Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||ELISA, IHC, WB||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Prosurfactant Protein B Antibody, reacts with both CT and NT|
|Presentation||Rabbit serum. Liquid. Contains no preservative.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to twelve months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Alveolar epithelial differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells in a rotating bioreactor. |
Ghaedi, M; Mendez, JJ; Bove, PF; Sivarapatna, A; Raredon, MS; Niklason, LE
Biomaterials 35 699-710 2014
Traditional stem cell differentiation protocols make use of a variety of cytokines including growth factors (GFs) and inhibitors in an effort to provide appropriate signals for tissue specific differentiation. In this study, iPSC-derived type II pneumocytes (iPSC-ATII) as well as native isolated human type II pneumocytes (hATII) were differentiated toward a type I phenotype using a unique air-liquid interface (ALI) system that relies on a rotating apparatus that mimics in vivo respiratory conditions. A relatively homogenous population of alveolar type II-like cells from iPSC was first generated (iPSC-ATII cells), which had phenotypic properties similar to mature human alveolar type II cells. iPSC-ATII cells were then cultured in a specially designed rotating culture apparatus. The effectiveness of the ALI bioreactor was compared with the effectiveness of small molecule-based differentiation of type II pneumocytes toward type 1 pneumocytes. The dynamics of differentiation were examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. iPSC-ATII and hATII cells cultured in the ALI bioreactor had higher levels of type I markers, including aquaporin-5(AQ5), caveolin-1, and T1α, at both the RNA and protein levels as compared with the flask-grown iPSC-ATII and hATII that had been treated with small molecules to induce differentiation. In summary, this study demonstrates that a rotating bioreactor culture system that provides an air-liquid interface is a potent inducer of type I epithelial differentiation for both iPS-ATII cells and hATII cells, and provides a method for large-scale production of alveolar epithelium for tissue engineering and drug discovery.
|Gestational exposure of mice to secondhand cigarette smoke causes bronchopulmonary dysplasia blocked by the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine. |
Singh, SP; Gundavarapu, S; Smith, KR; Chand, HS; Saeed, AI; Mishra, NC; Hutt, J; Barrett, EG; Husain, M; Harrod, KS; Langley, RJ; Sopori, ML
Environmental health perspectives 121 957-64 2013
Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure during gestation may increase the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)-a developmental lung condition primarily seen in neonates that is characterized by hypoalveolarization, decreased angiogenesis, and diminished surfactant protein production and may increase the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.We investigated whether gestational exposure to secondhand CS (SS) induced BPD and sought to ascertain the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in this response.We exposed BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to filtered air (control) or SS throughout the gestation period or postnatally up to 10 weeks. Lungs were examined at 7 days, 10 weeks, and 8 months after birth.Gestational but not postnatal exposure to SS caused a typical BPD-like condition: suppressed angiogenesis [decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor, and CD34/CD31 (hematopoietic progenitor cell marker/endothelial cell marker)], irreversible hypoalveolarization, and significantly decreased levels of Clara cells, Clara cell secretory protein, and surfactant proteins B and C, without affecting airway ciliated cells. Importantly, concomitant exposure to SS and the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine during gestation blocked the development of BPD.Gestational exposure to SS irreversibly disrupts lung development leading to a BPD-like condition with hypoalveolarization, decreased angiogenesis, and diminished lung secretory function. Nicotinic receptors are critical in the induction of gestational SS-induced BPD, and the use of nAChR antagonists during pregnancy may block CS-induced BPD.
|Measurement of human surfactant protein-B turnover in vivo from tracheal aspirates using targeted proteomics. |
Tomazela, DM; Patterson, BW; Hanson, E; Spence, KL; Kanion, TB; Salinger, DH; Vicini, P; Barret, H; Heins, HB; Cole, FS; Hamvas, A; MacCoss, MJ
Analytical chemistry 82 2561-7 2010
We describe a method to measure protein synthesis and catabolism in humans without prior purification and use the method to measure the turnover of surfactant protein-B (SP-B). SP-B, a lung-specific, hydrophobic protein essential for fetal-neonatal respiratory transition, is present in only picomolar quantities in tracheal aspirate samples and difficult to isolate for dynamic turnover studies using traditional in vivo tracer techniques. Using infusion of [5,5,5-(2)H(3)] leucine and a targeted proteomics method, we measured both the quantity and kinetics of SP-B tryptic peptides in tracheal aspirate samples of symptomatic newborn infants. The fractional synthetic rate (FSR) of SP-B measured using the most abundant proteolytic fragment, a 10 amino acid peptide from the carboxy-terminus of proSP-B (SPTGEWLPR), from the circulating leucine pool was 0.035 +/- 0.005 h(-1), and the fractional catabolic rate was 0.044 +/- 0.003 h(-1). This technique permits high-throughput and sensitive measurement of turnover of low abundance proteins with minimal sample preparation.
|Developmental and genetic regulation of human surfactant protein B in vivo. |
Hamvas, A; Heins, HB; Guttentag, SH; Wegner, DJ; Trusgnich, MA; Bennet, KW; Yang, P; Carlson, CS; An, P; Cole, FS
Neonatology 95 117-24 2009
Genetic and developmental disruption of surfactant protein B (SP-B) expression causes neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS).To assess developmental and genetic regulation of SP-B expression in vivo.To evaluate in vivo developmental regulation of SP-B, we used immunoblotting to compare frequency of detection of mature and pro-SP-B peptides in developmentally distinct cohorts: 24 amniotic fluid samples, unfractionated tracheal aspirates from 101 infants greater than or=34 weeks' gestation with (75) and without (26) neonatal RDS, and 6 nonsmoking adults. To examine genetic regulation, we used univariate and logistic regression analyses to detect associations between common SP-B (SFTPB) genotypes and SP-B peptides in the neonatal RDS cohort.We found pro-SP-B peptides in 24/24 amniotic fluid samples and in 100/101 tracheal aspirates from newborn infants but none in bronchoalveolar lavage from normal adults (0/6) (p less than 0.001). We detected an association (p = 0.0011) between pro-SP-B peptides (M(r) 40 and 42 kDa) and genotype of a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism at genomic position 1580 that regulates amino-terminus glycosylation.Pro-SP-B peptides are more common in developmentally less mature humans. Association of genotype at genomic position 1580 with pro-SP-B peptides (M(r) 40 and 42 kDa) suggests genetic regulation of amino terminus glycosylation in vivo.Full Text Article
|Increased epithelial cell proliferation in very premature baboons with chronic lung disease. |
William M Maniscalco, Richard H Watkins,
American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 283 L991-L1001 2002
Coordinated proliferation of lung cells is required for normal lung growth and differentiation. Chronic injury to developing lung may disrupt normal patterns of cell proliferation. To examine patterns of cell proliferation in injured developing lungs, we investigated premature baboons delivered at 125 days gestation (approximately 67% of term) and treated with oxygen and ventilation for 6, 14, or 21 days (PRN). Each PRN treatment group contained 3 or 4 animals. During normal in utero lung development, the proportion of proliferating lung cells declined as measured by the cell-cycle marker Ki67. In the PRN group, the proportion of proliferating lung cells was 2.5-8.5-fold greater than in corresponding gestational controls. By 14 days of treatment, the proportion of cells that expressed pro-surfactant protein B (proSP-B) was ~2.5-fold greater than in gestational controls. In the PRN group, 41% of proliferating cells expressed proSP-B compared with 5.8% in the gestational controls. By 21 days of treatment, proliferation of proSP-B-expressing epithelial cells declined substantially, but the proportion of proliferating non-proSP-B-expressing cells increased approximately sevenfold. These data show that the development of chronic lung disease is associated with major alterations in normal patterns of lung-cell proliferation.
|Allelic heterogeneity in hereditary surfactant protein B (SP-B) deficiency. |
Nogee, L M, et al.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 161: 973-81 (2000) 2000
Inability to produce surfactant protein B (SP-B) causes fatal neonatal respiratory disease. A frame-shift mutation (121ins2) is the predominant but not exclusive cause of disease. To determine the range of mechanisms responsible for SP-B deficiency, both alleles from 32 affected infants were characterized. Sixteen infants were homozygous for the 121ins2 mutation, 10 infants were heterozygous for the 121ins2 and another mutation, and six infants were homozygous for other mutations. Thirteen novel SP-B gene mutations were identified, which were not found in a control population. One novel mutation was found in two unrelated families. Surfactant protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and/or protein blotting. Absence of proSP-B and mature SP-B was associated with nonsense and frame-shift mutations. In contrast, proSP-B expression was associated with missense mutations, or mutations causing in-frame deletions or insertions, and low levels of mature SP-B expression were associated with four mutations. Extracellular staining for proSP-C and/or aberrantly processed SP-C was observed in lungs of all infants with SP-B gene mutations. Hereditary SP-B deficiency is caused by a variety of distinct mutations in the SP-B gene and may be associated with reduced, as well as absent, levels of mature SP-B, likely caused by impaired processing of proSP-B.
|Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung (CCAM): evaluation of the cellular components. |
Morotti, R A, et al.
Hum. Pathol., 30: 618-25 (1999) 1999
Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung (CCAM) is a rare congenital lesion whose pathogenesis is not well defined. It is generally accepted that the various types of CCAMs originate at different levels of the tracheobronchial tree. To further define the pathogenesis of CCAM, we evaluated the cellular composition of different CCAM types by immunohistochemistry. Twenty-two CCAMs (17 CCAM type 1, two type 2, one type 3, and two type 4) were collected. The cellular composition was determined using immunohistochemical stains for type I cell-associated antigen (T1 cell-Ag), surfactant proteins and surfactant protein precursors (SP-A, SP-B, proSP-B, and proSP-C), neuroendocrine cells (GRP), Clara cells (UP-1), and the adhesion molecule CD44v6, a glycoprotein thought to be involved in cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions. Eleven fetal lungs also were analyzed to compare cytodifferentiation of the epithelial-lined cysts of the different types of CCAM with the stages of normal lung development. Our results indicate that CCAM is caused by an arrest in lung development, and, on the basis of cytodifferentiation, two major subtypes can be distinguished. One subtype consisting of CCAM types 1, 2, and 3 that shows a bronchiolar type of epithelium and a second subtype, consisting of CCAM type 4, that has an acinar-alveolar type of epithelium. Our findings also suggest that these two subtypes may arise at different stages of the branching of the bronchopulmonary tree, the first at the pseudoglandular stage and the second at the saccular stage.
|RABBIT ANTI-HUMAN PROSURFACTANT PROTEIN B (proSP-B)|