Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-NeuroD 1 Antibody|
|Presentation||Liquid in PBS with 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at 2-8°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 6 months after date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
References | 11 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Cortical and Clonal Contribution of Tbr2 Expressing Progenitors in the Developing Mouse Brain. |
Vasistha, NA; García-Moreno, F; Arora, S; Cheung, AF; Arnold, SJ; Robertson, EJ; Molnár, Z
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 25 3290-302 2015
The individual contribution of different progenitor subtypes towards the mature rodent cerebral cortex is not fully understood. Intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs) are key to understanding the regulation of neuronal number during cortical development and evolution, yet their exact contribution is much debated. Intermediate progenitors in the cortical subventricular zone are defined by expression of T-box brain-2 (Tbr2). In this study we demonstrate by using the Tbr2(Cre) mouse line and state-of-the-art cell lineage labeling techniques, that IPC derived cells contribute substantial proportions 67.5% of glutamatergic but not GABAergic or astrocytic cells to all cortical layers including the earliest generated subplate zone. We also describe the laminar dispersion of clonally derived cells from IPCs using a recently described clonal analysis tool (CLoNe) and show that pair-generated cells in different layers cluster closer (142.1 ± 76.8 μm) than unrelated cells (294.9 ± 105.4 μm). The clonal dispersion from individual Tbr2 positive intermediate progenitors contributes to increasing the cortical surface. Our study also describes extracortical contributions from Tbr2+ progenitors to the lateral olfactory tract and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus.
|β-2 Spectrin is involved in hepatocyte proliferation through the interaction of TGFβ/Smad and PI3K/AKT signalling. |
Zhijun Wang,Yuhu Song,Wei Tu,Xingxing He,Jusheng Lin,Fang Liu
Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 32 2012
Transforming growth factor (TGF) β signalling pathway plays a crucial role in liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy in mice. Evidence demonstrated that β-2 Spectrin is involved in TGFβ/Smad signalling pathway as a Smad3/4 adaptor protein.
|A transgenic, mesodermal specific, Dkk1 mouse model recapitulates a spectrum of human congenital limb reduction defects. |
Filemon Dela Cruz,Melissa Terry,Igor Matushansky
Differentiation; research in biological diversity 83 2012
Congenital limb reduction defects occurring in isolation of other developmental abnormalities continue to be an important medical problem in which little progress has been made. Herein we generated transgenic mice expressing Dkk1 in an appendicular mesodermal pattern. Prx1-Dkk1 mice recapitulate a full spectrum of human congenital limb reduction defects, without other developmental issues, and have normal life-spans. Importantly, a close examination of the inheritance pattern suggests that there is a significant degree of incomplete penetrance as progeny of phenotypically positive or phenotypically negative, but genotypically positive Prx1-Dkk1 mice, consistently give rise to both phenotypically positive mice and phenotypically normal-appearing mice. Thus, this heterogeneous phenotype is reproducible with each generation regardless of the phenotype of the parents. We further go on to identify that mesenchymal stem cells from Prx1-Dkk1 mice have limited proliferative ability, but normal differentiation potential, which may explain the mechanism for the limb reduction defects observed. We believe Prx1-Dkk1 mice may prove useful in the future to study the mechanisms underlying the development of congenital limb reduction defects.
|Wt1 ablation and Igf2 upregulation in mice result in Wilms tumors with elevated ERK1/2 phosphorylation. |
Hu, Q; Gao, F; Tian, W; Ruteshouser, EC; Wang, Y; Lazar, A; Stewart, J; Strong, LC; Behringer, RR; Huff, V
The Journal of clinical investigation 121 174-83 2011
Wilms tumor (WT) is a genetically heterogeneous childhood kidney tumor. Several genetic alterations have been identified in WT patients, including inactivating mutations in WT1 and loss of heterozygosity or loss of imprinting at 11p15, which results in biallelic expression of IGF2. However, the mechanisms by which one or a combination of genetic alterations results in tumorigenesis has remained challenging to determine, given the lack of a mouse model of WT. Here, we engineered mice to sustain mosaic, somatic ablation of Wt1 and constitutional Igf2 upregulation, mimicking a subset of human tumors. Mice with this combination of genetic alterations developed tumors at an early age. Mechanistically, Wt1 ablation blocked mesenchyme differentiation, and increased Igf2 expression upregulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Importantly, a subset of human tumors similarly displayed upregulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which suggests ERK signaling might contribute to WT development. Thus, we have generated a biologically relevant mouse model of WT and defined one combination of driver alterations for WT. This mouse model will provide a powerful tool to study the biology of WT initiation and progression and to investigate therapeutic strategies for cancers with IGF pathway dysregulation.
|Splicing of histone deacetylase 7 modulates smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointima formation through nuclear β-catenin translocation. |
Zhou, B; Margariti, A; Zeng, L; Habi, O; Xiao, Q; Martin, D; Wang, G; Hu, Y; Wang, X; Xu, Q
Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 31 2676-84 2011
Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation has an indispensable role in the pathogenesis of vascular disease, but the mechanism is not fully elucidated. The epigenetic enzyme histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) is involved in endothelial homeostasis and SMC differentiation and could have a role in SMC proliferation. In this study, we sought to examine the effect of 2 HDAC7 isoforms on SMC proliferation and neointima formation.We demonstrated that overexpression of unspliced HDAC7 (HDAC7u) could suppress SMC proliferation through downregulation of cyclin D1 and cell cycle arrest, whereas spliced HDAC7 (HDAC7s) could not. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of HDAC7 increased SMC proliferation and induced nuclear translocation of β-catenin. Additional experiments showed that only HDAC7u could bind to β-catenin and retain it in the cytoplasm. Reporter gene assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed a reduction of β-catenin activity in cells overexpressing HDAC7u but not HDAC7s. Deletion studies indicated that the C-terminal region of HDAC7u is responsible for the interaction with β-catenin. However, the addition of amino acids to the N terminus of HDAC7u disrupted the binding, further strengthening our hypothesis that HDAC7s does not interact with β-catenin. The growth factor platelet-derived growth factor-BB increased the splicing of HDAC7 while simultaneously decreasing the expression of HDAC7u. Importantly, in an animal model of femoral artery wire injury, we demonstrated that knockdown of HDAC7 by siRNA aggravates neointima formation in comparison with control siRNA.Our findings demonstrate that splicing of HDAC7 modulates SMC proliferation and neointima formation through β-catenin nuclear translocation, which provides a potential therapeutic target in vascular disease.
|Spatio-temporal dynamics, differentiation and viability of human neural stem cells after implantation into neonatal rat brain. |
Kallur T, Farr TD, Böhm-Sturm P, Kokaia Z, Hoehn M
The European journal of neuroscience 34 382-93. doi 2011
Neural stem cells (NSCs) have attracted major research interest due to their potential use in cell replacement therapy. In patients, human cells are the preferred choice, one source of human NSCs being the brain of fetuses. The aims of the present study were to explore the long-term differentiation, mobility and viability of NSCs derived from the human fetal striatum in response to intracerebral implantation. To investigate long-term spatio-temporal and functional dynamics of grafts in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging, these cells were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles prior to implantation. SPIO-labeling of human NSCs left the quantitative profile of the proliferation, cell composition and differentiation capacity of the cells in vitro unaltered. Also after transplantation, the phenotypes after long-term cell differentiation were not significantly different from naïve cells. Upon transplantation, we detected a hypointensity corresponding to the striatal graft location in all animals and persisting for at least 4 months. The hypointense signal appeared visually similar both in location and in volume over time. However, quantitative volumetric analysis showed that the detectable, apparent graft volume decreased significantly from 3 to 16 weeks. Finally, the human NSCs were not proliferating after implantation, indicating lack of tumor formation. These cells are thus a promising candidate for translationally relevant investigations for stem cell-based regenerative therapies.© 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
|Distinct ATOH1 and Neurog3 requirements define tuft cells as a new secretory cell type in the intestinal epithelium. |
Gerbe, F; van Es, JH; Makrini, L; Brulin, B; Mellitzer, G; Robine, S; Romagnolo, B; Shroyer, NF; Bourgaux, JF; Pignodel, C; Clevers, H; Jay, P
The Journal of cell biology 192 767-80 2011
The unique morphology of tuft cells was first revealed by electron microscopy analyses in several endoderm-derived epithelia. Here, we explore the relationship of these cells with the other cell types of the intestinal epithelium and describe the first marker signature allowing their unambiguous identification. We demonstrate that although mature tuft cells express DCLK1, a putative marker of quiescent stem cells, they are post-mitotic, short lived, derive from Lgr5-expressing epithelial stem cells, and are found in mouse and human tumors. We show that whereas the ATOH1/MATH1 transcription factor is essential for their differentiation, Neurog3, SOX9, GFI1, and SPDEF are dispensable, which distinguishes these cells from enteroendocrine, Paneth, and goblet cells, and raises from three to four the number of secretory cell types in the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, we show that tuft cells are the main source of endogenous intestinal opioids and are the only epithelial cells that express cyclooxygenase enzymes, suggesting important roles for these cells in the intestinal epithelium physiopathology.Full Text Article
|The Gata3 transcription factor is required for the survival of embryonic and adult sympathetic neurons. |
Tsarovina, K; Reiff, T; Stubbusch, J; Kurek, D; Grosveld, FG; Parlato, R; Schütz, G; Rohrer, H
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 10833-43 2010
The transcription factor Gata3 is essential for the development of sympathetic neurons and adrenal chromaffin cells. As Gata3 expression is maintained up to the adult stage, we addressed its function in differentiated sympathoadrenal cells at embryonic and adult stages by conditional Gata3 elimination. Inactivation of Gata3 in embryonic DBH-expressing neurons elicits a strong reduction in neuron numbers due to apoptotic cell death and reduced proliferation. No selective effect on noradrenergic gene expression (TH and DBH) was observed. Interestingly, Gata3 elimination in DBH-expressing neurons of adult animals also results in a virtually complete loss of sympathetic neurons. In the Gata3-deficient population, the expression of anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and NFkappaB) is diminished, whereas the expression of pro-apoptotic genes (Bik, Bok, and Bmf) was increased. The expression of noradrenergic genes (TH and DBH) is not affected. These results demonstrate that Gata3 is continuously required for maintaining survival but not differentiation in the sympathetic neuron lineage up to mature neurons of adult animals.
|Insulin but not glucagon gene is silenced in human pancreas-derived mesenchymal stem cells. |
Leah M Wilson,Stephen H K Wong,Ningpu Yu,Elizabeth Geras-Raaka,Bruce M Raaka,Marvin C Gershengorn
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 27 2009
We previously characterized human islet-derived precursor cells (hIPCs) as a specific type of mesenchymal stem cell capable of differentiating to insulin (INS)- and glucagon (GCG)-expressing cells. However, during proliferative expansion, INS transcript becomes undetectable and then cannot be induced, a phenomenon consistent with silencing of the INS gene. We explored this possibility by determining whether ectopic expression of transcription factors known to induce transcription of this gene in beta cells, pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor 1 (Pdx1), V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (Mafa), and neurogenic differentiation 1 (Neurod1), would activate INS gene expression in long-term hIPC cultures. Coexpression of all three transcription factors had little effect on INS mRNA levels but unexpectedly increased GCG mRNA at least 100,000-fold. In contrast to the endogenous promoter, an exogenous rat INS promoter was activated by expression of Pdx1 and Mafa in hIPCs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays using antibodies directed at posttranslationally modified histones show that regions of the INS and GCG genes have similar levels of activation-associated modifications but the INS gene has higher levels of repression-associated modifications. Furthermore, the INS gene was found to be less accessible to micrococcal nuclease digestion than the GCG gene. Lastly, ChIP assays show that exogenously expressed Pdx1 and Mafa bind at very low levels to the INS promoter and at 20- to 25-fold higher levels to the GCG promoter in hIPCs. We conclude that the INS gene in hIPCs is modified epigenetically (silenced) so that it is resistant to activation by transcription factors.Full Text Article
|Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha, a key factor for homeostasis, cell architecture, and barrier function of the adult intestinal epithelium. |
Anne-Laure Cattin,Johanne Le Beyec,Frederick Barreau,Susan Saint-Just,Anne Houllier,Frank J Gonzalez,Sylvie Robine,Martine Pinçon-Raymond,Philippe Cardot,Michel Lacasa,Agnès Ribeiro
Molecular and cellular biology 29 2009
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF-4alpha) is a transcription factor which is highly expressed in the intestinal epithelium from duodenum to colon and from crypt to villus. The homeostasis of this constantly renewing epithelium relies on an integrated control of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, as well as on the functional architecture of the epithelial cells. In order to determine the consequences of HNF-4alpha loss in the adult intestinal epithelium, we used a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-loxP system to inactivate the Hnf-4a gene. In the intestines of adult mice, loss of HNF-4alpha led to an increased proliferation in crypts and to an increased expression of several genes controlled by the Wnt/beta-catenin system. This control of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway by HNF-4alpha was confirmed in vitro. Cell lineage was affected, as indicated by an increased number of goblet cells and an impairment of enterocyte and enteroendocrine cell maturation. In the absence of HNF-4alpha, cell-cell junctions were destabilized and paracellular intestinal permeability increased. Our results showed that HNF-4alpha modulates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and controls intestinal epithelium homeostasis, cell function, and cell architecture. This study indicates that HNF-4alpha regulates the intestinal balance between proliferation and differentiation, and we hypothesize that it might act as a tumor suppressor.Full Text Article
|Loss of stem cell regenerative capacity within aged niches. |
Carlson, ME; Conboy, IM
Aging cell 6 371-82 2007
This work uncovers novel mechanisms of aging within stem cell niches that are evolutionarily conserved between mice and humans and affect both embryonic and adult stem cells. Specifically, we have examined the effects of aged muscle and systemic niches on key molecular identifiers of regenerative potential of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and post-natal muscle stem cells (satellite cells). Our results reveal that aged differentiated niches dominantly inhibit the expression of Oct4 in hESCs and Myf-5 in activated satellite cells, and reduce proliferation and myogenic differentiation of both embryonic and tissue-specific adult stem cells (ASCs). Therefore, despite their general neoorganogenesis potential, the ability of hESCs, and the more differentiated myogenic ASCs to contribute to tissue repair in the old will be greatly restricted due to the conserved inhibitory influence of aged differentiated niches. Significantly, this work establishes that hESC-derived factors enhance the regenerative potential of both young and, importantly, aged muscle stem cells in vitro and in vivo; thus, suggesting that the regenerative outcome of stem cell-based replacement therapies will be determined by a balance between negative influences of aged tissues on transplanted cells and positive effects of embryonic cells on the endogenous regenerative capacity. Comprehensively, this work points toward novel venues for in situ restoration of tissue repair in the old and identifies critical determinants of successful cell-replacement therapies for aged degenerating organs.Full Text Article
|Anti-NeuroD1 - Data Sheet|