Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Av, Ma, Rp||IH(P), WB, IHC||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Neat rabbit antisera.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||50 µL|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|An NT4/TrkB-dependent increase in innervation links early-life allergen exposure to persistent airway hyperreactivity.|
Aven, L; Paez-Cortez, J; Achey, R; Krishnan, R; Ram-Mohan, S; Cruikshank, WW; Fine, A; Ai, X
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 28 897-907 2014
Children who are exposed to environmental respiratory insults often develop asthma that persists into adulthood. In this study, we used a neonatal mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation to understand the long-term effects of early childhood insults on airway structure and function. We showed that OVA sensitization and challenge in early life led to a 2-fold increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) innervation (Pless than 0.05) and persistent airway hyperreactivity (AHR). In contrast, OVA exposure in adult life elicited short-term AHR without affecting innervation levels. We found that postnatal ASM innervation required neurotrophin (NT)-4 signaling through the TrkB receptor and that early-life OVA exposure significantly elevated NT4 levels and TrkB signaling by 5- and 2-fold, respectively, to increase innervation. Notably, blockade of NT4/TrkB signaling in OVA-exposed pups prevented both acute and persistent AHR without affecting baseline airway function or inflammation. Furthermore, biophysical assays using lung slices and isolated cells demonstrated that NT4 was necessary for hyperreactivity of ASM induced by early-life OVA exposure. Together, our findings show that the NT4/TrkB-dependent increase in innervation plays a critical role in the alteration of the ASM phenotype during postnatal growth, thereby linking early-life allergen exposure to persistent airway dysfunction.
|Antibodies against low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 induce myasthenia gravis.|
Shen, C; Lu, Y; Zhang, B; Figueiredo, D; Bean, J; Jung, J; Wu, H; Barik, A; Yin, DM; Xiong, WC; Mei, L
The Journal of clinical investigation 123 5190-202 2013
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the most common disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). MG is frequently caused by autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and a kinase critical for NMJ formation, MuSK; however, a proportion of MG patients are double-negative for anti-AChR and anti-MuSK antibodies. Recent studies in these subjects have identified autoantibodies against low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4), an agrin receptor also critical for NMJ formation. LRP4 autoantibodies have not previously been implicated in MG pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate that mice immunized with the extracellular domain of LRP4 generated anti-LRP4 antibodies and exhibited MG-associated symptoms, including muscle weakness, reduced compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), and compromised neuromuscular transmission. Additionally, fragmented and distorted NMJs were evident at both the light microscopic and electron microscopic levels. We found that anti-LRP4 sera decreased cell surface LRP4 levels, inhibited agrin-induced MuSK activation and AChR clustering, and activated complements, revealing potential pathophysiological mechanisms. To further confirm the pathogenicity of LRP4 antibodies, we transferred IgGs purified from LRP4-immunized rabbits into naive mice and found that they exhibited MG-like symptoms, including reduced CMAP and impaired neuromuscular transmission. Together, these data demonstrate that LRP4 autoantibodies induce MG and that LRP4 contributes to NMJ maintenance in adulthood.
|Rescue of peripheral and CNS axon defects in mice lacking NMNAT2.|
Gilley, J; Adalbert, R; Yu, G; Coleman, MP
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 13410-24 2013
NMNAT2 is an NAD(+)-synthesizing enzyme with an essential axon maintenance role in primary culture neurons. We have generated an Nmnat2 gene trap mouse to examine the role of NMNAT2 in vivo. Homozygotes die perinatally with a severe peripheral nerve/axon defect and truncated axons in the optic nerve and other CNS regions. The cause appears to be limited axon extension, rather than dying-back degeneration of existing axons, which was previously proposed for the NMNAT2-deficient Blad mutant mouse. Neurite outgrowth in both PNS and CNS neuronal cultures consistently stalls at 1-2 mm, similar to the length of truncated axons in the embryos. Crucially, this suggests an essential role for NMNAT2 during axon growth. In addition, we show that the Wallerian degeneration slow protein (Wld(S)), a more stable, aberrant NMNAT that can substitute the axon maintenance function of NMNAT2 in primary cultures, can also correct developmental defects associated with NMNAT2 deficiency. This is dose-dependent, with extension of life span to at least 3 months by homozygous levels of Wld(S) the most obvious manifestation. Finally, we propose that endogenous mechanisms also compensate for otherwise limiting levels of NMNAT2. This could explain our finding that conditional silencing of a single Nmnat2 allele triggers substantial degeneration of established neurites, whereas similar, or greater, reduction of NMNAT2 in constitutively depleted neurons is compatible with normal axon growth and survival. A requirement for NMNAT2 for both axon growth and maintenance suggests that reduced levels could impair axon regeneration as well as axon survival in aging and disease.
|β-Catenin gain of function in muscles impairs neuromuscular junction formation.|
Wu, H; Lu, Y; Barik, A; Joseph, A; Taketo, MM; Xiong, WC; Mei, L
Development (Cambridge, England) 139 2392-404 2012
Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation requires proper interaction between motoneurons and muscle cells. β-Catenin is required in muscle cells for NMJ formation. To understand underlying mechanisms, we investigated the effect of β-catenin gain of function (GOF) on NMJ development. In HSA-β-cat(flox(ex3)/+) mice, which express stable β-catenin specifically in muscles, motor nerve terminals became extensively defasciculated and arborized. Ectopic muscles were observed in the diaphragm and were innervated by ectopic phrenic nerve branches. Moreover, extensive outgrowth and branching of spinal axons were evident in the GOF mice. These results indicate that increased β-catenin in muscles alters presynaptic differentiation. Postsynaptically, AChR clusters in HSA-β-cat(flox(ex3)/+) diaphragms were distributed in a wider region, suggesting that muscle β-catenin GOF disrupted the signal that restricts AChR clustering to the middle region of muscle fibers. Expression of stable β-catenin in motoneurons, however, had no effect on NMJ formation. These observations provide additional genetic evidence that pre- and postsynaptic development of the NMJ requires an intricate balance of β-catenin activity in muscles.
|Astrocyte-secreted factors modulate the developmental distribution of inhibitory synapses in nucleus laminaris of the avian auditory brainstem.|
Matthew J Korn,Scott J Koppel,Lan H Li,Divya Mehta,Sonia B Mehta,Armin H Seidl,Karina S Cramer
The Journal of comparative neurology 520 2012
Nucleus laminaris (NL) neurons in the avian auditory brainstem are coincidence detectors necessary for the computation of interaural time differences used in sound localization. In addition to their excitatory inputs from nucleus magnocellularis, NL neurons receive inhibitory inputs from the superior olivary nucleus (SON) that greatly improve coincidence detection in mature animals. The mechanisms that establish mature distributions of inhibitory inputs to NL are not known. We used the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) as a marker for inhibitory presynaptic terminals to study the development of inhibitory inputs to NL between embryonic day 9 (E9) and E17. VGAT immunofluorescent puncta were first seen sparsely in NL at E9. The density of VGAT puncta increased with development, first within the ventral NL neuropil region and subsequently throughout both the ventral and dorsal dendritic neuropil, with significantly fewer terminals in the cell body region. A large increase in density occurred between E13–15 and E16–17, at a developmental stage when astrocytes that express glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) become mature. We cultured E13 brainstem slices together with astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) obtained from E16 brainstems and found that ACM, but not control medium, increased the density of VGAT puncta. This increase was similar to that observed during normal development. Astrocyte-secreted factors interact with the terminal ends of SON axons to increase the number of GABAergic terminals. These data suggest that factors secreted from GFAP-positive astrocytes promote maturation of inhibitory pathways in the auditory brainstem.
|VEGF-Induced Growth Cone Enhancement Is Diminished by Inhibiting Tyrosine-Residue 1214 of VEGFR-2.|
Daniel Foehring,Beate Brand-Saberi,Carsten Theiss
Cells, tissues, organs 196 2012
Axonal outgrowth is of paramount significance for establishing the intricate neuronal network both during embryogenesis and nerve regeneration. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is known for its essential role in vascular sprouting and its involvement in cancer, has recently been found to exert a trophic activity on neurons leading to an increased axonal outgrowth. Although two receptors, VEGFR-2 and neuropilin-1, were identified on neurons, the signaling pathways associated with them are not well understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of VEGF on the growth cone morphology and motility of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Moreover, we aimed for a deeper understanding of VEGFR-2 on growth cones that potentially mediates the stimulating and attractive effects. We cultivated chicken DRG in medium containing mouse VEGF and analyzed growth cone size. The data presented here show a positive effect of VEGF on growth cone size. Furthermore, we interrupted the activity of VEGFR-2 by either blocking the tyrosine residue 1214 (tyr1214) or by inhibiting the receptor phosphorylation with axitinib, a novel small molecule, which has recently entered phase III trials for cancer treatment. Disruption of the VEGFR-2 leads to a significantly diminished growth cone size. Based on these findings, we propose a positive effect of VEGF on peripheral nervous system growth cone size and show for the first time quantitative data to underline this hypothesis. Additionally, we propose that VEGFR-2 and especially the tyr1214-dependent pathway of VEGFR-2 are of importance in VEGF signaling in the growth cone of DRG neurons.
|Distinct roles of muscle and motoneuron LRP4 in neuromuscular junction formation.|
Wu, H; Lu, Y; Shen, C; Patel, N; Gan, L; Xiong, WC; Mei, L
Neuron 75 94-107 2012
Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation requires precise interaction between motoneurons and muscle fibers. LRP4 is a receptor of agrin that is thought to act in cis to stimulate MuSK in muscle fibers for postsynaptic differentiation. Here we dissected the roles of LRP4 in muscle fibers and motoneurons in NMJ formation by cell-specific mutation. Studies of muscle-specific mutants suggest that LRP4 is involved in deciding where to form AChR clusters in muscle fibers, postsynaptic differentiation, and axon terminal development. LRP4 in HEK293 cells increased synapsin or SV2 puncta in contacting axons of cocultured neurons, suggesting a synaptogenic function. Analysis of LRP4 muscle and motoneuron double mutants and mechanistic studies suggest that NMJ formation may also be regulated by LRP4 in motoneurons, which could serve as agrin's receptor in trans to induce AChR clusters. These observations uncovered distinct roles of LRP4 in motoneurons and muscles in NMJ development.
|Olig1 function is required for remyelination potential of transplanted neural progenitor cells in a model of viral-induced demyelination.|
Whitman, LM; Blanc, CA; Schaumburg, CS; Rowitch, DH; Lane, TE
Experimental neurology 235 380-7 2012
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) resulting in cumulative neurologic deficits associated with progressive myelin loss. We have previously shown that transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) into mice persistently infected with the JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) results in enhanced differentiation into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) that is associated with remyelination and axonal sparing. The current study examines the contributions of the transcription factor Olig1 on NPC differentiation and remyelination. Under defined conditions, NPCs preferentially differentiate into oligodendroglia whereas NPCs isolated from Olig1-deficient (Olig1-/-) mice exhibit enhanced differentiation into astrocytes. Transplantation of Olig1-/- and Olig1+/+ NPCs into JHMV-infected mice resulted in similar cell survival, proliferation, and selective migration to areas of demyelination. However, only recipients of wild type NPCs exhibited extensive remyelination compared to mice receiving Olig1-/- NPCs. In vivo characterization of NPCs revealed that Olig1+/+ NPCs preferentially differentiated into NG2-positive OPCs and formed processes expressing myelin basic protein that encircled axons. In contrast, the majority of transplanted Olig1-/- NPCs differentiated into GFAP-positive cells consistent with the astrocyte lineage. These results indicate that exogenous NPCs contribute to improved clinical and histological outcome and this is associated with remyelination by this donor population. Further, these findings reveal that Olig1function is required for the remyelination potential of NPCs after transplant, through specification and/or maintenance of oligodendroglial identity.
|A method to isolate and culture expand human dental pulp stem cells.|
Stan Gronthos,Agnieszka Arthur,P Mark Bartold,Songtao Shi
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 698 2011
Dentinal repair in teeth occurs through the activity of specialized cells known as odontoblasts that are thought to be maintained by a precursor population associated with the perivascular cells within dental pulp tissue. We have previously isolated candidate dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) from adult human third molars, with the ability to generate clonogenic cell clusters (CFU-F: colony-forming units-fibroblastic), a high proliferation rate, and multi-potential differentiation in vitro. When cultured DPSC are transplanted into immunocompromised mice, they generated a dentin-like structure lined with human odontoblast-like cells that surrounded a pulp-like interstitial tissue, composed of collagen and a vascular network. The present protocol describes a methodology to generate highly purified preparations of human DPSC. This process involves the enzymatic digestion of fresh samples of human dental pulp tissue followed by the isolation of DPSC using magnetic bead cell separation, based on their expression of mesenchymal stem cell associated markers.
|Spreading of prions from the immune to the peripheral nervous system: a potential implication of dendritic cells.|
Dorban, Gauthier, et al.
Histochem. Cell Biol., 133: 493-504 (2010) 2010
The implication of dendritic cells (DCs) in the peripheral spreading of prions has increased in the last few years. It has been recently described that DCs can transmit prions to primary neurons from the central nervous system. In order to improve the understanding of the earliest steps of prion peripheral neuroinvasion, we studied, using an in vitro model, the effect of exposing primary peripheral neurons to scrapie-infected lymphoid cells. Thanks to this system, there is evidence that bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs) are in connection with neurites of peripheral neurons via cytoplasmic extensions. BMDCs are competent to internalize prions independently from the expression of cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) and have the capacity to transmit detergent-insoluble, relatively proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrP(Sc)) to peripheral neurons after 96 h of coculture. Furthermore, we confirmed the special status of the peripheral nervous system in front of prion diseases. Contrary to central neurons, PrP(Sc) infection does not disturb survival and neurite outgrowth. Our model demonstrates that PrP(Sc)-loaded dendritic cells and peripheral nerve fibers that are included in neuroimmune interfaces can initiate and spread prion neuroinvasion.
|RABBIT ANTI-NEUROFILAMENT H|