|Tumor-suppressing function of caspase-2 requires catalytic site Cys-320 and site Ser-139 in mice.|
Keqin Ren,Jing Lu,Aleksey Porollo,Chunying Du
The Journal of biological chemistry
The multifunctional caspase-2 protein is involved in apoptosis, NF-?B regulation, and tumor suppression in mice. However, the mechanisms of caspase-2 responsible for tumor suppression remain unclear. Here we identified two sites of caspase-2, the catalytic Cys-320 site and the Ser-139 site, to be important for suppression of cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. Using SV40- and K-Ras-transformed caspase-2 KO mouse embryonic fibroblast cells reconstituted with expression of wild-type, catalytic dead (C320A), or Ser-139 (S139A) mutant caspase-2, we demonstrated that similar to caspase-2 deficiency, when Cys-320 and Ser-139 were mutated, caspase-2 lost its ability to inhibit cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. These mutant cells exhibited enhanced cell proliferation, elevated clonogenic activity, accelerated anchorage-independent growth, and transformation and were highly tumorigenic, rapidly producing large tumors in athymic nude mice. Investigation into the underlying mechanism showed that these two residues are needed for caspase-2 to suppress NF-?B activity, promote apoptosis, and sustain the G(2)/M checkpoint following DNA damage induction. In addition, tumors in nude mice derived from the two mutant cell lines had higher constitutive NF-?B activity and elevated expression of NF-?B targets of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-xL, XIAP, and cIAP2. A reduction in caspase-2 mRNA was associated with multiple types of cancers in patients. Together, these observations suggest the combined functions of caspase-2 in suppressing NF-?B activation, promoting apoptosis, and sustaining G(2)/M checkpoint contribute to caspase-2 tumor-suppressing function and that caspase-2 may also impact tumor suppression in humans. These findings provide insight into tumor suppression at the cross-roads of apoptosis, cell cycle checkpoint, and NF-?B pathways.
|Intercellular variation in signaling through the TGF-β pathway and its relation to cell density and cell cycle phase.|
Zieba, A; Pardali, K; Söderberg, O; Lindbom, L; Nyström, E; Moustakas, A; Heldin, CH; Landegren, U
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP
Fundamental open questions in signal transduction remain concerning the sequence and distribution of molecular signaling events among individual cells. In this work, we have characterized the intercellular variability of transforming growth factor β-induced Smad interactions, providing essential information about TGF-β signaling and its dependence on the density of cell populations and the cell cycle phase. By employing the recently developed in situ proximity ligation assay, we investigated the dynamics of interactions and modifications of Smad proteins and their partners under native and physiological conditions. We analyzed the kinetics of assembly of Smad complexes and the influence of cellular environment and relation to mitosis. We report rapid kinetics of formation of Smad complexes, including native Smad2-Smad3-Smad4 trimeric complexes, in a manner influenced by the rate of proteasomal degradation of these proteins, and we found a striking cell to cell variation of signaling complexes. The single-cell analysis of TGF-β signaling in genetically unmodified cells revealed previously unknown aspects of regulation of this pathway, and it provided a basis for analysis of these signaling events to diagnose pathological perturbations in patient samples and to evaluate their susceptibility to drug treatment.