Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Application||Anti-Myc Tag Antibody, clone 4A6, HRP conjugate detects level of Myc Tag & has been published & validated for use in WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at -20ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Bimodal activation of BubR1 by Bub3 sustains mitotic checkpoint signaling. |
Han, JS; Vitre, B; Fachinetti, D; Cleveland, DW
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 E4185-93 2014
The mitotic checkpoint (also known as the spindle assembly checkpoint) prevents premature anaphase onset through generation of an inhibitor of the E3 ubiquitin ligase APC/C, whose ubiquitination of cyclin B and securin targets them for degradation. Combining in vitro reconstitution and cell-based assays, we now identify dual mechanisms through which Bub3 promotes mitotic checkpoint signaling. Bub3 enhances signaling at unattached kinetochores not only by facilitating binding of BubR1 but also by enhancing Cdc20 recruitment to kinetochores mediated by BubR1's internal Cdc20 binding site. Downstream of kinetochore-produced complexes, Bub3 promotes binding of BubR1's conserved, amino terminal Cdc20 binding domain to a site in Cdc20 that becomes exposed by initial Mad2 binding. This latter Bub3-stimulated event generates the final mitotic checkpoint complex of Bub3-BubR1-Cdc20 that selectively inhibits ubiquitination of securin and cyclin B by APC/C(Cdc20). Thus, Bub3 promotes two distinct BubR1-Cdc20 interactions, involving each of the two Cdc20 binding sites of BubR1 and acting at unattached kinetochores or cytoplasmically, respectively, to facilitate production of the mitotic checkpoint inhibitor.
|Catalytic assembly of the mitotic checkpoint inhibitor BubR1-Cdc20 by a Mad2-induced functional switch in Cdc20. |
Han, JS; Holland, AJ; Fachinetti, D; Kulukian, A; Cetin, B; Cleveland, DW
Molecular cell 51 92-104 2013
The mitotic checkpoint acts to maintain chromosome content by generation of a diffusible anaphase inhibitor. Unattached kinetochores catalyze a conformational shift in Mad2, converting an inactive open form into a closed form that can capture Cdc20, the mitotic activator of the APC/C ubiquitin ligase. Mad2 binding is now shown to promote a functional switch in Cdc20, exposing a previously inaccessible site for binding to BubR1's conserved Mad3 homology domain. BubR1, but not Mad2, binding to APC/C(Cdc20) is demonstrated to inhibit ubiquitination of cyclin B. Closed Mad2 is further shown to catalytically amplify production of BubR1-Cdc20 without necessarily being part of the complex. Thus, the mitotic checkpoint is produced by a cascade of two catalytic steps: an initial step acting at unattached kinetochores to produce a diffusible Mad2-Cdc20 intermediate and a diffusible step in which that intermediate amplifies production of BubR1-Cdc20, the inhibitor of cyclin B ubiquitination, by APC/C(Cdc20).
|A novel transgenic mouse model of growth plate dysplasia reveals that decreased chondrocyte proliferation due to chronic ER stress is a key factor in reduced bone growth. |
Gualeni, B; Rajpar, MH; Kellogg, A; Bell, PA; Arvan, P; Boot-Handford, RP; Briggs, MD
Disease models & mechanisms 6 1414-25 2013
Disease mechanisms leading to different forms of chondrodysplasia include extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations and intracellular stress resulting in abnormal changes to chondrocyte proliferation and survival. Delineating the relative contribution of these two disease mechanisms is a major challenge in understanding disease pathophysiology in genetic skeletal diseases and a prerequisite for developing effective therapies. To determine the influence of intracellular stress and changes in chondrocyte phenotype to the development of chondrodysplasia, we targeted the expression of the G2320R mutant form of thyroglobulin to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of resting and proliferating chondrocytes. Previous studies on this mutant protein have shown that it induces intracellular aggregates and causes cell stress and death in the thyroid gland. The expression and retention of this exogenous mutant protein in resting and proliferating chondrocytes resulted in a chronic cell stress response, growth plate dysplasia and reduced bone growth, without inducing any alterations to the architecture and organization of the cartilage ECM. More significantly, the decreased bone growth seemed to be the direct result of reduced chondrocyte proliferation in the proliferative zone of growth plates in transgenic mice, without transcriptional activation of a classical unfolded protein response (UPR) or apoptosis. Overall, these data show that mutant protein retention in the ER of resting and proliferative zone chondrocytes is sufficient to cause disrupted bone growth. The specific disease pathways triggered by mutant protein retention do not necessarily involve a prototypic UPR, but all pathways impact upon chondrocyte proliferation in the cartilage growth plate.
|ZBTB32 is an early repressor of the CIITA and MHC class II gene expression during B cell differentiation to plasma cells. |
Yoon, HS; Scharer, CD; Majumder, P; Davis, CW; Butler, R; Zinzow-Kramer, W; Skountzou, I; Koutsonanos, DG; Ahmed, R; Boss, JM
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 189 2393-403 2012
CIITA and MHC class II expression is silenced during the differentiation of B cells to plasma cells. When B cell differentiation is carried out ex vivo, CIITA silencing occurs rapidly, but the factors contributing to this event are not known. ZBTB32, also known as repressor of GATA3, was identified as an early repressor of CIITA in an ex vivo plasma cell differentiation model. ZBTB32 activity occurred at a time when B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1), the regulator of plasma cell fate and suppressor of CIITA, was minimally induced. Ectopic expression of ZBTB32 suppressed CIITA and I-A gene expression in B cells. Short hairpin RNA depletion of ZBTB32 in a plasma cell line resulted in re-expression of CIITA and I-A. Compared with conditional Blimp-1 knockout and wild-type B cells, B cells from ZBTB32/ROG-knockout mice displayed delayed kinetics in silencing CIITA during ex vivo plasma cell differentiation. ZBTB32 was found to bind to the CIITA gene, suggesting that ZBTB32 directly regulates CIITA. Lastly, ZBTB32 and Blimp-1 coimmunoprecipitated, suggesting that the two repressors may ultimately function together to silence CIITA expression. These results introduce ZBTB32 as a novel regulator of MHC-II gene expression and a potential regulatory partner of Blimp-1 in repressing gene expression.
|Overview of tag protein fusions: from molecular and biochemical fundamentals to commercial systems |
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 60:523-33 (2003) 2003