Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|B, Ca, F, Fe, Fg, Gt, H, M, Po, R, Rb||ICC, IH(P), WB||M||Ascites||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Ascites mouse monoclonal IgG1 liquid|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at -20ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Anti-Parvalbumin - 2387743||2387743|
|Anti-Parvalbumin - 1940101||1940101|
|Anti-Parvalbumin - 2015966||2015966|
|Anti-Parvalbumin - 2069941||2069941|
|Anti-Parvalbumin - 2074026||2074026|
|Anti-Parvalbumin - 2208764||2208764|
|Anti-Parvalbumin - 2325038||2325038|
|Anti-Parvalbumin - 2332501||2332501|
|Anti-Parvalbumin - 2470388||2470388|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Caloric restriction induces energy-sparing alterations in skeletal muscle contraction, fiber composition and local thyroid hormone metabolism that persist during catch-up fat upon refeeding.|
De Andrade, PB; Neff, LA; Strosova, MK; Arsenijevic, D; Patthey-Vuadens, O; Scapozza, L; Montani, JP; Ruegg, UT; Dulloo, AG; Dorchies, OM
Frontiers in physiology 6 254 2015
Weight regain after caloric restriction results in accelerated fat storage in adipose tissue. This catch-up fat phenomenon is postulated to result partly from suppressed skeletal muscle thermogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated whether the reduced rate of skeletal muscle contraction-relaxation cycle that occurs after caloric restriction persists during weight recovery and could contribute to catch-up fat. Using a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding, in which fat recovery is driven by suppressed thermogenesis, we show that contraction and relaxation of leg muscles are slower after both semistarvation and refeeding. These effects are associated with (i) higher expression of muscle deiodinase type 3 (DIO3), which inactivates tri-iodothyronine (T3), and lower expression of T3-activating enzyme, deiodinase type 2 (DIO2), (ii) slower net formation of T3 from its T4 precursor in muscles, and (iii) accumulation of slow fibers at the expense of fast fibers. These semistarvation-induced changes persisted during recovery and correlated with impaired expression of transcription factors involved in slow-twitch muscle development. We conclude that diminished muscle thermogenesis following caloric restriction results from reduced muscle T3 levels, alteration in muscle-specific transcription factors, and fast-to-slow fiber shift causing slower contractility. These energy-sparing effects persist during weight recovery and contribute to catch-up fat.
|Visual recognition memory, manifested as long-term habituation, requires synaptic plasticity in V1.|
Cooke, SF; Komorowski, RW; Kaplan, ES; Gavornik, JP; Bear, MF
Nature neuroscience 18 262-71 2015
Familiarity with stimuli that bring neither reward nor punishment, manifested through behavioral habituation, enables organisms to detect novelty and devote cognition to important elements of the environment. Here we describe in mice a form of long-term behavioral habituation to visual grating stimuli that is selective for stimulus orientation. Orientation-selective habituation (OSH) can be observed both in exploratory behavior in an open arena and in a stereotyped motor response to visual stimuli in head-restrained mice. We found that the latter behavioral response, termed a 'vidget', requires V1. Parallel electrophysiological recordings in V1 revealed that plasticity, in the form of stimulus-selective response potentiation (SRP), occurred in layer 4 of V1 as OSH developed. Local manipulations of V1 that prevented and reversed electrophysiological modifications likewise prevented and reversed memory demonstrated behaviorally. These findings suggest that a form of long-term visual recognition memory is stored via synaptic plasticity in primary sensory cortex.
|Differential expression of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel subunits during hippocampal development in the mouse.|
Seo, H; Seol, MJ; Lee, K
Molecular brain 8 13 2015
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels help control the rhythmic activation of pacemaker neurons during brain development. However, little is known about the timing and cell type specificity of the expression of HCN isoforms during development of the hippocampus.Here we examined the developmental expression of the brain-enriched HCN1, HCN2, and HCN4 isoforms of HCN channels in mouse hippocampus from embryonic to postnatal stages. All these isoforms were expressed abundantly in the hippocampus at embryonic day 14.5 and postnatal day 0. Each HCN channel isoform showed subfield-specific expression within the hippocampus from postnatal day 7, and only HCN4 was found in glial cells in the stratum lacunosum moleculare at this developmental stage. At postnatal days 21 and 56, all HCN isoforms were strongly expressed in the stratum lacunosum moleculare and the stratum pyramidale of the Cornu Ammonis (CA), as well as in the hilus of the dentate gyrus, but not in the subgranular zone. Furthermore, the immunolabeling for all these isoforms was colocalized with parvalbumin immunolabeling in interneurons of the CA field and in the dentate gyrus.Our mapping data showing the temporal and spatial changes in the expression of HCN channels suggest that HCN1, HCN2, and HCN4 subunits may have distinct physiological roles in the developing hippocampus.
|Processing of visually evoked innate fear by a non-canonical thalamic pathway.|
Wei, P; Liu, N; Zhang, Z; Liu, X; Tang, Y; He, X; Wu, B; Zhou, Z; Liu, Y; Li, J; Zhang, Y; Zhou, X; Xu, L; Chen, L; Bi, G; Hu, X; Xu, F; Wang, L
Nature communications 6 6756 2015
The ability of animals to respond to life-threatening stimuli is essential for survival. Although vision provides one of the major sensory inputs for detecting threats across animal species, the circuitry underlying defensive responses to visual stimuli remains poorly defined. Here, we investigate the circuitry underlying innate defensive behaviours elicited by predator-like visual stimuli in mice. Our results demonstrate that neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) are essential for a variety of acute and persistent defensive responses to overhead looming stimuli. Optogenetic mapping revealed that SC projections to the lateral posterior nucleus (LP) of the thalamus, a non-canonical polymodal sensory relay, are sufficient to mimic visually evoked fear responses. In vivo electrophysiology experiments identified a di-synaptic circuit from SC through LP to the lateral amygdale (Amg), and lesions of the Amg blocked the full range of visually evoked defensive responses. Our results reveal a novel collicular-thalamic-Amg circuit important for innate defensive responses to visual threats.
|Fgf signaling controls the telencephalic distribution of Fgf-expressing progenitors generated in the rostral patterning center.|
Hoch, RV; Clarke, JA; Rubenstein, JL
Neural development 10 8 2015
The rostral patterning center (RPC) secretes multiple fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) essential for telencephalon growth and patterning. Fgf expression patterns suggest that they mark functionally distinct RPC subdomains. We generated Fgf8(CreER) and Fgf17(CreER) mice and used them to analyze the lineages of Fgf8- versus Fgf17-expressing RPC cells.Both lineages contributed to medial structures of the rostroventral telencephalon structures including the septum and medial prefrontral cortex. In addition, RPC-derived progenitors were observed in other regions of the early telencephalic neuroepithelium and generated neurons in the olfactory bulb, neocortex, and basal ganglia. Surprisingly, Fgf8(+) RPC progenitors generated the majority of basal ganglia cholinergic neurons. Compared to the Fgf8 lineage, the Fgf17 lineage was more restricted in its early dispersion and its contributions to the telencephalon. Mutant studies suggested that Fgf8 and Fgf17 restrict spread of RPC progenitor subpopulations.We identified the RPC as an important source of progenitors that contribute broadly to the telencephalon and found that two molecularly distinct progenitor subtypes in the RPC make different contributions to the developing forebrain.
|Deletion of a kinesin I motor unmasks a mechanism of homeostatic branching control by neurotrophin-3.|
Auer, TO; Xiao, T; Bercier, V; Gebhardt, C; Duroure, K; Concordet, JP; Wyart, C; Suster, M; Kawakami, K; Wittbrodt, J; Baier, H; Del Bene, F
eLife 4 2015
Development and function of highly polarized cells such as neurons depend on microtubule-associated intracellular transport, but little is known about contributions of specific molecular motors to the establishment of synaptic connections. In this study, we investigated the function of the Kinesin I heavy chain Kif5aa during retinotectal circuit formation in zebrafish. Targeted disruption of Kif5aa does not affect retinal ganglion cell differentiation, and retinal axons reach their topographically correct targets in the tectum, albeit with a delay. In vivo dynamic imaging showed that anterograde transport of mitochondria is impaired, as is synaptic transmission. Strikingly, disruption of presynaptic activity elicits upregulation of Neurotrophin-3 (Ntf3) in postsynaptic tectal cells. This in turn promotes exuberant branching of retinal axons by signaling through the TrkC receptor (Ntrk3). Thus, our study has uncovered an activity-dependent, retrograde signaling pathway that homeostatically controls axonal branching.
|Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha plays a crucial role in behavioral repetition and cognitive flexibility in mice.|
D'Agostino, G; Cristiano, C; Lyons, DJ; Citraro, R; Russo, E; Avagliano, C; Russo, R; Raso, GM; Meli, R; De Sarro, G; Heisler, LK; Calignano, A
Molecular metabolism 4 528-36 2015
Nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) plays a fundamental role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis and is the target of medications used to treat dyslipidemia. However, little is known about the role of PPAR-α in mouse behavior.To investigate the function of Ppar-α in cognitive functions, a behavioral phenotype analysis of mice with a targeted genetic disruption of Ppar-α was performed in combination with neuroanatomical, biochemical and pharmacological manipulations. The therapeutic exploitability of PPAR-α was probed in mice using a pharmacological model of psychosis and a genetic model (BTBR T + tf/J) exhibiting a high rate of repetitive behavior.An unexpected role for brain Ppar-α in the regulation of cognitive behavior in mice was revealed. Specifically, we observed that Ppar-α genetic perturbation promotes rewiring of cortical and hippocampal regions and a behavioral phenotype of cognitive inflexibility, perseveration and blunted responses to psychomimetic drugs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the antipsychotic and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) medication risperidone ameliorates the behavioral profile of Ppar-α deficient mice. Importantly, we reveal that pharmacological PPAR-α agonist treatment in mice improves behavior in a pharmacological model of ketamine-induced behavioral dysinhibition and repetitive behavior in BTBR T + tf/J mice.Our data indicate that Ppar-α is required for normal cognitive function and that pharmacological stimulation of PPAR-α improves cognitive function in pharmacological and genetic models of impaired cognitive function in mice. These results thereby reveal an unforeseen therapeutic application for a class of drugs currently in human use.
|OTX2 Transcription Factor Controls Regional Patterning within the Medial Ganglionic Eminence and Regional Identity of the Septum.|
Hoch, RV; Lindtner, S; Price, JD; Rubenstein, JL
Cell reports 12 482-94 2015
The Otx2 homeodomain transcription factor is essential for gastrulation and early neural development. We generated Otx2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice to investigate its roles in telencephalon development after neurulation (approximately embryonic day 9.0). We conducted transcriptional profiling and in situ hybridization to identify genes de-regulated in Otx2 cKO ventral forebrain. In parallel, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing to identify enhancer elements, the OTX2 binding motif, and de-regulated genes that are likely direct targets of OTX2 transcriptional regulation. We found that Otx2 was essential in septum specification, regulation of Fgf signaling in the rostral telencephalon, and medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) patterning, neurogenesis, and oligodendrogenesis. Within the MGE, Otx2 was required for ventral, but not dorsal, identity, thus controlling the production of specific MGE derivatives.
|The zebrafish merovingian mutant reveals a role for pH regulation in hair cell toxicity and function.|
Stawicki, TM; Owens, KN; Linbo, T; Reinhart, KE; Rubel, EW; Raible, DW
Disease models & mechanisms 7 847-56 2014
Control of the extracellular environment of inner ear hair cells by ionic transporters is crucial for hair cell function. In addition to inner ear hair cells, aquatic vertebrates have hair cells on the surface of their body in the lateral line system. The ionic environment of these cells also appears to be regulated, although the mechanisms of this regulation are less understood than those of the mammalian inner ear. We identified the merovingian mutant through genetic screening in zebrafish for genes involved in drug-induced hair cell death. Mutants show complete resistance to neomycin-induced hair cell death and partial resistance to cisplatin-induced hair cell death. This resistance is probably due to impaired drug uptake as a result of reduced mechanotransduction ability, suggesting that the mutants have defects in hair cell function independent of drug treatment. Through genetic mapping we found that merovingian mutants contain a mutation in the transcription factor gcm2. This gene is important for the production of ionocytes, which are cells crucial for whole body pH regulation in fish. We found that merovingian mutants showed an acidified extracellular environment in the vicinity of both inner ear and lateral line hair cells. We believe that this acidified extracellular environment is responsible for the defects seen in hair cells of merovingian mutants, and that these mutants would serve as a valuable model for further study of the role of pH in hair cell function.
|Functional motor recovery from motoneuron axotomy is compromised in mice with defective corticospinal projections.|
Ding, Y; Qu, Y; Feng, J; Wang, M; Han, Q; So, KF; Wu, W; Zhou, L
PloS one 9 e101918 2014
Brachial plexus injury (BPI) and experimental spinal root avulsion result in loss of motor function in the affected segments. After root avulsion, significant motoneuron function is restored by re-implantation of the avulsed root. How much this functional recovery depends on corticospinal inputs is not known. Here, we studied that question using Celsr3|Emx1 mice, in which the corticospinal tract (CST) is genetically absent. In adult mice, we tore off right C5-C7 motor and sensory roots and re-implanted the right C6 roots. Behavioral studies showed impaired recovery of elbow flexion in Celsr3|Emx1 mice compared to controls. Five months after surgery, a reduced number of small axons, and higher G-ratio of inner to outer diameter of myelin sheaths were observed in mutant versus control mice. At early stages post-surgery, mutant mice displayed lower expression of GAP-43 in spinal cord and of myelin basic protein (MBP) in peripheral nerves than control animals. After five months, mutant animals had atrophy of the right biceps brachii, with less newly formed neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and reduced peak-to-peak amplitudes in electromyogram (EMG), than controls. However, quite unexpectedly, a higher motoneuron survival rate was found in mutant than in control mice. Thus, following root avulsion/re-implantation, the absence of the CST is probably an important reason to hamper axonal regeneration and remyelination, as well as target re-innervation and formation of new NMJ, resulting in lower functional recovery, while fostering motoneuron survival. These results indicate that manipulation of corticospinal transmission may help improve functional recovery following BPI.