Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R||ELISA, WB, ICC, IH(P)||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Nuclei & Chromosomes Antibody, histone H1 protein, clone 1415-1|
|Presentation||100 μL Hybridoma Supernatant, concentrated by ammonium sulfate. Buffer: PBS with 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at -20°C for up to 12 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Anti-Nuclei & Chromosomes Antibody, histone H1 protein, clone 1415-1 SDS
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|15-Lipoxygenase-1-enhanced Src-Janus kinase 2-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 stimulation and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression require redox-sensitive activation of epidermal growth factor receptor in vascular wall remodeling.|
Singh, NK; Wang, D; Kundumani-Sridharan, V; Van Quyen, D; Niu, J; Rao, GN
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 22478-88 2011
To understand the mechanisms by which 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE) activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), we studied the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). 15(S)-HETE stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR in a time-dependent manner in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Interference with EGFR activation blocked 15(S)-HETE-induced Src and STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression and VSMC migration. 15(S)-HETE also induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) in VSMCs, and its inhibition substantially reduced STAT3 phosphorylation, MCP-1 expression, and VSMC migration. In addition, Src formed a complex with EGFR and Jak2, and its inhibition completely blocked Jak2 and STAT3 phosphorylation, MCP-1 expression, and VSMC migration. 15(S)-HETE induced the production of H(2)O(2) via an NADPH oxidase-dependent manner and its scavengers, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and catalase suppressed 15(S)-HETE-stimulated EGFR, Src, Jak2, and STAT3 phosphorylation and MCP-1 expression. Balloon injury (BI) induced EGFR, Src, Jak2, and STAT3 phosphorylation, and inhibition of these signaling molecules attenuated BI-induced MCP-1 expression and smooth muscle cell migration from the medial to the luminal surface resulting in reduced neointima formation. In addition, inhibition of EGFR blocked BI-induced Src, Jak2, and STAT3 phosphorylation. Similarly, interference with Src activation suppressed BI-induced Jak2 and STAT3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, adenovirus-mediated expression of dnJak2 also blocked BI-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. Consistent with the effects of 15(S)-HETE on the activation of EGFR-Src-Jak2-STAT3 signaling in VSMCs in vitro, adenovirus-mediated expression of 15-lipoxygenase 1 (15-Lox1) enhanced BI-induced EGFR, Src, Jak2, and STAT3 phosphorylation leading to enhanced MCP-1 expression in vivo. Blockade of Src or Jak2 suppressed BI-induced 15-Lox1-enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation, MCP-1 expression, and neointima formation. In addition, whereas dominant negative Src blocked BI-induced 15-Lox1-enhanced Jak2 phosphorylation, dnJak2 had no effect on Src phosphorylation. Together, these observations demonstrate for the first time that the 15-Lox1-15(S)-HETE axis activates EGFR via redox-sensitive manner, which in turn mediates Src-Jak2-STAT3-dependent MCP-1 expression leading to vascular wall remodeling.
|Insulin increases reendothelialization and inhibits cell migration and neointimal growth after arterial injury.|
Danna M Breen, Kalam K Chan, Jiwanjeet K Dhaliwall, Michael R Ward, Nael Al Koudsi, Loretta Lam, Melissa De Souza, Husam Ghanim, Paresh Dandona, Duncan J Stewart, Michelle P Bendeck, Adria Giacca
Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 29 1060-6 2009
OBJECTIVE: Insulin has both growth-promoting and protective vascular effects in vitro, however the predominant effect in vivo is unclear. We investigated the effects of insulin in vivo on neointimal growth after arterial injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rats were given subcutaneous control (C) or insulin implants (3U/d;I) 3 days before arterial (carotid or aortic) balloon catheter injury. Normoglycemia was maintained by oral glucose and, after surgery, by intraperitoneal glucose infusion (saline in C). Insulin decreased intimal area (P0.01) but did not change intimal cell proliferation or apoptosis. However, insulin inhibited cell migration into the intima (P0.01) and increased expression of smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation markers (P0.05). Insulin also increased reendothelialization (P0.01) and the number of circulating progenitor cells (P0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These results are the first demonstration that insulin has a protective effect on both SMC and endothelium in vivo, resulting in inhibition of neointimal growth after vessel injury.
|A Caenorhabditis elegans cohesion protein with functions in meiotic chromosome pairing and disjunction.|
Pasierbek, P; Jantsch, M; Melcher, M; Schleiffer, A; Schweizer, D; Loidl, J
Genes & development 15 1349-60 2001
We have studied four Caenorhabditis elegans homologs of the Rad21/Scc1/Rec8 sister-chromatid cohesion protein family. Based on the RNAi phenotype and protein localization, it is concluded that one of them, W02A2.6p, is the likely worm ortholog of yeast Rec8p. The depletion of C. elegans W02A2.6p (called REC-8) by RNAi, induced univalent formation and splitting of chromosomes into sister chromatids at diakinesis. Chromosome synapsis at pachytene was defective, but primary homology recognition seemed unaffected, as a closer-than-random association of homologous fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signals at leptotene/zygotene was observed. Depletion of REC-8 also induced chromosome fragmentation at diakinesis. We interpret these fragments as products of unrepaired meiotic double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs), because fragmentation was suppressed in a spo-11 background. Thus, REC-8 seems to be required for successful repair of DSBs. The occurrence of DSBs in REC-8-depleted meiocytes suggests that DSB formation does not depend on homologous synapsis. Anti-REC-8 immunostaining decorated synaptonemal complexes (SCs) at pachytene and chromosomal axes in bivalents and univalents at diakinesis. Between metaphase I and metaphase II, REC-8 is partially lost from the chromosomes. The partial loss of REC-8 from chromosomes between metaphase I and metaphase II suggests that worm REC-8 might function similarly to yeast Rec8p. The loss of yeast Rec8p from chromosome arms at meiosis I and centromeres at meiosis II coordinates the disjunction of homologs and sister chromatids at the two meiotic divisions.Full Text Article
|Preparation and imaging of nuclear spreads from cells of the zebrafish embryo. Evidence for large degradation intermediates in apoptosis.|
D W Chan, T D Yager
Chromosoma 107 39-60 1998
We describe a method for preparing nuclear spreads from cells of live, unfixed zebrafish embryos at the late-gastrula (approximately 8000 cell) stage of development. The method consists of a sequence of four steps: (1) a slow, gentle lysis, in low to moderate salt concentration, of cells and then nuclei, to release DNA-containing fibres; (2) spreading of the released fibres by a transverse fluid flow; (3) electrostatic, and possibly also covalent, attachment of the spread fibers to poly(L-lysine)-coated glass microscope slides; and (4) continued incubation to produce periodic cleavage of the DNA within the fibres, apparently through activation of endogenous nucleases. The nuclear spreads are imaged with epifluorescence, at a spatial resolution approaching the Rayleigh limit (approximately 230 nm for blue light). The epifluorescent signal is provided from Hoechst 33,258 bound specifically to the DNA, from a dye-coupled antibody conjugate bound specifically to histone H1 in the fibres, or from a DNA nick end-labelling assay. The spontaneous cleavage of DNA-containing fibres in step (4) of the above procedure can be blocked by the chelating agents EGTA and EDTA, by the caspase-2,3,7 inhibitor N-acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-aldehyde, and by the caspase-1,4,5 inhibitors N-acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-aldehyde and N-acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethyl ketone. These data suggest that the spontaneous cleavage of fibres is catalysed by nucleases that become activated through a caspase-mediated mechanism. The involvement of caspase-dependent nucleases would suggest that an apoptosis pathway is activated in the spreads during their prolonged incubation. If bona fide apoptosis is induced in living zebrafish embryos by treatment with camptothecin (a topoisomerase I poison), and then nuclear spreads are prepared, we observe a similar fragmentation of the spread fibres. However, in this case the fragmentation is more rapid and complete. We hypothesize that, during the early phase of apoptosis, one or more endogenous nucleases are activated by a caspase-mediated mechanism. The nuclease(s) then specifically recognize and cleave a susceptible, periodically repeating feature of interphase chromatin.
|The Drosophila suppressor of sable protein binds to RNA and associates with a subset of polytene chromosome bands.|
M V Murray, M A Turnage, K J Williamson, W R Steinhauer, L L Searles, M V Murray, M A Turnage, K J Williamson, W R Steinhauer, L L Searles
Molecular and cellular biology 17 2291-300 1997
Mutations of the Drosophila melanogaster suppressor of sable [su(s)] gene, which encodes a 150-kDa nuclear protein [Su(s)], increase the accumulation of specific transcripts in a manner that is not well understood but that appears to involve pre-mRNA processing. Here, we report biochemical analysis of purified, recombinant Su(s) [rSu(s)] expressed in baculovirus and in Escherichia coli as maltose binding protein (MBP) fusions and immunocytochemical analysis of endogenous Su(s). This work has shown that purified, baculovirus-expressed rSu(s) binds to RNA in vitro with a high affinity and limited specificity. Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment was used to identify preferred RNA targets of rSu(s), and a large proportion of RNAs isolated contain a full or partial match to the consensus sequence UCAGUAGUCU, which was confirmed to be a high-affinity rSu(s) binding site. An MBP-Su(s) fusion protein containing the N-terminal third of Su(s) binds RNAs containing this sequence with a higher specificity than full-length, baculovirus-expressed rSu(s). The consensus sequence resembles both a cryptic 5' splice site and a sequence that is found near the 5' end of some Drosophila transcripts. Immunolocalization studies showed that endogenous Su(s) is distributed in a reticulated pattern in Drosophila embryo and salivary gland nuclei. In salivary gland cells, Su(s) is found both in the nucleoplasm and in association with a subset of polytene chromosome bands. Considering these and previous results, we propose two models to explain how su(s) mutations affect nuclear pre-mRNA processing.Full Text Article
|High-resolution imaging at the cellular and subcellular levels in flattened whole mounts of early zebrafish embryos.|
T D Yager, R Ikegami, A K Rivera-Bennetts, C Zhao, D Brooker
Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire 75 535-50 1997
We describe a rapid and sensitive method for high-resolution imaging at the cellular and subcellular levels in the whole-mount zebrafish embryo. The procedure involves fixing and staining the embryo, followed by deyolking and flattening it under a cover slip, to produce a planar mount that is 20 to 100 microns thick. Such a flattened whole mount allows imaging with a spatial resolution of approximately 500 nm in the x-y plane and does not require the use of embedding, sectioning, confocal microscopy, or computational deblurring procedures. We can resolve all individual nuclei and chromosome sets in the embryo, up to the late gastrula stage (10,000 cell stage). In addition, older embryos (through the segmentation stage) can also be examined, with the preservation of significant morphological detail. Because of its ability to resolve subcellular detail, the flattened whole-mount method can provide significant biological information beyond what can be obtained from conventional (three-dimensional) whole mounts. We have used the flattened whole-mount method to study subcellular events related to progression through the cell cycle or to apoptosis, in cells of the early zebrafish embryo. A specific DNA-binding dye (Hoechst 33258) or an antibody against a chromosomal protein (histone H1) was used to stain the nuclei of individual cells in the embryo. This allowed us to determine the spatial positions of all the individual cells, and also their stages in the cell cycle. A terminal transferase (TUNEL) assay was used to detect apoptotic cells. This combination of specific stains allowed us to study the behaviors of groups of cells in situ, within the developing zebrafish embryo.
|Activation of the metaphase checkpoint and an apoptosis programme in the early zebrafish embryo, by treatment with the spindle-destabilising agent nocodazole.|
R Ikegami, J Zhang, A K Rivera-Bennetts, T D Yager
Zygote (Cambridge, England) 5 329-50 1997
We have studied the developmental activation of the metaphase checkpoint, and the consequences of activating this checkpoint, in the zebrafish embryo. (1) Treatment with nocodazole (a microtubule destabiliser) before mid-blastula transition (MBT) produces complete destruction of all nuclei in the deep cell layer of the embryo. In contrast, nocodazole treatment after MBT efficiently produces metaphase arrest in this cell layer. Thus, the metaphase checkpoint becomes activated at MBT. (2) Although a metaphase arrest is induced by nocodazole, it is not induced by paclitaxel (a microtubule stabiliser). Thus the metaphase checkpoint appears to sense a destabilisation, but not a stabilisation, of spindle microtubules. (3) Metaphase-arrested cells (in nocodazole) can be driven into the next interphase by adding the Ca2+-specific ionophore A23187. Thus, a Ca2+-signalling pathway lies downstream of, or parallel to, the metaphase checkpoint. (4) After mid-gastrula stage, treatment with nocodazole produces DNA fragmentation in all three cell layers. In the enveloping epithelial monolayer (EVL), this is associated with a classical apoptotic phenotype. In the deep layer, it is associated with an unusual, highly condensed nuclear state that is entered directly from metaphase arrest. Thus, after the mid-gastrula stage, the embryo responds to nocodazle by undergoing apoptosis. (5) Nocodazole-induced apoptosis in the deep cell layer can be blocked by the caspase-1,4,5 inhibitors Ac-YVAD-CHO and Ac-YVAD-CMK. This suggests that a homologue of the C. elegans ced-9-ced-4-ced-3 pathway is involved in control over apoptosis in the early zebrafish embryo.