Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|M, H, R||WB, ICC, IHC, IP||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG2aκ in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
References | 15 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Protein carbonylation after traumatic brain injury: cell specificity, regional susceptibility, and gender differences. |
Lazarus, RC; Buonora, JE; Jacobowitz, DM; Mueller, GP
Free radical biology & medicine 78 89-100 2015
Protein carbonylation is a well-documented and quantifiable consequence of oxidative stress in several neuropathologies, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer׳s disease, and Parkinson׳s disease. Although oxidative stress is a hallmark of traumatic brain injury (TBI), little work has explored the specific neural regions and cell types in which protein carbonylation occurs. Furthermore, the effect of gender on protein carbonylation after TBI has not been studied. The present investigation was designed to determine the regional and cell specificity of TBI-induced protein carbonylation and how this response to injury is affected by gender. Immunohistochemistry was used to visualize protein carbonylation in the brains of adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) as an injury model of TBI. Cell-specific markers were used to colocalize the presence of carbonylated proteins in specific cell types, including astrocytes, neurons, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. Results also indicated that the injury lesion site, ventral portion of the dorsal third ventricle, and ventricular lining above the median eminence showed dramatic increases in protein carbonylation after injury. Specifically, astrocytes and limited regions of ependymal cells adjacent to the dorsal third ventricle and the median eminence were most susceptible to postinjury protein carbonylation. However, these patterns of differential susceptibility to protein carbonylation were gender dependent, with males showing significantly greater protein carbonylation at sites distant from the lesion. Proteomic analyses were also conducted and determined that the proteins most affected by carbonylation in response to TBI include glial fibrillary acidic protein, dihydropyrimidase-related protein 2, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A. Many other proteins, however, were not carbonylated by CCI. These findings indicate that there is both regional and protein specificity in protein carbonylation after TBI. The marked increase in carbonylation seen in ependymal layers distant from the lesion suggests a mechanism involving the transmission of a cerebral spinal fluid-borne factor to these sites. Furthermore, this process is affected by gender, suggesting that hormonal mechanisms may serve a protective role against oxidative stress.
|Tis21 is required for adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and for olfactory behavior regulating cyclins, BMP4, Hes1/5 and Ids. |
Farioli-Vecchioli, S; Ceccarelli, M; Saraulli, D; Micheli, L; Cannas, S; D'Alessandro, F; Scardigli, R; Leonardi, L; Cinà, I; Costanzi, M; Mattera, A; Cestari, V; Tirone, F
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 8 98 2014
Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and the Notch pathway regulate quiescence and self-renewal of stem cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ), an adult neurogenic niche. Here we analyze the role at the intersection of these pathways of Tis21 (Btg2/PC3), a gene regulating proliferation and differentiation of adult SVZ stem and progenitor cells. In Tis21-null SVZ and cultured neurospheres, we observed a strong decrease in the expression of BMP4 and its effectors Smad1/8, while the Notch anti-neural mediators Hes1/5 and the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) inhibitors Id1-3 increased. Consistently, expression of the proneural bHLH gene NeuroD1 decreased. Moreover, cyclins D1/2, A2, and E were strongly up-regulated. Thus, in the SVZ Tis21 activates the BMP pathway and inhibits the Notch pathway and the cell cycle. Correspondingly, the Tis21-null SVZ stem cells greatly increased; nonetheless, the proliferating neuroblasts diminished, whereas the post-mitotic neuroblasts paradoxically accumulated in SVZ, failing to migrate along the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb. The ability, however, of neuroblasts to migrate from SVZ explants was not affected, suggesting that Tis21-null neuroblasts do not migrate to the olfactory bulb because of a defect in terminal differentiation. Notably, BMP4 addition or Id3 silencing rescued the defective differentiation observed in Tis21-null neurospheres, indicating that they mediate the Tis21 pro-differentiative action. The reduced number of granule neurons in the Tis21-null olfactory bulb led to a defect in olfactory detection threshold, without effect on olfactory memory, also suggesting that within olfactory circuits new granule neurons play a primary role in odor sensitivity rather than in memory.
|Restoration of oligodendrocyte pools in a mouse model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. |
McQueen, J; Reimer, MM; Holland, PR; Manso, Y; McLaughlin, M; Fowler, JH; Horsburgh, K
PloS one 9 e87227 2014
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, a sustained modest reduction in cerebral blood flow, is associated with damage to myelinated axons and cognitive decline with ageing. Oligodendrocytes (the myelin producing cells) and their precursor cells (OPCs) may be vulnerable to the effects of hypoperfusion and in some forms of injury OPCs have the potential to respond and repair damage by increased proliferation and differentiation. Using a mouse model of cerebral hypoperfusion we have characterised the acute and long term responses of oligodendrocytes and OPCs to hypoperfusion in the corpus callosum. Following 3 days of hypoperfusion, numbers of OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes were significantly decreased compared to controls. However following 1 month of hypoperfusion, the OPC pool was restored and increased numbers of oligodendrocytes were observed. Assessment of proliferation using PCNA showed no significant differences between groups at either time point but showed reduced numbers of proliferating oligodendroglia at 3 days consistent with the loss of OPCs. Cumulative BrdU labelling experiments revealed higher numbers of proliferating cells in hypoperfused animals compared to controls and showed a proportion of these newly generated cells had differentiated into oligodendrocytes in a subset of animals. Expression of GPR17, a receptor important for the regulation of OPC differentiation following injury, was decreased following short term hypoperfusion. Despite changes to oligodendrocyte numbers there were no changes to the myelin sheath as revealed by ultrastructural assessment and fluoromyelin however axon-glial integrity was disrupted after both 3 days and 1 month hypoperfusion. Taken together, our results demonstrate the initial vulnerability of oligodendroglial pools to modest reductions in blood flow and highlight the regenerative capacity of these cells.
|Diverse behaviors of outer radial glia in developing ferret and human cortex. |
Gertz, CC; Lui, JH; LaMonica, BE; Wang, X; Kriegstein, AR
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 2559-70 2014
The dramatic increase in neocortical size and folding during mammalian brain evolution has been attributed to the elaboration of the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the associated increase in neural progenitors. However, recent studies have shown that SVZ size and the abundance of resident progenitors do not directly predict cortical topography, suggesting that complex behaviors of the progenitors themselves may contribute to the overall size and shape of the adult cortex. Using time-lapse imaging, we examined the dynamic behaviors of SVZ progenitors in the ferret, a gyrencephalic carnivore, focusing our analysis on outer radial glial cells (oRGs). We identified a substantial population of oRGs by marker expression and their unique mode of division, termed mitotic somal translocation (MST). Ferret oRGs exhibited diverse behaviors in terms of division location, cleavage angle, and MST distance, as well as fiber orientation and dynamics. We then examined the human fetal cortex and found that a subset of human oRGs displayed similar characteristics, suggesting that diversity in oRG behavior may be a general feature. Similar to the human, ferret oRGs underwent multiple rounds of self-renewing divisions but were more likely to undergo symmetric divisions that expanded the oRG population, as opposed to producing intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs). Differences in oRG behaviors, including proliferative potential and daughter cell fates, may contribute to variations in cortical structure between mammalian species.
|Calreticulin and other components of endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat and human inflammatory demyelination. |
Ní Fhlathartaigh, M; McMahon, J; Reynolds, R; Connolly, D; Higgins, E; Counihan, T; Fitzgerald, U
Acta neuropathologica communications 1 37 2013
Calreticulin (CRT) is a chaperone protein, which aids correct folding of glycosylated proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Under conditions of ER stress, CRT is upregulated and may be displayed on the surface of cells or be secreted. This 'ecto-CRT' may activate the innate immune response or it may aid clearance of apoptotic cells. Our and other studies have demonstrated upregulation of ER stress markers CHOP, BiP, ATF4, XBP1 and phosphorylated e-IF2 alpha (p-eIF2 alpha) in biopsy and post-mortem human multiple sclerosis (MS) samples. We extend this work by analysing changes in expression of CRT, BiP, CHOP, XBP1 and p-eIF2 alpha in a rat model of inflammatory demyelination. Demyelination was induced in the spinal cord by intradermal injection of recombinant mouse MOG mixed with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) at the base of the tail. Tissue samples were analysed by semi-quantitative scoring of immunohistochemically stained frozen tissue sections. Data generated following sampling of tissue from animals with spinal cord lesions, was compared to that obtained using tissue derived from IFA- or saline-injected controls. CRT present in rat serum and in a cohort of human serum derived from 14 multiple sclerosis patients and 11 healthy controls was measured by ELISA.Stained tissue scores revealed significantly (pless than 0.05) increased amounts of CRT, CHOP and p-eIF2 alpha in the lesion, lesion edge and normal-appearing white matter when compared to controls. CHOP and p-eIF2 alpha were also significantly raised in regions of grey matter and the central canal (pless than 0.05). Immunofluorescent dual-label staining confirmed expression of these markers in astrocytes, microglia or neurons. Dual staining of rat and human spinal cord lesions with Oil Red O and CRT antibody showed co-localisation of CRT with the rim of myelin fragments. ELISA testing of sera from control and EAE rats demonstrated significant down-regulation (pless than 0.05) of CRT in the serum of EAE animals, compared to saline and IFA controls. This contrasted with significantly increased amounts of CRT detected in the sera of MS patients (pless than 0.05), compared to controls.This data highlights the potential importance of CRT and other ER stress proteins in inflammatory demyelination.
|Transcription factors FOXG1 and Groucho/TLE promote glioblastoma growth. |
Verginelli, F; Perin, A; Dali, R; Fung, KH; Lo, R; Longatti, P; Guiot, MC; Del Maestro, RF; Rossi, S; di Porzio, U; Stechishin, O; Weiss, S; Stifani, S
Nature communications 4 2956 2013
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and deadly malignant brain cancer, with a median survival of less than 2 years. GBM displays a cellular complexity that includes brain tumour-initiating cells (BTICs), which are considered as potential key targets for GBM therapies. Here we show that the transcription factors FOXG1 and Groucho/TLE are expressed in poorly differentiated astroglial cells in human GBM specimens and in primary cultures of GBM-derived BTICs, where they form a complex. FOXG1 knockdown in BTICs causes downregulation of neural stem/progenitor and proliferation markers, increased replicative senescence, upregulation of astroglial differentiation genes and decreased BTIC-initiated tumour growth after intracranial transplantation into host mice. These effects are phenocopied by Groucho/TLE knockdown or dominant inhibition of the FOXG1:Groucho/TLE complex. These results provide evidence that transcriptional programmes regulated by FOXG1 and Groucho/TLE are important for BTIC-initiated brain tumour growth, implicating FOXG1 and Groucho/TLE in GBM tumourigenesis.
|RING finger protein 11 (RNF11) modulates susceptibility to 6-OHDA-induced nigral degeneration and behavioral deficits through NF-κB signaling in dopaminergic cells. |
Pranski, EL; Dalal, NV; Sanford, CV; Herskowitz, JH; Gearing, M; Lazo, C; Miller, GW; Lah, JJ; Levey, AI; Betarbet, RS
Neurobiology of disease 54 264-79 2013
Chronic activation of the NF-κB pathway is associated with progressive neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Given the role of neuronal RING finger protein 11 (RNF11) as a negative regulator of the NF-κB pathway, in this report we investigated the function of RNF11 in dopaminergic cells in PD-associated neurodegeneration. We found that RNF11 knockdown in an in vitro model of PD mediated protection against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity. In converse, over-expression of RNF11 enhanced 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic cell death. Furthermore, by directly manipulating NF-κB signaling, we showed that the observed RNF11-enhanced 6-OHDA toxicity is mediated through inhibition of NF-κB-dependent transcription of TNF-α, antioxidants GSS and SOD1, and anti-apoptotic factor BCL2. Experiments in an in vivo 6-OHDA rat model of PD recapitulated the in vitro results. In vivo targeted RNF11 over-expression in nigral neurons enhanced 6-OHDA toxicity, as evident by increased amphetamine-induced rotations and loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons as compared to controls. This enhanced toxicity was coupled with the downregulation of NF-κB transcribed GSS, SOD1, BCL2, and neurotrophic factor BDNF mRNA levels, in addition to decreased TNF-α mRNA levels in ventral mesenchephalon samples. In converse, knockdown of RNF11 was associated with protective phenotypes and increased expression of above-mentioned NF-κB transcribed genes. Collectively, our in vitro and in vivo data suggest that RNF11-mediated inhibition of NF-κB in dopaminergic cells exaggerates 6-OHDA toxicity by inhibiting neuroprotective responses while loss of RNF11 inhibition on NF-κB activity promotes neuronal survival. The decreased expression of RNF11 in surviving cortical and nigral tissue detected in PD patients, thus implies a compensatory response in the diseased brain to PD-associated insults. In summary, our findings demonstrate that RNF11 in neurons can modulate susceptibility to 6-OHDA toxicity through NF-κB mediated responses. This neuron-specific role of RNF11 in the brain has important implications for targeted therapeutics aimed at preventing neurodegeneration.
|Prion replication elicits cytopathic changes in differentiated neurosphere cultures. |
Iwamaru, Y; Takenouchi, T; Imamura, M; Shimizu, Y; Miyazawa, K; Mohri, S; Yokoyama, T; Kitani, H
Journal of virology 87 8745-55 2013
The molecular mechanisms of prion-induced cytotoxicity remain largely obscure. Currently, only a few cell culture models have exhibited the cytopathic changes associated with prion infection. In this study, we introduced a cell culture model based on differentiated neurosphere cultures isolated from the brains of neonatal prion protein (PrP)-null mice and transgenic mice expressing murine PrP (dNP0 and dNP20 cultures). Upon exposure to mouse Chandler prions, dNP20 cultures supported the de novo formation of abnormal PrP and the resulting infectivity, as assessed by bioassays. Furthermore, this culture was susceptible to various prion strains, including mouse-adapted scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome prions. Importantly, a subset of the cells in the infected culture that was mainly composed of astrocyte lineage cells consistently displayed late-occurring, progressive signs of cytotoxicity as evidenced by morphological alterations, decreased cell viability, and increased lactate dehydrogenase release. These signs of cytotoxicity were not observed in infected dNP0 cultures, suggesting the requirement of endogenous PrP expression for prion-induced cytotoxicity. Degenerated cells positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein accumulated abnormal PrP and exhibited features of apoptotic death as assessed by active caspase-3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase nick-end staining. Furthermore, caspase inhibition provided partial protection from prion-mediated cell death. These results suggest that differentiated neurosphere cultures can provide an in vitro bioassay for mouse prions and permit the study of the molecular basis for prion-induced cytotoxicity at the cellular level.
|Synergistic binding of transcription factors to cell-specific enhancers programs motor neuron identity. |
Mazzoni, EO; Mahony, S; Closser, M; Morrison, CA; Nedelec, S; Williams, DJ; An, D; Gifford, DK; Wichterle, H
Nature neuroscience 16 1219-27 2013
Efficient transcriptional programming promises to open new frontiers in regenerative medicine. However, mechanisms by which programming factors transform cell fate are unknown, preventing more rational selection of factors to generate desirable cell types. Three transcription factors, Ngn2, Isl1 and Lhx3, were sufficient to program rapidly and efficiently spinal motor neuron identity when expressed in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells. Replacement of Lhx3 by Phox2a led to specification of cranial, rather than spinal, motor neurons. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing analysis of Isl1, Lhx3 and Phox2a binding sites revealed that the two cell fates were programmed by the recruitment of Isl1-Lhx3 and Isl1-Phox2a complexes to distinct genomic locations characterized by a unique grammar of homeodomain binding motifs. Our findings suggest that synergistic interactions among transcription factors determine the specificity of their recruitment to cell type-specific binding sites and illustrate how a single transcription factor can be repurposed to program different cell types.
|Transgenic overexpression of Sox17 promotes oligodendrocyte development and attenuates demyelination. |
Ming, X; Chew, LJ; Gallo, V
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 12528-42 2013
We have previously demonstrated that Sox17 regulates cell cycle exit and differentiation in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Here we investigated its function in white matter (WM) development and adult injury with a newly generated transgenic mouse overexpressing Sox17 in the oligodendrocyte lineage under the CNPase promoter. Sox17 overexpression in CNP-Sox17 mice sequentially promoted postnatal oligodendrogenesis, increasing NG2 progenitor cells from postnatal day (P) 15, then O4+ and CC1+ cells at P30 and P120, respectively. Total Olig2+ oligodendrocyte lineage cells first decreased between P8 and P22 through Sox17-mediated increase in apoptotic cell death, and thereafter significantly exceeded WT levels from P30 when cell death had ceased. CNP-Sox17 mice showed increased Gli2 protein levels and Gli2+ cells in WM, indicating that Sox17 promotes the generation of oligodendrocyte lineage cells through Hedgehog signaling. Sox17 overexpression prevented cell loss after lysolecithin-induced demyelination by increasing Olig2+ and CC1+ cells in response to injury. Furthermore, Sox17 overexpression abolished the injury-induced increase in TCF7L2/TCF4+ cells, and protected oligodendrocytes from apoptosis by preventing decreases in Gli2 and Bcl-2 expression that were observed in WT lesions. Our study thus reveals a biphasic effect of Sox17 overexpression on cell survival and oligodendrocyte formation in the developing WM, and that its potentiation of oligodendrocyte survival in the adult confers resistance to injury and myelin loss. This study demonstrates that overexpression of this transcription factor might be a viable protective strategy to mitigate the consequences of demyelination in the adult WM.
|Expression of klotho mRNA and protein in rat brain parenchyma from early postnatal development into adulthood. |
Clinton, SM; Glover, ME; Maltare, A; Laszczyk, AM; Mehi, SJ; Simmons, RK; King, GD
Brain research 1527 1-14 2013
Without the age-regulating protein klotho, mouse lifespan is shortened and the rapid onset of age-related disorders occurs. Conversely, overexpression of klotho extends mouse lifespan. Klotho is most abundant in kidney and expressed in a limited number of other organs, including the brain, where klotho levels are highest in choroid plexus. Reports vary on where klotho is expressed within the brain parenchyma, and no data is available as to whether klotho levels change across postnatal development. We used in situ hybridization to map klotho mRNA expression in the developing and adult rat brain and report moderate, widespread expression across grey matter regions. mRNA expression levels in cortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, and amygdala decreased during the second week of life and then gradually rose to adult levels by postnatal day 21. Immunohistochemistry revealed a protein expression pattern similar to the mRNA results, with klotho protein expressed widely throughout the brain. Klotho protein co-localized with both the neuronal marker NeuN, as well as, oligodendrocyte marker olig2. These results provide the first anatomical localization of klotho mRNA and protein in rat brain parenchyma and demonstrate that klotho levels vary during early postnatal development.
|Platelet-derived growth factor C deficiency in C57BL/6 mice leads to abnormal cerebral vascularization, loss of neuroependymal integrity, and ventricular abnormalities. |
Fredriksson, L; Nilsson, I; Su, EJ; Andrae, J; Ding, H; Betsholtz, C; Eriksson, U; Lawrence, DA
The American journal of pathology 180 1136-44 2012
Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their tyrosine kinase receptors (PDGFRs) are known to play important roles during development of the lungs, central nervous system (CNS), and skeleton and in several diseases. PDGF-C is a ligand for the tyrosine kinase receptor PDGFRα. Mutations in the gene encoding PDGF-C have been linked to clefts of the lip and/or palate in humans, and ablation of PDGF-C in 129/Sv background mice results in death during the perinatal period. In this study, we report that ablation of PDGF-C in C57BL/6 mice results in a milder phenotype than in 129/Sv mice, and we present a phenotypic characterization of PDGF-C deficiency in the adult murine CNS. Multiple congenital defects were observed in the CNS of PDGF-C-null C57BL/6 mice, including cerebral vascular abnormalities with abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell coverage. In vivo imaging of mice deficient in PDGF-C also revealed cerebral ventricular abnormalities, such as asymmetry of the lateral ventricles and hypoplasia of the septum, reminiscent of cavum septum pellucidum in humans. We further noted that PDGF-C-deficient mice displayed a distorted ependymal lining of the lateral ventricles, and we found evidence of misplaced neurons in the ventricular lining. We conclude that PDGF-C plays a critical role in the development of normal cerebral ventricles and neuroependymal integrity as well as in normal cerebral vascularization.
|Comparative distribution of protein components of the A20 ubiquitin-editing complex in normal human brain. |
Pranski, EL; Van Sanford, CD; Dalal, NV; Orr, AL; Karmali, D; Cooper, DS; Costa, N; Heilman, CJ; Gearing, M; Lah, JJ; Levey, AI; Betarbet, RS
Neuroscience letters 520 104-9 2012
Activation of innate and adaptive immune responses is tightly regulated, as insufficient activation could result in defective clearance of pathogens, while excessive activation might lead to lethal systemic inflammation or autoimmunity. A20 functions as a negative regulator of innate and adaptive immunity by inhibiting NF-κB activation. A20 mediates its inhibitory function in a complex with other proteins including RNF11 and Itch, both E3 ubiquitin ligases and TAX1BP1, an adaptor protein. Since NF-κB has been strongly implicated in various neuronal functions, we predict that its inhibitor, the A20 complex, is also present in the nervous system. In efforts to better understand the role of A20 complex and NF-κB signaling pathway, we determined regional distribution of A20 mRNA as well as protein expression levels and distribution of RNF11, TAX1BP1 and Itch, in different brain regions. The distribution of TRAF6 was also investigated since TRAF6, also an E3 ligase, has an important role in NF-κB signaling pathway. Our investigations, for the first time, describe and demonstrate that the essential components of the A20 ubiquitin-editing complex are present and mainly expressed in neurons. The A20 complex components are also differentially expressed throughout the human brain. This study provides useful information about region specific expression of the A20 complex components that will be invaluable while determining the role of NF-κB signaling pathway in neuronal development and degeneration.
|An efficient and economical culture approach for the enrichment of purified oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. |
Jianqin Niu,Lingyun Wang,Shubao Liu,Chengren Li,Jiming Kong,Hai-Ying Shen,Lan Xiao
Journal of neuroscience methods 209 2012
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) culture has provided a powerful approach to mechanistically investigate the proliferation and differentiation of oligodendroglia. However, existing culture methods (including the traditional shake-off method) have limitations, particularly their low productivities. Therefore, we developed a simplified and highly efficient method to produce a large yield of OPCs with low expense by using specialised modified media, in which B104-conditioned medium (B104-CM) instead of growth factors was used as a mitogenic source for OPC propagation, while a modified OPC isolation-medium was applied to improve the isolation of OPCs. First, we withdrew foetal bovine serum when primary mixed glial cultures were 65-75% confluent and substituted with modified oligodendrocyte growth medium to enrich OPCs. Second, we employed a chemical-based method to isolate and purify OPCs from mixed glial cultures using a modified oligodendrocyte isolation medium. As a result, our approach produced a high yield of purified OPCs, approximately 90-fold higher than that produced via the traditional shake-off method. Importantly, the purified OPCs produced via our modified approach maintained typical capacities of proliferation and differentiation observed in oligodendrocyte lineage cells. Together, our modified method provides a highly efficient approach to OPC culture for oligodendrocyte research.
|Contribution of microRNA-1275 to Claudin11 protein suppression via a polycomb-mediated silencing mechanism in human glioma stem-like cells. |
Katsushima, K; Shinjo, K; Natsume, A; Ohka, F; Fujii, M; Osada, H; Sekido, Y; Kondo, Y
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 27396-406 2012
Glioblastomas show heterogeneous histological features, and tumor cells show distinct phenotypic states that confer different functional attributes and an aggressive character. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity in this disease are poorly understood. Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) are considered able to aberrantly differentiate into diverse cell types and may contribute to the establishment of tumor heterogeneity. Using a GSC model, we investigated differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) and associated epigenetic mechanisms that regulate the differentiation of GSCs. miRNA profiling using microarray technology showed that 13 and 34 miRNAs were commonly up-regulated and down-regulated in two independent GSC lines during differentiation, respectively. Among this set of miRNAs, quantitative PCR analysis showed that miRNA-1275 (miR-1275) was consistently down-regulated during GSC differentiation, along with the up-regulation of its target, CLDN11, an important protein during oligodendroglial lineage differentiation. Inhibition of miR-1275 with a specific antisense oligonucleotide (anti-miR-1275) in GSCs increased the expression of CLDN11, together with significant growth suppression. Epigenetic analysis revealed that gain of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) in the primary microRNA-1275 promoter was closely associated with miR-1275 expression. Treatment with 3-deazaneplanocin A, an inhibitor of H3K27 methyltransferase, attenuated CLDN11 induction by serum stimulation in parallel with sustained miR-1275 expression. Our results have illuminated the epigenetic regulatory pathways of miR-1275 that are closely associated with oligodendroglial differentiation, which may contribute to the tissue heterogeneity seen in the formation of glioblastomas. Given that inhibition of miR-1275 induces expression of oligodendroglial lineage proteins and suppresses tumor cell proliferation, this may be a potential therapeutic target for glioblastomas.