Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|B, Ch, H, M, R, Fg||ICC, IHC, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG1 in buffer containing 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer, 50 mM NaCl, pH 7.5. Contains no preservative.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at -20ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
References | 30 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Methylcobalamin promotes the differentiation of Schwann cells and remyelination in lysophosphatidylcholine-induced demyelination of the rat sciatic nerve. |
Nishimoto, S; Tanaka, H; Okamoto, M; Okada, K; Murase, T; Yoshikawa, H
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 9 298 2015
Schwann cells (SCs) are constituents of the peripheral nervous system. The differentiation of SCs in injured peripheral nerves is critical for regeneration after injury. Methylcobalamin (MeCbl) is a vitamin B12 analog that is necessary for the maintenance of the peripheral nervous system. In this study, we estimated the effect of MeCbl on SCs. We showed that MeCbl downregulated the activity of Erk1/2 and promoted the expression of the myelin basic protein in SCs. In a dorsal root ganglion neuron-SC coculture system, myelination was promoted by MeCbl. In a focal demyelination rat model, MeCbl promoted remyelination and motor and sensory functional regeneration. MeCbl promoted the in vitro differentiation of SCs and in vivo myelination in a rat demyelination model and may be a novel therapy for several types of nervous disorders.
|Clostridium perfringens Epsilon Toxin Causes Selective Death of Mature Oligodendrocytes and Central Nervous System Demyelination. |
Linden, JR; Ma, Y; Zhao, B; Harris, JM; Rumah, KR; Schaeren-Wiemers, N; Vartanian, T
mBio 6 e02513 2015
Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ε-toxin) is responsible for a devastating multifocal central nervous system (CNS) white matter disease in ruminant animals. The mechanism by which ε-toxin causes white matter damage is poorly understood. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which ε-toxin causes pathological changes to white matter. In primary CNS cultures, ε-toxin binds to and kills oligodendrocytes but not astrocytes, microglia, or neurons. In cerebellar organotypic culture, ε-toxin induces demyelination, which occurs in a time- and dose-dependent manner, while preserving neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. ε-Toxin specificity for oligodendrocytes was confirmed using enriched glial culture. Sensitivity to ε-toxin is developmentally regulated, as only mature oligodendrocytes are susceptible to ε-toxin; oligodendrocyte progenitor cells are not. ε-Toxin sensitivity is also dependent on oligodendrocyte expression of the proteolipid myelin and lymphocyte protein (MAL), as MAL-deficient oligodendrocytes are insensitive to ε-toxin. In addition, ε-toxin binding to white matter follows the spatial and temporal pattern of MAL expression. A neutralizing antibody against ε-toxin inhibits oligodendrocyte death and demyelination. This study provides several novel insights into the action of ε-toxin in the CNS. (i) ε-Toxin causes selective oligodendrocyte death while preserving all other neural elements. (ii) ε-Toxin-mediated oligodendrocyte death is a cell autonomous effect. (iii) The effects of ε-toxin on the oligodendrocyte lineage are restricted to mature oligodendrocytes. (iv) Expression of the developmentally regulated proteolipid MAL is required for the cytotoxic effects. (v) The cytotoxic effects of ε-toxin can be abrogated by an ε-toxin neutralizing antibody.Our intestinal tract is host to trillions of microorganisms that play an essential role in health and homeostasis. Disruption of this symbiotic relationship has been implicated in influencing or causing disease in distant organ systems such as the brain. Epsilon toxin (ε-toxin)-carrying Clostridium perfringens strains are responsible for a devastating white matter disease in ruminant animals that shares similar features with human multiple sclerosis. In this report, we define the mechanism by which ε-toxin causes white matter disease. We find that ε-toxin specifically targets the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system (CNS), oligodendrocytes, leading to cell death. The selectivity of ε-toxin for oligodendrocytes is remarkable, as other cells of the CNS are unaffected. Importantly, ε-toxin-induced oligodendrocyte death results in demyelination and is dependent on expression of myelin and lymphocyte protein (MAL). These results help complete the mechanistic pathway from bacteria to brain by explaining the specific cellular target of ε-toxin within the CNS.
|Transcription factor-mediated reprogramming of fibroblasts to expandable, myelinogenic oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. |
Najm, FJ; Lager, AM; Zaremba, A; Wyatt, K; Caprariello, AV; Factor, DC; Karl, RT; Maeda, T; Miller, RH; Tesar, PJ
Nature biotechnology 31 426-33 2013
Cell-based therapies for myelin disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and leukodystrophies, require technologies to generate functional oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Here we describe direct conversion of mouse embryonic and lung fibroblasts to induced oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (iOPCs) using sets of either eight or three defined transcription factors. iOPCs exhibit a bipolar morphology and global gene expression profile consistent with bona fide OPCs. They can be expanded in vitro for at least five passages while retaining the ability to differentiate into multiprocessed oligodendrocytes. When transplanted to hypomyelinated mice, iOPCs are capable of ensheathing host axons and generating compact myelin. Lineage conversion of somatic cells to expandable iOPCs provides a strategy to study the molecular control of oligodendrocyte lineage identity and may facilitate neurological disease modeling and autologous remyelinating therapies.
|Gait abnormalities and progressive myelin degeneration in a new murine model of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease with tandem genomic duplication. |
Clark, K; Sakowski, L; Sperle, K; Banser, L; Landel, CP; Bessert, DA; Skoff, RP; Hobson, GM
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 11788-99 2013
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a hypomyelinating leukodystrophy caused by mutations of the proteolipid protein 1 gene (PLP1), which is located on the X chromosome and encodes the most abundant protein of myelin in the central nervous sytem. Approximately 60% of PMD cases result from genomic duplications of a region of the X chromosome that includes the entire PLP1 gene. The duplications are typically in a head-to-tail arrangement, and they vary in size and gene content. Although rodent models with extra copies of Plp1 have been developed, none contains an actual genomic rearrangement that resembles those found in PMD patients. We used mutagenic insertion chromosome engineering resources to generate the Plp1dup mouse model by introducing an X chromosome duplication in the mouse genome that contains Plp1 and five neighboring genes that are also commonly duplicated in PMD patients. The Plp1dup mice display progressive gait abnormalities compared with wild-type littermates. The single duplication leads to increased transcript levels of Plp1 and four of the five other duplicated genes over wild-type levels in the brain beginning the second postnatal week. The Plp1dup mice also display altered transcript levels of other important myelin proteins leading to a progressive degeneration of myelin. Our results show that a single duplication of the Plp1 gene leads to a phenotype similar to the pattern seen in human PMD patients with duplications.
|Effects of adult neural precursor-derived myelination on axonal function in the perinatal congenitally dysmyelinated brain: optimizing time of intervention, developing accurate prediction models, and enhancing performance. |
Ruff, CA; Ye, H; Legasto, JM; Stribbell, NA; Wang, J; Zhang, L; Fehlings, MG
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 11899-915 2013
Stem cell repair shows substantial translational potential for neurological injury, but the mechanisms of action remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether transplanted stem cells could induce comprehensive functional remyelination. Subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived adult neural precursor cells (aNPCs) were injected bilaterally into major cerebral white matter tracts of myelin-deficient shiverer mice on postnatal day (P) 0, P7, and P21. Tripotential NPCs, when transplanted in vivo, integrated anatomically and functionally into local white matter and preferentially became Olig2+, Myelin Associated Glycoprotein-positive, Myelin Basic Protein-positive oligodendrocytes, rather than Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein-positive astrocytes or Neurofiliment 200-positive neurons. Processes interacted with axons and transmission electron microscopy showed multilamellar axonal ensheathment. Nodal architecture was restored and by quantifying these anatomical parameters a computer model was generated that accurately predicted action potential velocity, determined by ex vivo slice recordings. Although there was no obvious phenotypic improvement in transplanted shi/shis, myelinated axons exhibited faster conduction, lower activation threshold, less refractoriness, and improved response to high-frequency stimulation than dysmyelinated counterparts. Furthermore, they showed improved resilience to ischemic insult, a promising finding in the context of perinatal brain injury. This study describes, for the first time mechanistically, the functional characteristics and anatomical integration of nonimmortalized donor SVZ-derived murine aNPCs in the dysmyelinated brain at key developmental time points.
|Differential distribution of major brain gangliosides in the adult mouse central nervous system. |
Vajn, K; Viljetić, B; Degmečić, IV; Schnaar, RL; Heffer, M
PloS one 8 e75720 2013
Gangliosides - sialic acid-bearing glycolipids - are major cell surface determinants on neurons and axons. The same four closely related structures, GM1, GD1a, GD1b and GT1b, comprise the majority of total brain gangliosides in mammals and birds. Gangliosides regulate the activities of proteins in the membranes in which they reside, and also act as cell-cell recognition receptors. Understanding the functions of major brain gangliosides requires knowledge of their tissue distribution, which has been accomplished in the past using biochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Armed with new knowledge about the stability and accessibility of gangliosides in tissues and new IgG-class specific monoclonal antibodies, we investigated the detailed tissue distribution of gangliosides in the adult mouse brain. Gangliosides GD1b and GT1b are widely expressed in gray and white matter. In contrast, GM1 is predominately found in white matter and GD1a is specifically expressed in certain brain nuclei/tracts. These findings are considered in relationship to the hypothesis that gangliosides GD1a and GT1b act as receptors for an important axon-myelin recognition protein, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Mediating axon-myelin interactions is but one potential function of the major brain gangliosides, and more detailed knowledge of their distribution may help direct future functional studies.
|Identification of the protein target of myelin-binding ligands by immunohistochemistry and biochemical analyses. |
Bajaj, A; LaPlante, NE; Cotero, VE; Fish, KM; Bjerke, RM; Siclovan, T; Tan Hehir, CA
The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 61 19-30 2013
The ability to visualize myelin is important in the diagnosis of demyelinating disorders and the detection of myelin-containing nerves during surgery. The development of myelin-selective imaging agents requires that a defined target for these agents be identified and that a robust assay against the target be developed to allow for assessment of structure-activity relationships. We describe an immunohistochemical analysis and a fluorescence polarization binding assay using purified myelin basic protein (MBP) that provides quantitative evidence that MBP is the molecular binding partner of previously described myelin-selective fluorescent dyes such as BMB, GE3082, and GE3111.
|Human Anti-CCR4 Minibody Gene Transfer for the Treatment of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma. |
Thomas Han,Ussama M Abdel-Motal,De-Kuan Chang,Jianhua Sui,Asli Muvaffak,James Campbell,Quan Zhu,Thomas S Kupper,Wayne A Marasco
PloS one 7 2012
Although several therapeutic options have become available for patients with Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma (CTCL), no therapy has been curative. Recent studies have demonstrated that CTCL cells overexpress the CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4).
|A new long term in vitro model of myelination. |
Noelle Callizot,Maud Combes,Rémy Steinschneider,Philippe Poindron
Experimental cell research 317 2011
Besides in vivo models, co-cultures systems making use of Rat dorsal root ganglion explants/Schwann cells (SC) are widely used to essentially study myelination in vitro. In the case of animal models of demyelinating diseases, it is expected to reproduce a pathological process; conversely the co-cultures are primarily developed to study the myelination process and in the aim to use them to replace animals in experiences of myelin destruction or functional disturbances. We describe (in terms of protein expression kinetic) a new in vitro model of sensory neurons/SC co-cultures presenting the following advantages: both sensory neurons and SC originate from the same individual; sensory neurons and SC being dissociated, they can be co-cultured in monolayer, allowing an easier microscope observation; the co-culture can be maintained in a serum-free medium for at less three months, allowing kinetic studies of myelin formation both at a molecular and cellular level. Optimizing culture conditions permits to use 96-well culture plates; image analyses conducted with an automatic image analyzer allows rapid, accurate and quantitative expression of results. Finally, this system was proved by measuring the apparition of myelin protein to mimic in vitro the physiological process of in vivo myelination.
|A common progenitor for retinal astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. |
Rompani, SB; Cepko, CL
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 4970-80 2010
Developing neural tissue undergoes a period of neurogenesis followed by a period of gliogenesis. The lineage relationships among glial cell types have not been defined for most areas of the nervous system. Here we use retroviruses to label clones of glial cells in the chick retina. We found that almost every clone had both astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In addition, we discovered a novel glial cell type, with features intermediate between those of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, which we have named the diacyte. Diacytes also share a progenitor cell with both astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.
|Development of the delay lines in the nucleus laminaris of the chicken embryo revealed by optical imaging. |
GÃ¶rlich A, Illy M, Friauf E, Wagner H, Luksch H, LÃ¶hrke S
One strategy in localizing a sound source in the azimuthal plane is the comparison of arrival times of sound stimuli at the two ears. The processing of interaural time differences (ITDs) in the auditory brainstem was suggested by the Jeffress model in 1948. In chicks, binaural neurons in the nucleus laminaris (NL) receive input from both ipsilateral and contralateral nucleus magnocellularis (NM) neurons, with the axons of the latter acting as delay lines. A given neuron in the NL responds maximally to coinciding input from both NM neurons. To achieve maximum resolution of sound localization in the NL, the conduction velocity along these delay lines must be precisely tuned. Here, we examined the development of this velocity between embryonic days (E)12 and E18. Our optical imaging approach visualizes the contralateral delay lines along almost the complete NL of the chicken embryo. Optical imaging with the voltage-sensitive dye RH 795 showed no significant differences in the velocity between E12 and E15, but a significant increase from E15 to E18, at both 21 degrees C and 35 degrees C. Surprisingly, at 21 degrees C the conduction velocity in the dorso-lateral part of the NL was significantly higher compared to the situation in the ventro-medial part. The observed development in contralateral conduction velocity may be due to a developmental increase in myelination of the NM axons. Indeed, antibody staining against myelin-associated glycoprotein (alpha-MAG) showed no myelination of the NM axon branches within the NL at E12 and E15. On the other hand, a clear alpha-MAG immunoreactivity occurred at E18. Our results therefore describe the developmental physiological properties of the delay line in the chicken embryo. Copyright Â© 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|An apolipoprotein E-mimetic stimulates axonal regeneration and remyelination after peripheral nerve injury. |
Feng-Qiao Li,Kenneth A Fowler,Jessica E Neil,Carol A Colton,Michael P Vitek
The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 334 2010
Elevated apolipoprotein E (apoE) synthesis within crushed sciatic nerves advocates that apoE could benefit axonal repair and reconstruction of axonal and myelin membranes. We created an apoE-mimetic peptide, COG112 (acetyl-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWKKCLRVRLASHLRKLRKRLL-amide), and found that postinjury treatment with COG112 significantly improved recovery of motor and sensory function following sciatic nerve crush in C57BL/6 mice. Morphometric analysis of injured sciatic nerves revealed that COG112 promoted axonal regrowth after 2 weeks of treatment. More strikingly, the thickness of myelin sheaths was increased by COG112 treatment. Consistent with these histological findings, COG112 potently elevated growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and peripheral myelin protein zero (P0), which are markers of axon regeneration and remyelination, respectively. Electron microscopic examination further suggested that the apoE-mimetic COG112 may increase clearance of myelin debris. Schwann cell uptake of cholesterol-containing low-density lipoprotein particles was selectively enhanced by COG112 treatment in a Schwann cell line S16. Moreover, COG112 significantly promoted axon elongation in primary dorsal root ganglion cultures from rat pups. Considering that cholesterol and lipids are needed for reconstructing myelin sheaths and axon extension, these data support a hypothesis where supplementation with exogenous apoE-mimetics such as COG112 may be a promising strategy for restoring lost functional and structural elements following nerve injury.Full Text Article
|Inhibitory activity of myelin-associated glycoprotein on sensory neurons is largely independent of NgR1 and NgR2 and resides within Ig-Like domains 4 and 5. |
Wörter, V; Schweigreiter, R; Kinzel, B; Mueller, M; Barske, C; Böck, G; Frentzel, S; Bandtlow, CE
PloS one 4 e5218 2009
Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec) which has been characterized as potent myelin-derived inhibitor of neurite outgrowth. Two members of the Nogo-receptor (NgR) family, NgR1 and NgR2, have been identified as neuronal binding proteins of MAG. In addition, gangliosides have been proposed to bind to and confer the inhibitory activity of MAG on neurons. In this study, we investigated the individual contribution of NgRs and gangliosides to MAG-mediated inhibition of sensory neurons derived from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of ngr1, ngr2 or ngr1/ngr2 deletion mutants. We found no disinhibition of neurite growth in the absence of either NgR1 or NgR2. Sensory neurons deficient for both NgR proteins displayed only a moderate reduction of MAG-mediated inhibition of neurite growth. If treated with Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCN), inhibition by MAG is further attenuated but still not annulled. Thus, disrupting all known protein and ganglioside receptors for MAG in sensory neurons does not fully abolish its inhibitory activity pointing to the existence of as yet unidentified receptors for MAG. Moreover, by employing a variety of protein mutants, we identified the Ig-like domains 4 or 5 of MAG as necessary and sufficient for growth arrest, whereas abolishing MAG's ability to bind to sialic acid did not interfere with its inhibitory activity. These findings provide new insights into the inhibitory function of MAG and suggest similarities but also major differences in MAG inhibition between sensory and central nervous system (CNS) neurons.
|Alterations of myelin-specific proteins and sphingolipids characterize the brains of acid sphingomyelinase-deficient mice, an animal model of Niemann-Pick disease type A. |
Buccinnà, Barbara, et al.
J. Neurochem., 109: 105-15 (2009) 2009
Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by sphingomyelin (SM) accumulation in lysosomes relying on reduced or absent acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) activity. NPD-A patients develop progressive neurodegeneration including cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, relevant Purkinje cell and myelin deficiency with death within 3 years. ASM'knock-out' (ASMKO) mice, an animal model of NPD-A, develop a phenotype largely mimicking that of NPD-A. The mechanisms underlying myelin formation are poorly documented in ASMKO mice. In this study we determined the content of four myelin-specific proteins, myelin basic protein (MBP), 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP), myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) and proteolipid protein (PLP), and that of myelin-enriched sphingolipids in the brains of ASMKO and wild-type mice in early stages of post-natal (pn) life. Protein and mRNA analysis revealed that in ASMKO mice beginning from 4 post-natal weeks (wk-pn), the expression levels of MAG, CNP, and MBP were below those observed in wild-type mice and the same applied to PLP at 10 wk-pn. Moreover, at 4 wk-pn the expression of SOX10, one of the transcription factors involved in oligodendrocyte development and maintenance was lower in ASMKO mice. Lipid analysis showed that SM and the gangliosides GM3 and GM2 accumulated in the brains of ASMKO mice, as opposed to galactocerebroside and galactosulfocerebroside that, in parallel with the mRNAs of UDP-galactose ceramide galactosyltransferase and galactose-3-O-sulfotransferase 1, the two transferases involved in their synthesis, decreased. Myelin lipid analysis showed a progressive sphingomyelin accumulation in ASMKO mice; noteworthy, of the two sphingomyelin species known to be resolved by TLC, only that with the lower Rf accumulated. The immunohistochemical analysis showed that the reduced expression of myelin specific proteins in ASMKO mice at 10 wk-pn was not restricted to the Purkinje layer of the cerebellar cortex but involved the cerebral cortex as well. In conclusion, reduced oligodendrocyte metabolic activity is likely to be the chief cause of myelin deficiency in ASMKO mice, thus shedding light on the molecular dysfunctions underlying neurodegeneration in NPD-A.
|The heme precursor delta-aminolevulinate blocks peripheral myelin formation. |
Felitsyn, N; McLeod, C; Shroads, AL; Stacpoole, PW; Notterpek, L
Journal of neurochemistry 106 2068-79 2008
Delta-aminolevulinic acid (delta-ALA) is a heme precursor implicated in neurological complications associated with porphyria and tyrosinemia type I. Delta-ALA is also elevated in the urine of animals and patients treated with the investigational drug dichloroacetate (DCA). We postulated that delta-ALA may be responsible, in part, for the peripheral neuropathy observed in subjects receiving DCA. To test this hypothesis, myelinating cocultures of Schwann cells and sensory neurons were exposed to delta-ALA (0.1-1 mM) and analyzed for the expression of neural proteins and lipids and markers of oxidative stress. Exposure of myelinating samples to delta-ALA is associated with a pronounced reduction in the levels of myelin-associated lipids and proteins, including myelin protein zero and peripheral myelin protein 22. We also observed an increase in protein carbonylation and the formation of hydroxynonenal and malondialdehyde after treatment with delta-ALA. Studies of isolated Schwann cells and neurons indicate that glial cells are more vulnerable to this pro-oxidant than neurons, based on a selective decrease in the expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins in glial, but not in neuronal, cells. These results suggest that the neuropathic effects of delta-ALA are attributable, at least in part, to its pro-oxidant properties which damage myelinating Schwann cells.Full Text Article
|Western Blotting, Immunocytochemistry||18665889|
|Corticosteroids reverse cytokine-induced block of survival and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from rats. |
Mann, SA; Versmold, B; Marx, R; Stahlhofen, S; Dietzel, ID; Heumann, R; Berger, R
Journal of neuroinflammation 5 39 2008
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a frequent complication of preterm delivery. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) released from astrocytes and microglia activated by infection or ischemia have previously been shown to impair survival and maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitors and could thus be considered as potential factors contributing to the generation of this disease. The first goal of the present study was to investigate whether exposure of oligodendrocyte precursors to these cytokines arrests the maturation of ion currents in parallel to its effects on myelin proteins and morphological maturation. Secondly, in the search for agents, that can protect differentiating oligodendrocyte precursor cells from cytokine-induced damage we investigated effects of coapplications of corticosteroids with proinflammatory cytokines on the subsequent survival and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells.To exclude influences from factors released from other cell types purified cultures of oligodendrocyte precursors were exposed to cytokines and/or steroids and allowed to differentiate for further 6 days in culture. Changes in membrane surface were investigated with capacitance recordings and Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy. Na+- and K+- currents were investigated using whole cell patch clamp recordings. The expression of myelin specific proteins was investigated using western blots and the precursor cells were identified using immunostaining with A2B5 antibodies.Surviving IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha treated cells continued to maintain voltage-activated Na+- and K+ currents characteristic for the immature cells after 6 days in differentiation medium. Corticosterone, dihydrocorticosterone and, most prominently dexamethasone, counteracted the deleterious effects of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha on cell survival, A2B5-immunostaining and expression of myelin basic protein. The most potent corticosteroid tested, dexamethasone, was shown to counteract cytokine effects on membrane surface extension and capacitance. Furthermore, coapplication of dexamethasone blocked the cytokine-induced downregulation of the inwardly rectifying potassium current in 80% of the precursor cells and restored the cytokine-blocked down-regulation of the voltage activated Na+- and K+ currents during subsequent differentiation.Our results show that treatment of oligodendrocyte precursors with the inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma block the differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursors at the level of the differentiation of the voltage-gated ion currents. Co-treatment with corticosteroids at the time of cytokine application restores to a considerable extent survival and differentiation of oligodendrocytes at the level of morphological, myelin protein as well as ion current maturation suggesting the option for a functional restoration of cytokine-damaged immature oligodendrocytes.Full Text Article
|A novel function of RING finger protein 10 in transcriptional regulation of the myelin-associated glycoprotein gene and myelin formation in Schwann cells. |
Hoshikawa, S; Ogata, T; Fujiwara, S; Nakamura, K; Tanaka, S
PloS one 3 e3464 2008
Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) has been detected in Schwann cells prior to the onset of myelination, suggesting its functions in the initiation of myelination. However, transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of MAG remain to be elucidated. Here, we analyzed the promoter of the MAG gene by using luciferase reporter systems in the primary rat Schwann cells. We identified a novel cis-acting element located 160 bp upstream from the MAG transcription initiation site. Using the identified cis-element as a bait, we performed yeast one-hybrid screening and isolated a cDNA encoding a RNF10 as a putative trans-acting protein. When overexpressed in Schwann cells, RNF10 enhanced the activity of the MAG promoter. When RNF10 expression in Schwann cells was knocked down by siRNA, endogenous MAG mRNA and protein expression decreased. Furthermore, we evaluated myelin synthesis using Schwann cell-DRG neuron cocultures. When Schwann cells were infected with retrovirus expressing RNF10 siRNA, myelin formation was inhibited. These data suggest that RNF10 regulates MAG expression and is required for myelin formation.Full Text Article
|Opalin, a transmembrane sialylglycoprotein located in the central nervous system myelin paranodal loop membrane. |
Yoshikawa, Fumio, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 283: 20830-40 (2008) 2008
In contrast to compact myelin, the series of paranodal loops located in the outermost lateral region of myelin is non-compact; the intracellular space is filled by a continuous channel of cytoplasm, the extracellular surfaces between neighboring loops keep a definite distance, but the loop membranes have junctional specializations. Although the proteins that form compact myelin have been well studied, the protein components of paranodal loop membranes are not fully understood. This report describes the biochemical characterization and expression of Opalin as a novel membrane protein in paranodal loops. Mouse Opalin is composed of a short N-terminal extracellular domain (amino acid residues 1-30), a transmembrane domain (residues 31-53), and a long C-terminal intracellular domain (residues 54-143). Opalin is enriched in myelin of the central nervous system, but not that of the peripheral nervous system of mice. Enzymatic deglycosylation showed that myelin Opalin contained N- and O-glycans, and that the O-glycans, at least, had negatively charged sialic acids. We identified two N-glycan sites at Asn-6 and Asn-12 and an O-glycan site at Thr-14 in the extracellular domain. Site-directed mutations at the glycan sites impaired the cell surface localization of Opalin. In addition to the somata and processes of oligodendrocytes, Opalin immunoreactivity was observed in myelinated axons in a spiral fashion, and was concentrated in the paranodal loop region. Immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that Opalin was localized at particular sites in the paranodal loop membrane. These results suggest a role for highly sialylglycosylated Opalin in an intermembranous function of the myelin paranodal loops in the central nervous system.
|Immunohistochemistry (Tissue)||Mouse, Rat||18490449|
|Myelin-associated glycoprotein reduces axonal branching and enhances functional recovery after sciatic nerve transection in rats. |
Koichi Tomita,Tateki Kubo,Ken Matsuda,Kenji Yano,Masaya Tohyama,Ko Hosokawa
Glia 55 2007
The mature peripheral nervous system (PNS) generally shows better regeneration of injured axons as opposed to the central nervous system (CNS). However, complete functional recovery is rarely achieved even in the PNS although morphologically good axonal regeneration often occurs. This mainly results from aberrant reinnervation due to extensive branching of cut axons with consequent failure of synchronized movements of the muscles. Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), a well-characterized molecule existing both in the CNS and PNS myelin, is considered to be a potent inhibitor of axonal regeneration especially in the CNS. In the present study, we investigated whether MAG has any effects not only on axonal elongation, but also on axonal branching. We show herein that MAG minimized branching of the peripheral axons both in vitro and in vivo via activation of RhoA. Furthermore, after sciatic nerve transection in rats, focal and temporary application of MAG to the lesion dramatically enhanced the functional recovery. Using double retrograde labeling and preoperative/postoperative labeling of spinal neurons, reduced hyperinnervation and improved accuracy of target reinnervation was confirmed, respectively. In conclusion, as MAG significantly improves the quality of axonal regeneration, it can be used as a new therapeutic approach for peripheral nerve repair with possible focal and temporary application.
|Neural MMP-28 expression precedes myelination during development and peripheral nerve repair. |
Sean R Werner,Anthony L Mescher,Anton W Neff,Michael W King,Shalini Chaturvedi,Kevin L Duffin,Mark W Harty,Rosamund C Smith
Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists 236 2007
Mammalian matrix metalloproteinase 28 (MMP-28) is expressed in several normal adult tissues, and during cutaneous wound healing. We show that, in frog and mouse embryos, MMP-28 is expressed predominantly throughout the nervous system. Xenopus expression increases during neurulation and remains elevated through early limb development where it is expressed in nerves. In the mouse, neural expression peaks at embryonic day (E) 14 but remains detectable through E17. During frog hindlimb regeneration XMMP-28 is not initially expressed in the regenerating nerves but is detectable before myelination. Following hindlimb denervation, XMMP-28 expression is detectable along regenerating nerves before myelination. In embryonic rat neuron-glial co-cultures, MMP-28 decreases after the initiation of myelination. Incubation of embryonic brain tissue with purified MMP-28 leads to the degradation of multiple myelin proteins. These results suggest that MMP-28 plays an evolutionarily conserved role in neural development and is likely to modulate the axonal-glial extracellular microenvironment.
|The polarity protein Par-3 directly interacts with p75NTR to regulate myelination. |
Chan, Jonah R, et al.
Science, 314: 832-6 (2006) 2006
|Bace1 modulates myelination in the central and peripheral nervous system. |
Hu, Xiangyou, et al.
Nat. Neurosci., 9: 1520-5 (2006) 2006
|Infection of stationary human brain aggregates with HIV-1 SF162 and IIIB results in transient neuronal damage and neurotoxicity. |
Trillo-Pazos, G, et al.
Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol., 30: 136-47 (2004) 2004
The cellular basis of HIV associated dementia has been correlated with microglial activation and neuronal dysfunction in symptomatic HIV-1 disease. As a cellular model of HIV-1 infection of brain tissue in vitro, we established a stationary human brain aggregate (SHBA) system to compare infection of HIV-1 SF162 (R5 virus) to that of IIIB (X4 virus). Aggregates were analysed by immunohistochemistry, morphometry, flow cytometry and p24 ELISA. SHBAs had a 1 mm(3) size with a mixed cellular composition of 36% neurones, 27% astrocytes, 2% macrophages/microglia and 14% oligodendrocytes. Infection of SHBA's with the R5 HIV-1 SF162 virus led to the expression of HIV-1 p24 antigen in 6% of cells. Infection with this R5 using virus culminated in transient neuronal damage and a decrease in mitotically active progenitor cells within aggregates. Infection with X4 using HIV-1 IIIB was associated with astrocytosis and neurotoxicity. We propose that: (1) the pattern of cellular damage elicited by HIV-1 infection of brain tissue in vitro depends on virus subtype as determined by its preferential use of R5 or X4 chemokine receptors for entry into cells; (2) SHBAs are a reliable and readily established model of the cellular complexity of human brain tissue in vitro.
|NGF controls axonal receptivity to myelination by Schwann cells or oligodendrocytes. |
Chan, Jonah R, et al.
Neuron, 43: 183-91 (2004) 2004
|Loss of K-Cl co-transporter KCC3 causes deafness, neurodegeneration and reduced seizure threshold. |
Boettger, T; Rust, MB; Maier, H; Seidenbecher, T; Schweizer, M; Keating, DJ; Faulhaber, J; Ehmke, H; Pfeffer, C; Scheel, O; Lemcke, B; Horst, J; Leuwer, R; Pape, HC; Völkl, H; Hübner, CA; Jentsch, TJ
The EMBO journal 22 5422-34 2003
K-Cl co-transporters are encoded by four homologous genes and may have roles in transepithelial transport and in the regulation of cell volume and cytoplasmic chloride. KCC3, an isoform mutated in the human Anderman syndrome, is expressed in brain, epithelia and other tissues. To investigate the physiological functions of KCC3, we disrupted its gene in mice. This severely impaired cell volume regulation as assessed in renal tubules and neurons, and moderately raised intraneuronal Cl(-) concentration. Kcc3(-/-) mice showed severe motor abnormalities correlating with a progressive neurodegeneration in the peripheral and CNS. Although no spontaneous seizures were observed, Kcc3(-/-) mice displayed reduced seizure threshold and spike-wave complexes on electrocorticograms. These resembled EEG abnormalities in patients with Anderman syndrome. Kcc3(-/-) mice also displayed arterial hypertension and a slowly progressive deafness. KCC3 was expressed in many, but not all cells of the inner ear K(+) recycling pathway. These cells slowly degenerated, as did sensory hair cells. The present mouse model has revealed important cellular and systemic functions of KCC3 and is highly relevant for Anderman syndrome.
|Hematopoietic progenitors express neural genes. |
Goolsby, J; Marty, MC; Heletz, D; Chiappelli, J; Tashko, G; Yarnell, D; Fishman, PS; Dhib-Jalbut, S; Bever, CT; Pessac, B; Trisler, D
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100 14926-31 2003
Bone marrow, or cells selected from bone marrow, were reported recently to give rise to cells with a neural phenotype after in vitro treatment with neural-inducing factors or after delivery into the brain. However, we showed previously that untreated bone marrow cells express products of the neural myelin basic protein gene, and we demonstrate here that a subset of ex vivo bone marrow cells expresses the neurogenic transcription factor Pax-6 as well as neuronal genes encoding neurofilament H, NeuN (neuronal nuclear protein), HuC/HuD (Hu-antigen C/Hu-antigen D), and GAD65 (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65), as well as the oligodendroglial gene encoding CNPase (2',3' cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphohydrolase). In contrast, astroglial glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was not detected. These cells also were CD34+, a marker of hematopoietic stem cells. Cultures of these highly proliferative CD34+ cells, derived from adult mouse bone marrow, uniformly displayed a phenotype comparable with that of hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD45+, CD34+, Sca-1+, AA4.1+, cKit+, GATA-2+, and LMO-2+). The neuronal and oligodendroglial genes expressed in ex vivo bone marrow also were expressed in all cultured CD34+ cells, and GFAP was not observed. After CD34+ cell transplantation into adult brain, neuronal or oligodendroglial markers segregated into distinct nonoverlapping cell populations, whereas astroglial GFAP appeared, in the absence of other neural markers, in a separate set of implanted cells. Thus, neuronal and oligodendroglial gene products are present in a subset of bone marrow cells, and the expression of these genes can be regulated in brain. The fact that these CD34+ cells also express transcription factors (Rex-1 and Oct-4) that are found in early development elicits the hypothesis that they may be pluripotent embryonic-like stem cells.
|Vaccination stimulates retinal ganglion cell regeneration in the adult optic nerve. |
Benjamin Ellezam, Johanne Bertrand, Pauline Dergham, Lisa McKerracher
Neurobiology of disease 12 1-10 2003
We examined whether vaccination of adult rats with spinal cord homogenate (SCH) can promote regeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after microcrush lesion of the optic nerve. Injured animals vaccinated with SCH showed axon growth into the optic nerve and such regeneration was not observed in animals vaccinated with liver homogenate (LH). Regeneration was not a consequence of neuroprotection since our vaccine did not protect RGCs from axotomy-induced cell death. Sera of vaccinated animals were tested for antibodies against myelin-associated glycoprotein, NogoA, Nogo-66 receptor, or chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPG), but no significant levels were detected. Antibodies to myelin basic protein were present in the serum of some SCH-vaccinated animals. In culture, serum from SCH-vaccinated animals promoted RGC growth on myelin but not on CSPG. Our results show that the effect of the pro-regenerative vaccine is mediated by antibodies to SCH. However, we were not able to detect a significant immune reaction to growth inhibitory proteins, suggesting alternative mechanisms for the success of vaccination to promote regeneration.
|Connexin29 expression, immunocytochemistry and freeze-fracture replica immunogold labelling (FRIL) in sciatic nerve. |
Xinbo Li, B D Lynn, C Olson, C Meier, K G V Davidson, T Yasumura, J E Rash, J I Nagy
The European journal of neuroscience 16 795-806 2002
The recently discovered connexin29 (Cx29) was reported to be present in the central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS and PNS), and its mRNA was found in particular abundance in peripheral nerve. The expression and localization of Cx29 protein in sciatic nerve were investigated using an antibody against Cx29. The antibody recognized Cx29 in HeLa cells transfected with Cx29 cDNA, while nontransfected HeLa cells were devoid of Cx29. Immunoblotting of sciatic nerve homogenate revealed monomeric and possibly higher molecular weight forms of Cx29. These were distinguished from connexin32 (Cx32), which also is expressed in peripheral nerve. Double immunofluorescence labelling for Cx29 and Cx32 revealed only partial colocalization of the two connexins, with codistribution at intermittent, conical-shaped striations along nerve fibers. By freeze-fracture replica immunogold labelling (FRIL), Cx32 was found in gap junctions in the outermost layers of myelin, whereas Cx29-immunogold labelling was found only in the innermost layer of myelin in close association with hexagonally arranged intramembrane particle (IMP) 'rosettes' and gap junction-like clusters of IMPs. Although both Cx32 and Cx29 were detected in myelin of normal mice, only Cx29 was present in Schwann cell membranes in Cx32 knockout mice. The results confirm that Cx29 is a second connexin expressed in Schwann cells of sciatic nerve. In addition, Cx29 is present in distinctive IMP arrays in the inner most layer of myelin, adjacent to internodal axonal plasma membranes, where this connexin may have previously unrecognized functions.Full Text Article
|Myelin-associated glycoprotein interacts with ganglioside GT1b. A mechanism for neurite outgrowth inhibition. |
Vinson, M; Strijbos, PJ; Rowles, A; Facci, L; Moore, SE; Simmons, DL; Walsh, FS
The Journal of biological chemistry 276 20280-5 2001
Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is expressed on myelinating glia and inhibits neurite outgrowth from post-natal neurons. MAG has a sialic acid binding site in its N-terminal domain and binds to specific sialylated glycans and gangliosides present on the surface of neurons, but the significance of these interactions in the effect of MAG on neurite outgrowth is unclear. Here we present evidence to suggest that recognition of sialylated glycans is essential for inhibition of neurite outgrowth by MAG. Arginine 118 on MAG is known to make a key contact with sialic acid. We show that mutation of this residue reduces the potency of MAG inhibitory activity but that residual activity is also a result of carbohydrate recognition. We then go on to investigate gangliosides GT1b and GD1a as candidate MAG receptors. We show that MAG specifically binds both gangliosides and that both are expressed on the surface of MAG-responsive neurons. Furthermore, antibody cross-linking of cell surface GT1b, but not GD1a, mimics the effect of MAG, in that neurite outgrowth is inhibited through activation of Rho kinase. These data strongly suggest that interaction with GT1b on the neuronal cell surface is a potential mechanism for inhibition of neurite outgrowth by MAG.
|Optimal aminoglycoside dosing regimen for penicillin-tobramycin synergism in experimental Streptococcus adjacens endocarditis. |
A Saleh-Mghir,A C Cremieux,J M Vallois,M Muffat-Joly,C Devine,C Carbon
Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 36 1992
The combination of penicillin and aminoglycoside is the recommended therapy for endocarditis caused by nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS). However, the optimal aminoglycoside dosing regimen remains controversial. We compared the efficacies of four regimens of tobramycin alone or combined with procaine penicillin in the therapy of rabbits with endocarditis caused by Streptococcus adjacens, a new species of NVS. Animals were injected intramuscularly for 4 days with procaine penicillin (150,000 U/kg of body weight twice daily) or tobramycin at a low dose (3 mg/kg every 24 h) or a high dose (12 mg/kg every 24 h) either once or three times daily (t.i.d.) alone or in combination with procaine penicillin. Additional groups of animals were treated with the combination regimens for a shorter period of time (2 days) in order to demonstrate a possible difference in the rapidity of efficacy between the regimens. The MICs and MBCs were 0.015 and 1 micrograms/ml and 8 and 16 micrograms/ml for penicillin and tobramycin, respectively. The mean peak tobramycin levels in plasma were 2.4 +/- 1.3 (1 mg/kg t.i.d.), 5.4 +/- 3.7 (4 mg/kg t.i.d.), and 25 +/- 9.3 (12 mg/kg once daily). The mean penicillin levels in serum were always above the MIC. In vitro kill curves plotted at the time that peak concentrations were reached in plasma showed a concentration-dependent killing effect of tobramycin alone but not in combination with penicillin. In vivo, low-dose tobramycin was significantly less effective than the high dose. Results for the combinations of the different dosing regimens of tobramycin with procaine penicillin were not significantly different. Our results suggest that (i) against susceptible strains of streptococci, aminoglycoside alone exhibits a concentration-dependent killing effect both in vitro and in vivo; (ii) against NVS strains, combinations of penicillin and high- or low-dose tobramycin are equally effective; and (iii) aminoglycoside given once daily or at a low dose t.i.d. with penicillin could be a cost-effective alternative with reduced toxic risk for patients with NVS endocarditis when the bacteria are susceptible to the killing activities of both compounds.Full Text Article
|Anti-Myelin Associated Glycoprotein, clone 513 - Data Sheet|