Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||ELISA, IHC, IH(P), WB||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Polyclonal rabbit serum containing 0.01% sodium azide as a preservative.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable at -20ºC in undiluted aliquots for up to twelve months after date of receipt. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Anti-Prosurfactant Protein C (proSP-C) Antibody SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Control of Francisella tularensis Intracellular Growth by Pulmonary Epithelial Cells.|
Maggio, S; Takeda, K; Stark, F; Meierovics, AI; Yabe, I; Cowley, SC
PloS one 10 e0138565 2015
The virulence of F. tularensis is often associated with its ability to grow in macrophages, although recent studies show that Francisella proliferates in multiple host cell types, including pulmonary epithelial cells. Thus far little is known about the requirements for killing of F. tularensis in the non-macrophage host cell types that support replication of this organism. Here we sought to address this question through the use of a murine lung epithelial cell line (TC-1 cells). Our data show that combinations of the cytokines IFN-γ, TNF, and IL-17A activated murine pulmonary epithelial cells to inhibit the intracellular growth of the F. tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) and the highly virulent F. tularensis Schu S4 strain. Although paired combinations of IFN-γ, TNF, and IL-17A all significantly controlled LVS growth, simultaneous treatment with all three cytokines had the greatest effect on LVS growth inhibition. In contrast, Schu S4 was more resistant to cytokine-induced growth effects, exhibiting significant growth inhibition only in response to all three cytokines. Since one of the main antimicrobial mechanisms of activated macrophages is the release of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) via the activity of iNOS, we investigated the role of RNI and iNOS in Francisella growth control by pulmonary epithelial cells. NOS2 gene expression was significantly up-regulated in infected, cytokine-treated pulmonary epithelial cells in a manner that correlated with LVS and Schu S4 growth control. Treatment of LVS-infected cells with an iNOS inhibitor significantly reversed LVS killing in cytokine-treated cultures. Further, we found that mouse pulmonary epithelial cells produced iNOS during in vivo respiratory LVS infection. Overall, these data demonstrate that lung epithelial cells produce iNOS both in vitro and in vivo, and can inhibit Francisella intracellular growth via reactive nitrogen intermediates.
|Lineage-negative progenitors mobilize to regenerate lung epithelium after major injury.|
Vaughan, AE; Brumwell, AN; Xi, Y; Gotts, JE; Brownfield, DG; Treutlein, B; Tan, K; Tan, V; Liu, FC; Looney, MR; Matthay, MA; Rock, JR; Chapman, HA
Nature 517 621-5 2015
Broadly, tissue regeneration is achieved in two ways: by proliferation of common differentiated cells and/or by deployment of specialized stem/progenitor cells. Which of these pathways applies is both organ- and injury-specific. Current models in the lung posit that epithelial repair can be attributed to cells expressing mature lineage markers. By contrast, here we define the regenerative role of previously uncharacterized, rare lineage-negative epithelial stem/progenitor (LNEP) cells present within normal distal lung. Quiescent LNEPs activate a ΔNp63 (a p63 splice variant) and cytokeratin 5 remodelling program after influenza or bleomycin injury in mice. Activated cells proliferate and migrate widely to occupy heavily injured areas depleted of mature lineages, at which point they differentiate towards mature epithelium. Lineage tracing revealed scant contribution of pre-existing mature epithelial cells in such repair, whereas orthotopic transplantation of LNEPs, isolated by a definitive surface profile identified through single-cell sequencing, directly demonstrated the proliferative capacity and multipotency of this population. LNEPs require Notch signalling to activate the ΔNp63 and cytokeratin 5 program, and subsequent Notch blockade promotes an alveolar cell fate. Persistent Notch signalling after injury led to parenchymal 'micro-honeycombing' (alveolar cysts), indicative of failed regeneration. Lungs from patients with fibrosis show analogous honeycomb cysts with evidence of hyperactive Notch signalling. Our findings indicate that distinct stem/progenitor cell pools repopulate injured tissue depending on the extent of the injury, and the outcomes of regeneration or fibrosis may depend in part on the dynamics of LNEP Notch signalling.
|Conditional overexpression of TGFβ1 promotes pulmonary inflammation, apoptosis and mortality via TGFβR2 in the developing mouse lung.|
Sureshbabu, A; Syed, MA; Boddupalli, CS; Dhodapkar, MV; Homer, RJ; Minoo, P; Bhandari, V
Respiratory research 16 4 2015
Earlier studies have reported that transforming growth factor beta 1(TGFβ1) is a critical mediator of hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (HALI) in developing lungs, leading to impaired alveolarization and a pulmonary phenotype of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). However, the mechanisms responsible for the TGFβ1-induced inflammatory signals that lead to cell death and abnormal alveolarization are poorly understood. We hypothesized that TGFβ1 signaling via TGFβR2 is necessary for the pathogenesis of the BPD pulmonary phenotype resulting from HALI.We utilized lung epithelial cell-specific TGFβ1 overexpressing transgenic and TGFβR2 null mutant mice to evaluate the effects on neonatal mortality as well as pulmonary inflammation and apoptosis in developing lungs. Lung morphometry was performed to determine the impaired alveolarization and multicolor flow cytometry studies were performed to detect inflammatory macrophages and monocytes in lungs. Apoptotic cell death was measured with TUNEL assay, immunohistochemistry and western blotting and protein expression of angiogenic mediators were also analyzed.Our data reveals that increased TGFβ1 expression in newborn mice lungs leads to increased mortality, macrophage and immature monocyte infiltration, apoptotic cell death specifically in Type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), impaired alveolarization, and dysregulated angiogenic molecular markers.Our study has demonstrated the potential role of inhibition of TGFβ1 signaling via TGFβR2 for improved survival, reduced inflammation and apoptosis that may provide insights for the development of potential therapeutic strategies targeted against HALI and BPD.
|Bax deficiency extends the survival of Ku70 knockout mice that develop lung and heart diseases.|
Ngo, J; Matsuyama, M; Kim, C; Poventud-Fuentes, I; Bates, A; Siedlak, SL; Lee, HG; Doughman, YQ; Watanabe, M; Liner, A; Hoit, B; Voelkel, N; Gerson, S; Hasty, P; Matsuyama, S
Cell death & disease 6 e1706 2015
Ku70 (Lupus Ku autoantigen p70) is essential in nonhomologous end joining DNA double-strand break repair, and ku70(-/-) mice age prematurely because of increased genomic instability and DNA damage responses. Previously, we found that Ku70 also inhibits Bax, a key mediator of apoptosis. We hypothesized that Bax-mediated apoptosis would be enhanced in the absence of Ku70 and contribute to premature death observed in ku70(-/-) mice. Here, we show that ku70(-/-) bax(+/-) and ku70(-/-) bax(-/-) mice have better survival, especially in females, than ku70(-/-) mice, even though Bax deficiency did not decrease the incidence of lymphoma observed in a Ku70-null background. Moreover, we found that ku70(-/-) mice develop lung diseases, like emphysema and pulmonary arterial (PA) occlusion, by 3 months of age. These lung abnormalities can trigger secondary health problems such as heart failure that may account for the poor survival of ku70(-/-) mice. Importantly, Bax deficiency appeared to delay the development of emphysema. This study suggests that enhanced Bax activity exacerbates the negative impact of Ku70 deletion. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms of emphysema and pulmonary hypertension due to PA occlusion are not well understood, and therefore ku70(-/-) and Bax-deficient ku70(-/-) mice may be useful models to study these diseases.
|Sevoflurane ameliorates intestinal ischemia-reperfusion-induced lung injury by inhibiting the synergistic action between mast cell activation and oxidative stress.|
Luo, C; Yuan, D; Zhao, W; Chen, H; Luo, G; Su, G; Hei, Z
Molecular medicine reports 12 1082-90 2015
Preconditioning with sevoflurane (SEV) can protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury in several organs, however, the benefits of SEV against acute lung injury (ALI), induced by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IIR), and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of SEV preconditioning on IIR-mediated ALI and the associated mechanisms in a rat model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats treated with 2.3% SEV or apocynin (AP), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, were subjected to 75 min superior mesenteric artery occlusion followed by 2 h reperfusion in the presence or absence of the mast cell degranulator compound 48/80 (CP). SEV and AP were observed to downregulate the protein expression levels of p47(phox) and gp91(phox) in the lungs of normal rats. IIR resulted in severe lung injury, characterized by significant increases in pathological injury scores, lung wet/dry weight ratio, protein expression levels of p4(7phox), gp91(phox) and ICAM-1, the presence of hydrogen peroxide, malondydehyde and interleukin-6, and the activity of myeloperoxidase. In addition, significant reductions were observed in the expression of prosurfactant protein C, accompanied by an increase in MC degranulation, demonstrated by significant elevations in the number of mast cells, expression levels of tryptase and the concentration of β-hexosaminidase. These changes were further augmented in the presence of CP. In addition, SEV and AP preconditioning significantly alleviated the above alterations induced by IIR alone or in combination with CP. These findings suggested that SEV and AP attenuated IIR-induced ALI by inhibiting NADPH oxidase and the synergistic action between oxidative stress and mast cell activation.
|Fibroblast Growth Factor 9 Regulation by MicroRNAs Controls Lung Development and Links DICER1 Loss to the Pathogenesis of Pleuropulmonary Blastoma.|
Yin, Y; Castro, AM; Hoekstra, M; Yan, TJ; Kanakamedala, AC; Dehner, LP; Hill, DA; Ornitz, DM
PLoS genetics 11 e1005242 2015
Pleuropulmonary Blastoma (PPB) is the primary neoplastic manifestation of a pediatric cancer predisposition syndrome that is associated with several diseases including cystic nephroma, Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, medulloblastoma, and ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor. The primary pathology of PPB, epithelial cysts with stromal hyperplasia and risk for progression to a complex primitive sarcoma, is associated with familial heterozygosity and lesion-associated epithelial loss-of-heterozygosity of DICER1. It has been hypothesized that loss of heterozygosity of DICER1 in lung epithelium is a non-cell autonomous etiology of PPB and a critical pathway that regulates lung development; however, there are no known direct targets of epithelial microRNAs (miRNAs) in the lung. Fibroblast Growth Factor 9 (FGF9) is expressed in the mesothelium and epithelium during lung development and primarily functions to regulate lung mesenchyme; however, there are no known mechanisms that regulate FGF9 expression during lung development. Using mouse genetics and molecular phenotyping of human PPB tissue, we show that FGF9 is overexpressed in lung epithelium in the initial multicystic stage of Type I PPB and that in mice lacking epithelial Dicer1, or induced to overexpress epithelial Fgf9, increased Fgf9 expression results in pulmonary mesenchymal hyperplasia and a multicystic architecture that is histologically and molecularly indistinguishable from Type I PPB. We further show that miR-140 is expressed in lung epithelium, regulates epithelial Fgf9 expression, and regulates pseudoglandular stages of lung development. These studies identify an essential miRNA-FGF9 pathway for lung development and a non-cell autonomous signaling mechanism that contributes to the mesenchymal hyperplasia that is characteristic of Type I PPB.
|Lung Cancer Onset in Wild Type Mice Following Bone Marrow Reconstitution with kras(v12) Cells.|
Belloni, E; Martin Padura, I; Gerbino, E; Orecchioni, S; Fusar Imperatore, F; Marighetti, P; Bertalot, G; Giuseppe Pelicci, P; Bertolini, F
Scientific reports 5 13047 2015
A role for bone-marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) in tissue repair and malignancy onset has been proposed, but their contribution is still debated. We tested the ability of BMDCs containing the inducible kras(V12) oncogene to initiate lung adenocarcinoma. For our experimental strategy, we reconstituted lethally irradiated wild type mice with BMDCs carrying inducible kras(V12) and subsequently induced oncogene expression by 4-OHT administration. Epithelial lung lesions, from adenoma to adenocarcinomas, appeared at successive time points. These results show that lung tumors were derived from donor BMDCs and indicate a direct involvement of bone marrow cells in the development of epithelial cancers.
|Analysis of lung tumor initiation and progression in transgenic mice for Cre-inducible overexpression of Cul4A gene.|
Wang, Y; Xu, Z; Mao, JH; Hung, MS; Hsieh, D; Au, A; Jablons, DM; You, L
Thoracic cancer 6 480-7 2015
Lung cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and death worldwide. Although the available lung cancer animal models have been informative and further propel our understanding of human lung cancer, they still do not fully recapitulate the complexities of human lung cancer. The pathogenesis of lung cancer remains highly elusive because of its aggressive biologic nature and considerable heterogeneity, compared to other cancers. The association of Cul4A amplification with aggressive tumor growth and poor prognosis has been suggested. Our previous study suggested that Cul4A is oncogenic in vitro, but its oncogenic role in vivo has not been studied.Viral delivery approaches have been used extensively to model cancer in mouse models. In our experiments, we used Cre-recombinase induced overexpression of the Cul4A gene in transgenic mice to study the role of Cul4A on lung tumor initiation and progression and have developed a new model of lung tumor development in mice harboring a conditionally expressed allele of Cul4A.Here we show that the use of a recombinant adenovirus expressing Cre-recombinase ("AdenoCre") to induce Cul4A overexpression in the lungs of mice allows controls of the timing and multiplicity of tumor initiation. Following our mouse models, we are able to study the potential role of Cul4A in the development and progression in pulmonary adenocarcinoma as well.Our findings indicate that Cul4A is oncogenic in vivo, and this mouse model is a tool in understanding the mechanisms of Cul4A in human cancers and for testing experimental therapies targeting Cul4A.
|Expression level and subcellular localization of heme oxygenase-1 modulates its cytoprotective properties in response to lung injury: a mouse model.|
Namba, F; Go, H; Murphy, JA; La, P; Yang, G; Sengupta, S; Fernando, AP; Yohannes, M; Biswas, C; Wehrli, SL; Dennery, PA
PloS one 9 e90936 2014
Premature infants exposed to hyperoxia suffer acute and long-term pulmonary consequences. Nevertheless, neonates survive hyperoxia better than adults. The factors contributing to neonatal hyperoxic tolerance are not fully elucidated. In contrast to adults, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored protein, is abundant in the neonatal lung but is not inducible in response to hyperoxia. The latter may be important, because very high levels of HO-1 overexpression are associated with significant oxygen cytotoxicity in vitro. Also, in contrast to adults, HO-1 localizes to the nucleus in neonatal mice exposed to hyperoxia. To understand the mechanisms by which HO-1 expression levels and subcellular localization contribute to hyperoxic tolerance in neonates, lung-specific transgenic mice expressing high or low levels of full-length HO-1 (cytoplasmic, HO-1-FL(H) or HO-1-FL(L)) or C-terminally truncated HO-1 (nuclear, Nuc-HO-1-TR) were generated. In HO-1-FL(L), the lungs had a normal alveolar appearance and lesser oxidative damage after hyperoxic exposure. In contrast, in HO-1-FL(H), alveolar wall thickness with type II cell hyperproliferation was observed as well worsened pulmonary function and evidence of abnormal lung cell hyperproliferation in recovery from hyperoxia. In Nuc-HO-1-TR, the lungs had increased DNA oxidative damage, increased poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein expression, and reduced poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) hydrolysis as well as reduced pulmonary function in recovery from hyperoxia. These data indicate that low cytoplasmic HO-1 levels protect against hyperoxia-induced lung injury by attenuating oxidative stress, whereas high cytoplasmic HO-1 levels worsen lung injury by increasing proliferation and decreasing apoptosis of alveolar type II cells. Enhanced lung nuclear HO-1 levels impaired recovery from hyperoxic lung injury by disabling PAR-dependent regulation of DNA repair. Lastly both high cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of HO-1 predisposed to long-term abnormal lung cellular proliferation. To maximize HO-1 cytoprotective effects, therapeutic strategies must account for the specific effects of its subcellular localization and expression levels.
|Reconstructing lineage hierarchies of the distal lung epithelium using single-cell RNA-seq.|
Treutlein, B; Brownfield, DG; Wu, AR; Neff, NF; Mantalas, GL; Espinoza, FH; Desai, TJ; Krasnow, MA; Quake, SR
Nature 509 371-5 2014
The mammalian lung is a highly branched network in which the distal regions of the bronchial tree transform during development into a densely packed honeycomb of alveolar air sacs that mediate gas exchange. Although this transformation has been studied by marker expression analysis and fate-mapping, the mechanisms that control the progression of lung progenitors along distinct lineages into mature alveolar cell types are still incompletely known, in part because of the limited number of lineage markers and the effects of ensemble averaging in conventional transcriptome analysis experiments on cell populations. Here we show that single-cell transcriptome analysis circumvents these problems and enables direct measurement of the various cell types and hierarchies in the developing lung. We used microfluidic single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) on 198 individual cells at four different stages encompassing alveolar differentiation to measure the transcriptional states which define the developmental and cellular hierarchy of the distal mouse lung epithelium. We empirically classified cells into distinct groups by using an unbiased genome-wide approach that did not require a priori knowledge of the underlying cell types or the previous purification of cell populations. The results confirmed the basic outlines of the classical model of epithelial cell-type diversity in the distal lung and led to the discovery of many previously unknown cell-type markers, including transcriptional regulators that discriminate between the different populations. We reconstructed the molecular steps during maturation of bipotential progenitors along both alveolar lineages and elucidated the full life cycle of the alveolar type 2 cell lineage. This single-cell genomics approach is applicable to any developing or mature tissue to robustly delineate molecularly distinct cell types, define progenitors and lineage hierarchies, and identify lineage-specific regulatory factors.
|Anti-Prosurfactant Protein C - Data Sheet|