|Lateral Connectivity in the Olfactory Bulb is Sparse and Segregated. |
Kim, DH; Phillips, ME; Chang, AY; Patel, HK; Nguyen, KT; Willhite, DC
Frontiers in neural circuits
Lateral connections in the olfactory bulb were previously thought to be organized for center-surround inhibition. However, recent anatomical and physiological studies showed sparse and distributed interactions of inhibitory granule cells (GCs) which tended to be organized in columnar clusters. Little is known about how these distributed clusters are interconnected. In this study, we use transsynaptic tracing viruses bearing green or red fluorescent proteins to further elucidate mitral- and tufted-to-GC connectivity. Separate sites in the glomerular layer were injected with each virus. Columns with labeling from both viruses after transsynaptic spread show sparse red or green GCs which tended to be segregated. However, there was a higher incidence of co-labeled cells than chance would predict. Similar segregation of labeling is observed from dual injections into olfactory cortex. Collectively, these results suggest that neighboring mitral and tufted cells receive inhibitory inputs from segregated subsets of GCs, enabling inhibition of a center by specific and discontinuous lateral elements.Full Text Article
|Neuro-glial differentiation of human bone marrow stem cells in vitro. |
Bossolasco, P, et al.
Exp. Neurol., 193: 312-25 (2005)
Bone marrow (BM) is a rich source of stem cells and may represent a valid alternative to neural or embryonic cells in replacing autologous damaged tissues for neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of the present study is to identify human adult BM progenitor cells capable of neuro-glial differentiation and to develop effective protocols of trans-differentiation to surmount the hematopoietic commitment in vitro. Heterogeneous cell populations such as whole BM, low-density mononuclear and mesenchymal stem (MSCs), and several immunomagnetically separated cell populations were investigated. Among them, MSCs and CD90+ cells were demonstrated to express neuro-glial transcripts before any treatment. Several culture conditions with the addition of stem cell or astroblast conditioned media, different concentrations of serum, growth factors, and supplements, used alone or in combinations, were demonstrated to alter the cellular morphology in some cell subpopulations. In particular, MSCs and CD90+ cells acquired astrocytic and neuron-like morphologies in specific culture conditions. They expressed several neuro-glial specific markers by RT-PCR and glial fibrillary acid protein by immunocytochemistry after co-culture with astroblasts, both in the absence or presence of cell contact. In addition, floating neurosphere-like clones have been observed when CD90+ cells were grown in neural specific media. In conclusion, among the large variety of human adult BM cell populations analyzed, we demonstrated the in vitro neuro-glial potential of both the MSC and CD90+ subset of cells. Moreover, unidentified soluble factors provided by the conditioned media and cellular contacts in co-culture systems were effective in inducing the neuro-glial phenotype, further supporting the adult BM neural differentiative capability.