Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R, M, Vrt||ICC, IHC, RIA, WB||M||Ascites||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Mouse monoclonal IgM in buffer containing 50% glycerol, no preservatives.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||50 µL|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Direct neuronal glucose uptake Heralds activity-dependent increases in cerebral metabolism.|
Lundgaard, I; Li, B; Xie, L; Kang, H; Sanggaard, S; Haswell, JD; Sun, W; Goldman, S; Blekot, S; Nielsen, M; Takano, T; Deane, R; Nedergaard, M
Nature communications 6 6807 2015
Metabolically, the brain is a highly active organ that relies almost exclusively on glucose as its energy source. According to the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis, glucose is taken up by astrocytes and converted to lactate, which is then oxidized by neurons. Here we show, using two-photon imaging of a near-infrared 2-deoxyglucose analogue (2DG-IR), that glucose is taken up preferentially by neurons in awake behaving mice. Anaesthesia suppressed neuronal 2DG-IR uptake and sensory stimulation was associated with a sharp increase in neuronal, but not astrocytic, 2DG-IR uptake. Moreover, hexokinase, which catalyses the first enzymatic steps in glycolysis, was highly enriched in neurons compared with astrocytes, in mouse as well as in human cortex. These observations suggest that brain activity and neuronal glucose metabolism are directly linked, and identify the neuron as the principal locus of glucose uptake as visualized by functional brain imaging.
|Lactoferrin Promotes Early Neurodevelopment and Cognition in Postnatal Piglets by Upregulating the BDNF Signaling Pathway and Polysialylation.|
Chen, Y; Zheng, Z; Zhu, X; Shi, Y; Tian, D; Zhao, F; Liu, N; Hüppi, PS; Troy, FA; Wang, B
Molecular neurobiology 52 256-69 2015
Lactoferrin (Lf) is a sialic acid (Sia)-rich, iron-binding milk glycoprotein that has multifunctional health benefits. Its potential role in neurodevelopment and cognition remains unknown. To test the hypothesis that Lf may function to improve neurodevelopment and cognition, the diet of postnatal piglets was supplemented with Lf from days 3 to 38. Expression levels of selected genes and their cognate protein profiles were quantitatively determined. The importance of our new findings is that Lf (1) upregulated several canonical signaling pathways associated with neurodevelopment and cognition; (2) influenced ~10 genes involved in the brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF) signaling pathway in the hippocampus and upregulated the expression of polysialic acid, a marker of neuroplasticity, cell migration and differentiation of progenitor cells, and the growth and targeting of axons; (3) upregulated transcriptional and translational levels of BDNF and increased phosphorylation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein, CREB, a downstream target of the BDNF signaling pathway, and a protein of crucial importance in neurodevelopment and cognition; and (4) enhanced the cognitive function and learning of piglets when tested in an eight-arm radial maze. The finding that Lf can improve neural development and cognition in postnatal piglets has not been previously described.
|Tis21 is required for adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and for olfactory behavior regulating cyclins, BMP4, Hes1/5 and Ids.|
Farioli-Vecchioli, S; Ceccarelli, M; Saraulli, D; Micheli, L; Cannas, S; D'Alessandro, F; Scardigli, R; Leonardi, L; Cinà, I; Costanzi, M; Mattera, A; Cestari, V; Tirone, F
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 8 98 2014
Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and the Notch pathway regulate quiescence and self-renewal of stem cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ), an adult neurogenic niche. Here we analyze the role at the intersection of these pathways of Tis21 (Btg2/PC3), a gene regulating proliferation and differentiation of adult SVZ stem and progenitor cells. In Tis21-null SVZ and cultured neurospheres, we observed a strong decrease in the expression of BMP4 and its effectors Smad1/8, while the Notch anti-neural mediators Hes1/5 and the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) inhibitors Id1-3 increased. Consistently, expression of the proneural bHLH gene NeuroD1 decreased. Moreover, cyclins D1/2, A2, and E were strongly up-regulated. Thus, in the SVZ Tis21 activates the BMP pathway and inhibits the Notch pathway and the cell cycle. Correspondingly, the Tis21-null SVZ stem cells greatly increased; nonetheless, the proliferating neuroblasts diminished, whereas the post-mitotic neuroblasts paradoxically accumulated in SVZ, failing to migrate along the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb. The ability, however, of neuroblasts to migrate from SVZ explants was not affected, suggesting that Tis21-null neuroblasts do not migrate to the olfactory bulb because of a defect in terminal differentiation. Notably, BMP4 addition or Id3 silencing rescued the defective differentiation observed in Tis21-null neurospheres, indicating that they mediate the Tis21 pro-differentiative action. The reduced number of granule neurons in the Tis21-null olfactory bulb led to a defect in olfactory detection threshold, without effect on olfactory memory, also suggesting that within olfactory circuits new granule neurons play a primary role in odor sensitivity rather than in memory.
|Epigenetic regulation by chromatin activation mark H3K4me3 in primate progenitor cells within adult neurogenic niche.|
Sandstrom, RS; Foret, MR; Grow, DA; Haugen, E; Rhodes, CT; Cardona, AE; Phelix, CF; Wang, Y; Berger, MS; Lin, CH
Scientific reports 4 5371 2014
Histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) is known to be associated with transcriptionally active or poised genes and required for postnatal neurogenesis within the subventricular zone (SVZ) in the rodent model. Previous comparisons have shown significant correlation between baboon (Papio anubis) and human brain. In this study, we demonstrate that chromatin activation mark H3K4me3 is present in undifferentiated progenitor cells within the SVZ of adult baboon brain. To identify the targets and regulatory role of H3K4me3 within the baboon SVZ, we developed a technique to purify undifferentiated SVZ cells while preserving the endogenous nature without introducing culture artifact to maintain the in vivo chromatin state for genome-wide studies (ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq). Overall, H3K4me3 is significantly enriched for genes involved in cell cycle, metabolism, protein synthesis, signaling pathways, and cancer mechanisms. Additionally, we found elevated levels of H3K4me3 in the MRI-classified SVZ-associated Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), which has a transcriptional profile that reflects the H3K4me3 modifications in the undifferentiated progenitor cells of the baboon SVZ. Our findings highlight the importance of H3K4me3 in coordinating distinct networks and pathways for life-long neurogenesis, and suggest that subtypes of GBM could occur, at least in part, due to aberrant H3K4me3 epigenetic regulation.
|Comparison of the molecular profiles of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells of isogenic origin.|
Mallon, BS; Hamilton, RS; Kozhich, OA; Johnson, KR; Fann, YC; Rao, MS; Robey, PG
Stem cell research 12 376-86 2014
Many studies have compared the genetic and epigenetic profiles of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and yet the picture remains unclear. To address this, we derived a population of neural precursor cells (NPCs) from the H1 (WA01) hESC line and generated isogenic iPSC lines by reprogramming. The gene expression and methylation profile of three lines were compared to the parental line and intermediate NPC population. We found no gene probe with expression that differed significantly between hESC and iPSC samples under undifferentiated or differentiated conditions. Analysis of the global methylation pattern also showed no significant difference between the two PSC populations. Both undifferentiated populations were distinctly different from the intermediate NPC population in both gene expression and methylation profiles. One point to note is that H1 is a male line and so extrapolation to female lines should be cautioned. However, these data confirm our previous findings that there are no significant differences between hESCs and hiPSCs at the gene expression or methylation level.
|Molecular targets of chromatin repressive mark H3K9me3 in primate progenitor cells within adult neurogenic niches.|
Foret, MR; Sandstrom, RS; Rhodes, CT; Wang, Y; Berger, MS; Lin, CH
Frontiers in genetics 5 252 2014
Histone 3 Lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation is known to be associated with pericentric heterochromatin and important in genomic stability. In this study, we show that trimethylation at H3K9 (H3K9me3) is enriched in an adult neural stem cell niche- the subventricular zone (SVZ) on the walls of the lateral ventricle in both rodent and non-human primate baboon brain. Previous studies have shown that there is significant correlation between baboon and human regarding genomic similarity and brain structure, suggesting that findings in baboon are relevant to human. To understand the function of H3K9me3 in this adult neurogenic niche, we performed genome-wide analyses using ChIP-Seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep-sequencing) and RNA-Seq for in vivo SVZ cells purified from baboon brain. Through integrated analyses of ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq, we found that H3K9me3-enriched genes associated with cellular maintenance, post-transcriptional and translational modifications, signaling pathways, and DNA replication are expressed, while genes involved in axon/neuron, hepatic stellate cell, or immune-response activation are not expressed. As neurogenesis progresses in the adult SVZ, cell fate restriction is essential to direct proper lineage commitment. Our findings highlight that H3K9me3 repression in undifferentiated SVZ cells is engaged in the maintenance of cell type integrity, implicating a role for H3K9me3 as an epigenetic mechanism to control cell fate transition within this adult germinal niche.
|Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS)||25126093|
|Morphology, distribution and phenotype of polycystin kidney disease 2-like 1-positive cerebrospinal fluid contacting neurons in the brainstem of adult mice.|
Orts-Del'Immagine, A; Kastner, A; Tillement, V; Tardivel, C; Trouslard, J; Wanaverbecq, N
PloS one 9 e87748 2014
The mammalian spinal cord and medulla oblongata harbor unique neurons that remain in contact with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-cNs). These neurons were shown recently to express a polycystin member of the TRP channels family (PKD2L1) that potentially acts as a chemo- or mechanoreceptor. Recent studies carried out in young rodents indicate that spinal CSF-cNs express immature neuronal markers that appear to persist even in adult cells. Nevertheless, little is known about the phenotype and morphological properties of medullar CSF-cNs. Using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy techniques on tissues obtained from three-month old PKD2L1:EGFP transgenic mice, we analyzed the morphology, distribution, localization and phenotype of PKD2L1(+) CSF-cNs around the brainstem and cervical spinal cord central canal. We show that PKD2L1(+) CSF-cNs are GABAergic neurons with a subependymal localization, projecting a dendrite towards the central canal and an axon-like process running through the parenchyma. These neurons display a primary cilium on the soma and the dendritic process appears to bear ciliary-like structures in contact with the CSF. PKD2L1(+) CSF-cNs present a conserved morphology along the length of the medullospinal central canal with a change in their density, localization and dendritic length according to the rostro-caudal axis. At adult stages, PKD2L1(+) medullar CSF-cNs appear to remain in an intermediate state of maturation since they still exhibit characteristics of neuronal immaturity (DCX positive, neurofilament 160 kDa negative) along with the expression of a marker representative of neuronal maturation (NeuN). In addition, PKD2L1(+) CSF-cNs express Nkx6.1, a homeodomain protein that enables the differentiation of ventral progenitors into somatic motoneurons and interneurons. The present study provides valuable information on the cellular properties of this peculiar neuronal population that will be crucial for understanding the physiological role of CSF-cNs in mammals and their link with the stem cells contained in the region surrounding the medullospinal central canal.
|Titration of GLI3 repressor activity by sonic hedgehog signaling is critical for maintaining multiple adult neural stem cell and astrocyte functions.|
Petrova, R; Garcia, AD; Joyner, AL
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 17490-505 2013
Sonic hedgehog (SHH), a key regulator of embryonic neurogenesis, signals directly to neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and to astrocytes in the adult mouse forebrain. The specific mechanism by which the GLI2 and GLI3 transcriptional activators (GLI2(A) and GLI3(A)) and repressors (GLI2(R) and GLI3(R)) carry out SHH signaling has not been addressed. We found that the majority of slow-cycling NSCs express Gli2 and Gli3, whereas Gli1 is restricted ventrally and all three genes are downregulated when NSCs transition into proliferating progenitors. Surprisingly, whereas conditional ablation of Smo in postnatal glial fibrillary acidic protein-expressing cells results in cell-autonomous loss of NSCs and a progressive reduction in SVZ proliferation, without an increase in glial cell production, removal of Gli2 or Gli3 does not alter adult SVZ neurogenesis. Significantly, removing Gli3 in Smo conditional mutants largely rescues neurogenesis and, conversely, expression of a constitutive GLI3(R) in the absence of normal Gli2 and Gli3 abrogates neurogenesis. Thus unattenuated GLI3(R) is a primary inhibitor of adult SVZ NSC function. Ablation of Gli2 and Gli3 revealed a minor role for GLI2(R) and little requirement for GLI(A) function in stimulating SVZ neurogenesis. Moreover, we found that similar rules of GLI activity apply to SHH signaling in regulating SVZ-derived olfactory bulb interneurons and maintaining cortical astrocyte function. Namely, fewer superficial olfactory bulb interneurons are generated in the absence of Gli2 and Gli3, whereas astrocyte partial gliosis results from an increase in GLI3(R). Thus precise titration of GLI(R) levels by SHH is critical to multiple functions of adult NSCs and astrocytes.
|The hippocampus of the eastern rock sengi: cytoarchitecture, markers of neuronal function, principal cell numbers, and adult neurogenesis.|
Slomianka, L; Drenth, T; Cavegn, N; Menges, D; Lazic, SE; Phalanndwa, M; Chimimba, CT; Amrein, I
Frontiers in neuroanatomy 7 34 2013
The brains of sengis (elephant shrews, order Macroscelidae) have long been known to contain a hippocampus that in terms of allometric progression indices is larger than that of most primates and equal in size to that of humans. In this report, we provide descriptions of hippocampal cytoarchitecture in the eastern rock sengi (Elephantulus myurus), of the distributions of hippocampal calretinin, calbindin, parvalbumin, and somatostatin, of principal neuron numbers, and of cell numbers related to proliferation and neuronal differentiation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Sengi hippocampal cytoarchitecture is an amalgamation of characters that are found in CA1 of, e.g., guinea pig and rabbits and in CA3 and dentate gyrus of primates. Correspondence analysis of total cell numbers and quantitative relations between principal cell populations relate this sengi to macaque monkeys and domestic pigs, and distinguish the sengi from distinct patterns of relations found in humans, dogs, and murine rodents. Calretinin and calbindin are present in some cell populations that also express these proteins in other species, e.g., interneurons at the stratum oriens/alveus border or temporal hilar mossy cells, but neurons expressing these markers are often scarce or absent in other layers. The distributions of parvalbumin and somatostatin resemble those in other species. Normalized numbers of PCNA+ proliferating cells and doublecortin-positive (DCX+) differentiating cells of neuronal lineage fall within the overall ranges of murid rodents, but differed from three murid species captured in the same habitat in that fewer DCX+ cells relative to PCNA+ were observed. The large and well-differentiated sengi hippocampus is not accompanied by correspondingly sized cortical and subcortical limbic areas that are the main hippocampal sources of afferents and targets of efferents. This points to intrinsic hippocampal information processing as the selective advantage of the large sengi hippocampus.
|Alzheimer's disease related markers, cellular toxicity and behavioral deficits induced six weeks after oligomeric amyloid-β peptide injection in rats.|
Zussy, C; Brureau, A; Keller, E; Marchal, S; Blayo, C; Delair, B; Ixart, G; Maurice, T; Givalois, L
PloS one 8 e53117 2013
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology associated with aging characterized by the presence of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles that finally result in synaptic and neuronal loss. The major component of senile plaques is an amyloid-β protein (Aβ). Recently, we characterized the effects of a single intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of Aβ fragment (25-35) oligomers (oAβ(25-35)) for up to 3 weeks in rats and established a clear parallel with numerous relevant signs of AD. To clarify the long-term effects of oAβ(25-35) and its potential role in the pathogenesis of AD, we determined its physiological, behavioral, biochemical and morphological impacts 6 weeks after injection in rats. oAβ(25-35) was still present in the brain after 6 weeks. oAβ(25-35) injection did not affect general activity and temperature rhythms after 6 weeks, but decreased body weight, induced short- and long-term memory impairments, increased corticosterone plasma levels, brain oxidative (lipid peroxidation), mitochondrial (caspase-9 levels) and reticulum stress (caspase-12 levels), astroglial and microglial activation. It provoked cholinergic neuron loss and decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. It induced cell loss in the hippocampic CA subdivisions and decreased hippocampic neurogenesis. Moreover, oAβ(25-35) injection resulted in increased APP expression, Aβ(1-42) generation, and increased Tau phosphorylation. In conclusion, this in vivo study evidenced that the soluble oligomeric forms of short fragments of Aβ, endogenously identified in AD patient brains, not only provoked long-lasting pathological alterations comparable to the human disease, but may also directly contribute to the progressive increase in amyloid load and Tau pathology, involved in the AD physiopathology.
|Anti-Polysialic Acid-NCAM, clone 2-2B - Data Sheet|