Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Human Only||IH(P), IP, ICC||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Hybridoma supernatant. Liquid in PBS. Contains no preservative.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
References | 127 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Transplantation of human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells highly expressing TGFβ receptors in a rabbit model of disc degeneration. |
Ahn, J; Park, EM; Kim, BJ; Kim, JS; Choi, B; Lee, SH; Han, I
Stem cell research & therapy 6 190 2015
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely considered to hold promise for the treatment of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. However, variation in the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs is a major problem and the derivation of MSCs for use in IVD regeneration has not been optimized. Additionally, no data are available on the efficacy of Wharton's Jelly-derived MSC (WJ-MSC) transplantation in an animal model of IVD degeneration.This study evaluated the effectiveness of a cross-linked hyaluronic acid (XHA) scaffold loaded with human WJ-MSCs, according to their expression levels of transforming growth factor-β receptor I/activin-like kinase receptor 5 (TβRI/ALK5) and TβRII, for IVD regeneration in a rabbit model. We compared the degree of IVD regeneration between rabbits transplanted with a XHA scaffold loaded with WJ-MSCs highly and lowly expressing TβRI/ALK5 and TβRII (MSC-highTR and MSC-lowTR, respectively) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analysis.At 12 weeks after transplantation, T2-weighted MRI analysis showed significant restoration of the disc water content in rabbits treated with a MSC-highTR-loaded XHA scaffold in comparison to rabbits treated with the scaffold alone or a MSC-lowTR-loaded XHA scaffold. In addition, morphological and histological analyses revealed that IVD regeneration was highest in rabbits transplanted with a MSC-highTR-loaded XHA scaffold.Taken together, our results suggest that a MSC-highTR-loaded XHA scaffold supports IVD regeneration more effectively than a MSC-lowTR-loaded XHA scaffold. This study supports the potential clinical use of MSC-highTR-loaded XHA scaffolds to halt IVD degeneration or to enhance IVD regeneration.
|Early detection of structural abnormalities and cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43 in tissue-engineered skins derived from ALS patients. |
Paré, B; Touzel-Deschênes, L; Lamontagne, R; Lamarre, MS; Scott, FD; Khuong, HT; Dion, PA; Bouchard, JP; Gould, P; Rouleau, GA; Dupré, N; Berthod, F; Gros-Louis, F
Acta neuropathologica communications 3 5 2015
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset disease characterized by the selective degeneration of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord progressively leading to paralysis and death. Current diagnosis of ALS is based on clinical assessment of related symptoms. The clinical manifestations observed in ALS appear relatively late in the disease course after degeneration of a significant number of motor neurons. As a result, the identification and development of disease-modifying therapies is difficult. Therefore, novel strategies for early diagnosis of neurodegeneration, to monitor disease progression and to assess response to existing and future treatments are urgently needed. Factually, many neurological disorders, including ALS, are accompanied by skin changes that often precede the onset of neurological symptoms. Aiming to generate an innovative human-based model to facilitate the identification of predictive biomarkers associated with the disease, we developed a unique ALS tissue-engineered skin model (ALS-TES) derived from patient's own cells. The ALS-TES presents a number of striking features including altered epidermal differentiation, abnormal dermo-epidermal junction, delamination, keratinocyte infiltration, collagen disorganization and cytoplasmic TDP-43 inclusions. Remarkably, these abnormal skin defects, uniquely seen in the ALS-derived skins, were detected in pre-symtomatic C9orf72-linked ALS patients carrying the GGGGCC DNA repeat expansion. Consequently, our ALS skin model could represent a renewable source of human tissue, quickly and easily accessible to better understand the physiophatological mechanisms underlying this disease, to facilitate the identification of disease-specific biomarkers, and to develop innovative tools for early diagnosis and disease monitoring.
|A Subsequent Human Neural Progenitor Transplant into the Degenerate Retina Does Not Compromise Initial Graft Survival or Therapeutic Efficacy. |
Lu, B; Lin, Y; Tsai, Y; Girman, S; Adamus, G; Jones, MK; Shelley, B; Svendsen, CN; Wang, S
Translational vision science & technology 4 7 2015
Stem and progenitor cell transplantation provides a promising clinical application for treating degenerative retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Our previous studies have shown that a single subretinal injection of human cortical-derived neural progenitor cells (hNPC(ctx)) into cyclosporine-treated Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats preserved both photoreceptors and visual function. However, it is still unknown whether nonautologous progenitor cell readministration for sustained vision is efficacious and safe in terms of the initial graft initiating an immune response to a subsequent graft.A cell suspension containing 3×10(4) hNPC(ctx) into one eye of cyclosporine-treated RCS rats at postnatal day 21 (P21), followed by a second transplantation at P95 into the previously untreated fellow eye.hNPC(ctx) delayed photoreceptor degeneration and preserved visual function, as measured by electroretinography (ERG), optokinetic response (OKR), and luminance threshold recordings (LTRs). Visual function and photoreceptors of the initially treated eye were still preserved 6 weeks after hNPC(ctx) were injected into the second eye. Antibodies against T-cell markers showed that CD3, CD4, and CD8 T cells were not detected at P90 and P140 in most cases. No detectable level of anti-nestin antibody was found in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).This xenograft study with cyclosporine-treated animals demonstrates that readministration of hNPC(ctx) into the fellow eye did not induce anti-graft immune responses or lower therapeutic efficacy of hNPC(ctx) in preserving vision. Thus, readministration of progenitor cells to sustain long-term efficacy may be an option for long-term therapies of retinal degeneration.Redosing neural progenitors do not affect the efficacy of the initial grafts in protecting vision or induce unwanted immune responses.
|Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells modulate dextran sulfate sodium induced acute colitis in immunodeficient mice. |
Banerjee, A; Bizzaro, D; Burra, P; Di Liddo, R; Pathak, S; Arcidiacono, D; Cappon, A; Bo, P; Conconi, MT; Crescenzi, M; Pinna, CM; Parnigotto, PP; Alison, MR; Sturniolo, GC; D'Incà, R; Russo, FP
Stem cell research & therapy 6 79 2015
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are complex multi-factorial diseases with increasing incidence worldwide but their treatment is far from satisfactory. Unconventional strategies have consequently been investigated, proposing the use of cells as an effective alternative approach to IBD. In the present study we examined the protective potential of exogenously administered human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) against Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS) induced acute colitis in immunodeficient NOD.CB17-Prkdc (scid)/J mice with particular attention to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.UCMSCs were injected in NOD.CB17-Prkdc (scid)/J via the tail vein at day 1 and 4 after DSS administration. To verify attenuation of DSS induced damage by UCMSCs, Disease Activity Index (DAI) and body weight changes was monitored daily. Moreover, colon length, histological changes, myeloperoxidase and catalase activities, metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9 expression and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related proteins were evaluated on day 7.UCMSCs administration to immunodeficient NOD.CB17-Prkdc (scid)/J mice after DSS damage significantly reduced DAI (1.45 ± 0.16 vs 2.08 ± 0.18, p less than 0.05), attenuating the presence of bloody stools, weight loss, colon shortening (8.95 ± 0.33 cm vs 6.8 ± 0.20 cm, p less than 0.01) and histological score (1.97 ± 0.13 vs 3.27 ± 0.13, p less than 0.001). Decrease in neutrophil infiltration was evident from lower MPO levels (78.2 ± 9.7 vs 168.9 ± 18.2 U/g, p less than 0.01). DSS treatment enhanced MMP2 and MMP9 activities (greater than 3-fold), which were significantly reduced in mice receiving UCMSCs. Moreover, positive modulation in ER stress related proteins was observed after UCMSCs administration.Our results demonstrated that UCMSCs are able to prevent DSS-induced colitis in immunodeficient mice. Using these mice we demonstrated that our UCMSCs have a direct preventive effect other than the T-cell immunomodulatory properties which are already known. Moreover we demonstrated a key function of MMPs and ER stress in the establishment of colitis suggesting them to be potential therapeutic targets in IBD treatment.
|Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Progenitors Assist Functional Sensory Axon Regeneration after Dorsal Root Avulsion Injury. |
Hoeber, J; Trolle, C; Konig, N; Du, Z; Gallo, A; Hermans, E; Aldskogius, H; Shortland, P; Zhang, SC; Deumens, R; Kozlova, EN
Scientific reports 5 10666 2015
Dorsal root avulsion results in permanent impairment of sensory functions due to disconnection between the peripheral and central nervous system. Improved strategies are therefore needed to reconnect injured sensory neurons with their spinal cord targets in order to achieve functional repair after brachial and lumbosacral plexus avulsion injuries. Here, we show that sensory functions can be restored in the adult mouse if avulsed sensory fibers are bridged with the spinal cord by human neural progenitor (hNP) transplants. Responses to peripheral mechanical sensory stimulation were significantly improved in transplanted animals. Transganglionic tracing showed host sensory axons only in the spinal cord dorsal horn of treated animals. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that sensory fibers had grown through the bridge and showed robust survival and differentiation of the transplants. Section of the repaired dorsal roots distal to the transplant completely abolished the behavioral improvement. This demonstrates that hNP transplants promote recovery of sensorimotor functions after dorsal root avulsion, and that these effects are mediated by spinal ingrowth of host sensory axons. These results provide a rationale for the development of novel stem cell-based strategies for functionally useful bridging of the peripheral and central nervous system.
|Enhancement of Ischemic Wound Healing by Spheroid Grafting of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Treated with Low-Level Light Irradiation. |
Park, IS; Chung, PS; Ahn, JC
PloS one 10 e0122776 2015
We investigated whether low-level light irradiation prior to transplantation of adipose-derived stromal cell (ASC) spheroids in an animal skin wound model stimulated angiogenesis and tissue regeneration to improve functional recovery of skin tissue. The spheroid, composed of hASCs, was irradiated with low-level light and expressed angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Immunochemical staining analysis revealed that the spheroid of the hASCs was CD31+, KDR+, and CD34+. On the other hand, monolayer-cultured hASCs were negative for these markers. PBS, human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells, and the ASC spheroid were transplanted into a wound bed in athymic mice to evaluate the therapeutic effects of the ASC spheroid in vivo. The ASC spheroid transplanted into the wound bed differentiated into endothelial cells and remained differentiated. The density of vascular formations increased as a result of the angiogenic factors released by the wound bed and enhanced tissue regeneration at the lesion site. These results indicate that the transplantation of the ASC spheroid significantly improved functional recovery relative to both ASC transplantation and PBS treatment. These findings suggest that transplantation of an ASC spheroid treated with low-level light may be an effective form of stem cell therapy for treatment of a wound bed.
|The Anti-Tumor Effects of Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transduced with HSV-Tk Gene on U-87-Driven Brain Tumor. |
de Melo, SM; Bittencourt, S; Ferrazoli, EG; da Silva, CS; da Cunha, FF; da Silva, FH; Stilhano, RS; Denapoli, PM; Zanetti, BF; Martin, PK; Silva, LM; dos Santos, AA; Baptista, LS; Longo, BM; Han, SW
PloS one 10 e0128922 2015
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an infiltrative tumor that is difficult to eradicate. Treating GBM with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that have been modified with the HSV-Tk suicide gene has brought significant advances mainly because MSCs are chemoattracted to GBM and kill tumor cells via a bystander effect. To use this strategy, abundantly present adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) were evaluated for the treatment of GBM in mice. AT-MSCs were prepared using a mechanical protocol to avoid contamination with animal protein and transduced with HSV-Tk via a lentiviral vector. The U-87 glioblastoma cells cultured with AT-MSC-HSV-Tk died in the presence of 25 or 50 μM ganciclovir (GCV). U-87 glioblastoma cells injected into the brains of nude mice generated tumors larger than 3.5 mm2 after 4 weeks, but the injection of AT-MSC-HSV-Tk cells one week after the U-87 injection, combined with GCV treatment, drastically reduced tumors to smaller than 0.5 mm2. Immunohistochemical analysis of the tumors showed the presence of AT-MSC-HSV-Tk cells only within the tumor and its vicinity, but not in other areas of the brain, showing chemoattraction between them. The abundance of AT-MSCs and the easier to obtain them mechanically are strong advantages when compared to using MSCs from other tissues.
|Development and rescue of human familial hypercholesterolaemia in a xenograft mouse model. |
Bissig-Choisat, B; Wang, L; Legras, X; Saha, PK; Chen, L; Bell, P; Pankowicz, FP; Hill, MC; Barzi, M; Leyton, CK; Leung, HC; Kruse, RL; Himes, RW; Goss, JA; Wilson, JM; Chan, L; Lagor, WR; Bissig, KD
Nature communications 6 7339 2015
Diseases of lipid metabolism are a major cause of human morbidity, but no animal model entirely recapitulates human lipoprotein metabolism. Here we develop a xenograft mouse model using hepatocytes from a patient with familial hypercholesterolaemia caused by loss-of-function mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). Like familial hypercholesterolaemia patients, our familial hypercholesterolaemia liver chimeric mice develop hypercholesterolaemia and a 'humanized' serum profile, including expression of the emerging drug targets cholesteryl ester transfer protein and apolipoprotein (a), for which no genes exist in mice. We go on to replace the missing LDLR in familial hypercholesterolaemia liver chimeric mice using an adeno-associated virus 9-based gene therapy and restore normal lipoprotein profiles after administration of a single dose. Our study marks the first time a human metabolic disease is induced in an experimental animal model by human hepatocyte transplantation and treated by gene therapy. Such xenograft platforms offer the ability to validate human experimental therapies and may foster their rapid translation into the clinic.
|Non-Invasive In Vivo Imaging and Quantification of Tumor Growth and Metastasis in Rats Using Cells Expressing Far-Red Fluorescence Protein. |
Christensen, J; Vonwil, D; Shastri, VP
PloS one 10 e0132725 2015
Non-invasive in vivo imaging is emerging as an important tool for basic and preclinical research. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence dyes and probes have been used for non-invasive optical imaging since in the NIR region absorption and auto fluorescence by body tissue is low, thus permitting for greater penetration depths and high signal to noise ratio. Currently, cell tracking systems rely on labeling cells prior to injection or administering probes targeting the cell population of choice right before imaging. These approaches do not enable imaging of tumor growth, as the cell label is diluted during cell division. In this study we have developed cell lines stably expressing the far-red fluorescence protein E2-Crimson, thus enabling continuous detection and quantification of tumor growth. In a xenograft rat model, we show that E2-Crimson expressing cells can be detected over a 5 week period using optical imaging. Fluorescence intensities correlated with tumor volume and weight and allowed for a reliable and robust quantification of the entire tumor compartment. Using a novel injection regime, the seeding of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in the lungs in a rat model was established and verified.
|Intravenous Bone Marrow Stem Cell Grafts Preferentially Migrate to Spleen and Abrogate Chronic Inflammation in Stroke. |
Acosta, SA; Tajiri, N; Hoover, J; Kaneko, Y; Borlongan, CV
Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation 46 2616-27 2015
Adult stem cell therapy is an experimental stroke treatment. Here, we assessed homing and anti-inflammatory effects of bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) in chronic stroke.At 60 days post stroke, adult Sprague-Dawley rats received intravenous hBMSCs (4×10(6) labeled or nonlabeled cells) or vehicle (saline). A sham surgery group served as additional control. In vivo imaging was conducted between 1 hour and 11 days post transplantation, followed by histological examination.Labeled hBMSCs migrated to spleen which emitted significantly higher fluorescent signal across all time points, especially during the first hour, and were modestly detected in the head region at the 12 hours and 11 days, compared with nonlabeled hBMSCs and vehicle-infused stroke animals, or sham (Pless than 0.05). At 11 days post transplantation, ex vivo imaging confirmed preferential hBMSC migration to the spleen over the brain. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed significant 15% and 30% reductions in striatal infarct and peri-infarct area, and a trend of rescue against neuronal loss in the hippocampus. Unbiased stereology showed significant 75% and 60% decrements in major histocompatibility complex II-activated inflammatory cells in gray and white matter, and a 43% diminution in tumor necrosis factor-α cell density in the spleen of transplanted stroke animals compared with vehicle-infused stroke animals (Pless than 0.05). Human antigen immunostaining revealed 0.03% hBMSCs survived in spleen and only 0.0007% in brain. MSC migration to spleen, but not brain, inversely correlated with reduced infarct, peri-infarct, and inflammation.hBMSC transplantation is therapeutic in chronic stroke possibly by abrogating the inflammation-plagued secondary cell death.
|Transplantation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells alleviates pneumonitis of MRL/lpr mice. |
Zhang, Y; Xia, Y; Ni, S; Gu, Z; Liu, H
Journal of thoracic disease 6 109-17 2014
To investigate whether the umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) transplantation in the MRL/lpr mice has effect or not on their pneumonitis and the possible mechanisms underlying this treatment.Twenty four 18-week-old MRL/lpr female mice were divided into three groups as following: the group 2 (UC-MSCT group) have been transplanted with 1×10(6) UC-MSCs through caudal vein, the group 3 (multi-UC-MSCT Group) have been transplanted with 1×10(6) UC-MSCs three times and the group 1 (control group) have been treated with 0.5 mL phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as control. The histopathology of the lung was observed. The pulmonary expression of high mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB-1) was measured by western blot and detected by quantitation real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Immunohistochemistry method was used to detect HMGB-1 expressions in pulmo.In comparision to control ground mice, UC-MSCs significantly reduced interstitial pneumonitis in the MRL/lpr mice. The lung peribronchiolar lesion index of UC-MSCT group (1.40±0.24) and multi-UC-MSCT group (1.02±0.29) were significantly decreased as compared to control group (1.95±0.35) (Pless than 0.01). The perivascular lesion index of UC-MSCT group (1.20±0.18) and multi-UC-MSCT group (1.08±0.16) were also significantly reduced as compared to control group (1.56±0.32) (P=0.018, 0.002) and the lung alveolar areas lesion index of control group (1.72±0.34) was significantly increased as compared to UC-MSCT group (1.30±0.21) and multi-UC-MSCT group (1.05±0.15) (P=0.011, 0.000). The lung HMGB-1 protein in UC-MSCT group (0.32±0.04) and in multi-UC-MSCT group (0.28±0.06) were both significantly decreased as compared to that in control group (0.80±0.21) (Pless than 0.05). The level of HMGB-1 mRNA in UC-MSCT group (4.68±0.37) and in multi-UC-MSCT group (4.35±0.10) lung were both significantly decreased as compared to those in control group (16.29±3.84) (Pless than 0.05). In immunohistochemical staining lung sections, high expression of HMGB-1 was found mainly located in the cytoplasm and extracellular matrix of MRL/lpr mice pulmonary epithelial cells, the expression of HMGB-1 in UC-MSCT group and multi-UC-MSCT group was significantly decreased as compared to that in the control group.These findings indicate that UC-MSCs have a therapeutic effect on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pneumonitis, possibly by inhibiting HMGB-1 expression, which suggests a potential application of UC-MSCs in the treatment of human lupus.
|Behavioral and histopathological assessment of adult ischemic rat brains after intracerebral transplantation of NSI-566RSC cell lines. |
Tajiri, N; Quach, DM; Kaneko, Y; Wu, S; Lee, D; Lam, T; Hayama, KL; Hazel, TG; Johe, K; Wu, MC; Borlongan, CV
PloS one 9 e91408 2014
Stroke is a major cause of death and disability, with very limited treatment option. Cell-based therapies have emerged as potential treatments for stroke. Indeed, studies have shown that transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) exerts functional benefits in stroke models. However, graft survival and integration with the host remain pressing concerns with cell-based treatments. The current study set out to investigate those very issues using a human NSC line, NSI-566RSC, in a rat model of ischemic stroke induced by transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Seven days after stroke surgery, those animals that showed significant motor and neurological impairments were randomly assigned to receive NSI-566RSC intracerebral transplants at two sites within the striatum at three different doses: group A (0 cells/µl), group B (5,000 cells/µl), group C (10,000 cells/µl), and group D (20,000 cells/µl). Weekly behavioral tests, starting at seven days and continued up to 8 weeks after transplantation, revealed dose-dependent recovery from both motor and neurological deficits in transplanted stroke animals. Eight weeks after cell transplantation, immunohistochemical investigations via hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed infarct size was similar across all groups. To identify the cell graft, and estimate volume, immunohistochemistry was performed using two human-specific antibodies: one to detect all human nuclei (HuNu), and another to detect human neuron-specific enolase (hNSE). Surviving cell grafts were confirmed in 10/10 animals of group B, 9/10 group C, and 9/10 in group D. hNSE and HuNu staining revealed similar graft volume estimates in transplanted stroke animals. hNSE-immunoreactive fibers were also present within the corpus callosum, coursing in parallel with host tracts, suggesting a propensity to follow established neuroanatomical features. Despite absence of reduction in infarct volume, NSI-566RSC transplantation produced behavioral improvements possibly via robust engraftment and neuronal differentiation, supporting the use of this NSC line for stroke therapy.
|Transient but not permanent benefit of neuronal progenitor cell therapy after traumatic brain injury: potential causes and translational consequences. |
Skardelly, M; Gaber, K; Burdack, S; Scheidt, F; Schuhmann, MU; Hilbig, H; Meixensberger, J; Boltze, J
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 8 318 2014
Numerous studies have reported a beneficial impact of neural progenitor cell transplantation on functional outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) during short and medium follow-up periods. However, our knowledge regarding long-term functional effects is fragmentary while a direct comparison between local and systemic transplantation is missing so far.This study investigated the long-term (12 week) impact of human fetal neuronal progenitor cell (hNPC) transplantation 24 h after severe TBI in rats.Cells were either transplanted stereotactically (1 × 10(5)) into the putamen or systemically (5 × 10(5)) via the tail vein. Control animals received intravenous transplantation of vehicle solution.An overall functional benefit was observed after systemic, but not local hNPC transplantation by area under the curve analysis (p less than 0.01). Surprisingly, this effect vanished during later stages after TBI with all groups exhibiting comparable functional outcomes 84 days after TBI. Investigation of cell-mediated inflammatory processes revealed increasing microglial activation and macrophage presence during these stages, which was statistically significant after systemic cell administration (p less than 0.05). Intracerebral hNPC transplantation slightly diminished astrogliosis in perilesional areas (p less than 0.01), but did not translate into a permanent functional benefit. No significant effects on angiogenesis were observed among the groups.Our results suggest the careful long-term assessment of cell therapies for TBI, as well as to identify potential long-term detrimental effects of such therapies before moving on to clinical trials. Moreover, immunosuppressive protocols, though widely used, should be rigorously assessed for their applicability in the respective setup.
|Human glial chimeric mice reveal astrocytic dependence of JC virus infection. |
Kondo, Y; Windrem, MS; Zou, L; Chandler-Militello, D; Schanz, SJ; Auvergne, RM; Betstadt, SJ; Harrington, AR; Johnson, M; Kazarov, A; Gorelik, L; Goldman, SA
The Journal of clinical investigation 124 5323-36 2014
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease triggered by infection with the human gliotropic JC virus (JCV). Due to the human-selective nature of the virus, there are no animal models available to investigate JCV pathogenesis. To address this issue, we developed mice with humanized white matter by engrafting human glial progenitor cells (GPCs) into neonatal immunodeficient and myelin-deficient mice. Intracerebral delivery of JCV resulted in infection and subsequent demyelination of these chimeric mice. Human GPCs and astrocytes were infected more readily than oligodendrocytes, and viral replication was noted primarily in human astrocytes and GPCs rather than oligodendrocytes, which instead expressed early viral T antigens and exhibited apoptotic death. Engraftment of human GPCs in normally myelinated and immunodeficient mice resulted in humanized white matter that was chimeric for human astrocytes and GPCs. JCV effectively propagated in these mice, which indicates that astroglial infection is sufficient for JCV spread. Sequencing revealed progressive mutation of the JCV capsid protein VP1 after infection, suggesting that PML may evolve with active infection. These results indicate that the principal CNS targets for JCV infection are astrocytes and GPCs and that infection is associated with progressive mutation, while demyelination is a secondary occurrence, following T antigen-triggered oligodendroglial apoptosis. More broadly, this study provides a model by which to further assess the biology and treatment of human-specific gliotropic viruses.
|A competitive advantage by neonatally engrafted human glial progenitors yields mice whose brains are chimeric for human glia. |
Windrem, MS; Schanz, SJ; Morrow, C; Munir, J; Chandler-Militello, D; Wang, S; Goldman, SA
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 16153-61 2014
Neonatally transplanted human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) densely engraft and myelinate the hypomyelinated shiverer mouse. We found that, in hGPC-xenografted mice, the human donor cells continue to expand throughout the forebrain, systematically replacing the host murine glia. The differentiation of the donor cells is influenced by the host environment, such that more donor cells differentiated as oligodendrocytes in the hypomyelinated shiverer brain than in myelin wild-types, in which hGPCs were more likely to remain as progenitors. Yet in each recipient, both the number and relative proportion of mouse GPCs fell as a function of time, concomitant with the mitotic expansion and spread of donor hGPCs. By a year after neonatal xenograft, the forebrain GPC populations of implanted mice were largely, and often entirely, of human origin. Thus, neonatally implanted hGPCs outcompeted and ultimately replaced the host population of mouse GPCs, ultimately generating mice with a humanized glial progenitor population. These human glial chimeric mice should permit us to define the specific contributions of glia to a broad variety of neurological disorders, using human cells in vivo.
|Intraarterial transplantation of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells is more efficacious and safer compared with umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells in a rodent stroke model. |
Karlupia, N; Manley, NC; Prasad, K; Schäfer, R; Steinberg, GK
Stem cell research & therapy 5 45 2014
Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide, claims six lives every 60 seconds, and is a leading cause of adult disability across the globe. Tissue plasminogen activator, the only United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug currently available, has a narrow therapeutic time window of less than 5 hours. In the past decade, cells derived from the human umbilical cord (HUC) have emerged as a potential therapeutic alternative for stroke; however, the most effective HUC-derived cell population remains unknown.We compared three cell populations derived from the human umbilical cord: cord blood mononuclear cells (cbMNCs); cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells (cbMSCs), a subpopulation of cbMNCs; and cord matrix MSCs (cmMSCs). We characterized these cells in vitro with flow cytometry and assessed the cells' in vivo efficacy in a 2-hour transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) rat model of stroke. cbMNCs, cbMSCs, and cmMSCs were each transplanted intraarterially at 24 hours after stroke.A reduction in neurologic deficit and infarct area was observed in all three cell groups; however, this reduction was significantly enhanced in the cbMNC group compared with the cmMSC group. At 2 weeks after stroke, human nuclei-positive cells were present in the ischemic hemispheres of immunocompetent stroke rats in all three cell groups. Significantly decreased expression of rat brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA was observed in the ischemic hemispheres of all three cell-treated and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group animals compared with sham animals, although the decrease was least in cbMNC-treated animals. Significantly decreased expression of rat interleukin (IL)-2 mRNA and IL-6 mRNA was seen only in the cbMSC group. Notably, more severe complications (death, eye inflammation) were observed in the cmMSC group compared with the cbMNC and cbMSC groups.All three tested cell types promoted recovery after stroke, but cbMNCs showed enhanced recovery and fewer complications compared with cmMSCs.
|Hydrogel-based 3D model of patient-derived prostate xenograft tumors suitable for drug screening. |
Fong, EL; Martinez, M; Yang, J; Mikos, AG; Navone, NM; Harrington, DA; Farach-Carson, MC
Molecular pharmaceutics 11 2040-50 2014
The lack of effective therapies for bone metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) underscores the need for accurate models of the disease to enable the discovery of new therapeutic targets and to test drug sensitivities of individual tumors. To this end, the patient-derived xenograft (PDX) PCa model using immunocompromised mice was established to model the disease with greater fidelity than is possible with currently employed cell lines grown on tissue culture plastic. However, poorly adherent PDX tumor cells exhibit low viability in standard culture, making it difficult to manipulate these cells for subsequent controlled mechanistic studies. To overcome this challenge, we encapsulated PDX tumor cells within a three-dimensional hyaluronan-based hydrogel and demonstrated that the hydrogel maintains PDX cell viability with continued native androgen receptor expression. Furthermore, a differential sensitivity to docetaxel, a chemotherapeutic drug, was observed as compared to a traditional PCa cell line. These findings underscore the potential impact of this novel 3D PDX PCa model as a diagnostic platform for rapid drug evaluation and ultimately push personalized medicine toward clinical reality.
|Endogenous cerebellar neurogenesis in adult mice with progressive ataxia. |
Kumar, M; Csaba, Z; Peineau, S; Srivastava, R; Rasika, S; Mani, S; Gressens, P; El Ghouzzi, V
Annals of clinical and translational neurology 1 968-81 2014
Transplanting exogenous neuronal progenitors to replace damaged neurons in the adult brain following injury or neurodegenerative disorders and achieve functional amelioration is a realistic goal. However, studies so far have rarely taken into consideration the preexisting inflammation triggered by the disease process that could hamper the effectiveness of transplanted cells. Here, we examined the fate and long-term consequences of human cerebellar granule neuron precursors (GNP) transplanted into the cerebellum of Harlequin mice, an adult model of progressive cerebellar degeneration with early-onset microgliosis.Human embryonic stem cell-derived progenitors expressing Atoh1, a transcription factor key to GNP specification, were generated in vitro and stereotaxically transplanted into the cerebellum of preataxic Harlequin mice. The histological and functional impact of these transplants was followed using immunolabeling and Rotarod analysis.Although transplanted GNPs did not survive beyond a few weeks, they triggered the proliferation of endogenous nestin-positive precursors in the leptomeninges that crossed the molecular layer and differentiated into mature neurons. These phenomena were accompanied by the preservation of the granule and Purkinje cell layers and delayed ataxic changes. In vitro neurosphere generation confirmed the enhanced neurogenic potential of the cerebellar leptomeninges of Harlequin mice transplanted with exogenous GNPs.The cerebellar leptomeninges of adult mice contain an endogenous neurogenic niche that can be stimulated to yield mature neurons from an as-yet unidentified population of progenitors. The transplantation of human GNPs not only stimulates this neurogenesis, but, despite the potentially hostile environment, leads to neuroprotection and functional amelioration.
|An in vitro culture system that supports robust expansion and maintenance of in vivo engraftment capabilities for myogenic progenitor cells from adult mice. |
Wang, Z; Cheung, D; Zhou, Y; Han, C; Fennelly, C; Criswell, T; Soker, S
BioResearch open access 3 79-87 2014
Muscle cell therapy and tissue engineering require large numbers of functional muscle precursor/progenitor cells (MPCs), making the in vitro expansion of MPCs a critical step for these applications. The cells must maintain their myogenic properties upon robust expansion, especially for cellular therapy applications, in order to achieve efficacious treatment. A major obstacle associated with MPCs expansion is the loss of "stemness," or regenerative capacity, of freshly isolated cells, presumably due to the absence of the native cellular niches. In the current study, we developed an in vitro system that allowed for long-term culture and massive expansion of murine MPCs (mMPCs) with the preservation of myogenic regeneration capabilities. Long term in vitro expanded mMPC expressed the myogenic stem cell markers Pax3 and Pax7 and formed spontaneously contracting myotubes. Furthermore, expanded mMPC injected into the tibialis anterior muscle of nude mice engrafted and formed myofibers. Collectively, the method developed in this study can be potentially adapted for the expansion of human MPCs to high enough numbers for treatment of muscle injuries in human patients.
|Disruption of astrocyte-vascular coupling and the blood-brain barrier by invading glioma cells. |
Watkins, S; Robel, S; Kimbrough, IF; Robert, SM; Ellis-Davies, G; Sontheimer, H
Nature communications 5 4196 2014
Astrocytic endfeet cover the entire cerebral vasculature and serve as exchange sites for ions, metabolites and energy substrates from the blood to the brain. They maintain endothelial tight junctions that form the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and release vasoactive molecules that regulate vascular tone. Malignant gliomas are highly invasive tumours that use the perivascular space for invasion and co-opt existing vessels as satellite tumour form. Here we use a clinically relevant mouse model of glioma and find that glioma cells, as they populate the perivascular space of preexisting vessels, displace astrocytic endfeet from endothelial or vascular smooth muscle cells. This causes a focal breach in the BBB. Furthermore, astrocyte-mediated gliovascular coupling is lost, and glioma cells seize control over the regulation of vascular tone through Ca(2+)-dependent release of K(+). These findings have important clinical implications regarding blood flow in the tumour-associated brain and the ability to locally deliver chemotherapeutic drugs in disease.
|Efficient generation of lung and airway epithelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells. |
Huang, SX; Islam, MN; O'Neill, J; Hu, Z; Yang, YG; Chen, YW; Mumau, M; Green, MD; Vunjak-Novakovic, G; Bhattacharya, J; Snoeck, HW
Nature biotechnology 32 84-91 2014
The ability to generate lung and airway epithelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) would have applications in regenerative medicine, modeling of lung disease, drug screening and studies of human lung development. We have established, based on developmental paradigms, a highly efficient method for directed differentiation of hPSCs into lung and airway epithelial cells. Long-term differentiation of hPSCs in vivo and in vitro yielded basal, goblet, Clara, ciliated, type I and type II alveolar epithelial cells. The type II alveolar epithelial cells were capable of surfactant protein-B uptake and stimulated surfactant release, providing evidence of specific function. Inhibiting or removing retinoic acid, Wnt and BMP-agonists to signaling pathways critical for early lung development in the mouse-recapitulated defects in corresponding genetic mouse knockouts. As this protocol generates most cell types of the respiratory system, it may be useful for deriving patient-specific therapeutic cells.
|Modelling of a targeted nanotherapeutic 'stroma' to deliver the cytokine LIF, or XAV939, a potent inhibitor of Wnt-β-catenin signalling, for use in human fetal dopaminergic grafts in Parkinson's disease. |
Zhao, JW; Dyson, SC; Kriegel, C; Tyers, P; He, X; Fahmy, TM; Metcalfe, SM; Barker, RA
Disease models & mechanisms 7 1193-203 2014
The endogenous reparative capacity of the adult human brain is low, and chronic neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system represent one of the greatest areas of unmet clinical need in the developing world. Novel therapeutic strategies to treat them include: (i) growth factor delivery to boost endogenous repair and (ii) replacement cell therapy, including replacing dopaminergic neurons to treat Parkinson's disease (PD). However, these approaches are restricted not only by rapid degradation of growth factors, but also by the limited availability of cells for transplant and the poor survival of implanted cells that lack the necessary stromal support. We therefore hypothesised that provision of a transient artificial stroma for paracrine delivery of pro-survival factors could overcome both of these issues. Using leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) - a proneural, reparative cytokine - formulated as target-specific poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nano-particles (LIF-nano-stroma), we discovered that attachment of LIF-nano-stroma to freshly isolated fetal dopaminergic cells improved their survival fourfold: furthermore, in vivo, the number of surviving human fetal dopaminergic cells tended to be higher at 3 months after grafting into the striatum of nude rats, compared with controls treated with empty nanoparticles. In addition, we also analysed the effect of a novel nano-stroma incorporating XAV939 (XAV), a potent inhibitor of the developmentally important Wnt-β-catenin signalling pathway, to investigate whether it could also promote the survival and differentiation of human fetal dopaminergic precursors; we found that the numbers of both tyrosine-hydroxylase-positive neurons (a marker of dopaminergic neurons) and total neurons were increased. This is the first demonstration that LIF-nano-stroma and XAV-nano-stroma each have pro-survival effects on human dopaminergic neurons, with potential value for target-specific modulation of neurogenic fate in cell-based therapies for PD.
|Intravenous transplants of human adipose-derived stem cell protect the brain from traumatic brain injury-induced neurodegeneration and motor and cognitive impairments: cell graft biodistribution and soluble factors in young and aged rats. |
Tajiri, N; Acosta, SA; Shahaduzzaman, M; Ishikawa, H; Shinozuka, K; Pabon, M; Hernandez-Ontiveros, D; Kim, DW; Metcalf, C; Staples, M; Dailey, T; Vasconcellos, J; Franyuti, G; Gould, L; Patel, N; Cooper, D; Kaneko, Y; Borlongan, CV; Bickford, PC
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 313-26 2014
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors exhibit motor and cognitive symptoms from the primary injury that can become aggravated over time because of secondary cell death. In the present in vivo study, we examined the beneficial effects of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) in a controlled cortical impact model of mild TBI using young (6 months) and aged (20 months) F344 rats. Animals were transplanted intravenously with 4 × 10(6) hADSCs (Tx), conditioned media (CM), or vehicle (unconditioned media) at 3 h after TBI. Significant amelioration of motor and cognitive functions was revealed in young, but not aged, Tx and CM groups. Fluorescent imaging in vivo and ex vivo revealed 1,1' dioactadecyl-3-3-3',3'-tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide-labeled hADSCs in peripheral organs and brain after TBI. Spatiotemporal deposition of hADSCs differed between young and aged rats, most notably reduced migration to the aged spleen. Significant reduction in cortical damage and hippocampal cell loss was observed in both Tx and CM groups in young rats, whereas less neuroprotection was detected in the aged rats and mainly in the Tx group but not the CM group. CM harvested from hADSCs with silencing of either NEAT1 (nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1) or MALAT1 (metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) known to play a role in gene expression, lost the efficacy in our model. Altogether, hADSCs are promising therapeutic cells for TBI, and lncRNAs in the secretome is an important mechanism of cell therapy. Furthermore, hADSCs showed reduced efficacy in aged rats, which may in part result from decreased homing of the cells to the spleen.
|A paracrine network regulates the cross-talk between human lung stem cells and the stroma. |
Ruiz, EJ; Oeztuerk-Winder, F; Ventura, JJ
Nature communications 5 3175 2014
The signals that regulate stem cell self-renewal and differentiation in the lung remain elusive. Lung stem cells undergo self-renewal or lineage commitment to replenish tissue, depending on cross-talk with their environment. This environment, also known as the niche, includes mesenchymal and endothelial tissues. Here we define molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between human lung Lgr6+ stem cells (LSCs) and fibroblasts in a functional microenvironment. We reveal a central role for p38α MAPK in establishing and maintaining such cross-talk, acting in both cell types. In LSCs, p38α induces the expression of SDF-1, which activates the stroma. p38α is essential for fibroblast activation and induction of cytokine expression, in particular TNFα. This paracrine network induces a hierarchical activation leading to the recruitment of endothelium, establishing a functional microenvironment. Disruption of this cross-talk abrogates proper LSC differentiation in vivo and may lead to lung dysfunction and disease.
|Neonatal immune-tolerance in mice does not prevent xenograft rejection. |
Mattis, VB; Wakeman, DR; Tom, C; Dodiya, HB; Yeung, SY; Tran, AH; Bernau, K; Ornelas, L; Sahabian, A; Reidling, J; Sareen, D; Thompson, LM; Kordower, JH; Svendsen, CN
Experimental neurology 254 90-8 2014
Assessing the efficacy of human stem cell transplantation in rodent models is complicated by the significant immune rejection that occurs. Two recent reports have shown conflicting results using neonatal tolerance to xenografts in rats. Here we extend this approach to mice and assess whether neonatal tolerance can prevent the rapid rejection of xenografts. In three strains of neonatal immune-intact mice, using two different brain transplant regimes and three independent stem cell types, we conclusively show that there is rapid rejection of the implanted cells. We also address specific challenges associated with the generation of humanized mouse models of disease.
|Multiple injections of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells through the tail vein improve microcirculation and the microenvironment in a rat model of radiation myelopathy. |
Wei, L; Zhang, J; Xiao, XB; Mai, HX; Zheng, K; Sun, WL; Wang, L; Liang, F; Yang, ZL; Liu, Y; Wang, YQ; Li, ZF; Wang, JN; Zhang, WJ; You, H
Journal of translational medicine 12 246 2014
At present, no effective clinical treatment is available for the late effects of radiation myelopathy. The aim of the present study was to assess the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) in a rat model of radiation myelopathy.An irradiated cervical spinal cord rat model was generated. UC-MSCs were injected through the tail vein at 90, 97, 104 and 111 days post-irradiation. Behavioral tests were performed using the forelimb paralysis scoring system, and histological damage was examined using Nissl staining. The microcirculation in the spinal cord was assessed using von Willebrand factor (vWF) immunohistochemical analysis and laser-Doppler flowmetry. The microenvironment in the spinal cord was determined by measuring the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the serum and the anti-inflammatory cytokines brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the spinal cord.Multiple injections of UC-MSCs through the tail veil decreased the forelimb paralysis, decreased spinal cord histological damage, increased the number of neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, increased the endothelial cell density and the microvessel density in the white matter and gray matter of the spinal cord, increased the relative magnitude of spinal cord blood flow, down-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the serum, and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in the spinal cord.Multiple injections of UC-MSCs via the tail vein in a rat model of radiation myelopathy significantly improved the microcirculation and microenvironment through therapeutic paracrine effects.
|Engineering of pre-vascularized urethral patch with muscle flaps and hypoxia-activated hUCMSCs improves its therapeutic outcome. |
Sun, D; Yang, Y; Wei, Z; Xu, Y; Zhang, X; Hong, B
Journal of cellular and molecular medicine 18 434-43 2014
Tissue engineering has brought new hopes for urethral reconstruction. However, the absence of pre-vascularization and the subsequent degradation of materials often lead to the failure of in vivo application. In this study, with the assistance of hypoxia-activated human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs), pedicled muscle flaps were used as materials and pre-incubated in ventral penile subcutaneous cavity of rabbit for 3 weeks to prepare a pre-vascularized urethral construct. We found that small vessels and muscle fibres were scattered in the construct after 3 weeks' pre-incubation. The construct presented a fibrous reticular structure, which was similar to that of the corpus spongiosum under microscope examination. The produced constructs were then used as a patch graft for reconstruction of the defective rabbit urethra (experimental group), natural muscular patch was used as control (control group). Twelve weeks after the reconstructive surgery, urethrography and urethroscope inspections showed wide calibres of the reconstructed urethra in the experimental group. Histopathological studies revealed that fibrous connective tissues and abundant muscle fibres constituted the main body of the patch-grafted urethra. In contrast, in the control group, only adipose tissue was found in the stenosis-reconstructed urethra, replacing the originally grafted muscular tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report that successfully constructed a pre-vascularized urethral construct by using hypoxia-activated hUCMSC and pedicled muscle flaps. More importantly, the pre-vascularized construct showed a good performance in urethral reconstruction when applied in vivo. The study provided a novel strategy for tissue engineering of pre-vascularized urethral construct for the defective urethra, representing a further advancement in urethral reconstruction.
|PDGFR-β (+) perivascular cells from infantile hemangioma display the features of mesenchymal stem cells and show stronger adipogenic potential in vitro and in vivo. |
Yuan, SM; Guo, Y; Zhou, XJ; Shen, WM; Chen, HN
International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 7 2861-70 2014
Infantile hemangioma, a common benign tumor of infancy, grows quickly in the first year of life, and then regresses slowly to fibrofatty tissue in childhood. The accumulation of fibrofatty tissue in hemangioma involution indicates adipogenesis during this period. Perivascular cells (PCs) from multiple organs display multi-lineage differentiation, including adipogenesis. So we supposed that PCs in hemangioma may contribute to the adipogenesis in the involution. In this study, PDGFR-β (+) PCs was isolated from hemangioma tissue (hemangioma-derived perivascular cells, Hem-PCs) by fluorescence-activated cell sorter. In vitro, Hem-PCs showed fibroblast-like morphology. Immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry showed Hem-PCs expressed MSCs markers CD105, CD90, CD29 and vimentin, pericyte markers α-SMA and PDGFR-β, stem cell marker CD133, and the adipogenic transcription factor PPAR-γ, but not hematopoietic/endothelial markers CD45, CD34, CD31, and flt-1. In vitro inductions confirmed multi-lineage differentiation of Hem-PCs, especially strong adipogenic potential. Then a murine model was established to observe in vivo differentiation of Hem-PCs by subcutaneous injection of cells/Matrigel compound into nude mice. The results showed Hem-PCs differentiated into adipocytes in vivo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the isolation of multipotential PDGFR-β (+) PCs from hemangioma, and observing their adipogenic differentiation in vivo. PCs may be the cellular basis of adipogenesis in hemangioma involution, and may be the target cells of adipogenic induction to promote hemangioma involution.
|Human iPSC-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells can myelinate and rescue a mouse model of congenital hypomyelination. |
Wang, S; Bates, J; Li, X; Schanz, S; Chandler-Militello, D; Levine, C; Maherali, N; Studer, L; Hochedlinger, K; Windrem, M; Goldman, SA
Cell stem cell 12 252-64 2013
Neonatal engraftment by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) permits the myelination of the congenitally dysmyelinated brain. To establish a potential autologous source of these cells, we developed a strategy by which to differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into OPCs. From three hiPSC lines, as well as from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), we generated highly enriched OLIG2(+)/PDGFRα(+)/NKX2.2(+)/SOX10(+) human OPCs, which could be further purified using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. hiPSC OPCs efficiently differentiated into both myelinogenic oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, in vitro and in vivo. Neonatally engrafted hiPSC OPCs robustly myelinated the brains of myelin-deficient shiverer mice and substantially increased their survival. The speed and efficiency of myelination by hiPSC OPCs was higher than that previously observed using fetal-tissue-derived OPCs, and no tumors from these grafts were noted as long as 9 months after transplant. These results suggest the potential utility of hiPSC-derived OPCs in treating disorders of myelin loss.
|Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived ectodermal precursor cells contribute to hair follicle morphogenesis in vivo. |
Veraitch, O; Kobayashi, T; Imaizumi, Y; Akamatsu, W; Sasaki, T; Yamanaka, S; Amagai, M; Okano, H; Ohyama, M
The Journal of investigative dermatology 133 1479-88 2013
Well-orchestrated epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are crucial for hair follicle (HF) morphogenesis. In this study, ectodermal precursor cells (EPCs) with the capacity to cross talk with hair-inductive dermal cells were generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and assessed for HF-forming ability in vivo. EPCs derived from three hiPSC lines generated with 4 or 3 factors (POU5F1, SOX2, KLF4 +/- MYC) mostly expressed keratin 18, a marker of epithelial progenitors. When cocultured with human dermal papilla (DP) cells, a 4 factor 201B7 hiPSC-EPC line upregulated follicular keratinocyte (KC) markers more significantly than normal human adult KCs (NHKCs) and other hiPSC-EPC lines. DP cells preferentially increased DP biomarker expression in response to this line. Interestingly, 201B7 hiPSCs were shown to be ectodermal/epithelial prone, and the derived EPCs were putatively in a wingless-type MMTV integration site family (WNT)-activated state. Importantly, co-transplantation of 201B7 hiPSC-EPCs, but not NHKCs, with trichogenic mice dermal cells into immunodeficient mice resulted in HF formation. Human HF stem cell markers were detected in reconstituted HFs; however, a low frequency of human-derived cells implied that hiPSC-EPCs contributed to HF morphogenesis via direct repopulation and non-cell autonomous activities. The current study suggests a, to our knowledge, previously unrecognized advantage of using hiPSCs to enhance epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in HF bioengineering.
|Transplanted motoneurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells form functional connections with target muscle. |
Su, H; Wang, L; Cai, J; Yuan, Q; Yang, X; Yao, X; Wong, WM; Huang, W; Li, Z; Wan, JB; Wang, Y; Pei, D; So, KF; Qin, D; Wu, W
Stem cell research 11 529-39 2013
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold promise for the treatment of motoneuron diseases because of their distinct features including pluripotency, self-derivation and potential ability to differentiate into motoneurons. However, it is still unknown whether human iPSC-derived motoneurons can functionally innervate target muscles in vivo, which is the definitive sign of successful cell therapy for motoneuron diseases. In the present study, we demonstrated that human iPSCs derived from mesenchymal cells of the umbilical cord possessed a high yield in neural differentiation. Using a chemically-defined in vitro system, human iPSCs efficiently differentiated into motoneurons which displayed typical morphology, expressed specific molecules, and generated repetitive trains of action potentials. When transplanted into the injured musculocutaneous nerve of rats, they survived robustly, extended axons along the nerve, and formed functional connections with the target muscle (biceps brachii), thereby protecting the muscle from atrophy. Our study provides evidence for the first time that human iPSC-derived motoneurons are truly functional not only in vitro but also in vivo, and they have potential for stem cell-based therapies for motoneuron diseases.
|Human amniotic fluid-derived and dental pulp-derived stem cells seeded into collagen scaffold repair critical-size bone defects promoting vascularization. |
Maraldi, T; Riccio, M; Pisciotta, A; Zavatti, M; Carnevale, G; Beretti, F; La Sala, GB; Motta, A; De Pol, A
Stem cell research & therapy 4 53 2013
The main aim of this study is to evaluate potential human stem cells, such as dental pulp stem cells and amniotic fluid stem cells, combined with collagen scaffold to reconstruct critical-size cranial bone defects in an animal model.We performed two symmetric full-thickness cranial defects on each parietal region of rats and we replenished them with collagen scaffolds with or without stem cells already seeded into and addressed towards osteogenic lineage in vitro. After 4 and 8 weeks, cranial tissue samples were taken for histological and immunofluorescence analysis.We observed a new bone formation in all of the samples but the most relevant differences in defect correction were shown by stem cell-collagen samples 4 weeks after implant, suggesting a faster regeneration ability of the combined constructs. The presence of human cells in the newly formed bone was confirmed by confocal analysis with an antibody directed to a human mitochondrial protein. Furthermore, human cells were found to be an essential part of new vessel formation in the scaffold.These data confirmed the strong potential of bioengineered constructs of stem cell-collagen scaffold for correcting large cranial defects in an animal model and highlighting the role of stem cells in neovascularization during skeletal defect reconstruction.
|Skeletal myogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells and angiogenesis using microbeads loaded with growth factors. |
Liu, G; Pareta, RA; Wu, R; Shi, Y; Zhou, X; Liu, H; Deng, C; Sun, X; Atala, A; Opara, EC; Zhang, Y
Biomaterials 34 1311-26 2013
To provide site-specific delivery and targeted release of growth factors to implanted urine-derived stem cells (USCs), we prepared microbeads of alginate containing growth factors. The growth factors included VEGF, IGF-1, FGF-1, PDGF, HGF and NGF. Radiolabeled growth factors were loaded separately and used to access the in vitro release from the microbeads with a gamma counter over 4 weeks. In vitro endothelial differentiation of USCs by the released VEGF from the microbeads in a separate experiment confirmed that the released growth factors from the microbeads were bioactive. USCs and microbeads were mixed with the collagen gel type 1 (2 mg/ml) and used for in vivo studies through subcutaneous injection into nude mice. Four weeks after subcutaneous injection, we found that grafted cell survival was improved and more cells expressed myogenic and endothelial cell transcripts and markers compared to controls. More vessel formation and innervations were observed in USCs combined with six growth factors cocktail incorporated in microbeads compared to controls. In conclusion, a combination of growth factors released locally from the alginate microbeads induced USCs to differentiate into a myogenic lineage, enhanced revascularization and innervation, and stimulated resident cell growth in vivo. This approach could potentially be used for cell therapy in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence.
|Conversion of human fibroblasts to angioblast-like progenitor cells. |
Kurian, L; Sancho-Martinez, I; Nivet, E; Aguirre, A; Moon, K; Pendaries, C; Volle-Challier, C; Bono, F; Herbert, JM; Pulecio, J; Xia, Y; Li, M; Montserrat, N; Ruiz, S; Dubova, I; Rodriguez, C; Denli, AM; Boscolo, FS; Thiagarajan, RD; Gage, FH; Loring, JF; Laurent, LC; Izpisua Belmonte, JC
Nature methods 10 77-83 2013
Lineage conversion of one somatic cell type to another is an attractive approach for generating specific human cell types. Lineage conversion can be direct, in the absence of proliferation and multipotent progenitor generation, or indirect, by the generation of expandable multipotent progenitor states. We report the development of a reprogramming methodology in which cells transition through a plastic intermediate state, induced by brief exposure to reprogramming factors, followed by differentiation. We use this approach to convert human fibroblasts to mesodermal progenitor cells, including by non-integrative approaches. These progenitor cells demonstrated bipotent differentiation potential and could generate endothelial and smooth muscle lineages. Differentiated endothelial cells exhibited neo-angiogenesis and anastomosis in vivo. This methodology for indirect lineage conversion to angioblast-like cells adds to the armamentarium of reprogramming approaches aimed at the study and treatment of ischemic pathologies.
|Functional regeneration of irradiated salivary glands with human amniotic epithelial cells transplantation. |
Zhang, NN; Huang, GL; Han, QB; Hu, X; Yi, J; Yao, L; He, Y
International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 6 2039-47 2013
This study aimed to investigate the functional restoration of radiation-damaged salivary gland with human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) transplantation by intra-glandular injection. hAECs were isolated from the amnion tissues. After primary culture, the phenotype of hAECs of the second passage was identified by flow cytometry (FCM) and immunocytochemical staining. Then, hAECs were intra-glandularly injected into the irradiated glands of mice. At different time points after transplantation, the glands were collected for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and immunofluorescence staining, and the saliva flow rate was also determined. Results showed these cells were positive for CD29, CD73 and CK19 and negative for CD44, CD34, CD45 and CD71. The transplanted hAECs in the recipient glands could differentiate into acinar-like cells and resulted in morphological and functional restoration of salivary gland.
|Vasculogenesis in experimental stroke after human cerebral endothelial cell transplantation. |
Ishikawa, H; Tajiri, N; Shinozuka, K; Vasconcellos, J; Kaneko, Y; Lee, HJ; Mimura, O; Dezawa, M; Kim, SU; Borlongan, CV
Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation 44 3473-81 2013
Despite the reported functional recovery in transplanted stroke models and patients, the mechanism of action underlying stem cell therapy remains not well understood. Here, we examined the role of stem cell-mediated vascular repair in stroke.Adult rats were exposed to transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery and 3 hours later randomly stereotaxically transplantated with 100K, 200K, or 400K human cerebral endothelial cell 6 viable cells or vehicle. Animals underwent neurological examination and motor test up to day 7 after transplantation then euthanized for immunostaining against neuronal, vascular, and specific human antigens. A parallel in vitro study cocultured rat primary neuronal cells with human cerebral endothelial cell 6 under oxygen-glucose deprivation and treated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and anti-VEGF.Stroke animals that received vehicle infusion displayed typical occlusion of the middle cerebral artery-induced behavioral impairments that were dose-dependently reduced in transplanted stroke animals at days 3 and 7 after transplantation and accompanied by increased expression of host neuronal and vascular markers adjacent to the transplanted cells. Some transplanted cells showed a microvascular phenotype and juxtaposed to the host vasculature. Infarct volume in transplanted stroke animals was significantly smaller than vehicle-infused stroke animals. Moreover, rat neurons cocultured with human cerebral endothelial cell 6 or treated with VEGF exhibited significantly less oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced cell death that was blocked by anti-VEGF treatment.We found attenuation of behavioral and histological deficits coupled with robust vasculogenesis and neurogenesis in endothelial cell-transplanted stroke animals, suggesting that targeting vascular repair sets in motion a regenerative process in experimental stroke possibly via the VEGF pathway.
|A biodegradable microvessel scaffold as a framework to enable vascular support of engineered tissues. |
Ye, X; Lu, L; Kolewe, ME; Park, H; Larson, BL; Kim, ES; Freed, LE
Biomaterials 34 10007-15 2013
A biodegradable microvessel scaffold comprised of distinct parenchymal and vascular compartments separated by a permeable membrane interface was conceptualized, fabricated, cellularized, and implanted. The device was designed with perfusable microfluidic channels on the order of 100 μm to mimic small blood vessels, and high interfacial area to an adjacent parenchymal space to enable transport between the compartments. Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) elastomer was used to construct the microvessel framework, and various assembly methods were evaluated to ensure robust mechanical integrity. In vitro studies demonstrated the differentiation of human skeletal muscle cells cultured in the parenchymal space, a 90% reduction in muscle cell viability due to trans-membrane transport of a myotoxic drug from the perfusate, and microvessel seeding with human endothelial cells. In vivo studies of scaffolds implanted subcutaneously and intraperitoneally, without or with exogenous cells, into nude rats demonstrated biodegradation of the membrane interface and host blood cell infiltration of the microvessels. This modular, implantable scaffold could serve as a basis for building tissue constructs of increasing scale and clinical relevance.
|Expansion and conversion of human pancreatic ductal cells into insulin-secreting endocrine cells. |
Lee, J; Sugiyama, T; Liu, Y; Wang, J; Gu, X; Lei, J; Markmann, JF; Miyazaki, S; Miyazaki, J; Szot, GL; Bottino, R; Kim, SK
eLife 2 e00940 2013
Pancreatic islet β-cell insufficiency underlies pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus; thus, functional β-cell replacement from renewable sources is the focus of intensive worldwide effort. However, in vitro production of progeny that secrete insulin in response to physiological cues from primary human cells has proven elusive. Here we describe fractionation, expansion and conversion of primary adult human pancreatic ductal cells into progeny resembling native β-cells. FACS-sorted adult human ductal cells clonally expanded as spheres in culture, while retaining ductal characteristics. Expression of the cardinal islet developmental regulators Neurog3, MafA, Pdx1 and Pax6 converted exocrine duct cells into endocrine progeny with hallmark β-cell properties, including the ability to synthesize, process and store insulin, and secrete it in response to glucose or other depolarizing stimuli. These studies provide evidence that genetic reprogramming of expandable human pancreatic cells with defined factors may serve as a general strategy for islet replacement in diabetes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00940.001.
|Bioceramic-mediated trophic factor secretion by mesenchymal stem cells enhances in vitro endothelial cell persistence and in vivo angiogenesis. |
He, J; Decaris, ML; Leach, JK
Tissue engineering. Part A 18 1520-8 2012
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded in composite implants formed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) exhibit increased osteogenesis and enhanced angiogenic potential. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) can participate in de novo vessel formation when implanted in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine the capacity of HA-PLG composites to cotransplant MSCs and ECFCs, with the goal of accelerating vascularization and resultant bone formation. The incorporation of HA into PLG scaffolds improved the efficiency of cell seeding and ECFC survival in vitro. We observed increases in mRNA expression and secretion of potent angiogenic factors by MSCs when cultured on HA-PLG scaffolds compared to PLG controls. Upon implantation into an orthotopic calvarial defect, ECFC survival on composite scaffolds was not increased in the presence of MSCs, nor did the addition of ECFCs enhance vascularization beyond increases observed with MSCs alone. Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) performed on explanted calvarial tissues after 12 weeks revealed no significant differences between treatment groups for bone volume fraction (BVF) or bone mineral density (BMD). Taken together, these results provide evidence that HA-containing composite scaffolds seeded with MSCs can enhance neovascularization, yet MSC-secreted trophic factors do not consistently increase the persistence of co-transplanted ECFCs.
|Human embryonic stem cells differentiated to lung lineage-specific cells ameliorate pulmonary fibrosis in a xenograft transplant mouse model. |
Banerjee, ER; Laflamme, MA; Papayannopoulou, T; Kahn, M; Murry, CE; Henderson, WR
PloS one 7 e33165 2012
Our aim was to differentiate human (h) embryonic stem (ES) cells into lung epithelial lineage-specific cells [i.e., alveolar epithelial type I (AEI) and type II (AEII) cells and Clara cells] as the first step in the development of cell-based strategies to repair lung injury in the bleomycin mouse model of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). A heterogeneous population of non-ciliated lung lineage-specific cells was derived by a novel method of embryoid body (EB) differentiation. This differentiated human cell population was used to modulate the profibrotic phenotype in transplanted animals.Omission or inclusion of one or more components in the differentiation medium skewed differentiation of H7 hES cells into varying proportions of AEI, AEII, and Clara cells. ICG-001, a small molecule inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin/Creb-binding protein (CBP) transcription, changed marker expression of the differentiated ES cells from an AEII-like phenotype to a predominantly AEI-like phenotype. The differentiated cells were used in xenograft transplantation studies in bleomycin-treated Rag2γC(-/-) mice. Human cells were detected in lungs of the transplanted groups receiving differentiated ES cells treated with or without ICG-001. The increased lung collagen content found in bleomycin-treated mice receiving saline was significantly reduced by transplantation with the lung-lineage specific epithelial cells differentiated from ES cells. A significant increase in progenitor number was observed in the airways of bleomycin-treated mice after transplantation of differentiated hES cells.This study indicates that ES cell-based therapy may be a powerful novel approach to ameliorate lung fibrosis.
|Disseminated breast cancer cells acquire a highly malignant and aggressive metastatic phenotype during metastatic latency in the bone. |
Marsden, CG; Wright, MJ; Carrier, L; Moroz, K; Rowan, BG
PloS one 7 e47587 2012
Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow may exist in a dormant state for extended periods of time, maintaining the ability to proliferate upon activation, engraft at new sites, and form detectable metastases. However, understanding of the behavior and biology of dormant breast cancer cells in the bone marrow niche remains limited, as well as their potential involvement in tumor recurrence and metastasis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the tumorigenicity and metastatic potential of dormant disseminated breast cancer cells (prior to activation) in the bone marrow.Total bone marrow, isolated from mice previously injected with tumorspheres into the mammary fat pad, was injected into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. As a negative control, bone marrow isolated from non-injected mice was injected into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. The resultant tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Mouse lungs, livers, and kidneys were analyzed by H+E staining to detect metastases. The injection of bone marrow isolated from mice previously injected with tumorspheres into the mammary fat pad, resulted in large tumor formation in the mammary fat pad 2 months post-injection. However, the injection of bone marrow isolated from non-injected mice did not result in tumor formation in the mammary fat pad. The DTC-derived tumors exhibited accelerated development of metastatic lesions within the lung, liver and kidney. The resultant tumors and the majority of metastatic lesions within the lung and liver exhibited a mesenchymal-like phenotype.Dormant DTCs within the bone marrow are highly malignant upon injection into the mammary fat pad, with the accelerated development of metastatic lesions within the lung, liver and kidney. These results suggest the acquisition of a more aggressive phenotype of DTCs during metastatic latency within the bone marrow microenvironment.
|Human neural crest stem cells derived from human ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells: induction, maintenance, and differentiation into functional schwann cells. |
Liu, Q; Spusta, SC; Mi, R; Lassiter, RN; Stark, MR; Höke, A; Rao, MS; Zeng, X
Stem cells translational medicine 1 266-78 2012
The neural crest (NC) is a transient, multipotent, migratory cell population unique to vertebrates that gives rise to diverse cell lineages. Much of our knowledge of NC development comes from studies of organisms such as chicken and zebrafish because human NC is difficult to obtain because of its transient nature and the limited availability of human fetal cells. Here we examined the process of NC induction from human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We showed that NC cells could be efficiently induced from hESCs by a combination of growth factors in medium conditioned on stromal cells and that NC stem cells (NCSCs) could be purified by p75 using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). FACS-isolated NCSCs could be propagated in vitro in five passages and cryopreserved while maintaining NCSC identity characterized by the expression of a panel of NC markers such as p75, Sox9, Sox10, CD44, and HNK1. In vitro-expanded NCSCs were able to differentiate into neurons and glia (Schwann cells) of the peripheral nervous system, as well as mesenchymal derivatives. hESC-derived NCSCs appeared to behave similarly to endogenous embryonic NC cells when injected in chicken embryos. Using a defined medium, we were able to generate and propagate a nearly pure population of Schwann cells that uniformly expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein, S100, and p75. Schwann cells generated by our protocol myelinated rat dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro. To our knowledge, this is the first report on myelination by hESC- or iPSC-derived Schwann cells.
|Magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence labeling of clinical-grade mesenchymal stem cells without impacting their phenotype: study in a rat model of stroke. |
Detante, O; Valable, S; de Fraipont, F; Grillon, E; Barbier, EL; Moisan, A; Arnaud, J; Moriscot, C; Segebarth, C; Hommel, M; Remy, C; Richard, MJ
Stem cells translational medicine 1 333-41 2012
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have strong potential for cell therapy after stroke. Tracking stem cells in vivo following a graft can provide insight into many issues regarding optimal route and/or dosing. hMSCs were labeled for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology with micrometer-sized superparamagnetic iron oxides (M-SPIOs) that contained a fluorophore. We assessed whether M-SPIO labeling obtained without the use of a transfection agent induced any cell damage in clinical-grade hMSCs and whether it may be useful for in vivo MRI studies after stroke. M-SPIOs provided efficient intracellular hMSC labeling and did not modify cell viability, phenotype, or in vitro differentiation capacity. Following grafting in a rat model of stroke, labeled hMSCs could be detected using both in vivo MRI and fluorescent microscopy until 4 weeks following transplantation. However, whereas good label stability and unaffected hMSC viability were observed in vitro, grafted hMSCs may die and release iron particles in vivo.
|Cell-derived matrix coatings for polymeric scaffolds. |
Martin L Decaris,Bernard Y Binder,Matthew A Soicher,Archana Bhat,J Kent Leach
Tissue engineering. Part A 18 2012
Cells in culture deposit a complex extracellular matrix that remains intact following decellularization and possesses the capacity to modulate cell phenotype. The direct application of such decellularized matrices (DMs) to 3D substrates is problematic, as transport issues influence the homogeneous deposition, decellularization, and modification of DM surface coatings. In an attempt to address this shortcoming, we hypothesized that DMs deposited by human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be transferred to the surface of polymeric scaffolds while maintaining their capacity to direct cell fate. The ability of the transferred DM (tDM)-coated scaffolds to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of undifferentiated and osteogenically induced MSCs under osteogenic conditions in vitro was confirmed. tDM-coated scaffolds increased MSC expression of osteogenic marker genes (BGLAP, IBSP) and intracellular alkaline phosphatase production. In addition, undifferentiated MSCs deposited significantly more calcium when seeded onto tDM-coated scaffolds compared with control scaffolds. MSC-seeded tDM-coated scaffolds subcutaneously implanted in nude rats displayed significantly higher blood vessel density after 2 weeks compared with cells on uncoated scaffolds, but we did not observe significant differences in mineral deposition after 8 weeks. These data demonstrate that DM-coatings produced in 2D culture can be successfully transferred to 3D substrates and retain their capacity to modulate cell phenotype.
|Activation of multiple ERBB family receptors mediates glioblastoma cancer stem-like cell resistance to EGFR-targeted inhibition. |
Clark, PA; Iida, M; Treisman, DM; Kalluri, H; Ezhilan, S; Zorniak, M; Wheeler, DL; Kuo, JS
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 14 420-8 2012
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is strongly implicated in glioblastoma (GBM) tumorigenesis. However, molecular agents targeting EGFR have demonstrated minimal efficacy in clinical trials, suggesting the existence of GBM resistance mechanisms. GBM cells with stem-like properties (CSCs) are highly efficient at tumor initiation and exhibit therapeutic resistance. In this study, GBMCSC lines showed sphere-forming and tumor initiation capacity after EGF withdrawal from cell culture media, compared with normal neural stem cells that rapidly perished after EGF withdrawal. Compensatory activation of related ERBB family receptors (ERBB2 and ERBB3) was observed in GBM CSCs deprived of EGFR signal (EGF deprivation or cetuximab inhibition), suggesting an intrinsic GBM resistance mechanism for EGFR-targeted therapy. Dual inhibition of EGFR and ERBB2 with lapatinib significantly reduced GBM proliferation in colony formation assays compared to cetuximab-mediated EGFR-specific inhibition. Phosphorylation of downstream ERBB signaling components (AKT, ERK1/2) and GBM CSC proliferation were inhibited by lapatinib. Collectively, these findings show that GBM therapeutic resistance to EGFR inhibitors may be explained by compensatory activation of EGFR-related family members (ERBB2, ERBB3) enabling GBM CSC proliferation, and therefore simultaneous blockade of multiple ERBB family members may be required for more efficacious GBM therapy.
|Increasing doublecortin expression promotes migration of human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons. |
Radmila Filipovic,Saranya Santhosh Kumar,Chris Fiondella,Joseph Loturco
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 30 2012
Human embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal progenitors (hNPs) provide a potential source for cellular replacement following neurodegenerative diseases. One of the greatest challenges for future neuron replacement therapies will be to control extensive cell proliferation and stimulate cell migration of transplanted cells. The doublecortin (DCX) gene encodes the protein DCX, a microtubule-associated protein essential for the migration of neurons in the human brain. In this study, we tested whether increasing the expression of DCX in hNPs would favorably alter their proliferation and migration. Migration and proliferation of hNPs was compared between hNPs expressing a bicistronic DCX/IRES-GFP transgene and those expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene introduced by piggyBac-mediated transposition. The DCX-transfected hNPs showed a significant decrease in their proliferation and migrated significantly further on two different substrates, Matrigel and brain slices. Additionally, a dense network of nestin-positive (+) and vimentin+ fibers were found to extend from neurospheres transplanted onto brain slices, and this fiber growth was increased from neurospheres containing DCX-transfected hNPs. In summary, our results show that increased DCX expression inhibits proliferation and promotes migration of hNPs. Stem Cells2012;30:1852-1862.
|Significant clinical, neuropathological and behavioural recovery from acute spinal cord trauma by transplantation of a well-defined somatic stem cell from human umbilical cord blood. |
Schira, J; Gasis, M; Estrada, V; Hendricks, M; Schmitz, C; Trapp, T; Kruse, F; Kögler, G; Wernet, P; Hartung, HP; Müller, HW
Brain : a journal of neurology 135 431-46 2012
Stem cell therapy is a potential treatment for spinal cord injury and different stem cell types have been grafted into animal models and humans suffering from spinal trauma. Due to inconsistent results, it is still an important and clinically relevant question which stem cell type will prove to be therapeutically effective. Thus far, stem cells of human sources grafted into spinal cord mostly included barely defined heterogeneous mesenchymal stem cell populations derived from bone marrow or umbilical cord blood. Here, we have transplanted a well-defined unrestricted somatic stem cell isolated from human umbilical cord blood into an acute traumatic spinal cord injury of adult immune suppressed rat. Grafting of unrestricted somatic stem cells into the vicinity of a dorsal hemisection injury at thoracic level eight resulted in hepatocyte growth factor-directed migration and accumulation within the lesion area, reduction in lesion size and augmented tissue sparing, enhanced axon regrowth and significant functional locomotor improvement as revealed by three behavioural tasks (open field Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor score, horizontal ladder walking test and CatWalk gait analysis). To accomplish the beneficial effects, neither neural differentiation nor long-lasting persistence of the grafted human stem cells appears to be required. The secretion of neurite outgrowth-promoting factors in vitro further suggests a paracrine function of unrestricted somatic stem cells in spinal cord injury. Given the highly supportive functional characteristics in spinal cord injury, production in virtually unlimited quantities at GMP grade and lack of ethical concerns, unrestricted somatic stem cells appear to be a highly suitable human stem cell source for clinical application in central nervous system injuries.
|Generation and hepatic differentiation of human iPS cells. |
Tetsuya Ishikawa,Keitaro Hagiwara,Takahiro Ochiya
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 826 2012
A method for the generation of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells was established. This method employs adenovirus carrying the ecotropic retrovirus receptor mCAT1 and Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV)-based retroviral vectors carrying the four transcription factors POU5F1 (OCT3/4), KLF4, SOX2, and MYC (c-Myc) (Masaki H & Ishikawa T Stem Cell Res 1:105-15, 2007). The differentiation of human iPS cells into hepatic cells was performed by a stepwise protocol (Song Z et al. Cell Res 19:1233-42, 2009). These cells have potential as patient-specific in vitro models for studying disease etiology and could be used in drug discovery programs tailored to deal with genetic variations in drug efficacy and toxicity.
|"A novel in vivo model for the study of human breast cancer metastasis using primary breast tumor-initiating cells from patient biopsies". |
Marsden, CG; Wright, MJ; Carrier, L; Moroz, K; Pochampally, R; Rowan, BG
BMC cancer 12 10 2012
The study of breast cancer metastasis depends on the use of established breast cancer cell lines that do not accurately represent the heterogeneity and complexity of human breast tumors. A tumor model was developed using primary breast tumor-initiating cells isolated from patient core biopsies that would more accurately reflect human breast cancer metastasis.Tumorspheres were isolated under serum-free culture conditions from core biopsies collected from five patients with clinical diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Isolated tumorspheres were transplanted into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice to establish tumorigenicity in vivo. Tumors and metastatic lesions were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (H+E) staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC).Tumorspheres were successfully isolated from all patient core biopsies, independent of the estrogen receptor α (ERα)/progesterone receptor (PR)/Her2/neu status or tumor grade. Each tumorsphere was estimated to contain 50-100 cells. Transplantation of 50 tumorspheres (1-5 × 103 cells) in combination with Matrigel into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice resulted in small, palpable tumors that were sustained up to 12 months post-injection. Tumors were serially transplanted three times by re-isolation of tumorspheres from the tumors and injection into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. At 3 months post-injection, micrometastases to the lung, liver, kidneys, brain and femur were detected by measuring content of human chromosome 17. Visible macrometastases were detected in the lung, liver and kidneys by 6 months post-injection. Primary tumors variably expressed cytokeratins, Her2/neu, cytoplasmic E-cadherin, nuclear β catenin and fibronectin but were negative for ERα and vimentin. In lung and liver metastases, variable redistribution of E-cadherin and β catenin to the membrane of tumor cells was observed. ERα was re-expressed in lung metastatic cells in two of five samples.Tumorspheres isolated under defined culture conditions from patient core biopsies were tumorigenic when transplanted into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice, and metastasized to multiple mouse organs. Micrometastases in mouse organs demonstrated a dormancy period prior to outgrowth of macrometastases. The development of macrometastases with organ-specific phenotypic distinctions provides a superior model for the investigation of organ-specific effects on metastatic cancer cell survival and growth.
|Recurrent genomic instability of chromosome 1q in neural derivatives of human embryonic stem cells. |
Christine Varela,Jérôme Alexandre Denis,Jérôme Polentes,Maxime Feyeux,Sophie Aubert,Benoite Champon,Geneviève Piétu,Marc Peschanski,Nathalie Lefort
The Journal of clinical investigation 122 2012
Human pluripotent stem cells offer a limitless source of cells for regenerative medicine. Neural derivatives of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are currently being used for cell therapy in 3 clinical trials. However, hESCs are prone to genomic instability, which could limit their clinical utility. Here, we report that neural differentiation of hESCs systematically produced a neural stem cell population that could be propagated for more than 50 passages without entering senescence; this was true for all 6 hESC lines tested. The apparent spontaneous loss of evolution toward normal senescence of somatic cells was associated with a jumping translocation of chromosome 1q. This chromosomal defect has previously been associated with hematologic malignancies and pediatric brain tumors with poor clinical outcome. Neural stem cells carrying the 1q defect implanted into the brains of rats failed to integrate and expand, whereas normal cells engrafted. Our results call for additional quality controls to be implemented to ensure genomic integrity not only of undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells, but also of hESC derivatives that form cell therapy end products, particularly neural lines.
|Integration potential of mouse and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. |
Maria Kuzma-Kuzniarska,Aleksandra Rak-Raszewska,Simon Kenny,David Edgar,Bettina Wilm,Cristina Fuente Mora,Jamie A Davies,Patricia Murray
Differentiation; research in biological diversity 83 2012
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a multipotent cell population which has been described to exert renoprotective and regenerative effects in experimental models of kidney injury. Several lines of evidence indicate that MSCs also have the ability to contribute to nephrogenesis, suggesting that the cells can be employed in stem cell-based applications aimed at de novo renal tissue generation. In this study we re-evaluate the capacity of mouse and human bone marrow-derived MSCs to contribute to the development of renal tissue using a novel method of embryonic kidney culture. Although MSCs show expression of some genes involved in renal development, their contribution to nephrogenesis is very limited in comparison to other stem cell types tested. Furthermore, we found that both mouse and human MSCs have a detrimental effect on the ex vivo development of mouse embryonic kidney, this effect being mediated through a paracrine action. Stimulation with conditioned medium from a mouse renal progenitor population increases the ability of mouse MSCs to integrate into developing renal tissue and prevents the negative effects on kidney development, but does not appear to enhance their ability to undergo nephrogenesis.
|Effect of intermittent PTH(1-34) on human periodontal ligament cells transplanted into immunocompromised mice. |
Wolf, M; Lossdörfer, S; Abuduwali, N; Meyer, R; Kebir, S; Götz, W; Jäger, A
Tissue engineering. Part A 18 1849-56 2012
Residual periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in the damaged tissue are considered a prerequisite for a successful regeneration of the periodontal architecture with all its components, including gingiva, PDL, cementum, and bone. Among other approaches, current concepts in tissue engineering aim at a hormonal support of the regenerative capacity of PDL cells as well as at a supplementation of lost cells for regeneration. Here, we investigated how far an anabolic, intermittent parathyroid hormone (iPTH) administration would enhance the osteoblastic differentiation of PDL cells and the cellular ability to mineralize the extracellular matrix in an in vivo transplantation model. PDL cells were predifferentiated in a standard osteogenic medium for 3 weeks before subcutaneous transplantation into CD-1 nude mice using gelatin sponges as carrier. Daily injections of 40 μg/kg body weight PTH(1-34) or an equivalent dose of vehicle for 4 weeks were followed by explantation of the specimens and an immunohistochemical analysis of the osteoblastic marker proteins alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin, and osteocalcin. Signs of biomineralization were visualized by means of alizarin red staining. For verification of the systemic effect of iPTH application, blood serum levels of osteocalcin were determined. The osteogenic medium stimulated the expression of ALP and PTH1-receptor mRNA in the cultures. After transplantation, iPTH resulted in an increased cytoplasmic and extracellular immunoreactivity for all markers investigated. In contrast to only sporadic areas of mineralization under control conditions, several foci of mineralization were observed in the iPTH group. Blood serum levels of osteocalcin were elevated significantly with iPTH. These data indicate that the osteoblastic differentiation of human PDL cells and their ability for biomineralization can be positively influenced by iPTH in vivo. These findings hold out a promising prospect for the support of periodontal regeneration.
|Neuroblast survival depends on mature vascular network formation after mouse stroke: role of endothelial and smooth muscle progenitor cell co-administration. |
Lina R Nih,Nicolas Deroide,Carole Leré-Déan,Dominique Lerouet,Mathieu Soustrat,Bernard I Levy,Jean-Sébastien Silvestre,Tatiana Merkulova-Rainon,Marc Pocard,Isabelle Margaill,Nathalie Kubis
The European journal of neuroscience 35 2012
Pro-angiogenic cell-based therapies constitute an interesting and attractive approach to enhancing post-stroke neurogenesis and decreasing neurological deficit. However, most new stroke-induced neurons die during the first few weeks after ischemia, thus impairing total recovery. Although the neovascularization process involves different cell types and various growth factors, most cell therapy protocols are based on the biological effects of single-cell-type populations or on the administration of heterogeneous populations of progenitors, namely human cord blood-derived CD34(+) cells, with scarce vascular progenitor cells. Tight cooperation between endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells/pericytes is critical for the development of functional neovessels. We hypothesized that neuroblast survival in stroke brain depends on mature vascular network formation. In this study, we injected a combination of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), isolated from human umbilical cord blood, into a murine model of permanent focal ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. The co-administration of SMPCs and EPCs induced enhanced angiogenesis and vascular remodeling in the peri-infarct and infarct areas, where vessels exhibited a more mature phenotype. This activation of vessel growth resulted in the maintenance of neurogenesis and neuroblast migration to the peri-ischemic cortex. Our data suggest that a mature vascular network is essential for neuroblast survival after cerebral ischemia, and that co-administration of EPCs and SMPCs may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy for improving the treatment of stroke.
|Directing the differentiation of human dental follicle cells into cementoblasts andor osteoblasts by a combination of HERS and pulp cells. |
Jung HS, Lee DS, Lee JH, Park SJ, Lee G, Seo BM, Ko JS, Park JC.
Journal of molecular histology 42 227-35 2011
It is known that the dental follicle (DF) consists of progenitor cells that give rise to the cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone; but little information is available about the regulation of DF cell differentiation into either cementogenic or osteogenic cell lineages for the regeneration of diseased periodontal tissue. Here, we investigated the roles of DF, Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS), and pulp cells in the cementum and during alveolar bone formation. We cultured these cells; transplanted them alone or in combination into immunocompromised mice; and observed their effects at 6 and 12 weeks. Histological and immunohistochemical results revealed that DF cells formed cementum-like tissues with immunoreactivity to cementum-derived attached protein, bone sialoprotein, type I collagen, and alkaline phosphatase. In addition, HERS cells played a role in the induction and maturation of cementum-like tissues formed by DF cells. In contrast, implants of DF cells in the presence of pulp cells led to the formation of bone-like tissues. Interestingly, in the presence of both HERS and pulp cells, DF cells formed both cementum-like and bone-like tissues. We demonstrated that while HERS cells are able to induce DF cell differentiation into cementoblasts and promote cementum formation, pulp cells could direct DF cell differentiation into osteoblasts and enhance alveolar bone formation. These results suggest that the combined use of DF, HERS, and pulp cells could direct DF cell differentiation into cementoblasts and/or osteoblasts in vivo, thus providing a novel strategy for the successful repair and regeneration of diseased periodontal tissue.
|Preclinical studies with umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells in different animal models for muscular dystrophy. |
Zucconi, E; Vieira, NM; Bueno, CR; Secco, M; Jazedje, T; Costa Valadares, M; Fussae Suzuki, M; Bartolini, P; Vainzof, M; Zatz, M
Journal of biomedicine & biotechnology 2011 715251 2011
Umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been widely investigated for cell-based therapy studies as an alternative source to bone marrow transplantation. Umbilical cord tissue is a rich source of MSCs with potential to derivate at least muscle, cartilage, fat, and bone cells in vitro. The possibility to replace the defective muscle cells using cell therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of progressive muscular dystrophies (PMDs), independently of the specific gene mutation. Therefore, preclinical studies in different models of muscular dystrophies are of utmost importance. The main objective of the present study is to evaluate if umbilical cord MSCs have the potential to reach and differentiate into muscle cells in vivo in two animal models of PMDs. In order to address this question we injected (1) human umbilical cord tissue (hUCT) MSCs into the caudal vein of SJL mice; (2) hUCT and canine umbilical cord vein (cUCV) MSCs intra-arterially in GRMD dogs. Our results here reported support the safety of the procedure and indicate that the injected cells could engraft in the host muscle in both animal models but could not differentiate into muscle cells. These observations may provide important information aiming future therapy for muscular dystrophies.
|Human glial-restricted progenitors survive, proliferate, and preserve electrophysiological function in rats with focal inflammatory spinal cord demyelination. |
Walczak, P; All, AH; Rumpal, N; Gorelik, M; Kim, H; Maybhate, A; Agrawal, G; Campanelli, JT; Gilad, AA; Kerr, DA; Bulte, JW
Glia 59 499-510 2011
Transplantation of glial progenitor cells results in transplant-derived myelination and improved function in rodents with genetic dysmyelination or chemical demyelination. However, glial cell transplantation in adult CNS inflammatory demyelinating models has not been well studied. Here we transplanted human glial-restricted progenitor (hGRP) cells into the spinal cord of adult rats with inflammatory demyelination, and monitored cell fate in chemically immunosuppressed animals. We found that hGRPs migrate extensively, expand within inflammatory spinal cord lesions, do not form tumors, and adopt a mature glial phenotype, albeit at a low rate. Human GRP-transplanted rats, but not controls, exhibited preserved electrophysiological conduction across the spinal cord, though no differences in behavioral improvement were noted between the two groups. Although these hGRPs myelinated extensively after implantation into neonatal shiverer mouse brain, only marginal remyelination was observed in the inflammatory spinal cord demyelination model. The low rate of transplant-derived myelination in adult rat spinal cord may reflect host age, species, transplant environment/location, and/or immune suppression regime differences. We conclude that hGRPs have the capacity to myelinate dysmyelinated neonatal rodent brain and preserve conduction in the inflammatory demyelinated adult rodent spinal cord. The latter benefit is likely dependent on trophic support and suggests further exploration of potential of glial progenitors in animal models of chronic inflammatory demyelination.
|Dystrophin conferral using human endothelium expressing HLA-E in the non-immunosuppressive murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. |
Cui, CH; Miyoshi, S; Tsuji, H; Makino, H; Kanzaki, S; Kami, D; Terai, M; Suzuki, H; Umezawa, A
Human molecular genetics 20 235-44 2011
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E is a non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I (Ib) molecule, which plays an important role in immunosuppression. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulating effect of HLA-E in a xenogeneic system, using human placental artery-derived endothelial (hPAE) cells expressing HLA-E in a mouse model. In vitro cell lysis analysis by primed lymphocytes in combination with siRNA transfection showed that HLA-E is necessary for inhibition of the immune response. Similarly, in vivo cell implantation analysis with siRNA-mediated down-regulation of HLA-E demonstrates that HLA-E is involved in immunosuppression. As hPAE cells efficiently transdifferentiate into myoblasts/myocytes in vitro, we transplanted the cells into mdx mice, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. hPAE cells conferred dystrophin to myocytes of the 'immunocompetent' mdx mice with extremely high efficiency. These findings suggest that HLA-E-expressing cells with a myogenic potential represent a promising source for cell-based therapy of patients with muscular dystrophy.
|Unrestricted somatic stem cells: interaction with CD34+ cells in vitro and in vivo, expression of homing genes and exclusion of tumorigenic potential. |
Kathrin Sonja Jeltsch,Teja Falk Radke,Stephanie Laufs,Frank Anton Giordano,Heike Allgayer,Frederik Wenz,Walter Jens Zeller,Gesine Kögler,Stefan Fruehauf,Patrick Maier
Cytotherapy 13 2011
Transplantation of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) within the framework of hematologic oncology or inherited diseases may be associated with complications such as engraftment failure and long-term pancytopenia. HSC engraftment can be improved, for example by co-transplantation with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Recently, a new multipotent MSC line from umbilical cord blood, unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSC), has been described. It was demonstrated that USSC significantly support proliferation of HSC in an in vitro feeder layer assay.
|Intramyocardial transplantation of human adipose-derived stromal cell and endothelial progenitor cell mixture was not superior to individual cell type transplantation in improving left ventricular function in rats with myocardial infarction. |
Hong SJ, Kihlken J, Choi SC, March KL, Lim DS
International journal of cardiology 2011
|Investigation of different cell types and gel carriers for cell-based intervertebral disc therapy, in vitro and in vivo studies. |
Hb H, M H, M H, A L, H B
Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine 2011
Biological treatment options for the repair of intervertebral disc damage have been suggested for patients with chronic low back pain. The aim of this study was to investigate possible cell types and gel carriers for use in the regenerative treatment of degenerative intervertebral discs (IVD). In vitro: human mesenchymal cells (hMSCs), IVD cells (hDCs), and chondrocytes (hCs) were cultivated in three gel types: hyaluronan gel (Durolane®), hydrogel (Puramatrix®), and tissue-glue gel (TISSEEL®) in chondrogenic differentiation media for 9 days. Cell proliferation and proteoglycan accumulation were evaluated with microscopy and histology. In vivo: hMSCs or hCs and hyaluronan gel were co-injected into injured IVDs of six minipigs. Animals were sacrificed at 3 or 6 months. Transplanted cells were traced with anti-human antibodies. IVD appearance was visualized by MRI, immunohistochemistry, and histology. Hyaluronan gel induced the highest cell proliferation in vitro for all cell types. Xenotransplanted hMSCs and hCs survived in porcine IVDs for 6 months and produced collagen II in all six animals. Six months after transplantation of cell/gel, pronounced endplate changes indicating severe IVD degeneration were observed at MRI in 1/3 hC/gel, 1/3 hMSCs/gel and 1/3 gel only injected IVDs at MRI and 1/3 hMSC/gel, 3/3 hC/gel, 2/3 gel and 1/3 injured IVDs showed positive staining for bone mineralization. In 1 of 3 discs receiving hC/gel, in 1 of 3 receiving hMSCs/gel, and in 1 of 3 discs receiving gel alone. Injected IVDs on MRI results in 1 of 3 hMSC/gel, in 3 of 3 hC/gel, in 2 of 3 gel, and in 1 of 3 injured IVDs animals showed positive staining for bone mineralization. The investigated hyaluronan gel carrier is not suitable for use in cell therapy of injured/degenerated IVDs. The high cell proliferation observed in vitro in the hyaluronan could have been a negative factor in vivo, since most cell/gel transplanted IVDs showed degenerative changes at MRI and positive bone mineralization staining. However, this xenotransplantation model is valuable for evaluating possible cell therapy strategies for human degenerated IVDs. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
|Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate mice trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. |
Lu Liang,Chunlan Dong,Xiaojun Chen,Zhihong Fang,Jie Xu,Meng Liu,Xiaoguang Zhang,Dong Sheng Gu,Ding Wang,Weiting Du,Delin Zhu,Zhong Chao Han
Cell transplantation 20 2011
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are poorly immunogenic and have potent immunosuppressive activities, have emerged as a promising candidate for cellular therapeutics for the treatment of disorders caused by abnormal immune responses. In this study we investigated whether human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) could ameliorate colitis in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model. TNBS-treated colitic mice were infused with hUC-MSCs or vehicle control. The mice were sacrificed on day 1, 3, and 5 after infusion, and their clinical and pathological conditions were evaluated by body weight, colon length, and histological analysis. The expression levels of proinflammatory cytokine proteins in colon were examined by ELISA. The homing of hUC-MSCs was studied by live in vivo imaging and immunofluorescent microscopy. hUC-MSCs were found to migrate to the inflamed colon and effectively treated the colitic mice with improved clinical and pathological signs. The levels of IL-17 and IL-23 as well as IFN-γ and IL-6 were significantly lower in the colon tissues of the hUC-MSC-treated mice in comparison with the vehicle-treated mice. Coculture experiments showed that hUC-MSCs not only could inhibit IFN-γ expression but also significantly inhibit IL-17 production by lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) or splenocytes of the colitic mice or by those isolated from normal animals and stimulated with IL-23. Systemically infused hUC-MSCs could home to the inflamed colon and effectively ameliorate colitis. In addition to the known suppressive effects on Th1-type immune responses, hUC-MSC-mediated modulation of IL-23/IL-17 regulated inflammatory reactions also plays an important role in the amelioration of colitis.
|Contamination of mesenchymal stem-cells with fibroblasts accelerates neurodegeneration in an experimental model of Parkinson's disease. |
Pereira, MC; Secco, M; Suzuki, DE; Janjoppi, L; Rodini, CO; Torres, LB; Araújo, BH; Cavalheiro, EA; Zatz, M; Okamoto, OK
Stem cell reviews 7 1006-17 2011
Pre-clinical studies have supported the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to treat highly prevalent neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) but preliminary trials have reported controversial results. In a rat model of PD induced by MPTP neurotoxin, we first observed a significant bilateral preservation of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and prevention of motor deficits typically observed in PD such as hypokinesia, catalepsy, and bradykinesia, following intracerebral administration of human umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC) early after MPTP injury. However, surprisingly, administration of fibroblasts, mesenchymal cells without stem cell properties, as a xenotransplantation control was highly detrimental, causing significant neurodegeneration and motor dysfunction independently of MPTP. This observation prompted us to further investigate the consequences of transplanting a MSC preparation contaminated with fibroblasts, a plausible circumstance in cell therapy since both cell types display similar immunophenotype and can be manipulated in vitro under the same conditions. Here we show for the first time, using the same experimental model and protocol, that transplantation of UC-MSC induced potent neuroprotection in the brain resulting in clinical benefit. However, co-transplantation of UC-MSC with fibroblasts reverted therapeutic efficacy and caused opposite damaging effects, significantly exacerbating neurodegeneration and motor deficits in MPTP-exposed rats. Besides providing a rationale for testing UC-MSC transplantation in early phases of PD aiming at delaying disease progression, our pre-clinical study suggests that fibroblasts may be common cell contaminants affecting purity of MSC preparations and clinical outcome in stem cell therapy protocols, which might also explain discrepant clinical results.
|Siomycin A targets brain tumor stem cells partially through a MELK-mediated pathway. |
Nakano, I; Joshi, K; Visnyei, K; Hu, B; Watanabe, M; Lam, D; Wexler, E; Saigusa, K; Nakamura, Y; Laks, DR; Mischel, PS; Viapiano, M; Kornblum, HI
Neuro-oncology 13 622-34 2011
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating disease, and the current therapies have only palliative effect. Evidence is mounting to indicate that brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) are a minority of tumor cells that are responsible for cancer initiation, propagation, and maintenance. Therapies that fail to eradicate BTSCs may ultimately lead to regrowth of residual BTSCs. However, BTSCs are relatively resistant to the current treatments. Development of novel therapeutic strategies that effectively eradicate BTSC are, therefore, essential. In a previous study, we used patient-derived GBM sphere cells (stemlike GBM cells) to enrich for BTSC and identified maternal embryonic leucine-zipper kinase (MELK) as a key regulator of survival of stemlike GBM cells in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that a thiazole antibiotic, siomycin A, potently reduced MELK expression and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Treatment of stemlike GBM cells with siomycin A resulted in arrested self-renewal, decreased invasion, and induced apoptosis but had little effect on growth of the nonstem cells of matched tumors or normal neural stem/progenitor cells. MELK overexpression partially rescued the phenotype of siomycin A-treated stemlike GBM cells. In vivo, siomycin A pretreatment abraded the sizes of stemlike GBM cell-derived tumors in immunodeficient mice. Treatment with siomycin A of mice harboring intracranial tumors significantly prolonged their survival period compared with the control mice. Together, this study may be the first model to partially target stemlike GBM cells through a MELK-mediated pathway with siomycin A to pave the way for effective treatment of GBM.
|Ex vivo generation of a highly potent population of circulating angiogenic cells using a collagen Matrix. |
Kuraitis D, Hou C, Zhang Y, Vulesevic B, Sofrenovic T, McKee D, Sharif Z, Ruel M, Suuronen EJ
Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology 51 187-97. Epub 2011 May 4. 2011
Biomaterials that have the ability to augment angiogenesis are highly sought-after for applications in regenerative medicine, particularly for revascularization of ischemic and infarcted tissue. We evaluated the culture of human circulating angiogenic cells (CAC) on collagen type I-based matrices, and compared this to traditional selective-adhesion cultures on fibronectin. Culture on a collagen matrix supported the proliferation of CD133(+) and CD34(+)CD133(+) CACs. When subjected to serum starvation, the matrix conferred a resistance to cell death for CD34(+) and CD133(+) progenitors and increased phosphorylation of Akt. After 4days of culture, phenotypically enriched populations of endothelial cells (CD31(+)CD144(+)) and progenitor cells (CD34(+)CD133(+)) emerged. Culture on matrix upregulated the phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/2 pathway members, and matrix-cultured cells also had an enhanced functional capacity for adhesion and invasion. These functional improvements were abrogated when cultured in the presence of ERK inhibitors. The formation of vessel-like structures in an angiogenesis assay was augmented with matrix-cultured cells, which were also more likely to physically associate with such structures compared to CACs taken from culture on fibronectin. In vivo, treatment with matrix-cultured cells increased the size and density of arterioles, and was superior at restoring perfusion in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia, compared to fibronectin-cultured cell treatment. This work suggests that a collagen-based matrix, as a novel substrate for CAC culture, possesses the ability to enrich endothelial and angiogenic populations and lead to clinically relevant functional enhancements.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Clones of ectopic stem cells in the regeneration of muscle defects in vivo. |
Yang, R; Chen, M; Lee, CH; Yoon, R; Lal, S; Mao, JJ
PloS one 5 e13547 2010
Little is known about whether clones of ectopic, non-muscle stem cells contribute to muscle regeneration. Stem/progenitor cells that are isolated for experimental research or therapeutics are typically heterogeneous. Non-myogenic lineages in a heterogeneous population conceptually may compromise tissue repair. In this study, we discovered that clones of mononucleated stem cells of human tooth pulp fused into multinucleated myotubes that robustly expressed myosin heavy chain in vitro with or without co-culture with mouse skeletal myoblasts (C2C12 cells). Cloned cells were sustainably Oct4+, Nanog+ and Stro1+. The fusion indices of myogenic clones were approximately 16-17 folds greater than their parent, heterogeneous stem cells. Upon infusion into cardio-toxin induced tibialis anterior muscle defects, undifferentiated clonal progenies not only engrafted and colonized host muscle, but also expressed human dystrophin and myosin heavy chain more efficaciously than their parent heterogeneous stem cell populations. Strikingly, clonal progenies yielded ∼9 times more human myosin heavy chain mRNA in regenerating muscles than those infused with their parent, heterogeneous stem cells. The number of human dystrophin positive cells in regenerating muscles infused with clonal progenies was more than ∼3 times greater than muscles infused with heterogeneous stem cells from which clonal progenies were derived. These findings suggest the therapeutic potential of ectopic myogenic clones in muscle regeneration.Full Text Article
|Mitochondrial rejuvenation after induced pluripotency. |
Suhr, ST; Chang, EA; Tjong, J; Alcasid, N; Perkins, GA; Goissis, MD; Ellisman, MH; Perez, GI; Cibelli, JB
PloS one 5 e14095 2010
As stem cells of the early embryo mature and differentiate into all tissues, the mitochondrial complement undergoes dramatic functional improvement. Mitochondrial activity is low to minimize generation of DNA-damaging reactive oxygen species during pre-implantation development and increases following implantation and differentiation to meet higher metabolic demands. It has recently been reported that when the stem cell type known as induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) are re-differentiated for several weeks in vitro, the mitochondrial complement progressively re-acquires properties approximating input fibroblasts, suggesting that despite the observation that IPSC conversion "resets" some parameters of cellular aging such as telomere length, it may have little impact on other age-affected cellular systems such as mitochondria in IPSC-derived cells.We have examined the properties of mitochondria in two fibroblast lines, corresponding IPSCs, and fibroblasts re-derived from IPSCs using biochemical methods and electron microscopy, and found a dramatic improvement in the quality and function of the mitochondrial complement of the re-derived fibroblasts compared to input fibroblasts. This observation likely stems from two aspects of our experimental design: 1) that the input cell lines used were of advanced cellular age and contained an inefficient mitochondrial complement, and 2) the re-derived fibroblasts were produced using an extensive differentiation regimen that may more closely mimic the degree of growth and maturation found in a developing mammal.These results - coupled with earlier data from our laboratory - suggest that IPSC conversion not only resets the "biological clock", but can also rejuvenate the energetic capacity of derived cells.
|Human stem cell delivery for treatment of large segmental bone defects. |
Dupont, KM; Sharma, K; Stevens, HY; Boerckel, JD; García, AJ; Guldberg, RE
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107 3305-10 2010
Local or systemic stem cell delivery has the potential to promote repair of a variety of damaged or degenerated tissues. Although various stem cell sources have been investigated for bone repair, few comparative reports exist, and cellular distribution and viability postimplantation remain key issues. In this study, we quantified the ability of tissue-engineered constructs containing either human fetal or adult stem cells to enhance functional repair of nude rat critically sized femoral defects. After 12 weeks, defects treated with cell-seeded polymer scaffolds had significantly higher bone ingrowth and torsional strength compared to those receiving acellular scaffolds, although there were no significant differences between the cell sources. Next, stem cells were labeled with fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) in an attempt to noninvasively track their distribution after delivery on scaffolds. Clear fluorescence was observed at implantation sites throughout the study; however, beginning 7-10 days after surgery, signals were also observed at contralateral sites treated with acellular QD-free scaffolds. Although immunostaining for human nuclei revealed retention of some cells at the implantation site, no human cells were detected in the control limb defects. Additional histological analysis of implantation and control defect tissues revealed macrophages containing endocytosed QDs. Furthermore, QD-labeling appeared to diminish transplanted cell function resulting in reduced healing responses. In summary, augmentation of polymeric scaffolds with stem cells derived from fetal and adult tissues significantly enhanced healing of large segmental bone defects; however, QD labeling of stem cells eliminated the observed therapeutic effect and failed to conclusively track stem cell location long-term in vivo.
|Human cardiospheres are a source of stem cells with cardiomyogenic potential. |
Davis, DR; Ruckdeschel Smith, R; Marbán, E
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 28 903-4 2010
|Human embryonic stem cell neural differentiation and enhanced cell survival promoted by hypoxic preconditioning. |
Francis, KR; Wei, L
Cell death & disease 1 e22 2010
Transplantation of neural progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provides a potential therapy for ischemic stroke. However, poor graft survival within the host environment has hampered the benefits and applications of cell-based therapies. The present investigation tested a preconditioning strategy to enhance hESC tolerance, thereby improving graft survival and the therapeutic potential of hESC transplantation. UC06 hESCs underwent neural induction and terminal differentiation for up to 30 days, becoming neural lineage cells, exhibiting extensive neurites and axonal projections, generating synapses and action potentials. To induce a cytoprotective phenotype, hESC-derived neurospheres were cultured at 0.1% oxygen for 12 h, dissociated and plated for terminal differentiation under 21% oxygen. Immunocytochemistry and electrophysiology demonstrated the 'hypoxic preconditioning' promoted neuronal differentiation. Western blotting revealed significantly upregulated oxygen-sensitive transcription factors hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α, while producing a biphasic response within HIF targets, including erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor and Bcl-2 family members, during hypoxia and subsequent reoxygenation. This cytoprotective phenotype resulted in a 50% increase in both total and neural precursor cell survival after either hydrogen peroxide insult or oxygen-glucose deprivation. Cellular protection was maintained for at least 5 days and corresponded to upregulation of neuroprotective proteins. These results suggest that hypoxic preconditioning could be used to improve the effectiveness of human neural precursor transplantation therapies.Full Text Article
|Human microglia transplanted in rat focal ischemia brain induce neuroprotection and behavioral improvement. |
Narantuya, D; Nagai, A; Sheikh, AM; Masuda, J; Kobayashi, S; Yamaguchi, S; Kim, SU
PloS one 5 e11746 2010
Microglia are resident immunocompetent and phagocytic cells of central nervous system (CNS), which produce various cytokines and growth factors in response to injury and thereby regulate disease pathology. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of microglial transplantation on focal cerebral ischemia model in rat.Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats was induced by the intraluminal filament technique. HMO6 cells, human microglial cell line, were transplanted intravenously at 48 hours after MCAO. Functional tests were performed and the infarct volume was measured at 7 and 14 days after MCAO. Migration and cell survival of transplanted microglial cells and host glial reaction in the brain were studied by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression of neurotrophic factors, cytokines and chemokines in transplanted cells and host rat glial cells was determined by laser capture microdissection (LCM) and quantitative real time-PCR.HMO6 human microglial cells transplantation group demonstrated significant functional recovery compared with control group. At 7 and 14 days after MCAO, infarct volume was significantly reduced in the HMO group. In the HMO6 group, number of apoptotic cells was time-dependently reduced in the infarct core and penumbra. In addition, number of host rat microglia/macrophages and reactive astrocytes was significantly decreased at 7 and 14 days after MCAO in the penumbra. Gene expression of various neurotrophic factors (GDNF, BDNF, VEGF and BMP7) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL4 and IL5) was up-regulated in transplanted HMO6 cells of brain tissue compared with those in culture. The expression of GDNF and VEGF in astrocytes in penumbra was significantly up-regulated in the HMO6 group.Our results indicate that transplantation of HMO6 human microglial cells reduces ischemic deficits and apoptotic events in stroke animals. The results were mediated by modulation of gliosis and neuroinflammation, and neuroprotection provided by neurotrophic factors of endogenous and transplanted cells-origin.
|A novel in vitro assay of tumor-initiating cells in xenograft prostate tumors. |
Silvers, CR; Williams, K; Salamone, L; Huang, J; Jordan, CT; Zhou, H; Palapattu, GS
The Prostate 70 1379-87 2010
The field of prostate cancer has been stymied by the difficulty of cultivating patient-derived samples in the laboratory. In order to help circumvent this challenge, we sought to develop an in vitro assay of human prostate cancer initiation employing a prostate-associated mesenchymal feeder layer.Rat seminal vesicle mesenchyme (rSVM) harvested from male neonatal rats was plated in 12-well plates and then irradiated with 30 Gy after approximately 75% confluence. Single-cell suspensions of two human non-adherent prostate cancer xenograft lines (TRPC and LAPC9) were then plated on irradiated rSVM. At 3-4 weeks, three-dimensional solid structures, termed glandoids, were harvested and analyzed or transplanted singly into the renal capsule of immunodeficient mice. Animals were assessed for tumor formation 8-12 weeks after engraftment. Finally, clonality assays were performed to determine whether glandoids usually arise from a single cell and are therefore clonal in origin.Glandoids form with reliable frequency (1/ approximately 300 plated cells), are constituted by relevant cell types (CK8+, CK5-, PSA+) and after implantation into immunocompromised mice, give rise to tumors that recapitulate original xenograft histology and cell composition; defining a glandoid as a tumor-initiating unit. In addition, assessment of red fluorescent protein (RFP)-labeled glandoids revealed either all red or non-red structures, with few areas of fusion, suggesting glandoids are clonal in origin.The above assay describes an adjunct technique to readily cultivate cells from prostate cancer xenografts in vitro and as such provides a platform on which tumor-initiating cell studies and high-throughput drug discovery may be performed.
|Dopaminergic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells survive and integrate into 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. |
Cai, J; Yang, M; Poremsky, E; Kidd, S; Schneider, JS; Iacovitti, L
Stem cells and development 19 1017-23 2010
Cell replacement therapy could be an important treatment strategy for Parkinson's disease (PD), which is caused by the degeneration of dopamine neurons in the midbrain (mDA). The success of this approach greatly relies on the discovery of an abundant source of cells capable of mDAergic function in the brain. With the paucity of available human fetal tissue, efforts have increasingly focused on renewable stem cells. Human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells offer great promise in this regard. If hiPS cells can be differentiated into authentic mDA neuron, hiPS could provide a potential autologous source of transplant tissue when generated from PD patients, a clear advantage over human embryonic stem (hES) cells. Here, we report that mDA neurons can be derived from a commercially available hiPS cell line, IMR90 clone 4, using a modified hES differentiation protocol established in our lab. These cells express all the markers (Lmx1a, Aldh1a1, TH, TrkB), follow the same mDA lineage pathway as H9 hES cells, and have similar expression levels of DA and DOPAC. Moreover, when hiPS mDA progenitor cells are transplanted into 6-OHDA-lesioned PD rats, they survive long term and many develop into bona fide mDA neurons. Despite their differentiation and integration into the brain, many Nestin+ tumor-like cells remain at the site of the graft. Our data suggest that as with hES cells, selecting the appropriate population of mDA lineage cells and eliminating actively dividing hiPS cells before transplantation will be critical for the future success of hiPS cell replacement therapy in PD patients.Full Text Article
|Cell transplantation to arrest early changes in an ush2a animal model. |
Lu B, Wang S, Francis PJ, Li T, Gamm DM, Capowski EE, Lund RD
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51 2269-76. Epub 2009 Dec 3. 2010
Purpose. Usher\'s syndrome is a combined deafness and blindness disorder caused by mutations in several genes with functions in both the retina and the ear. Here the authors studied morphologic and functional changes in an animal model, the Ush2a mouse, and explored whether transplantation of forebrain-derived progenitor cells might affect the progress of morphologic and functional deterioration. Methods. Ush2a mice were tested at postnatal days (P) 70 to P727 using an optomotor test, which provides a repeatable method of estimating rodent visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. A group of mice that received grafts of forebrain-derived progenitor cells at P80 was tested for up to 10 weeks after grafting. At the end of testing, animals were killed, and eyes were processed for histology. Results. The optomotor test showed that both acuity and contrast sensitivity deteriorated over time; contrast sensitivity showed a deficit even at P70. By contrast, photoreceptor loss was only evident later than 1 year of age, though changes in the intracellular distribution of red/green cone opsin were observed as early as P80. Mice that received transplanted cells performed significantly better than control mice and no longer demonstrated abnormal distribution of red/green opsin where the donor cells were distributed. Conclusions. This study showed that vision impairment was detected well before significant photoreceptor loss and was correlated with abnormal distribution of a cone pigment. Cell transplantation prevented functional deterioration for at least 10 weeks and reversed the mislocalization of cone pigment.
|Good manufacturing practice-grade production of unrestricted somatic stem cell from fresh cord blood. |
Murat Aktas,Anja Buchheiser,Amelie Houben,Verena Reimann,Teja Radke,Kathrin Jeltsch,Patrick Maier,W Jens Zeller,Gesine Kogler
Cytotherapy 12 2010
The discovery of unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSC), a non-hematopoietic stem cell population, brought cord blood (CB) to the attention of regenerative medicine for defining more protocols for non-hematopoietic indications. We demonstrate that a reliable and reproducible method for good manufacturing practice (GMP)-conforming generation of USSC is possible that fulfils safety requirements as well as criteria for clinical applications, such as adherence of strict regulations on cell isolation and expansion.
|Functional mesenchymal stem cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells attenuate limb ischemia in mice. |
Lian Q, Zhang Y, Zhang J, Zhang HK, Wu X, Zhang Y, Lam FF, Kang S, Xia JC, Lai WH, Au KW, Chow YY, Siu CW, Lee CN, Tse HF
Circulation 121 1113-23. Epub 2010 Feb 22. 2010
BACKGROUND: Aging and aging-related disorders impair the survival and differentiation potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and limit their therapeutic efficacy. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may provide an alternative source of functional MSCs for tissue repair. This study aimed to generate and characterize human iPSC-derived MSCs and to investigate their biological function for the treatment of limb ischemia.
|Therapeutic effects of human mesenchymal stem cells on traumatic brain injury in rats: secretion of neurotrophic factors and inhibition of apoptosis. |
Kim HJ, Lee JH, Kim SH
J Neurotrauma 27 131-8. 2010
To investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of action of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), rats were intravenously treated with hMSCs 24 h after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neurological function was significantly recovered in the hMSC-treated group by 15 days after TBI compared to the placebo group treated with saline. Quantitative ELISA of extracts from the entire traumatized cerebral hemispheres showed significantly increased expression of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in the hMSC group at 2 days after TBI, with expression decreasing over time. Western blot analysis demonstrated that pAkt expression was upregulated at 2 days after TBI, and caspase-3 cleavage was significantly decreased at 8 days after TBI in the hMSC group. Our results show that treatment of TBI with hMSCs during the acute phase of injury can enhance neurological functional outcome, and suggest that increased levels of neurotrophic factors in the injured hemisphere leading to decreased neuronal apoptosis is one mechanism by which functional recovery may occur.
|Early acquisition of neural crest competence during hESCs neuralization. |
Curchoe, CL; Maurer, J; McKeown, SJ; Cattarossi, G; Cimadamore, F; Nilbratt, M; Snyder, EY; Bronner-Fraser, M; Terskikh, AV
PloS one 5 e13890 2010
Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) are a transient multipotent embryonic cell population that represents a defining characteristic of vertebrates. The neural crest (NC) gives rise to many derivatives including the neurons and glia of the sensory and autonomic ganglia of the peripheral nervous system, enteric neurons and glia, melanocytes, and the cartilaginous, bony and connective tissue of the craniofacial skeleton, cephalic neuroendocrine organs, and some heart vessels.We present evidence that neural crest (NC) competence can be acquired very early when human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are selectively neuralized towards dorsal neuroepithelium in the absence of feeder cells in fully defined conditions. When hESC-derived neurospheres are plated on fibronectin, some cells emigrate onto the substrate. These early migratory Neural Crest Stem Cells (emNCSCs) uniformly upregulate Sox10 and vimentin, downregulate N-cadherin, and remodel F-actin, consistent with a transition from neuroepithelium to a mesenchymal NC cell. Over 13% of emNCSCs upregulate CD73, a marker of mesenchymal lineage characteristic of cephalic NC and connexin 43, found on early migratory NC cells. We demonstrated that emNCSCs give rise in vitro to all NC lineages, are multipotent on clonal level, and appropriately respond to developmental factors. We suggest that human emNCSC resemble cephalic NC described in model organisms. Ex vivo emNCSCs can differentiate into neurons in Ret.k(-) mouse embryonic gut tissue cultures and transplanted emNCSCs incorporate into NC-derived structures but not CNS tissues in chick embryos.These findings will provide a framework for further studying early human NC development including the epithelial to mesenchymal transition during NC delamination.Full Text Article
|Transplantation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells alleviates lupus nephritis in MRL/lpr mice. |
Gu Z, Akiyama K, Ma X, Zhang H, Feng X, Yao G, Hou Y, Lu L, Gilkeson GS, Silver RM, Zeng X, Shi S, Sun L
Lupus 19 1502-14. Epub 2010 Jul 20. 2010
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease, which, despite the advances in immunosuppressive medical therapies, remains potentially fatal in some patients, especially in treatment-refractory patients. This study found that transplantation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) has the same therapeutic effect as transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), which has been reported to be efficient in treating SLE-related symptoms in MRL/lpr mice. Multi-treatment (at the 18th, 19th, and 20th weeks of age) of 1 × 10(6) UC-MSCs was able to decrease the levels of 24-h proteinuria, serum creatinine, and anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibody, and the extent of renal injury such as crescent formation in MRL/lpr mice. A lower, but still significant, reduction in these parameters was also observed in mice receiving a single dose of UC-MSCs (at the 18th week). UC-MSCs treatment also inhibited expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1) expression in a similar fashion. UC-MSCs labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) were found in the lungs and kidneys 1 week post infusion. In addition, after 11 weeks post UC-MSCs infusion, human cells were found in kidney of UC-MSCs-treated mice. These findings indicated that UC-MSCs transplantation might be a potentially promising approach in the treatment of lupus nephritis, possibly by inhibiting MCP-1 and HMGB-1 production.
|Hybrid adipogenic implants from adipose stem cells for soft tissue reconstruction in vivo. |
Moioli, EK; Chen, M; Yang, R; Shah, B; Wu, J; Mao, JJ
Tissue engineering. Part A 16 3299-307 2010
A critical barrier in tissue regeneration is scale-up. Bioengineered adipose tissue implants have been limited to ∼10 mm in diameter. Here, we devised a 40-mm hybrid implant with a cellular layer encapsulating an acellular core. Human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were seeded in alginate. Poly(ethylene)glycol-diacrylate (PEGDA) was photopolymerized into 40-mm-diameter dome-shaped gel. Alginate-ASC suspension was painted onto PEGDA surface. Cultivation of hybrid constructs ex vivo in adipogenic medium for 28 days showed no delamination. Upon 4-week in vivo implantation in athymic rats, hybrid implants well integrated with host subcutaneous tissue and could only be surgically separated. Vascularized adipose tissue regenerated in the thin, painted alginate layer only if ASC-derived adipogenic cells were delivered. Contrastingly, abundant fibrous tissue filled ASC-free alginate layer encapsulating the acellular PEGDA core in control implants. Human-specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) was detected in human ASC-seeded implants. Interestingly, rat-specific PPAR-γ was absent in either human ASC-seeded or ASC-free implants. Glycerol content in ASC-delivered implants was significantly greater than that in ASC-free implants. Remarkably, rat-specific platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM) was detected in both ASC-seeded and ASC-free implants, suggesting anastomosis of vasculature in bioengineered tissue with host blood vessels. Human nuclear staining revealed that a substantial number of adipocytes were of human origin, whereas endothelial cells of vascular wall were of chemaric human and nonhuman (rat host) origins. Together, hybrid implant appears to be a viable scale-up approach with volumetric retention attributable primarily to the acellular biomaterial core, and yet has a biologically viable cellular interface with the host. The present 40-mm soft tissue implant may serve as a biomaterial tissue expander for reconstruction of lumpectomy defects.
|Phosphorylation of the par polarity complex protein Par3 at serine 962 is mediated by aurora a and regulates its function in neuronal polarity. |
Khazaei MR, Puschel AW
The Journal of biological chemistry 284 33571-9 2009
The Aurora kinases are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that perform important functions during the cell cycle. Recently, it was shown that Drosophila Aurora A also regulates the asymmetric localization of Numb to the basal and the partitioning-defective (Par) complex to the apical cortex of neuroblasts by phosphorylating Par6. Here, we show that Aurora A is required for neuronal polarity. Suppression of Aurora A by RNA interference results in the loss of neuronal polarity. Aurora A interacts directly with the atypical protein kinase C binding domain of Par3 and phosphorylates it at serine 962. The phosphorylation of Par3 at serine 962 contributes to its function in the establishment of neuronal polarity.Full Text Article
|Minimal engraftment of human CD34+ cells mobilized from healthy donors in the infarcted heart of athymic nude rats. |
Claus S Sondergaard, Jesper Bonde, Frederik Dagnaes-Hansen, Jan M Nielsen, Vladimir Zachar, Mette Holm, Peter Hokland, Lene Pedersen
Stem cells and development 18 845-56 2009
Cell-based regenerative therapy may be useful for treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Animal xenograft models are ideally suited for preclinical studies evaluating prospective treatment regimes, identifying candidate human cell populations, and gaining mechanistic insight. Here we address whether the athymic nude rat is suitable as a xenograft model for the study of human CD34+ mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (M-PBSCs) in the repair of AMI. We injected human donor cells into the infarct border of athymic nude rats with surgically induced AMI and evaluated engraftment and functional improvement. We found no human engraftment by immunofluorescence staining at 14 days after transplantation or functional improvement at days 2 and 14 compared to controls. The lack of long-term human engraftment was furthermore confirmed in a time series study analyzing animals at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after transplantation. Although we found fluorescent microbeads coinjected with human CD34+ M-PBSCs at all time points, the number of donor cells rapidly declined and became undetectable at 96 h. CD34+ M-PBSCs from the same donor used to treat athymic nude rat hearts engrafted the bone marrow of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice 8-10 weeks after transplantation. In conclusion, human CD34+ M-PBSCs with confirmed hematopoietic engraftment potential rapidly disappeared from the site of injury following intramyocardial transplantation in the athymic nude rat AMI model.
|Transplantation of human mesenchymal stems cells into intervertebral discs in a xenogeneic porcine model. |
Helena B Henriksson, Teresia Svanvik, Marianne Jonsson, Margret Hagman, Michael Horn, Anders Lindahl, Helena Brisby, Helena B Henriksson, Teresia Svanvik, Marianne Jonsson, Margret Hagman, Michael Horn, Anders Lindahl, Helena Brisby, Helena B Henriksson, Teresia Svanvik, Marianne Jonsson, Margret Hagman, Michael Horn, Anders Lindahl, Helena Brisby
Spine 34 141-8 2009
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental and descriptive study of a xenotransplantation model in minipigs. OBJECTIVE: To study survival and function of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) after transplantation into injured porcine spinal discs, as a model for cell therapy. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Biologic treatment options of the intervertebral disc are suggested for patients with chronic low back pain caused by disc degeneration. METHODS: Three lumbar discs in each of 9 minipigs were injured by aspiration of the nucleus pulposus (NP), 2 weeks later hMSCs were injected in F12 media suspension (cell/med) or with a hydrogel carrier (Puramatrix) (cell/gel). The animals were sacrificed after 1, 3, or 6 months. Disc appearance was visualized by magnetic resonance imaging. Immunohistochemistry methods were used to detect hMSCs by antihuman nuclear antibody staining, and further performed for Collagen II, Aggrecan, and Collagen I. SOX 9, Aggrecan, Versican, Collagen IA, and Collagen IIA and Collagen IIB human mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. RESULTS: At magnetic resonance imaging all injured discs demonstrated degenerative signs. Cell/gel discs showed fewer changes compared with cell/med discs and only injured discs at later time points. hMSCs were detected in 9 of 10 of the cell/gel discs and in 8 of 9 of the cell/med discs. Immunostaining for Aggrecan and Collagen type II expression were observed in NP after 3 and 6 months in gel/cell discs and colocalized with the antihuman nuclear antibody. mRNA expression of Collagen IIA, Collagen IIB, Versican, Collagen 1A, Aggrecan, and SOX9 were detected in both cell/med and cell/gel discs at the time points 3 and 6 months by real-time PCR. CONCLUSION: hMSCs survive in the porcine disc for at least 6 months and express typical chondrocyte markers suggesting differentiation toward disc-like cells. As in autologous animal models the combination with a three-dimensional-hydrogel carrier seems to facilitate differentiation and survival of MSCs in the disc. Xenotransplantation seems to be valuable in evaluating the possibility for human cell therapy treatment for intervertebral discs.
|Effects of human neural stem cell transplantation in canine spinal cord hemisection. |
Lee SH, Chung YN, Kim YH, Kim YJ, Park JP, Kwon DK, Kwon OS, Heo JH, Kim YH, Ryu S, Kang HJ, Paek SH, Wang KC, Kim SU, Yoon BW
Neurol Res 31 996-1002. Epub 2009 Jan 9. 2009
OBJECTIVES: Previous works have reported that the transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) may improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI), but these results have been mainly obtained in rat models. In the present work, the authors sought to determine whether the transplantation of human NSCs improves functional outcome in a canine SCI model and whether transplanted NSCs survive and differentiate.
|Human mesenchymal stem cells implantation into the degenerated coccygeal disc of the rat. |
Je Hoon Jeong, Eun Sun Jin, Joong Kee Min, Sang Ryong Jeon, Chan-Sik Park, Hyun Soo Kim, Kyoung Hyo Choi, Je Hoon Jeong, Eun Sun Jin, Joong Kee Min, Sang Ryong Jeon, Chan-Sik Park, Hyun Soo Kim, Kyoung Hyo Choi
Cytotechnology 59 55-64 2009
In this study, the authors explored the effect of human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) implantation on the restoration of degenerative intervertebral discs (IVDs) in the rat. A unique rat coccygeal model was used to investigate the effects of transplanting human MSCs and to examine MSC survival in degenerative discs. MSC implantations into rat coccygeal IVDs were performed at 2 weeks post-injury. Radiologic and histologic evaluations were performed at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks post-injury. MSC-injected segments (TS) retained disc height and signal intensity, but injured non-injected segment (IS) progressively lost disc height. Pathological results revealed that the TS group showed relative restoration of the inner annulus structure; however, the IS group showed destruction of the inner annulus structure. Immunohistochemical staining using Anti-Human Nucleic Antibody (#MAB1281 Chemicon) revealed positive staining in the TS group at 2 weeks post-transplantation (4 weeks post-injury). This study shows that human MSCs survive for 2 weeks after transplantation into the IVDs of rats, and that MSCs increased the heights and signal intensities of intervertebral disc.Full Text Article
|The therapeutic potential of human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells from Wharton's jelly in the treatment of rat liver fibrosis. |
Pei-Chun Tsai, Tz-Win Fu, Yi-Ming Arthur Chen, Tsui-Ling Ko, Tien-Hua Chen, Yang-Hsin Shih, Shih-Chieh Hung, Yu-Show Fu, Pei-Chun Tsai, Tz-Win Fu, Yi-Ming Arthur Chen, Tsui-Ling Ko, Tien-Hua Chen, Yang-Hsin Shih, Shih-Chieh Hung, Yu-Show Fu
Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society 15 484-95 2009
We investigated the effect of human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) from Wharton's jelly on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Rats were treated with CCl4 for 4 weeks, and this was followed by a direct injection of HUMSCs into their livers. After 4 more weeks of CCl4 treatment (8 weeks in all), rats with HUMSC transplants [CCl4 (8W)+HUMSC liver] exhibited a significant reduction in liver fibrosis, as evidenced by Sirius red staining and a collagen content assay, in comparison with rats treated with CCl4 for 8 weeks without HUMSC transplants [CCl4 (8W)]. Moreover, rats in the CCl4 (8W)+HUMSC (liver) group had significantly lower levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvate transaminase, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and transforming growth factor-beta1 in the liver, whereas the expression of hepatic mesenchymal epithelial transition factor-phosphorylated type (Met-P) and hepatocyte growth factor was up-regulated, in comparison with the CCl4 (8W) group. Notably, engrafted HUMSCs scattered mostly in the hepatic connective tissue but did not differentiate into hepatocytes expressing human albumin or alpha-fetoprotein. Instead, these engrafted, undifferentiated HUMSCs secreted a variety of bioactive cytokines that may restore liver function and promote regeneration. Human cytokine assay revealed that the amounts of human cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine, leukemia inhibitory factor, and prolactin were substantially greater in the livers of the CCl4 (8W)+HUMSC (liver) group, with considerably reduced hepatic inflammation manifested by a micro positron emission tomography scan. Our findings suggest that xenogeneic transplantation of HUMSCs is a novel approach for treating liver fibrosis and may be a promising therapeutic intervention in the future.
|Endovascular transplantation of stem cells to the injured rat CNS. |
Johan Lundberg, Katarina Le Blanc, Mikael Söderman, Tommy Andersson, Staffan Holmin, Johan Lundberg, Katarina Le Blanc, Mikael Söderman, Tommy Andersson, Staffan Holmin
Neuroradiology 51 661-7 2009
INTRODUCTION: Transplantation procedures using intraparenchymal injection of stem cells result in tissue injury in addition to associated surgical risks. Intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells gives engraftment to lesions, but the method has low efficiency and specificity. In traumatic brain injuries (TBI), there is a transient breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and an inflammatory response, which increase migration of cells from blood to parenchyma. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effect of intra-arterial administration on cellular engraftment. METHODS: Experimental TBI was produced in a rat model. Endovascular technique was used to administer human mesenchymal stem cells in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. Evaluation of engraftment and side effects were performed by immunohistochemical analysis of the brain and several other organs. The results were compared to intravenous administration of stem cells. RESULTS: Intra-arterial transplantion of mesenchymal stem cells resulted in central nervous system (CNS) engraftment without thromboembolic ischemia. We observed a significantly higher number of transplanted cells in the injured hemisphere after intra-arterial compared to intravenous administration both 1 day (p 0.01) and 5 days (p 0.05) after the transplantation. Some cells were also detected in the spleen but not in the other organs analyzed. CONCLUSION: Selective intra-arterial administration of mesenchymal stem cells to the injured CNS is a minimally invasive method for transplantation. The method is significantly more efficient than the intravenous route and causes no side effects in the current model. The technique can potentially be used for repeated transplantation to the CNS after TBI and in other diseases.
|The neural stem cell line CTX0E03 promotes behavioral recovery and endogenous neurogenesis after experimental stroke in a dose-dependent fashion. |
P Stroemer, S Patel, A Hope, C Oliveira, K Pollock, J Sinden
Neurorehabilitation and neural repair 23 895-909 2009
BACKGROUND: This study investigated behavioral recovery in rats following implanting increasing doses of CTX0E03 cells into the putamen ipsilateral to the stroke damage. Postmortem histological analysis investigated possible mechanisms of behavioral recovery. METHODS: . At 4 weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), rats were treated with 4500, 45,000, or 450,000 CTX0E03 cells or vehicle implanted into the putamen with testing on a battery of tasks preocclusion and postocclusion. Histological examination of brains included assessment of lesion volumes, implant cell survival and differentiation, changes to host brain matrix, angiogenesis, and neurogenesis using immunohistochemical methods. RESULTS: . Statistically significant dose-related recovery in sensorimotor function deficits (bilateral asymmetry test [BAT; P < .0002] in the mid- and high-dose groups and rotameter test after amphetamine exposure [P < .05] in the high-dose group) was found in the CTX0E03 cell implanted groups compared to the vehicle group. In-life functional improvements correlated with cell dose, though did not correlate with survival of CTX0E03 cells measured at postmortem. Surviving CTX0E03 cells differentiated into oligodendroglial and endothelial phenotypes. MCAO-induced reduction of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) was partially restored to that observed in sham operated controls. No adverse CTX0E03 cell-related effects were observed during in-life observations or on tissue histology. CONCLUSIONS: . This study found that the implantation of CTX0E03 human neural stem cells in rats after MCAO stroke promoted significant behavioral recovery depending on cell dose. The authors propose a paracrine trophic mechanism, which is triggered early after CTX0E03 cell implantation, and which in turn targets restoration of neurogenesis in the SVZ of MCAO rats.
|Role of human smooth muscle cell progenitors in atherosclerotic plaque development and composition. |
Zoll, J; Fontaine, V; Gourdy, P; Barateau, V; Vilar, J; Leroyer, A; Lopes-Kam, I; Mallat, Z; Arnal, JF; Henry, P; Tobelem, G; Tedgui, A
Cardiovascular research 77 471-80 2008
We analysed the possible protective role of human endothelial (EPCs) and smooth muscle (SPCs) progenitor cells on atherosclerosis development in apoE(-/-)RAG2(-/-) mice. We determined plasma levels of SPCs in coronary patients.ApoE(-/-)RAG2(-/-) mice received four intravenous injections of saline, 5 x 10(5) SPCs, or 5 x 10(5) EPCs every other week, one (preventive approach) or 12(curative approach) weeks after starting a high fat diet. Derived-SPC levels were quantified from blood mononuclear cells of patients with stable angina (n = 10) and acute coronary syndromes (ACS, n = 9). SPCs reduced atherosclerosis development by 42% (P less than 0.001), but had no effect on lesion progression. In the SPC group, collagen and smooth muscle cell content were increased (+80%, P less than 0.001, +46%, P less than 0.05, respectively), and macrophage content was decreased (-41%, P less than 0.05). In the curative approach, macrophage content decreased by 40.5% (P less than 0.05) after SPC injection. EPC injection had no effect on atherosclerosis development or progression. Peripheral blood-derived SPC levels were reduced in patients with ACS compared with stable angina patients (P less than 0.05).We demonstrate that SPCs limit plaque development and promote changes in plaque composition towards a stable phenotype in mice. Our finding in patients suggests that reduced peripheral blood-derived SPC levels might represent a mechanism contributing to plaque destabilization.
|Neonatal chimerization with human glial progenitor cells can both remyelinate and rescue the otherwise lethally hypomyelinated shiverer mouse. |
Windrem, MS; Schanz, SJ; Guo, M; Tian, GF; Washco, V; Stanwood, N; Rasband, M; Roy, NS; Nedergaard, M; Havton, LA; Wang, S; Goldman, SA
Cell stem cell 2 553-65 2008
Congenitally hypomyelinated shiverer mice fail to generate compact myelin and die by 18-21 weeks of age. Using multifocal anterior and posterior fossa delivery of sorted fetal human glial progenitor cells into neonatal shiverer x rag2(-/-) mice, we achieved whole neuraxis myelination of the engrafted hosts, which in a significant fraction of cases rescued this otherwise lethal phenotype. The transplanted mice exhibited greatly prolonged survival with progressive resolution of their neurological deficits. Substantial myelination in multiple regions was accompanied by the acquisition of normal nodes of Ranvier and transcallosal conduction velocities, ultrastructurally normal and complete myelination of most axons, and a restoration of a substantially normal neurological phenotype. Notably, the resultant mice were cerebral chimeras, with murine gray matter but a predominantly human white matter glial composition. These data demonstrate that the neonatal transplantation of human glial progenitor cells can effectively treat disorders of congenital and perinatal hypomyelination.
|Morphological and functional rescue in RCS rats after RPE cell line transplantation at a later stage of degeneration. |
Wang, S; Lu, B; Girman, S; Holmes, T; Bischoff, N; Lund, RD
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 49 416-21 2008
It is well documented that grafting of cells in the subretinal space of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats limits deterioration of vision and loss of photoreceptors if performed early in postnatal life. What is unclear is whether cells introduced later, when photoreceptor degeneration is already advanced, can still be effective. This possibility was examined in the present study, using the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line, ARPE-19.Dystrophic RCS rats (postnatal day [P] 60) received subretinal injection of ARPE-19 cells (2 x 10(5)/3 microL/eye). Spatial frequency was measured by recording optomotor responses at P100 and P150, and luminance threshold responses were recorded from the superior colliculus at P150. Retinas were stained with cresyl violet, retinal cell-specific markers, and a human nuclear marker. Control animals were injected with medium alone. Animals comparably treated with grafts at P21 were available for comparison. All animals were treated with immunosuppression.Later grafts preserved both spatial frequency and threshold responses over the control and delayed photoreceptor degeneration. There were two to three layers of rescued photoreceptors even at P150, compared with a scattered single layer in sham and untreated control retinas. Retinal cell marker staining showed an orderly array of the inner retinal lamination. The morphology of the second-order neurons was better preserved around the grafted area than in regions distant from graft. Sham injection had little effect in rescuing the photoreceptors.RPE cell line transplants delivered later in the course of degeneration can preserve not only the photoreceptors and inner retinal lamination but also visual function in RCS rats. However, early intervention can achieve better rescue.
|The SPECT imaging shows the accumulation of neural progenitor cells into internal organs after systemic administration in middle cerebral artery occlusion rats. |
Riikka S Lappalainen, Susanna Narkilahti, Tuulia Huhtala, Timo Liimatainen, Tiina Suuronen, Ale Närvänen, Riitta Suuronen, Outi Hovatta, Jukka Jolkkonen, Riikka S Lappalainen, Susanna Narkilahti, Tuulia Huhtala, Timo Liimatainen, Tiina Suuronen, Ale Närvänen, Riitta Suuronen, Outi Hovatta, Jukka Jolkkonen
Neuroscience letters 440 246-50 2008
The regenerative potential of stem cells from various sources has been under intense investigation in the experimental models of cerebral ischemia. To end up with a restorative therapeutic treatment, it is crucial to get the cell transplants to the site of injury. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of small animal SPECT/CT in assessing the definite accumulation of (111)In-oxine-labeled human embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived neural progenitors and rat hippocampal progenitors after intravenous or intra-arterial administration (femoral vein vs. common carotid artery) in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and sham-operated rats. Cell detection was carried out immediately and 24h after the infusion using a SPECT/CT device. The results showed that after intravenous injections both cell types accumulated primarily into internal organs, instead of brain. In contrast, after intra-arterial injection, a weak signal was detected in the ischemic hemisphere. Additional studies showed that the detection sensitivity of SPECT/CT device was approximately 1000 (111)In-oxine-labeled cells and labeling did not affect the cell viability. In conclusion, a small animal SPECT is powerful technique to study the whole body biodistribution of cell-based therapies. Our data showed that intravenous administration is not an optimal route to deliver neural progenitor cell-containing transplants into the brain after MCAO in rats.
|Heterogeneity of pluripotent marker gene expression in colonies generated in human iPS cell induction culture. |
Masaki, H; Ishikawa, T; Takahashi, S; Okumura, M; Sakai, N; Haga, M; Kominami, K; Migita, H; McDonald, F; Shimada, F; Sakurada, K
Stem cell research 1 105-15 2007
Induction of pluripotent stem cells from human fibroblasts has been achieved by the ectopic expression of two different sets of four genes. However, the mechanism of the pluripotent stem cell induction has not been elucidated. Here we identified a marked heterogeneity in colonies generated by the four-gene (Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4) transduction method in human neonatal skin-derived cells. The four-gene transduction gave a higher probability of induction for archetypal pluripotent stem cell marker genes (Nanog, TDGF, and Dnmt3b) than for marker genes that are less specific for pluripotent stem cells (CYP26A1 and TERT) in primary induction culture. This tendency may reflect the molecular mechanism underlying the induction of human skin-derived cells into pluripotent stem cells. Among the colonies induced by the four-gene transduction, small cells with a high nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio could be established by repeated cloning. Subsequently established cell lines were similar to human embryonic stem cells as well as human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from adult tissue in morphology, gene expression, long-term self-renewal ability, and teratoma formation. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism array analysis of the human iPS cell line indicates that the induction process did not induce DNA mutation.
|Cells isolated from umbilical cord tissue rescue photoreceptors and visual functions in a rodent model of retinal disease. |
Raymond D Lund, Shaomei Wang, Bin Lu, Sergej Girman, Toby Holmes, Yves Sauvé, Darin J Messina, Ian R Harris, Anthony J Kihm, Alexander M Harmon, Feng-Yi Chin, Anna Gosiewska, Sanjay K Mistry
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 25 602-11 2007
Progressive photoreceptor degeneration resulting from genetic and other factors is a leading and largely untreatable cause of blindness worldwide. The object of this study was to find a cell type that is effective in slowing the progress of such degeneration in an animal model of human retinal disease, is safe, and could be generated in sufficient numbers for clinical application. We have compared efficacy of four human-derived cell types in preserving photoreceptor integrity and visual functions after injection into the subretinal space of the Royal College of Surgeons rat early in the progress of degeneration. Umbilical tissue-derived cells, placenta-derived cells, and mesenchymal stem cells were studied; dermal fibroblasts served as cell controls. At various ages up to 100 days, electroretinogram responses, spatial acuity, and luminance threshold were measured. Both umbilical-derived and mesenchymal cells significantly reduced the degree of functional deterioration in each test. The effect of placental cells was not much better than controls. Umbilical tissue-derived cells gave large areas of photoreceptor rescue; mesenchymal stem cells gave only localized rescue. Fibroblasts gave sham levels of rescue. Donor cells were confined to the subretinal space. There was no evidence of cell differentiation into neurons, of tumor formation or other untoward pathology. Since the umbilical tissue-derived cells demonstrated the best photoreceptor rescue and, unlike mesenchymal stem cells, were capable of sustained population doublings without karyotypic changes, it is proposed that they may provide utility as a cell source for the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa.
|Immunological properties of human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. |
Ross M Okamura, Jane Lebkowski, Melinda Au, Catherine A Priest, Jerrod Denham, Anish S Majumdar
Journal of neuroimmunology 192 134-44 2007
A major concern in the use of allotransplantation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-based therapies is the possibility of allogeneic rejection by the host's immune system. In this report, we determined the immunological properties of hESC-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) that have the potential for clinical application for the treatment of patients with spinal cord injury. In vitro immunological studies suggest that hESC-derived OPCs are poor targets for both the innate and the adaptive human immune effector cells as well as resistant to lysis by anti-Neu5Gc antibodies. These results indicate that hESC-derived OPCs retain some of the unique immunological properties of the parental cell line from which they were differentiated.
|Glutathione transferases in hepatocyte-like cells derived from human embryonic stem cells. |
Therese Söderdahl, Barbara Küppers-Munther, Nico Heins, Josefina Edsbagge, Petter Björquist, Ian Cotgreave, Bengt Jernström, Therese Söderdahl, Barbara Küppers-Munther, Nico Heins, Josefina Edsbagge, Petter Björquist, Ian Cotgreave, Bengt Jernström
Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA 21 929-37 2007
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer a potential unlimited source for functional human hepatocytes, since hESCs can differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells displaying a characteristic hepatic morphology and expressing several hepatic markers. These hepatocyte-like cells could be used in various human in vitro hepatocyte assays, e.g. as a test system for studying drug metabolism and drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Since the toxic effect of a compound is commonly dependent on biotransformation into metabolites, the presence of drug metabolising enzymes in potential test systems must be evaluated. We have investigated the presence of glutathione transferases (GSTs) in hepatocyte-like cells by immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. Results show that these cells have high levels of GSTA1-1, whereas GSTP1-1 is not present in most cases. GSTM1-1 is detected by immunocytochemistry but not by Western blotting. In addition, GST activity is detected in hepatocyte-like cells at levels comparable to human hepatocytes. These results indicate that the hepatocyte-like cells have characteristics that closely resemble those of human adult hepatocytes.
|Mesenchymal cells from human amniotic fluid survive and migrate after transplantation into adult rat brain. |
Sabrina Cipriani, Daniela Bonini, Eleonora Marchina, Ioanna Balgkouranidou, Luigi Caimi, Gigliola Grassi Zucconi, Sergio Barlati
Cell biology international 31 845-50 2007
Amniotic fluid has been recently suggested as an alternative source of mesenchymal stem cells. However, the fate of amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) after in vivo transplantation has yet to be determined. In the present study we explored whether human AF-MSCs could survive and migrate following transplantation into the striatum of normal and ischemic rat. We found that the grafted cells could survive and migrate towards multiple brain regions in the normal animals, while they moved towards the injured region in the ischemic rat. Double-immunostaining analyses showed that the implanted human AF-MSCs express markers for immature neurons (Doublecortin) at 10 days, and for astrocytes (GFAP) at 10, 30 and 90 after transplantation. This study provides the first evidence that human amniotic fluid contains cells having the potential to survive and integrate into adult rat brain tissue and, therefore, to function as effective stem cells for therapeutic strategies.
|Derivation of engraftable skeletal myoblasts from human embryonic stem cells. |
Tiziano Barberi, Michelle Bradbury, Zehra Dincer, Georgia Panagiotakos, Nicholas D Socci, Lorenz Studer
Nature medicine 13 642-8 2007
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a promising source for cell therapy in degenerative diseases. A key step in establishing the medical potential of hESCs is the development of techniques for the conversion of hESCs into tissue-restricted precursors suitable for transplantation. We recently described the derivation of multipotent mesenchymal precursors from hESCs. Nevertheless, our previous study was limited by the requirement for mouse feeders and the lack of in vivo data. Here we report a stroma-free induction system for deriving mesenchymal precursors. Selective culture conditions and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-mediated purification yielded multipotent mesenchymal precursors and skeletal myoblasts. Skeletal muscle cells undergo in vitro maturation resulting in myotube formation and spontaneous twitching. We found that hESC-derived skeletal myoblasts were viable after transplantation into the tibialis anterior muscle of SCID/Beige mice, as assessed by bioluminescence imaging. Lack of teratoma formation and evidence of long-term myoblast engraftment suggests considerable potential for future therapeutic applications.
|In vivo formation of unstable heterokaryons after liver damage and hematopoietic stem cell/progenitor transplantation. |
Karl Kashofer, Elena K Siapati, Dominique Bonnet
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 24 1104-12 2006
Following reports of lineage plasticity in human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), we investigated the potential of human cord blood HSC-enriched cells to create hepatocytes in hosts after inducing liver damage. Carbon tetrachloride induces severe liver damage and subsequent repair via mitosis of resident hepatocytes. It additionally leads to a threefold increase in homing of human mononuclear cells to bone marrow and liver and subsequently to a substantial enhancement of bone marrow engraftment. Eight weeks after liver damage and infusion of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) lentivirus-transduced human HSC-enriched cell population, we observed eGFP-positive cells with clear hepatocyte morphology in the livers of animals. These eGFP-positive cells co-expressed human albumin, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis demonstrated the presence of human albumin and alpha-anti-trypsin mRNA. However, two antibodies against human mitochondria and human nuclei failed to mark eGFP-positive hepatocyte-like cells but did give clear staining of donor-derived hematopoietic cells. Subsequent fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed the presence of mouse Y chromosome in eGFP-positive hepatocyte-like cells. To resolve this discrepancy, we performed single-cell PCR analysis of microdissected eGFP-positive hepatocyte-like cells and found that they contained mostly mouse and little human genomic material. FISH analysis highlighting the centromeres of all human chromosomes revealed only few human chromosomes in these cells. From these results, we conclude that similar to their murine counterparts, human hematopoietic cells have the potential to fuse with resident host hepatocytes. Because no selective pressure is applied to retain the human genomic material, it is gradually lost over time, leading to a variable phenotype of the chimeric cells and making their detection difficult.
|Bone marrow stromal cells reduce axonal loss in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice. |
Jing Zhang, Yi Li, Mei Lu, Yisheng Cui, Jieli Chen, Lori Noffsinger, Stanton B Elias, Michael Chopp
Journal of neuroscience research 84 587-95 2006
We investigated the ability of human bone marrow stromal cell (hBMSC) treatment to reduce axonal loss in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. EAE was induced in SJL/J mice by injection with proteolipid protein (PLP). Mice were injected intravenously with hBMSCs or PBS on the day of clinical onset, and neurological function was measured daily (score 0-5) until 45 weeks after onset. Mice were sacrificed at week 1, 10, 20, 34, and 45 after clinical onset. Bielshowsky silver was used to identify axons. Immunohistochemistry was performed to measure the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and MAB1281, a marker of hBMSCs. hBMSC treatment significantly reduced the mortality, the disease severity, and the number of relapses in EAE mice compared with PBS treatment. Axonal density and NGF(+) cells in the EAE brain were significantly increased in the hBMSC group compared with the PBS group at 1, 10, 20, 34, and 45 weeks. Disease severity was significantly correlated with decreased axonal density and decreased NGF, and increased axonal density was significantly correlated with reduced loss of NGF expression after hBMSC treatment. Most of the NGF(+) cells are brain parenchymal cells. Under 5% of MAB1281(+) cells colocalized with NG2(+), a marker of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Nearly 10% of MAB1281(+) cells colocalized with GFAP, a marker of astrocytes, and MAP-2, a marker of neurons. Our findings indicate that hBMSCs improve functional recovery and may provide a potential therapy aimed at axonal protection in EAE mice, in which NGF may play a vital role.
|Human umbilical cord blood cells do not improve sensorimotor or cognitive outcome following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. |
Susanna Mäkinen, Tuija Kekarainen, Johanna Nystedt, Timo Liimatainen, Tuulia Huhtala, Ale Närvänen, Jarmo Laine, Jukka Jolkkonen
Brain research 1123 207-15 2006
The present study investigated effects of human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) cells on sensorimotor, cognitive, and histological outcome in rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Halothane anesthetized adult male Wistar rats were subjected to transient MCAO for 2 h. HUCB cells (mononuclear 1-5x10(7) or Lin(-) cells 1-5x10(5)) were administered intravenously after 24 h recovery. The limb-placing test was performed on postoperative days 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20. In addition, beam-walking and cylinder tests were used to assess sensorimotor function at baseline, and on postoperative days 4, 12, and 20. Morris water-maze was used to assess cognitive performance on postoperative days 22-24. Subsequently, rats were perfused for measurement of infarct volumes and detection of HUCB cells by immunohistochemistry (MAB1281). MCAO rats showed a partial spontaneous recovery in sensorimotor function during the follow-up. However, the recovery profile was similar in MCAO controls and in MCAO rats that received HUCB cells. HUCB did not affect impaired water-maze performance of MCAO rats. Only few human nuclei-specific MAB1281-positive cells were detected in the ipsilateral hemisphere in MCAO rats that received HUCB cells. Infarct volumes did not differ between the experimental groups. A group of additional rats were used to further study biodistribution of intravenously given (111)In-oxine-labelled mononuclear HUCB cells in MCAO and sham-operated rats. SPECT imaging data indicated a high tracer uptake in the lung, liver, spleen, and kidney, but not in the brain immediately after administration or 24 h post-administration. The present study suggests that HUCB cells do not improve functional recovery or histological outcome in MCAO rats after systemic administration because of limited migration of cells in the ischemic brain.
|Human cord blood CD34+ cells and behavioral recovery following focal cerebral ischemia in rats. |
Johanna Nystedt, Susanna Mäkinen, Jarmo Laine, Jukka Jolkkonen
Acta neurobiologiae experimentalis 66 293-300 2006
The present study investigated effects of human umbilical cord blood derived CD34+ cells on sensorimotor, cognitive, and histological outcome in rats following focal cerebral ischemia. Halothane anesthetized adult male Wistar rats were subjected to transient or permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) followed by intravenous administration of CD34+ cells (5 x 10(5) or 2 x 10(6)) after 24 h recovery. The beam-walking and cylinder tests were used to assess sensorimotor function, and Morris water-maze examined cognitive performance during a 25 day follow-up period. Subsequently, rats were perfused for measurement of infarct volumes and detection of CD34' cells in the brain by immunohistochemistry (MAB1281). MCAO rats showed minor or no spontaneous recovery in sensorimotor function during the follow-up. The recovery profile was similar in MCAO controls and in MCAO rats that received CD34+ cells, although CD34+ cells seemed to improve the use of impaired forelimb. There was also a trend toward improved water-maze performance by CD34+ cells in transient MCAO rats. Infarct volumes assessed from Nissl-stained sections on postoperative day 25 did not differ between the experimental groups. MAB 1281-positive cells were not detected in the brain of MCAO rats that received CD34+ cells. The present study suggests that CD34+ cells might improve functional outcome in MCAO rats after systemic administration, but do not significantly provide neuroprotection.
|GDNF delivery using human neural progenitor cells in a rat model of ALS |
Klein, Sandra M, et al
Hum Gene Ther, 16:509-21 (2005) 2005
|Long-term survival of dopamine neurons derived from parthenogenetic primate embryonic stem cells (cyno-1) after transplantation. |
Sánchez-Pernaute, Rosario, et al.
Stem Cells, 23: 914-22 (2005) 2005
Dopamine (DA) neurons can be derived from human and primate embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro. An ES cell-based replacement therapy for patients with Parkinson's disease requires that in vitro-generated neurons maintain their phenotype in vivo. Other critical issues relate to their proliferative capacity and risk of tumor formation, and the capability of migration and integration in the adult mammalian brain. Neural induction was achieved by coculture of primate parthenogenetic ES cells (Cyno-1) with stromal cells, followed by sequential exposure to midbrain patterning and differentiation factors to favor DA phenotypic specification. Differentiated ES cells were treated with mitomycin C and transplanted into adult immunosuppressed rodents and into a primate (allograft) with out immunosuppression. A small percentage of DA neurons survived in both rodent and primate hosts for the entire term of the study (4 and 7 months, respectively). Other neuronal and glial populations derived from Cyno-1 ES cells showed, in vivo, phenotypic characteristics and growth and migration patterns similar to fetal primate transplants, and a majority of cells (>80%) expressed the forebrain transcription factor brain factor 1. No teratoma formation was observed. In this study, we demonstrate long-term survival of DA neurons obtained in vitro from primate ES cells. Optimization of differentiation, cell selection, and cell transfer is required for functional studies of ES-derived DA neurons for future therapeutic applications.
|Grafting of ARPE-19 and Schwann cells to the subretinal space in RCS rats. |
Wang, S; Lu, B; Wood, P; Lund, RD
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 46 2552-60 2005
To study the distribution of the human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE) cell line ARPE-19 and human Schwann (hSC) cells grafted to the subretinal space of the Royal College of Surgeon (RCS) rat and the relation of graft cell distribution to photoreceptor rescue.Cell suspensions of both donor types were injected into the subretinal space of 3-week-old dystrophic RCS rats through a transscleral approach, human fibroblast and medium were used as control grafts. All animals were maintained on oral cyclosporine. At 1, 2, 4, 6, 15, 28, and 36 weeks after grafting, animals were killed. Human cell-specific markers were used to localize donor cells.Both donor cell types, as revealed by antibodies survived for a substantial time. Their distribution was very different: hRPE cells formed a large clump early on and, with time, spread along the host RPE in a layer one to two cells deep, whereas hSCs formed many smaller clumps, mainly in the subretinal space. Both cells rescued photoreceptors beyond the area of donor cell distribution. The number of surviving cells declined with time.Both hRPE and hSC grafts can survive and rescue photoreceptors for a substantial time after grafting. The number of both donor cell types declined with time, which could be an immune-related problem and/or due to other factors intrinsic to the host RCS retina. The fact that rescue occurred beyond the area of donor cell distribution suggests that diffusible factors are involved, raising the possibility that the two cell types function in a similar manner to rescue photoreceptors.
|A tumorigenic subpopulation with stem cell properties in melanomas. |
Fang, D; Nguyen, TK; Leishear, K; Finko, R; Kulp, AN; Hotz, S; Van Belle, PA; Xu, X; Elder, DE; Herlyn, M
Cancer research 65 9328-37 2005
Recent studies suggest that cancer can arise from a cancer stem cell (CSC), a tumor-initiating cell that has properties similar to those of stem cells. CSCs have been identified in several malignancies, including those of blood, brain, and breast. Here, we test whether stem cell-like populations exist in human melanomas. In approximately 20% of the metastatic melanomas cultured in growth medium suitable for human embryonic stem cells, we found a subpopulation of cells propagating as nonadherent spheres, whereas in standard medium, adherent monolayer cultures were established. Individual cells from melanoma spheres (melanoma spheroid cells) could differentiate under appropriate conditions into multiple cell lineages, such as melanocytic, adipocytic, osteocytic, and chondrocytic lineages, which recapitulates the plasticity of neural crest stem cells. Multipotent melanoma spheroid cells persisted after serial cloning in vitro and transplantation in vivo, indicating their ability to self-renew. Furthermore, they were more tumorigenic than adherent cells when grafted to mice. We identified similar multipotent spheroid cells in melanoma cell lines and found that the stem cell population was enriched in a CD20+ fraction of melanoma cells. Based on these findings, we propose that melanomas can contain a subpopulation of stem cells that contribute to heterogeneity and tumorigenesis. Targeting this population may lead to effective treatments for melanomas.
|Human bone marrow stromal cell treatment improves neurological functional recovery in EAE mice. |
Jing Zhang, Yi Li, Jieli Chen, Yisheng Cui, Mei Lu, Stanton B Elias, James B Mitchell, Lora Hammill, Padmavathy Vanguri, Michael Chopp
Experimental neurology 195 16-26 2005
We investigated the treatment of remitting-relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice with human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs). hBMSCs were injected intravenously into EAE mice upon onset of paresis. Neurological functional tests were scored daily by grading clinical signs (score 0-5). Immunohistochemistry was performed to measure the transplanted hBMSCs, cell proliferation (bromodeoxyuridine, BrdU), oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (NG2), oligodendrocytes (RIP), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The maximum clinical score and the average clinical scores were significantly decreased in the hBMSC-transplanted mice compared to the phosphate-buffered-saline-treated EAE controls, indicating a significant improvement in function. Demyelination significantly decreased, and BrdU(+) and BDNF(+) cells significantly increased in the hBMSC-treated mice compared to controls. Some BrdU(+) cells were colocalized with NG2(+) and RIP(+) immunostaining. hBMSCs also significantly reduced the numbers of vessels containing inflammatory cell infiltration. These data indicate that hBMSC treatment improved functional recovery after EAE in mice, possibly, via reducing inflammatory infiltrates and demyelination areas, stimulating oligodendrogenesis, and by elevating BDNF expression.
|Fetal and adult human oligodendrocyte progenitor cell isolates myelinate the congenitally dysmyelinated brain |
Windrem, Martha S, et al
Nat Med, 10:93-7 (2004) 2004
|Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood cells in the repair of CNS diseases. |
Newman, Mary B, et al.
Expert opinion on biological therapy, 4: 121-30 (2004) 2004
Cell transplantation therapies have been used to treat certain neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. However, ethical concerns over the use of fetal tissues, and the inherent complexities of standardising the procurement, processing and transplantation methods of this tissue, have prompted the search for a source of cells that have less ethical stigmatisations, are readily available and can be easily standardised. Several sources of human cells that meet these principles have been under investigation. Cells from human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) are one source that is consistent with these principles; therefore, they have become of great interest in the field of cellular repair/replacement for the treatment of CNS diseases and injury. This review will focus on the advantages of HUCB cells as a source for cellular transplantation therapies, recent studies that have examined the potential of these cells in vitro to be directed towards neural phenotypes, and in vivo studies that have investigated the functional recovery of animals in a number of models of CNS injury and disease following administration of HUCB cells.
|Improving the survival of human CNS precursor-derived neurons after transplantation. |
Le Belle, J E, et al.
J. Neurosci. Res., 76: 174-83 (2004) 2004
|Transplanted hNT cells ("LBS neurons") in a rat model of huntington's disease: good survival, incomplete differentiation, and limited functional recovery. |
Fricker-Gates, Rosemary A, et al.
Cell transplantation, 13: 123-36 (2004) 2004
|Transplantation of cultured neural cells from human fetuses into the brain of rats exposed to acute hypoxia. |
Aleksandrova, M A, et al.
Bull. Exp. Biol. Med., 137: 262-5 (2004) 2004
Neural stem cells of human brain were cultured for a long time and successfully transplanted into the brain of rats exposed to acute hypoxia. Stem and committed cells, neuroblasts, and astrocytes were revealed in transplants by immunohistochemical assay. The transplants and brain tissue were not separated with a glial barrier. Human neuroblasts widely migrated into regions of neuronal degeneration in the host brain.
|Cell fusion-independent differentiation of neural stem cells to the endothelial lineage. |
Wurmser, Andrew E, et al.
Nature, 430: 350-6 (2004) 2004
|Infusion of human umbilical cord blood cells in a rat model of stroke dose-dependently rescues behavioral deficits and reduces infarct volume. |
Vendrame, Martina, et al.
Stroke, 35: 2390-5 (2004) 2004
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intravenously delivered human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBC) have been previously shown to improve functional recovery of stroked rats. To extend these findings, we examined the behavioral recovery and stroke infarct volume in the presence of increasing doses of HUCBC after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). METHODS: Rats were subjected to MCAO and allowed to recover for 24 hours before intravenous infusion of 10(4) up to 3 to 5x10(7) HUCBC. Behavioral tests (spontaneous activity, step test, elevated body swing test) were performed 1 week before MCAO and at 2 and 4 weeks after HUCBC infusion. On completion of behavioral testing, animals were euthanized and brain infarct volumes quantified. HUCBC were identified by immunofluorescence for human nuclei and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for human glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. RESULTS: At 4 weeks after infusion, there was a significant recovery in behavioral performance when 10(6) or more HUCBC were delivered (p=0.001 to p=0.05). Infarct volume measurements revealed an inverse relationship between HUCBC dose and damage volume, which reached significance at the higher HUCBC doses (10(7) cells, p<0.01; 3 to 5x10(7) cells, p<0.05). Moreover, HUCBC were localized by immunohistochemistry and PCR analysis only in the injured brain hemisphere and spleen. CONCLUSIONS: These results extend previous observations of HUCBC infusion in the MCAO rat stroke model by demonstrating a dose relationship between HUCBC, behavioral improvement, and neuronal sparing.
|The generation of dopaminergic neurons by human neural stem cells is enhanced by Bcl-XL, both in vitro and in vivo. |
Liste, I; García-García, E; Martínez-Serrano, A
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 24 10786-95 2004
Progress in stem cell biology research is enhancing our ability to generate specific neuron types for basic and applied studies and to design new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. In the case of Parkinson's disease (PD), alternative human dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons other than primary fetal tissue do not yet exist. One possible source could be human neural stem cells (hNSCs), although the yield in DAergic neurons and their survival are very limited. [see figure]. In this study, we found that Bcl-X(L) enhances (one-to-two orders of magnitude) the capacity for spontaneous dopaminergic differentiation of hNSCs, which then exceeds that of cultured human ventral mesencephalic tissue. Bcl-X(L) also enhanced total neuron generation by hNSCs, but to a lower extent. Neuronal phenotypes other than DA were not affected by Bcl-X(L), indicating an exquisitely specific effect on DAergic neurons. In vivo, grafts of Bcl-X(L)-overexpressing hNSCs do generate surviving human TH+ neurons in the adult rat 6-OH-dopamine lesioned striatum, something never seen when naive hNSCs were transplanted. Most of the data obtained here in terms of the effects of Bcl-X(L) are consistent with an enhanced survival type of mechanism and not supportive of induction, specification, or proliferation of DAergic precursors. From this in vitro and in vivo evidence, we conclude that enhancing Bcl-X(L) expression is important to obtain human DAergic neurons from hNSCs. These findings may facilitate the development of drug-screening and cell-replacement activities to discover new therapeutic strategies for PD.
|Human adipose-derived adult stem cells produce osteoid in vivo. |
Kevin C Hicok, Tracey V Du Laney, Yang Sheng Zhou, Yuan-Di C Halvorsen, Daron C Hitt, Lyndon F Cooper, Jeffrey M Gimble
Tissue engineering 10 371-80 2004
Adult subcutaneous fat tissue is an abundant source of multipotent cells. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that, in vitro, adipose-derived adult stem (ADAS) cells express bone marker proteins including alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, osteopontin, and osteocalcin and produce a mineralized matrix as shown by alizarin red staining. In the current study, the ADAS cell ability to form osteoid in vivo was determined. ADAS cells were isolated from liposuction waste of three individual donors and expanded in vitro before implantation. Equal numbers of cells (3 x 10(6)) were loaded onto either hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA-TCP) cubes or the collagen/HA-TCP composite matrix, Collagraft, and then implanted subcutaneously into SCID mice. After 6 weeks, implants were removed, fixed, and demineralized and sectioned for hematoxylin and eosin staining. Osteoid formation was observed in 80% of HA-TCP implants loaded with ADAS cells. Only 20% of Collagraft implants were positive for the presence of osteoid matrix. Whereas 100% of HA-TCP implants loaded with hFOB 1.19 cells formed osteoid, Collagraft loaded with hFOB 1.19 cells displayed a high degree of adipose tissue within the matrix. Immunostaining of serial sections for human nuclear antigen demonstrated that the osteoid contained human cells. Osteoid formation was not observed in control HA-TCP or Collagraft matrices implanted without cells. In summary, the data demonstrate the ability of ADAS cells to form osteoid matrix in vivo. Because of their abundance and accessibility, ADAS cells may prove to be a novel cell therapeutic for bone repair and regeneration.
|Expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 and receptor in ischemic rats treated with human marrow stromal cells. |
Jing Zhang, Yi Li, Jieli Chen, Maozhou Yang, Mark Katakowski, Mei Lu, Michael Chopp
Brain research 1030 19-27 2004
Human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) enhance neurological recovery after stroke in rodents, possibly via induction of growth factors. We therefore elected to test the effects of hMSC treatment on insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which plays an important role in growth, development, neuroprotection and repair in the adult. Rats (n=57) were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and injected intravenously with 3 x 10(6) hMSCs or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 1 day after MCAo. Functional outcome was measured after MCAo using a modified Neurological Severity Score (mNSS). Gene expression of IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) in the ischemic brain tissue were measured at 2 and 7 days after MCAo using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry was performed to measure the expression of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), doublecortin (DCX), IGF-1 and IGF-1R at 7, 14 and 30 days after MCAo. Treatment of MCAo with hMSCs significantly improved functional recovery from 14 to 30 days. MAB1281-labeled hMSCs entered the ischemic brain and increased time-dependently. hMSC treatment significantly increased IGF-1 mRNA and BrdU(+), DCX(+), IGF-1(+) and IGF-1R(+) cells compared to PBS-treated rats (p0.05). The percentage of BrdU(+) or DCX(+) cells colocalized with IGF-1 increased in the hMSC-treated rats compared to the PBS-treated rats (p0.05). IGF-1 and IGF-1R may contribute to improved functional recovery and increased neurogenesis after treatment of stroke with hMSCs.
|Identification and isolation of multipotential neural progenitor cells from the subcortical white matter of the adult human brain |
Nunes, Marta C, et al
Nat Med, 9:439-47 (2003) 2003
|Treatment of traumatic brain injury in adult rats with intravenous administration of human bone marrow stromal cells. |
Mahmood, Asim, et al.
Neurosurgery, 53: 697-702; discussion 702-3 (2003) 2003
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) administered intravenously on functional outcome after traumatic brain injury in adult rats. METHODS: hMSCs were harvested from three human donors. A controlled cortical impact was delivered to 27 adult male rats to induce traumatic brain injury, and 24 hours after injury, hMSCs were injected into the tail veins of the rats (n = 18). These rats were divided into two groups: Group 1 was administered 1 x 10(6) hMSCs, and Group 2 was administered 2 x 10(6) hMSCs. Group 3 (control) rats received saline intravenously. Neurological function was evaluated according to the rotarod test and modified neurological severity score. All rats were killed 1 month after injury, and immunohistochemical staining was performed on the brain sections to identify donor hMSCs. To study the phenotypic differentiation of hMSCs, coronal brain sections were stained for neuronal (Tuj1) and astrocytic (glial fibrillary acidic protein) markers. RESULTS: Treatment with 2 x 10(6) hMSCs significantly improved the rats' functional outcomes (P < 0.05). The transplanted cells successfully migrated into injured brain and were preferentially localized around the injury site. Some of the donor cells also expressed the neuronal and astrocytic markers. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that hMSCs may be a potential therapy for patients who have sustained traumatic brain injuries.
|Long-term hibernation of human fetal striatal tissue does not adversely affect its differentiation in vitro or graft survival: implications for clinical trials in Huntington's disease. |
Hurelbrink, Carrie B, et al.
Cell transplantation, 12: 687-95 (2003) 2003
|Intravenous administration of human bone marrow stromal cells induces angiogenesis in the ischemic boundary zone after stroke in rats. |
Chen, J; Zhang, ZG; Li, Y; Wang, L; Xu, YX; Gautam, SC; Lu, M; Zhu, Z; Chopp, M
Circulation research 92 692-9 2003
We tested the hypothesis that intravenous infusion of human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) promotes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion, VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression and angiogenesis in the ischemic boundary zone (IBZ) after stroke. hMSCs (1x10(6)) were intravenously injected into rats 24 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), immunohistochemistry and ELISA were performed to assay angiogenesis and levels of human and rat VEGF in the host brain, respectively. In addition, capillary-like tube formation was measured using mouse brain-derived endothelial cells (MBDECs). Morphological and three dimensional image analyses revealed significant (Pless than 0.05) increases in numbers of enlarged and thin walled blood vessels and numbers of newly formed capillaries at the boundary of the ischemic lesion in rats (n=12) treated with hMSCs compared with numbers in rats (n=12) treated with PBS. ELISA measurements showed that treatment with hMSCs significantly (Pless than 0.05) raised endogenous rat VEGF levels in the IBZ from 10.5+/-1.7 ng/mL in the control group to 17.5+/-1.6 ng/mL in the hMSC-treated group. In addition, treatment with hMSCs increased endogenous VEGFR2 immunoreactivity. In vitro, when MBDECs were incubated with the supernatant obtained from cultured hMSCs, capillary-like tube formation was significantly (Pless than 0.01) induced. However, hMSC-induced capillary-like tube formation was significantly (Pless than 0.01) inhibited when the endothelial cells were incubated with the supernatant from hMSCs in the presence of a neutralizing anti-VEGFR2. These data suggest that treatment of stroke with hMSCs enhances angiogenesis in the host brain and hMSC-enhanced angiogenesis is mediated by increases in levels of endogenous rat VEGF and VEGFR2.
|Human umbilical cord blood cells express neural antigens after transplantation into the developing rat brain. |
Zigova, Tanja, et al.
Cell transplantation, 11: 265-74 (2002) 2002
|Transplanted sheets of human retina and retinal pigment epithelium develop normally in nude rats. |
Robert B Aramant, Magdalene J Seiler
Experimental eye research 75 115-25 2002
This study investigated whether transplanted sheets of human fetal retina together with its retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) could develop and maintain their cytoarchitecture after long survival times. Transplant recipients were nine albino athymic nu/nu rats with a normal retina. The donor tissue was dissected from fetuses of 12-17 weeks gestational age. Transplants were analyzed at 5-12 months after surgery by light and electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry with various antibodies specific for rhodopsin, S-antigen, transducin, neurofilament and synaptophysin. In 4 of 11 transplants, the RPE stayed as a monolayer sheet and supported the development of the retinal sheet with a normal lamination, including photoreceptor inner and outer segments. Cones and rods in the organized transplants were labeled with different photoreceptor markers. Inner and outer plexiform layers, containing cone pedicles and rods spherules, were immunoreactive for synaptophysin. As the recipients had a normal retina, transplant/host integration was not expected. However, at the transplant/host interface, there were sometimes areas without glial barriers, and neurofilament-containing processes could be observed crossing between transplant and host. In other, more disorganized transplants, the RPE cells were partially dispersed or clumped together in clusters. Such transplants developed photoreceptors in rosettes, often with inner and outer segments.In conclusion, sheets of human fetal retina transplanted together with its RPE to the subretinal space of nude rats can develop and maintain perfectly laminated transplants after long survival times, indicating the potential of applying cotransplantation to human patients with retinal diseases.
|Human marrow stromal cell therapy for stroke in rat: neurotrophins and functional recovery |
Li, Y, et al.
Neurology, 59:514-523 (2002) 2002
|Transplantation of cryopreserved adult human Schwann cells enhances axonal conduction in demyelinated spinal cord. |
Kohama, I, et al.
J. Neurosci., 21: 944-50 (2001) 2001
Schwann cells derived from human sural nerve may provide a valuable source of tissue for a cell-based therapy in multiple sclerosis. However, it is essential to show that transplanted human Schwann cells can remyelinate axons in adult CNS and improve axonal conduction. Sections of sural nerve were removed from amputated legs of patients with vascular disease or diabetes, and Schwann cells were isolated and cryopreserved. Suspensions of reconstituted cells were transplanted into the X-irradiation/ethidium bromide lesioned dorsal columns of immunosuppressed Wistar rat. After 3-5 weeks of extensive remyelination, a typical Schwann cell pattern was observed in the lesion zone. Many cells in the lesion were immunopositive for an anti-human nuclei monoclonal antibody. The dorsal columns were removed and maintained in an in vitro recording chamber; the conduction properties were studied using field potential and intra-axonal recording techniques. The transplanted dorsal columns displayed improved conduction velocity and frequency-response properties, and action potentials conducted over a greater distance into the lesion, suggesting that conduction block was overcome. These data support the conclusion that transplantation of human Schwann cells results in functional remyelination of a dorsal column lesion.
|Intravenous administration of human umbilical cord blood reduces behavioral deficits after stroke in rats. |
Chen, J, et al.
Stroke, 32: 2682-8 (2001) 2001
|In vitro differentiation of transplantable neural precursors from human embryonic stem cells. |
S C Zhang, M Wernig, I D Duncan, O Brüstle, J A Thomson
Nature biotechnology 19 1129-33 2001
The remarkable developmental potential and replicative capacity of human embryonic stem (ES) cells promise an almost unlimited supply of specific cell types for transplantation therapies. Here we describe the in vitro differentiation, enrichment, and transplantation of neural precursor cells from human ES cells. Upon aggregation to embryoid bodies, differentiating ES cells formed large numbers of neural tube-like structures in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2). Neural precursors within these formations were isolated by selective enzymatic digestion and further purified on the basis of differential adhesion. Following withdrawal of FGF-2, they differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. After transplantation into the neonatal mouse brain, human ES cell-derived neural precursors were incorporated into a variety of brain regions, where they differentiated into both neurons and astrocytes. No teratoma formation was observed in the transplant recipients. These results depict human ES cells as a source of transplantable neural precursors for possible nervous system repair.
|Isolation and cloning of multipotential stem cells from the embryonic human CNS and establishment of transplantable human neural stem cell lines by epigenetic stimulation |
Vescovi, A L, et al
Exp Neurol, 156:71-83 (1999) 1999
|Reprogramming Cell Fate and Function Novel Strategies for iPSC Generation, Characterization, and Differentiation|
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