors when coexpressed with the 5-HT3A subunit. However, whether these subunits are actually expressed in human tissue remained to be confirmed. In the current study, we performed immunocytochemistry to locate the 5-HT3A as well as the 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E subunits within the human colon. Western blot analysis was used to confirm subunit expression, and RT-PCR was employed to detect transcripts encoding 5-HT₃ receptor subunits in microdissected tissue samples. This investigation revealed, for the first time, that 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E subunits are coexpressed with 5-HT3A in cell bodies of myenteric neurons. Furthermore, 5-HT3A and 5-HT3D were found to be expressed in submucosal plexus of the human large intestine. These data provide a strong basis for future studies of the roles that specific 5-HT₃ receptor subtypes play in the function of the enteric and central nervous systems and the contribution that specific 5-HT₃ receptors make to the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and dyspepsia.Full Text Article
|Serotonin-immunoreactive neurons and mast cells in the mouse esophagus suggest involvement of serotonin in both motility control and neuroimmune interactions. |
Hempfling C, Neuhuber WL, Wörl J
Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society 2011
Background Serotonin is a major transmitter in the gastrointestinal tract, but little is known about the serotonergic system in the esophagus. Methods The aim of this study was to use multilabel immunofluorescence to characterize serotonin-positive nerve cell bodies and fibers and their relationship with other neuronal and non-neuronal elements in the mouse esophagus. Antibodies against serotonin, vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), and α-bungarotoxin (α-BT), were used. Key Results Serotonin-containing perikarya represented ∼10% of all PGP 9.5-positive myenteric neurons. Serotonin-positive varicose nerve fibers were found in the lamina muscularis mucosae and present on ∼13% of α-BT-labeled motor endplates in addition to VAChT-immunoreactive motor terminals. As ChAT-positive neurons of the compact formation of the nucleus ambiguus were negative for serotonin, serotonin-positive varicosities on motor endplates are presumed to be of enteric origin. On the other hand, cholinergic ambiguus neurons were densely supplied with serotonin-positive varicosities. The tela submucosa and tunica adventitia contained large numbers of serotonin-positive mast cells, a few of which were in close association with serotonin-positive nerve fibers. Conclusions & Inferences The mouse esophagus is endowed with a rich serotonin-positive intrinsic innervation, including enteric co-innervation of striated muscles. Serotonin may modulate vagal motor innervation of esophageal-striated muscles not only at the central level via projections of the raphe nuclei to the nucleus ambiguus but also at the peripheral level via enteric co-innervation. In addition, mast cells represent a non-neuronal source of serotonin, being involved in neuroimmune processes.© 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
|Chronic alcohol consumption affects gastrointestinal motility and reduces the proportion of neuronal NOS-immunoreactive myenteric neurons in the murine jejunum. |
Bagyánszki M, Krecsmarik M, De Winter BY, De Man JG, Fekete E, Pelckmans PA, Adriaensen D, Kroese AB, Van Nassauw L, Timmermans JP
Anat Rec (Hoboken) 293 1536-42. 2010
Alcohol consumption interferes with gastrointestinal transit causing symptoms in alcoholic patients. Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) plays an important role in the control of gastrointestinal motility. Our aim was to investigate whether chronic alcohol intake in a murine model induces gastrointestinal motility disturbances and affects the nitrergic myenteric neurons in the stomach and jejunum. Gastric emptying, small intestinal transit and geometric centre were measured in vivo after intragastric gavage of Evans blue. Nitrergic relaxations to electrical field stimulation (EFS) and exogenous NO were recorded in jejunal muscle strips in vitro. The proportion of nNOS-immunopositive myenteric neurons was assessed using PGP9.5 and nNOS immunostaining. After chronic alcohol consumption, gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were delayed compared with control mice, and the nitrergic nerve-mediated relaxations to EFS in the jejunum were decreased, whereas relaxations to exogenous NO did not differ. The proportion of nNOS-immunoreactive neurons did not change in the stomach, whereas in the jejunum the percentage decreased from 33% to 27% (P < 0.001) after chronic alcohol intake. The total number of myenteric neurons remained unchanged. These results suggest that chronic alcohol consumption disturbs gastric and small intestinal motility in vivo and in vitro and is associated with a decrease in the proportion of nNOS-immunoreactive myenteric neurons in the murine jejunum.
|Comparison of continuous infusion versus automated bolus for postoperative patient-controlled analgesia with popliteal sciatic nerve catheters. |
Manuel Taboada, Jaime Rodríguez, Maria Bermudez, Marcos Amor, Beatriz Ulloa, Francisco Aneiros, Sergi Sebate, Joaquin Cortés, Julian Alvarez, Peter G Atanassoff, Manuel Taboada, Jaime Rodríguez, Maria Bermudez, Marcos Amor, Beatriz Ulloa, Francisco Aneiros, Sergi Sebate, Joaquin Cortés, Julian Alvarez, Peter G Atanassoff, Manuel Taboada, Jaime Rodríguez, Maria Bermudez, Marcos Amor, Beatriz Ulloa, Francisco Aneiros, Sergi Sebate, Joaquin Cortés, Julian Alvarez, Peter G Atanassoff, Manuel Taboada, Jaime Rodríguez, Maria Bermudez, Marcos Amor, Beatriz Ulloa, Francisco Aneiros, Sergi Sebate, Joaquin Cortés, Julian Alvarez, Peter G Atanassoff
Anesthesiology 110 150-4 2009
BACKGROUND: This investigation was designed to compare a new methodology of automated regular bolus with a continuous infusion of local anesthetic for continuous popliteal sciatic block; both regimens were combined with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). METHODS: Fifty patients undergoing hallux valgus repair were randomly allocated to receive an infusion of 0.125% levobupivacaine administered through a popliteal catheter as an automated regular bolus (n = 25) or as a continuous infusion (n = 25), both combined with PCA. Postoperative pain scores, incremental doses delivered by the PCA, local anesthetic consumed per hour, and the need for rescue tramadol analgesia were recorded. RESULTS: Both dosing regimens provided similar postoperative analgesia. Consumption of local anesthetic (5.14 ml/h, 5-5.75 ml/h) and dose request from the PCA (1, 0-5.4) was lower in the automated bolus group as compared to the continuous infusion group (5.9 ml/h, 5.05-7.8 ml/h; doses by PCA: 6.5, 0-20.5; P 0.05). The need for rescue tramadol was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSION: In continuous popliteal sciatic block, local anesthetic administered as an automated regular bolus in conjunction with PCA provided similar pain relief as a continuous infusion technique combined with PCA; however, the new dosing regimen reduced the need for additional PCA and the overall consumption of local anesthetic.
|Nav1.7 expression is increased in painful human dental pulp. |
Luo, S; Perry, GM; Levinson, SR; Henry, MA
Molecular pain 4 16 2008
Animal studies and a few human studies have shown a change in sodium channel (NaCh) expression after inflammatory lesions, and this change is implicated in the generation of pain states. We are using the extracted human tooth as a model system to study peripheral pain mechanisms and here examine the expression of the Nav1.7 NaCh isoform in normal and painful samples. Pulpal sections were labeled with antibodies against: 1) Nav1.7, N52 and PGP9.5, and 2) Nav1.7, caspr (a paranodal protein used to identify nodes of Ranvier), and myelin basic protein (MBP), and a z-series of optically-sectioned images were obtained with the confocal microscope. Nav1.7-immunofluorescence was quantified in N52/PGP9.5-identified nerve fibers with NIH ImageJ software, while Nav1.7 expression in myelinated fibers at caspr-identified nodal sites was evaluated and further characterized as either typical or atypical as based on caspr-relationships.Results show a significant increase in nerve area with Nav1.7 expression within coronal and radicular fiber bundles and increased expression at typical and atypical caspr-identified nodal sites in painful samples. Painful samples also showed an augmentation of Nav1.7 within localized areas that lacked MBP, including those associated with atypical caspr-identified sites, thus identifying NaCh remodeling within demyelinating axons as the basis for a possible pulpal pain mechanism.This study identifies the increased axonal expression and augmentation of Nav1.7 at intact and remodeling/demyelinating nodes within the painful human dental pulp where these changes may contribute to constant, increased evoked and spontaneous pain responses that characterize the pain associated with toothache.
|Calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactivity in the rat trigeminovascular system: differences between peripheral and central CGRP receptor distribution. |
Jochen K Lennerz,Victor Rühle,Eugene P Ceppa,Winfried L Neuhuber,Nigel W Bunnett,Eileen F Grady,Karl Messlinger
The Journal of comparative neurology 507 2008
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key mediator in primary headaches including migraine. Animal models of meningeal nociception demonstrate both peripheral and central CGRP effects; however, the target structures remain unclear. To study the distribution of CGRP receptors in the rat trigeminovascular system we used antibodies recognizing two components of the CGRP receptor, the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and the receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1). In the cranial dura mater, CLR and RAMP1 immunoreactivity (-ir) was found within arterial blood vessels, mononuclear cells, and Schwann cells, but not sensory axons. In the trigeminal ganglion, besides Schwann and satellite cells, CLR- and RAMP1-ir was found in subpopulations of CGRP-ir neurons where colocalization of CGRP- and RAMP1-ir was very rare ( approximately 0.6%). CLR- and RAMP1-ir was present on central, but not peripheral, axons. In the spinal trigeminal nucleus, CLR- and RAMP1-ir was localized to glomerular structures, partly colocalized with CGRP-ir. However, CLR- and RAMP1-ir was lacking in central glia and neuronal cell bodies. We conclude that CGRP receptors are associated with structural targets of known CGRP effects (vasodilation, mast cell degranulation) and targets of unknown function (Schwann cells). In the spinal trigeminal nucleus, CGRP receptors are probably located on neuronal processes, including primary afferent endings, suggesting involvement in presynaptic regulation of nociceptive transmission. Thus, in the trigeminovascular system CGRP receptor localization suggests multiple targets for CGRP in the pathogenesis of primary headaches.
|Immunohistochemical assessment of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) within the rostral ventrolateral medulla. |
Kellysan Powers-Martin,Anna M Barron,Clare H Auckland,John K McCooke,Douglas J McKitrick,Leonard F Arnolda,Jacqueline K Phillips
Journal of biomedical science 15 2008
Functional evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) signalling in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is cGMP-dependent and that this pathway is impaired in hypertension. We examined cGMP expression as a marker of active NO signalling in the C1 region of the RVLM, comparing adult (>18 weeks) Wistar-Kyoto (WKY, n = 4) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, n = 4). Double label immunohistochemistry for cGMP-immunoreactivity (IR) and C1 neurons [as identified by phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT-IR) or tyrosine hydroxylase TH-IR)], or neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) neurones, failed to reveal cGMP-IR neurons in the RVLM of either strain, despite consistent detection of cGMP-IR in the nucleus ambiguus (NA). This was unchanged in the presence of isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX; 0.5 mM, WKY, n = 4, SHR n = 2) and in young animals (WKY, 10-weeks, n = 3). Incubation of RVLM-slices (WKY, 10-weeks, n = 9) in DETA-NO (100 mum; 10 min) or NMDA (10 muM; 2 min) did not uncover cGMP-IR. In all studies, cGMP was prominent within the vasculature. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)-IR was found throughout neurones of the RVLM, but did not co-localise with PNMT, TH or nNOS-IR neurons (WKY, 10-weeks, n = 6). Results indicate that within the RVLM, cGMP is not detectable using immunohistochemistry in the basal state and cannot be elicited by phosphodiesterase inhibition, NMDA receptor stimulation or NO donor application.
|TRPM8 Axonal expression is decreased in painful human teeth with irreversible pulpitis and cold hyperalgesia. |
Alvarado, LT; Perry, GM; Hargreaves, KM; Henry, MA
Journal of endodontics 33 1167-71 2007
Pulpitis pain might be triggered by a cold stimulus, yet the cellular mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are largely unknown. One possible mechanism involves the direct activation of cold-responsive thermoreceptors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible role of the TRPM8 thermoreceptor in cold-mediated noxious pulpal pain mechanisms by comparing expression patterns in pulpal nerves from healthy control molars to cold-sensitive painful molars with irreversible pulpitis. Samples were identically processed with the indirect immunofluorescence method, and images were obtained with confocal microscopy. The immunofluorescence intensity and area occupied by TRPM8 within N52/PGP9.5-identified nerve fibers were quantified. Results showed that relative to normal samples, TRPM8 nerve area expression was significantly less in the cold-sensitive painful samples (34.9% vs 8%, P less than 0.03), but with no significant difference in immunofluorescence intensity between the 2 groups. These results suggest that TRPM8 is most likely not involved in cold-mediated noxious pulpal pain mechanisms.
|Phenotypic properties of adult mouse intrinsic cardiac neurons maintained in culture. |
Hoard, JL; Hoover, DB; Wondergem, R
American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 293 C1875-83 2007
Intrinsic cardiac neurons are core elements of a complex neural network that serves as an important integrative center for regulation of cardiac function. Although mouse models are used frequently in cardiovascular research, very little is known about mouse intrinsic cardiac neurons. Accordingly, we have dissociated neurons from adult mouse heart, maintained these cells in culture, and defined their basic phenotypic properties. Neurons in culture were primarily unipolar, and 89% had prominent neurite outgrowth after 3 days (longest neurite length of 258 +/- 20 microm, n = 140). Many neurites formed close appositions with other neurons and nonneuronal cells. Neurite outgrowth was drastically reduced when neurons were kept in culture with a majority of nonneural cells eliminated. This finding suggests that nonneuronal cells release molecules that support neurite outgrowth. All neurons in coculture showed immunoreactivity for a full complement of cholinergic markers, but about 21% also stained for tyrosine hydroxylase, as observed previously in sections of intrinsic cardiac ganglia from mice and humans. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrated that these neurons have voltage-activated sodium current that is blocked by tetrodotoxin and that neurons exhibit phasic or accommodating patterns of action potential firing during a depolarizing current pulse. Several neurons exhibited a fast inward current mediated by nicotinic ACh receptors. Collectively, this work shows that neurons from adult mouse heart can be maintained in culture and exhibit appropriate phenotypic properties. Accordingly, these cultures provide a viable model for evaluating the physiology, pharmacology, and trophic factor sensitivity of adult mouse cardiac parasympathetic neurons.
|Nerve growth factor expression after plantar incision in the rat. |
Chaoran Wu, Leila Boustany, Hong Liang, Timothy J Brennan
Anesthesiology 107 128-35 2007
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain control remains a significant problem. Advances will proceed if we can further reveal the underlying mechanisms of incisional pain and its mediators. Previous studies have demonstrated that nerve growth factor (NGF) is released in incised tissue and contributes to hyperalgesia in incisional pain. The purpose of this study is to examine the expression of NGF in skin after planter incision. METHODS: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats underwent incision at the plantar aspect of hind paw. The NGF messenger RNA (mRNA) was measured at various times after incision by polymerase chain reaction. NGF protein expression was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry in incisions. RESULTS: NGF mRNA increased from 2 to 4 h after incision and was the same as control by postoperative day 1. A large-molecular-weight form of NGF, approximately 75 kd, was found in normal skin. The large-molecular-weight NGF protein increased 4 h after incision and returned to baseline on postoperative day 7. The skin immediately adjacent to the incision had the greatest NGF expression. Immunohistochemical staining for NGF was present adjacent to the incision and localized in Schwann cells and axons. CONCLUSION: NGF mRNA is increased and a large-molecular-weight form of NGF protein is expressed in the region adjacent to the incision. NGF immunoreactivity is present in nerve bundles; both Schwann cells and axons are labeled. Immunoreactive NGF in axons is likely taken up into cut axons. This study suggests some common mechanisms for neuropathic and incisional pain.
|GLP-2 receptor localizes to enteric neurons and endocrine cells expressing vasoactive peptides and mediates increased blood flow. |
Xinfu Guan, Heidi E Karpen, John Stephens, John T Bukowski, Sanyong Niu, Guangcheng Zhang, Barbara Stoll, Milton J Finegold, Jens J Holst, Darryl Hadsell, Darry L Hadsell, Buford L Nichols, Douglas G Burrin
Gastroenterology 130 150-64 2006
BACKGROUND AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-responsive hormone that exerts diverse actions in the gastrointestinal tract, including enhancing epithelial cell survival and proliferation, mucosal blood flow, and nutrient uptake and suppressing gastric motility and secretion. These actions are mediated by the G-protein-coupled receptor, GLP-2R. Cellular localization of the GLP-2R and the nature of its signaling network in the gut, however, are poorly defined. Thus, our aim was to establish cellular localization of GLP-2R and functional connection to vascular action of GLP-2 in the gut. METHODS: Intestinal cellular GLP-2R localization was determined with real-time, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) of laser capture microdissected subtissue and fluorescence in situ hybridization and also with double and/or triple immunostaining of human and pig tissue using a validated GLP-2R polyclonal antibody. Superior mesenteric arterial blood flow and intestinal eNOS expression and phosphorylation were measured in TPN-fed pigs acutely (4 h) infused with GLP-2. RESULTS: We show that the porcine GLP-2R mRNA was expressed in the villus epithelium and myenteric plexus. GLP-2R protein was co-localized by confocal immunohistochemistry with serotonin in enteroendocrine cells and also with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-expressing and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-positive enteric neurons. In neonatal pigs, GLP-2 infusion dose-dependently stimulated intestinal blood flow and coordinately upregulated the expression of intestinal eNOS mRNA, protein, and phosphorylation (eNOS-Ser1117). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the GLP-2-induced stimulation of blood flow is mediated by vasoactive neurotransmitters that are colocalized with GLP-2R in 2 functionally distinct cell types within the gastrointestinal tract.
|Anti-Protein Gene Product 9.5 - Data Sheet|