Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R, F||IHC, IP, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||10 µg|
|Anti-NMDAR2A - 2430341||2430341|
|Anti-NMDAR2A - 1960848||1960848|
|Anti-NMDAR2A - 2012354||2012354|
|Anti-NMDAR2A - 2035062||2035062|
|Anti-NMDAR2A - 2067220||2067220|
|Anti-NMDAR2A - 2208768||2208768|
|Anti-NMDAR2A - 2326292||2326292|
|Anti-NMDAR2A - 2887998||2887998|
|Anti-NMDAR2A - 3169526||3169526|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Developmental attenuation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit expression by microRNAs.|
Corbel, C; Hernandez, I; Wu, B; Kosik, KS
Neural development 10 20 2015
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are a subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors and are expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Their activity is required for excitatory synaptic transmission, the developmental refinement of neural circuits and for the expression of many forms of synaptic plasticity. NMDARs are obligate heterotetramers and the expression of their constituent subunits is developmentally and anatomically regulated. In rodent cortex and hippocampus, the GluN2B subunit is expressed at high levels early in development and decreases to plateau levels later while expression of the GluN2A subunit has a concomitant increase. Regulation of GluN2A and GluN2B expressions are incompletely understood. Here, we showed the influence of miRNAs in this process.Two miRNAs, miR-19a and miR-539 can influence the levels of NMDARs subunits, as they target the mRNAs encoding GluN2A and GluN2B respectively. MiR-539 also modified the expression of the transcription factor REST, a known regulator of NMDAR subunit expression.miR-19a and miR-539, in collaboration with REST, serve to set the levels of GluN2A and GluN2B precisely during development. These miRNAs offer an entry point for interventions that affect plasticity and a novel approach to treat neurodegenerative diseases.
|Neurological effects of inorganic arsenic exposure: altered cysteine/glutamate transport, NMDA expression and spatial memory impairment.|
Ramos-Chávez, LA; Rendón-López, CR; Zepeda, A; Silva-Adaya, D; Del Razo, LM; Gonsebatt, ME
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 9 21 2015
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an important natural pollutant. Millions of individuals worldwide drink water with high levels of iAs. Chronic exposure to iAs has been associated with lower IQ and learning disabilities as well as memory impairment. iAs is methylated in tissues such as the brain generating mono and dimethylated species. iAs methylation requires cellular glutathione (GSH), which is the main antioxidant in the central nervous system (CNS). In humans, As species cross the placenta and are found in cord blood. A CD1 mouse model was used to investigate effects of gestational iAs exposure which can lead to oxidative damage, disrupted cysteine/glutamate transport and its putative impact in learning and memory. On postnatal days (PNDs) 1, 15 and 90, the expression of membrane transporters related to GSH synthesis and glutamate transport and toxicity, such as xCT, EAAC1, GLAST and GLT1, as well as LAT1, were analyzed. Also, the expression of the glutamate receptor N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDAR) subunits NR2A and B as well as the presence of As species in cortex and hippocampus were investigated. On PND 90, an object location task was performed to associate exposure with memory impairment. Gestational exposure to iAs affected the expression of cysteine/glutamate transporters in cortex and hippocampus and induced a negative modulation of NMDAR NR2B subunit in the hippocampus. Behavioral tasks showed significant spatial memory impairment in males while the effect was marginal in females.
|Repeated neonatal propofol administration induces sex-dependent long-term impairments on spatial and recognition memory in rats.|
Gonzales, EL; Yang, SM; Choi, CS; Mabunga, DF; Kim, HJ; Cheong, JH; Ryu, JH; Koo, BN; Shin, CY
Biomolecules & therapeutics 23 251-60 2015
Propofol is an anesthetic agent that gained wide use because of its fast induction of anesthesia and rapid recovery post-anesthesia. However, previous studies have reported immediate neurodegeneration and long-term impairment in spatial learning and memory from repeated neonatal propofol administration in animals. Yet, none of those studies has explored the sex-specific long-term physical changes and behavioral alterations such as social (sociability and social preference), emotional (anxiety), and other cognitive functions (spatial working, recognition, and avoidance memory) after neonatal propofol treatment. Seven-day-old Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats underwent repeated daily intraperitoneal injections of propofol or normal saline for 7 days. Starting fourth week of age and onwards, rats were subjected to behavior tests including open-field, elevated-plus-maze, Y-maze, 3-chamber social interaction, novel-object-recognition, passive-avoidance, and rotarod. Rats were sacrificed at 9 weeks and hippocampal protein expressions were analyzed by Western blot. Results revealed long-term body weight gain alterations in the growing rats and sex-specific impairments in spatial (female) and recognition (male) learning and memory paradigms. A markedly decreased expression of hippocampal NMDA receptor GluN1 subunit in female- and increased expression of AMPA GluR1 subunit protein expression in male rats were also found. Other aspects of behaviors such as locomotor activity and coordination, anxiety, sociability, social preference and avoidance learning and memory were not generally affected. These results suggest that neonatal repeated propofol administration disrupts normal growth and some aspects of neurodevelopment in rats in a sex-specific manner.
|Co-Application of Corticosterone and Growth Hormone Upregulates NR2B Protein and Increases the NR2B:NR2A Ratio and Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus.|
Mahmoud, GS; Amer, AS
Sultan Qaboos University medical journal 14 e486-94 2014
This in vitro study aimed to investigate the possible mechanism underlying the protective effect of growth hormone (GH) on hippocampal function during periods of heightened glucocorticoid exposure.This study was conducted between January and June 2005 at the Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, in Huntington, West Virginia, USA. The effects of the co-application of GH and corticosterone (CORT) were tested at different concentrations on the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) of the hippocampal slices of rats in two different age groups. Changes in the protein expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits NR1, NR2B and NR2A were measured in hippocampal brain slices treated with either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF), low doses of CORT alone or both CORT and GH for three hours.The co-application of CORT and GH was found to have an additive effect on hippocampal synaptic transmission compared to either drug alone. Furthermore, the combined use of low concentrations of GH and CORT was found to have significantly higher effects on the enhancement of fEPSPs in older rats compared to young ones. Both GH and CORT enhanced the protein expression of the NR2A subunit. Simultaneous exposure to low concentrations of GH and CORT significantly enhanced NR2B expression and increased the NR2B:NR2A ratio. In contrast, perfusion with CORT alone caused significant suppression in the NR1 and NR2B protein expression and a decrease in the NR2B:NR2A ratio.These results suggest that NMDARs provide a potential target for mediating the GH potential protective effect against stress and age-related memory and cognitive impairment.
|Synaptic and cognitive improvements by inhibition of 2-AG metabolism are through upregulation of microRNA-188-3p in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.|
Zhang, J; Hu, M; Teng, Z; Tang, YP; Chen, C
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 14919-33 2014
Abnormal accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) is the major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms underlying aberrant Aβ formation in AD remain unclear. We showed previously that inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary enzyme that metabolizes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the brain, robustly reduces Aβ by inhibiting β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), a key enzyme responsible for Aβ formation. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for suppression of BACE1 by inhibition of 2-AG metabolism are largely unknown. We demonstrate here that expression of the noncoding small RNA miR-188-3p that targets BACE1 was significantly downregulated both in the brains of AD humans and APP transgenic (TG) mice, a mouse model of AD. The downregulated miR-188-3p expression was restored by MAGL inhibition. Overexpression of miR-188-3p in the hippocampus reduced BACE1, Aβ, and neuroinflammation and prevented deteriorations in hippocampal basal synaptic transmission, long-term potentiation, spatial learning, and memory in TG mice. 2-AG-induced suppression of BACE1 was prevented by miR-188-3p loss of function. Moreover, miR-188-3p expression was upregulated by 2-AG or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists and suppressed by PPARγ antagonism or NF-κB activation. Reducing Aβ and neuroinflammation by MAGL inhibition was occluded by PPARγ antagonism. In addition, BACE1 suppression by 2-AG and PPARγ activation was eliminated by knockdown of NF-κB. Our study provides a novel molecular mechanism underlying improved synaptic and cognitive function in TG mice by 2-AG signaling, which upregulates miR-188-3p expression through PPARγ and NF-κB signaling pathway, resulting in suppressions of BACE1 expression and Aβ formation.
|In vitro ischemia triggers a transcriptional response to down-regulate synaptic proteins in hippocampal neurons.|
Fernandes, J; Vieira, M; Carreto, L; Santos, MA; Duarte, CB; Carvalho, AL; Santos, AE
PloS one 9 e99958 2014
Transient global cerebral ischemia induces profound changes in the transcriptome of brain cells, which is partially associated with the induction or repression of genes that influence the ischemic response. However, the mechanisms responsible for the selective vulnerability of hippocampal neurons to global ischemia remain to be clarified. To identify molecular changes elicited by ischemic insults, we subjected hippocampal primary cultures to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), an in vitro model for global ischemia that resulted in delayed neuronal death with an excitotoxic component. To investigate changes in the transcriptome of hippocampal neurons submitted to OGD, total RNA was extracted at early (7 h) and delayed (24 h) time points after OGD and used in a whole-genome RNA microarray. We observed that at 7 h after OGD there was a general repression of genes, whereas at 24 h there was a general induction of gene expression. Genes related with functions such as transcription and RNA biosynthesis were highly regulated at both periods of incubation after OGD, confirming that the response to ischemia is a dynamic and coordinated process. Our analysis showed that genes for synaptic proteins, such as those encoding for PICK1, GRIP1, TARPγ3, calsyntenin-2/3, SAPAP2 and SNAP-25, were down-regulated after OGD. Additionally, OGD decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit as well as the GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of NMDA receptors, but increased the mRNA expression of the GluN3A subunit, thus altering the composition of ionotropic glutamate receptors in hippocampal neurons. Together, our results present the expression profile elicited by in vitro ischemia in hippocampal neurons, and indicate that OGD activates a transcriptional program leading to down-regulation in the expression of genes coding for synaptic proteins, suggesting that the synaptic proteome may change after ischemia.
|Effect of D-cycloserine in conjunction with fear extinction training on extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala in rat.|
Gupta, SC; Hillman, BG; Prakash, A; Ugale, RR; Stairs, DJ; Dravid, SM
The European journal of neuroscience 37 1811-22 2013
D-cycloserine (DCS) is currently under clinical trials for a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and has been found to augment fear extinction in rodents and exposure therapy in humans. However, the molecular mechanism of DCS action in these multiple modalities remains unclear. Here, we describe the effect of DCS administration, alone or in conjunction with extinction training, on neuronal activity (c-fos) and neuronal plasticity [phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK)] markers using immunohistochemistry. We found that intraperitoneal administration of DCS in untrained young rats (24-28 days old) increased c-fos- and pERK-stained neurons in both the prelimbic and infralimbic division of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and reduced pERK levels in the lateral nucleus of the central amygdala. Moreover, DCS administration significantly increased GluA1, GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B expression in the mPFC. In a separate set of animals, we found that DCS facilitated fear extinction and increased pERK levels in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex, prelimbic prefrontal cortex intercalated cells and lateral nucleus of the central amygdala, compared with saline control. In the synaptoneurosomal preparation, we found that extinction training increased iGluR protein expression in the mPFC, compared with context animals. No significant difference in protein expression was observed between extinction-saline and extinction-DCS groups in the mPFC. In contrast, in the amygdala DCS, the conjunction with extinction training led to an increase in iGluR subunit expression, compared with the extinction-saline group. Our data suggest that the efficacy of DCS in neuropsychiatric disorders may be partly due to its ability to affect neuronal activity and signaling in the mPFC and amygdala subnuclei.
|Two cell circuits of oriented adult hippocampal neurons on self-assembled monolayers for use in the study of neuronal communication in a defined system.|
Edwards, D; Stancescu, M; Molnar, P; Hickman, JJ
ACS chemical neuroscience 4 1174-82 2013
In this study, we demonstrate the directed formation of small circuits of electrically active, synaptically connected neurons derived from the hippocampus of adult rats through the use of engineered chemically modified culture surfaces that orient the polarity of the neuronal processes. Although synaptogenesis, synaptic communication, synaptic plasticity, and brain disease pathophysiology can be studied using brain slice or dissociated embryonic neuronal culture systems, the complex elements found in neuronal synapses makes specific studies difficult in these random cultures. The study of synaptic transmission in mature adult neurons and factors affecting synaptic transmission are generally studied in organotypic cultures, in brain slices, or in vivo. However, engineered neuronal networks would allow these studies to be performed instead on simple functional neuronal circuits derived from adult brain tissue. Photolithographic patterned self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were used to create the two-cell "bidirectional polarity" circuit patterns. This pattern consisted of a cell permissive SAM, N-1[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] diethylenetriamine (DETA), and was composed of two 25 μm somal adhesion sites connected with 5 μm lines acting as surface cues for guided axonal and dendritic regeneration. Surrounding the DETA pattern was a background of a non-cell-permissive poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) SAM. Adult hippocampal neurons were first cultured on coverslips coated with DETA monolayers and were later passaged onto the PEG-DETA bidirectional polarity patterns in serum-free medium. These neurons followed surface cues, attaching and regenerating only along the DETA substrate to form small engineered neuronal circuits. These circuits were stable for more than 21 days in vitro (DIV), during which synaptic connectivity was evaluated using basic electrophysiological methods.
|Asynchronous movements prior to pore opening in NMDA receptors.|
Kazi, R; Gan, Q; Talukder, I; Markowitz, M; Salussolia, CL; Wollmuth, LP
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 12052-66 2013
Glutamate-gated ion channels embedded within the neuronal membrane are the primary mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS. The ion channel of these glutamate receptors contains a pore-lining transmembrane M3 helix surrounded by peripheral M1 and M4 helices. In the NMDA receptor subtype, opening of the ion channel pore, mediated by displacement of the M3 helices away from the central pore axis, occurs in a highly concerted fashion, but the associated temporal movements of the peripheral helices are unknown. To address the gating dynamics of the peripheral helices, we constrained the relative movements of the linkers that connect these helices to the ligand-binding domain using engineered cross-links, either within (intra-GluN1 or GluN2A) or between subunits. Constraining the peripheral linkers in any manner dramatically curtailed channel opening, highlighting the requirement for rearrangements of these peripheral structural elements for efficient gating to occur. However, the magnitude of this gating effect depended on the specific subunit being constrained, with the most dramatic effects occurring when the constraint was between subunits. Based on kinetic and thermodynamic analysis, our results suggest an asynchrony in the displacement of the peripheral linkers during the conformational and energetic changes leading to pore opening. Initially there are large-scale rearrangements occurring between the four subunits. Subsequently, rearrangements occur within individual subunits, mainly GluN2A, leading up to or in concert with pore opening. Thus, the conformational changes induced by agonist binding in NMDA receptors converge asynchronously to permit pore opening.
|A potential neuroprotective role of apolipoprotein E-containing lipoproteins through low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 in normal tension glaucoma.|
Hayashi, H; Eguchi, Y; Fukuchi-Nakaishi, Y; Takeya, M; Nakagata, N; Tanaka, K; Vance, JE; Tanihara, H
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 25395-406 2012
Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy and the second major cause of blindness worldwide next to cataracts. The protection from retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, one of the main characteristics of glaucoma, would be a straightforward treatment for this disorder. However, the clinical application of neuroprotection has not, so far, been successful. Here, we report that apolipoprotein E-containing lipoproteins (E-LPs) protect primary cultured RGCs from Ca(2+)-dependent, and mitochondrion-mediated, apoptosis induced by glutamate. Binding of E-LPs to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 recruited the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, blocked intracellular Ca(2+) elevation, and inactivated glycogen synthase kinase 3β, thereby inhibiting apoptosis. When compared with contralateral eyes treated with phosphate-buffered saline, intravitreal administration of E-LPs protected against RGC loss in glutamate aspartate transporter-deficient mice, a model of normal tension glaucoma that causes glaucomatous optic neuropathy without elevation of intraocular pressure. Although the presence of α2-macroglobulin, another ligand of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, interfered with the neuroprotective effect of E-LPs against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, the addition of E-LPs overcame the inhibitory effect of α2-macroglobulin. These findings may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for normal tension glaucoma by an LRP1-mediated pathway.
|Pathways and Biomarkers of Glutamatergic Synapse Flyer (EMD)|
|Anti-NMDAR2A - Data Sheet|