Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Av, Gp, H, M, R, Rb||IH(P), ICC, IHC, IP, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-NMDAR2A&B Antibody, pan|
|Presentation||Affinity purified using the immunogen peptide. Lyophilized from PBS containing 1% BSA.
Note: lot 0509010940 was shipped in liquid format; Do NOT add additional water to this lot of material.
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||50 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|High prevalence of NMDA receptor IgA/IgM antibodies in different dementia types.|
Doss, S; Wandinger, KP; Hyman, BT; Panzer, JA; Synofzik, M; Dickerson, B; Mollenhauer, B; Scherzer, CR; Ivinson, AJ; Finke, C; Schöls, L; Müller Vom Hagen, J; Trenkwalder, C; Jahn, H; Höltje, M; Biswal, BB; Harms, L; Ruprecht, K; Buchert, R; Höglinger, GU; Oertel, WH; Unger, MM; Körtvélyessy, P; Bittner, D; Priller, J; Spruth, EJ; Paul, F; Meisel, A; Lynch, DR; Dirnagl, U; Endres, M; Teegen, B; Probst, C; Komorowski, L; Stöcker, W; Dalmau, J; Prüss, H
Annals of clinical and translational neurology 1 822-32 2014
To retrospectively determine the frequency of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) autoantibodies in patients with different forms of dementia.Clinical characterization of 660 patients with dementia, neurodegenerative disease without dementia, other neurological disorders and age-matched healthy controls combined with retrospective analysis of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the presence of NMDAR antibodies. Antibody binding to receptor mutants and the effect of immunotherapy were determined in a subgroup of patients.Serum NMDAR antibodies of IgM, IgA, or IgG subtypes were detected in 16.1% of 286 dementia patients (9.5% IgM, 4.9% IgA, and 1.7% IgG) and in 2.8% of 217 cognitively healthy controls (1.9% IgM and 0.9% IgA). Antibodies were rarely found in CSF. The highest prevalence of serum antibodies was detected in patients with "unclassified dementia" followed by progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal syndrome, Parkinson's disease-related dementia, and primary progressive aphasia. Among the unclassified dementia group, 60% of 20 patients had NMDAR antibodies, accompanied by higher frequency of CSF abnormalities, and subacute or fluctuating disease progression. Immunotherapy in selected prospective cases resulted in clinical stabilization, loss of antibodies, and improvement of functional imaging parameters. Epitope mapping showed varied determinants in patients with NMDAR IgA-associated cognitive decline.Serum IgA/IgM NMDAR antibodies occur in a significant number of patients with dementia. Whether these antibodies result from or contribute to the neurodegenerative disorder remains unknown, but our findings reveal a subgroup of patients with high antibody levels who can potentially benefit from immunotherapy.
|Developmentally dynamic colocalization patterns of DSCAM with adhesion and synaptic proteins in the mouse retina.|
de Andrade, GB; Kunzelman, L; Merrill, MM; Fuerst, PG
Molecular vision 20 1422-33 2014
The Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene is required for normal dendrite arborization and lamination in the mouse retina. In this study, we characterized the developmental localization of the DSCAM protein to better understand the postnatal stages of retinal development during which laminar disorganization occur in the absence of the protein.Immunohistochemistry and colocalization analysis software were used to assay the localization of the DSCAM protein during development of the retina.We found that DSCAM was initially localized diffusely throughout mouse retinal neurites but then adopted a punctate distribution. DSCAM colocalized with catenins in the adult retina but was not detected at the active zone of chemical synapses, electrical synapses, and tight junctions. Further analysis identified a wave of colocalization between DSCAM and numerous synaptic and junction proteins coinciding with synaptogenesis between bipolar and retinal ganglion cells.Research presented in this study expands our understanding of DSCAM function by characterizing its location during the development of the retina and identifies temporally regulated localization patterns as an important consideration in understanding the function of adhesion molecules in neural development.
|Activation of EphA receptors mediates the recruitment of the adaptor protein Slap, contributing to the downregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.|
Semerdjieva, S; Abdul-Razak, HH; Salim, SS; Yáñez-Muñoz, RJ; Chen, PE; Tarabykin, V; Alifragis, P
Molecular and cellular biology 33 1442-55 2013
Regulation of the activity of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) at glutamatergic synapses is essential for certain forms of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory and is also associated with neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative diseases. In this report, we investigate the role of Src-like adaptor protein (Slap) in NMDA receptor signaling. We present data showing that in dissociated neuronal cultures, activation of ephrin (Eph) receptors by chimeric preclustered eph-Fc ligands leads to recruitment of Slap and NMDA receptors at the sites of Eph receptor activation. Interestingly, our data suggest that prolonged activation of EphA receptors is as efficient in recruiting Slap and NMDA receptors as prolonged activation of EphB receptors. Using established heterologous systems, we examined whether Slap is an integral part of NMDA receptor signaling. Our results showed that Slap does not alter baseline activity of NMDA receptors and does not affect Src-dependent potentiation of NMDA receptor currents in Xenopus oocytes. We also demonstrate that Slap reduces excitotoxic cell death triggered by activation of NMDARs in HEK293 cells. Finally, we present evidence showing reduced levels of NMDA receptors in the presence of Slap occurring in an activity-dependent manner, suggesting that Slap is part of a mechanism that homeostatically modulates the levels of NMDA receptors.
|GluN2B in corticostriatal circuits governs choice learning and choice shifting.|
Brigman, JL; Daut, RA; Wright, T; Gunduz-Cinar, O; Graybeal, C; Davis, MI; Jiang, Z; Saksida, LM; Jinde, S; Pease, M; Bussey, TJ; Lovinger, DM; Nakazawa, K; Holmes, A
Nature neuroscience 16 1101-10 2013
A choice that reliably produces a preferred outcome can be automated to liberate cognitive resources for other tasks. Should an outcome become less desirable, behavior must adapt in parallel or it becomes perseverative. Corticostriatal systems are known to mediate choice learning and flexibility, but the molecular mechanisms of these processes are not well understood. We integrated mouse behavioral, immunocytochemical, in vivo electrophysiological, genetic and pharmacological approaches to study choice. We found that the dorsal striatum (DS) was increasingly activated with choice learning, whereas reversal of learned choice engaged prefrontal regions. In vivo, DS neurons showed activity associated with reward anticipation and receipt that emerged with learning and relearning. Corticostriatal or striatal deletion of Grin2b (encoding the NMDA-type glutamate receptor subunit GluN2B) or DS-restricted GluN2B antagonism impaired choice learning, whereas cortical Grin2b deletion or OFC GluN2B antagonism impaired shifting. Our convergent data demonstrate how corticostriatal GluN2B circuits govern the ability to learn and shift choice behavior.
|Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis antibody binding is dependent on amino acid identity of a small region within the GluN1 amino terminal domain.|
Gleichman, AJ; Spruce, LA; Dalmau, J; Seeholzer, SH; Lynch, DR
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 11082-94 2012
Anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a newly identified autoimmune disorder that targets NMDARs, causing severe neurological symptoms including hallucinations, psychosis, and seizures, and may result in death (Dalmau et al., 2008). However, the exact epitope to which these antibodies bind is unknown. A clearly defined antigenic region could provide more precise testing, allow for comparison of immunogenicity between patients to explore potential clinically relevant variations, elucidate the functional effects of antibodies, and make patients' antibodies a more effective tool with which to study NMDAR function. Here, we use human CSF to explore the antigenic region of the NMDAR. We created a series of mutants within the amino terminal domain of GluN1 that change patient antibody binding in transfected cells in stereotyped ways. These mutants demonstrate that the N368/G369 region of GluN1 is crucial for the creation of immunoreactivity. Mass spectrometry experiments show that N368 is glycosylated in transfected cells and rat brain regions; however, this glycosylation is not directly required for epitope formation. Mutations of residues N368/G369 change the closed time of the receptor in single channel recordings; more frequent channel openings correlates with the degree of antibody staining, and acute antibody exposure prolongs open time of the receptor. The staining pattern of mutant receptors is similar across subgroups of patients, indicating consistent immunogenicity, although we have identified one region that has a variable role in epitope formation. These findings provide tools for detailed comparison of antibodies across patients and suggest an interaction between antibody binding and channel function.
|Hippocampal adult neurogenesis is maintained by neil3-dependent repair of oxidative DNA lesions in neural progenitor cells.|
Christine Elisabeth Regnell,Gunn Annette Hildrestrand,Yngve Sejersted,Tirill Medin,Olve Moldestad,Veslem Rolseth,Silje Zandstra Krokeide,Rajikala Suganthan,Luisa Luna,Magnar Bj,Linda H Bergersen
Cell reports 2 2012
Accumulation of oxidative DNA damage has been proposed as a potential cause of age-related cognitive decline. The major pathway for removal of oxidative DNA base lesions is base excision repair, which is initiated by DNA glycosylases. In mice, Neil3 is the main DNA glycosylase for repair of hydantoin lesions in single-stranded DNA of neural stem/progenitor cells, promoting neurogenesis. Adult neurogenesis is crucial for maintenance of hippocampus-dependent functions involved in behavior. Herein, behavioral studies reveal learning and memory deficits and reduced anxiety-like behavior in Neil3(-/-) mice. Neural stem/progenitor cells from aged Neil3(-/-) mice show impaired proliferative capacity and reduced DNA repair activity. Furthermore, hippocampal neurons in Neil3(-/-) mice display
|Neuroprotective effects of quercetin, rutin and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) in dexamethasone-treated Mice.|
Tongjaroenbuangam W, Ruksee N, Chantiratikul P, Pakdeenarong N, Kongbuntad W, Govitrapong P
Neurochemistry international 2011
The administration of dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist, causes neuronal death in the CA3 layer of the hippocampus, which has been associated with learning and memory impairments. This study aimed to examine the ability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) extract and its derivatives (quercetin and rutin) to protect neuronal function and improve learning and memory deficits in mice subjected to dexamethasone treatment. Learning and memory functions in mice were examined using the Morris water maze test. The results showed that the mice treated with dexamethasone had prolonged water maze performance latencies and shorter time spent in the target quadrant while mice pretreated with quercetin, rutin or okra extract prior to dexamethasone treatment showed shorter latencies and longer time spent in target quadrant. Morphological changes in pyramidal neurons were observed in the dexamethasone treated group. The number of CA3 hippocampal neurons was significantly lower while pretreated with quercetin, rutin or okra attenuated this change. Prolonged treatment with dexamethasone altered NMDA receptor expression in the hippocampus. Pretreatment with quercetin, rutin or okra extract prevented the reduction in NMDA receptor expression. Dentate gyrus (DG) cell proliferation was examined using the 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry technique. The number of BrdU-immunopositive cells was significantly reduced in dexamethasone-treated mice compared to control mice. Pretreatment with okra extract, either quercetin or rutin was found to restore BrdU-immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus. These findings suggest that quercetin, rutin and okra extract treatments reversed cognitive deficits, including impaired dentate gyrus (DG) cell proliferation, and protected against morphological changes in the CA3 region in dexamethasone-treated mice. The precise mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of these plant extracts should be further investigated.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Glutamate co-transmission from developing medial nucleus of the trapezoid body--lateral superior olive synapses is cochlear dependent in kanamycin-treated rats.|
Lee JH, Pradhan J, Maskey D, Park KS, Hong SH, Suh MW, Kim MJ, Ahn SC
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 405 162-7. Epub 2011 Jan 5. 2011
Cochlear dependency of glutamate co-transmission at the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB)--the lateral superior olive (LSO) synapses was investigated using developing rats treated with high dose kanamycin. Rats were treated with kanamycin from postnatal day (P) 3 to P8. A scanning electron microscopic study on P9 demonstrated partial cochlear hair cell damage. A whole cell voltage clamp experiment demonstrated the increased glutamatergic portion of postsynaptic currents (PSCs) elicited by MNTB stimulation in P9-P11 kanamycin-treated rats. The enhanced VGLUT3 immunoreactivities (IRs) in kanamycin-treated rats and asymmetric VGLUT3 IRs in the LSO of unilaterally cochlear ablated rats supported the electrophysiologic data. Taken together, it is concluded that glutamate co-transmission is cochlear-dependent and enhanced glutamate co-transmission in kanamycin-treated rats is induced by partial cochlear damage.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|Aluminum alters NMDA receptor 1A and 2A/B expression on neonatal hippocampal neurons in rats.|
Yuan, CY; Hsu, GS; Lee, YJ
Journal of biomedical science 18 81 2011
High aluminum (Al) content in certain infant formula raises the concern of possible Al toxicity on brain development of neonates during their vulnerable period of growing. Results of in vivo study showed that Al content of brain tissues reached to 74 μM when oral intake up to 1110 μM, 10 times of that in the hi-Al infant formula.Utilizing a cultured neuron cells in vitro model, we have assessed Al influence on neuronal specific gene expression alteration by immunoblot and immunohistochemistry and neural proliferation rate changes by MTT assay.Microscopic images showed that the neurite outgrowth of hippocampal neurons increased along with the Al dosages (37, 74 μM Al (AlCl3)). MTT results also indicated that Al increased neural cell viability. On the other hand, the immunocytochemistry staining suggested that the protein expressions of NMDAR 1A and NMDAR 2A/B decreased with the Al dosages (p less than 0.05).Treated hippocampal neurons with 37 and 74 μM of Al for 14 days increased neural cell viability, but hampered NMDAR 1A and NMDAR 2A/B expressions. It was suggested that Al exposure might alter the development of hippocampal neurons in neonatal rats.
|Visual experience-independent functional expression of NMDA receptors in the developing rabbit retina.|
Chang, YC; Chen, CY; Chiao, CC
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 51 2744-54 2010
Activation of the NMDA glutamate receptors is critical for the initiation of synaptic plasticity. In the developing rat retina, NMDA receptor function has been associated with visual experience, though the light-dependent regulation of the subunit composition of the NMDA receptors is controversial. In the present study, the functional expression of NMDA receptors in the developing rabbit retina was characterized and the impact of light deprivation on how the subunit composition of NMDA receptors is regulated was examined.Antibodies against NR1 and NR2A/B were used to examine neonatal expression patterns of the NMDA receptor subunits. Furthermore, the functional NMDA receptors were mapped using the agmatine (AGB) activation assay.Although NR1 and NR2A/B subunit immunoreactivity was prominently detectable only immediately after birth, AGB activation assay showed that functional NMDA receptors could be identified as early as embryonic day 21. No significant difference was observed between normal- and dark-reared animals in terms of their NR1 and NR2A/B expression. In addition, a comparison of AGB permeation between normal- and dark-reared animals showed no difference in functional expression of NMDA receptors.These results indicate that NMDA receptors participate in the synaptic maturation of retinal circuits during the early stages of development but that the functional NMDA receptors, including their subunit composition, in the developing rabbit retina are independent of the rabbit's visual experience.
|Pathways and Biomarkers of Glutamatergic Synapse Flyer (EMD)|
|Anti-NMDAR2A&B, pain - Data Sheet|
|Anti-NMDAR2A&B, pan - Data Sheet|