|Global effects of the energetics of coenzyme binding: NADPH controls the protein interaction properties of human cytochrome P450 reductase. |
Grunau, Alex, et al.
Biochemistry, 45: 1421-34 (2006)
The thermodynamics of coenzyme binding to human cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and its isolated FAD-binding domain have been studied by isothermal titration calorimetry. Binding of 2',5'-ADP, NADP(+), and H(4)NADP, an isosteric NADPH analogue, is described in terms of the dissociation binding constant (K(d)), the enthalpy (DeltaH(B)) and entropy (TDeltaS(B)) of binding, and the heat capacity change (DeltaC(p)). This systematic approach allowed the effect of coenzyme redox state on binding to CPR to be determined. The recognition and stability of the coenzyme-CPR complex are largely determined by interaction with the adenosine moiety (K(d2)(')(,5)(')(-ADP) = 76 nM), regardless of the redox state of the nicotinamide moiety. Similar heat capacity change (DeltaC(p)) values for 2',5'-ADP (-210 cal mol(-)(1) K(-)(1)), NADP(+) (-230 cal mol(-)(1) K(-)(1)), and H(4)NADP (-220 cal mol(-)(1) K(-)(1)) indicate no significant contribution from the nicotinamide moiety to the binding interaction surface. The coenzyme binding stoichiometry to CPR is 1:1. This result validates a recently proposed one-site kinetic model [Daff, S. (2004) Biochemistry 43, 3929-3932] as opposed to a two-site model previously suggested by us [Gutierrez, A., Lian, L.-Y., Wolf, C. R., Scrutton, N. S., and Roberts, C. G. K. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 1964-1975]. Calorimetric studies in which binding of 2',5'-ADP to CPR (TDeltaS(B) = -13400 +/- 200 cal mol(-)(1), 35 degrees C) was compared with binding of the same ligand to the isolated FAD-binding domain (TDeltaS(B) = -11200 +/- 300 cal mol(-)(1), 35 degrees C) indicate that the number of accessible conformational substates of the protein increases upon 2',5'-ADP binding in the presence of the FMN-binding domain. This pattern was consistently observed along the temperature range that was studied (5-35 degrees C). This contribution of coenzyme binding energy to domain dynamics in CPR agrees with conclusions from previous temperature-jump studies [Gutierrez, A., Paine, M., Wolf, C. R., Scrutton, N. S., and Roberts, G. C. K. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 4626-4637]. A combination of calorimetry and stopped-flow spectrophotometry kinetics experiments showed that this linkage between coenzyme binding energetics and diffusional domain motion impinges directly on the molecular recognition of cytochrome c by CPR. Single-turnover reduction of cytochrome c by CPR (k(max) = 15 s(-)(1), K(d) = 37 microM) is critically coupled to coenzyme binding through ligand-induced motions that enable the FMN-binding domain to overcome a kinetically unproductive conformation. This is remarkable since the FMN-binding domain is not directly involved in coenzyme binding, the NADP(H) binding site being fully contained in the FAD-binding domain. Sequential rapid mixing measurements indicate that harnessing of coenzyme binding energy to the formation of a kinetically productive CPR-cytochrome c complex is a highly synchronized event. The inferred half-time for the decay of this productive conformation (tau(50)) is 330 +/- 70 ms only. Previously proposed structural and kinetic models are discussed in light of these findings.