|An inverse switch in DNA base excision and strand break repair contributes to melphalan resistance in multiple myeloma cells.|
Sousa, MM; Zub, KA; Aas, PA; Hanssen-Bauer, A; Demirovic, A; Sarno, A; Tian, E; Liabakk, NB; Slupphaug, G
Alterations in checkpoint and DNA repair pathways may provide adaptive mechanisms contributing to acquired drug resistance. Here, we investigated the levels of proteins mediating DNA damage signaling and -repair in RPMI8226 multiple myeloma cells and its Melphalan-resistant derivative 8226-LR5. We observed markedly reduced steady-state levels of DNA glycosylases UNG2, NEIL1 and MPG in the resistant cells and cross-resistance to agents inducing their respective DNA base lesions. Conversely, repair of alkali-labile sites was apparently enhanced in the resistant cells, as substantiated by alkaline comet assay, autoribosylation of PARP-1, and increased sensitivity to PARP-1 inhibition by 4-AN or KU58684. Reduced base-excision and enhanced single-strand break repair would both contribute to the observed reduction in genomic alkali-labile sites, which could jeopardize productive processing of the more cytotoxic Melphalan-induced interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICLs). Furthermore, we found a marked upregulation of proteins in the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway of double-strand break (DSB) repair, likely contributing to the observed increase in DSB repair kinetics in the resistant cells. Finally, we observed apparent upregulation of ATR-signaling and downregulation of ATM-signaling in the resistant cells. This was accompanied by markedly increased sensitivity towards Melphalan in the presence of ATR-, DNA-PK, or CHK1/2 inhibitors whereas no sensitizing effect was observed subsequent to ATM inhibition, suggesting that replication blocking lesions are primary triggers of the DNA damage response in the Melphalan resistant cells. In conclusion, Melphalan resistance is apparently contributed by modulation of the DNA damage response at multiple levels, including downregulation of specific repair pathways to avoid repair intermediates that could impair efficient processing of cytotoxic ICLs and ICL-induced DSBs. This study has revealed several novel candidate biomarkers for Melphalan sensitivity that will be included in targeted quantitation studies in larger patient cohorts to validate their value in prognosis as well as targets for replacement- or adjuvant therapies.
|Identification of an intrinsic determinant critical for maspin subcellular localization and function.|
Dzinic, SH; Kaplun, A; Li, X; Bernardo, M; Meng, Y; Dean, I; Krass, D; Stemmer, P; Shin, N; Lonardo, F; Sheng, S
Maspin, a multifaceted tumor suppressor, belongs to the serine protease inhibitor superfamily, but only inhibits serine protease-like enzymes such as histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). Maspin is specifically expressed in epithelial cells and it is differentially regulated during tumor progression. A new emerging consensus suggests that a shift in maspin subcellular localization from the nucleus to the cytoplasm stratifies with poor cancer prognosis. In the current study, we employed a rational mutagenesis approach and showed that maspin reactive center loop (RCL) and its neighboring sequence are critical for maspin stability. Further, when expressed in multiple tumor cell lines, single point mutation of Aspartate(346) (D(346)) to Glutamate (E(346)), maspin(D346E), was predominantly nuclear, whereas wild type maspin (maspin(WT)) was both cytoplasmic and nuclear. Evidence from cellular fractionation followed by immunological and proteomic protein identification, combined with the evidence from fluorescent imaging of endogenous proteins, fluorescent protein fusion constructs, as well as bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) showed that the increased nuclear enrichment of maspin(D346E) was, at least in part, due to its increased affinity to HDAC1. Maspin(D346E) was also more potent than maspin(WT) as an HDAC inhibitor. Taken together, our evidence demonstrates that D(346) is a critical cis-element in maspin sequence that determines the molecular context and subcellular localization of maspin. A mechanistic model derived from our evidence suggests a new window of opportunity for the development of maspin-based biologically competent HDAC inhibitors for cancer treatment.
|The zinc fingers of human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase are differentially required for the recognition of DNA breaks and nicks and the consequent enzyme activation. Other structures recognize intact DNA.|
Ikejima, M, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 265: 21907-13 (1990)
The recognition of double-stranded DNA breaks and single-stranded nicks by human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and the consequent enzymic activation were examined using derivatives of the enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli. The N-terminal 162 residues encompass two zinc fingers. Deletion or mutation of the first finger results in a loss of activation by DNA with either single-stranded or double-stranded damage. Destruction of the second finger reduces activation by double-stranded DNA breaks only slightly, but eliminates activation by single-stranded DNA nicks. These data suggest that activation by single-stranded DNA nicks requires two zinc fingers, but activation by double-stranded DNA breaks requires only the finger closer to the N terminus. Variant proteins that lack both zinc fingers are enzymically inactive but still exhibit weak DNA binding, which is independent of DNA damage. Thus, other regions are also capable of binding intact DNA, but the recognition of a strand nick or break which occasions the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) specifically requires the zinc fingers.