Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||IHC, IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||250 µg|
References | 25 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Cell cycle dependent oscillatory expression of estrogen receptor-α links Pol II elongation to neoplastic transformation. |
Vantaggiato, C; Tocchetti, M; Cappelletti, V; Gurtner, A; Villa, A; Daidone, MG; Piaggio, G; Maggi, A; Ciana, P
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 9561-6 2014
Decades of studies provided a detailed view of the mechanism of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) regulated gene transcription and the physio-pathological relevance of the genetic programs controlled by this receptor in a variety of tissues. However, still limited is our knowledge on the regulation of ERα synthesis. Preliminary observations showed that the expression of ERα is cell cycle regulated. Here, we have demonstrated that a well described polymorphic sequence in the first intron of ERα (PvuII and XbaI) has a key role in regulating the ERα content in cycling cells. We have shown that the RNA Pol II (Pol II) elongation is blocked at the polymorphic site and that the proto-oncogene c-MYB modulates the release of the pausing polymerase. It is well known that the two SNPs are associated to an increased risk, progression, survival and mortality of endocrine-related cancers, here we have demonstrated that the c-MYB-dependent release of Pol II at a specific phase of the cell cycle is facilitated by the px haplotype, thus leading to a higher ERα mitogenic signal. In breast cancer, this mechanism is disrupted when the hormone refractory phenotype is established; therefore, we propose this oscillator as a novel target for the development of therapies aimed at sensitizing breast cancer resistant to hormonal treatments. Because PvuII and XbaI were associated to a broad range physio-pathological conditions beside neoplastic transformation, we expect that the ERα oscillator contributes to the regulation of the estrogen signal in several tissues.
|c-Myb inhibits myoblast fusion. |
Kaspar, P; Ilencikova, K; Zikova, M; Horvath, O; Cermak, V; Bartunek, P; Strnad, H
PloS one 8 e76742 2013
Satellite cells represent a heterogeneous population of stem and progenitor cells responsible for muscle growth, repair and regeneration. We investigated whether c-Myb could play a role in satellite cell biology because our previous results using satellite cell-derived mouse myoblast cell line C2C12 showed that c-Myb was expressed in growing cells and downregulated during differentiation. We detected c-Myb expression in activated satellite cells of regenerating muscle. c-Myb was also discovered in activated satellite cells associated with isolated viable myofiber and in descendants of activated satellite cells, proliferating myoblasts. However, no c-Myb expression was detected in multinucleated myotubes originated from fusing myoblasts. The constitutive expression of c-Myb lacking the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) strongly inhibited the ability of myoblasts to fuse. The inhibition was dependent on intact c-Myb transactivation domain as myoblasts expressing mutated c-Myb in transactivation domain were able to fuse. The absence of 3' UTR of c-Myb was also important because the expression of c-Myb coding region with its 3' UTR did not inhibit myoblast fusion. The same results were repeated in C2C12 cells as well. Moreover, it was documented that 3' UTR of c-Myb was responsible for downregulation of c-Myb protein levels in differentiating C2C12 cells. DNA microarray analysis of C2C12 cells revealed that the expression of several muscle-specific genes was downregulated during differentiation of c-Myb-expressing cells, namely: ACTN2, MYH8, TNNC2, MYOG, CKM and LRRN1. A detailed qRT-PCR analysis of MYOG, TNNC2 and LRRN1 is presented. Our findings thus indicate that c-Myb is involved in regulating the differentiation program of myogenic progenitor cells as its expression blocks myoblast fusion.
|Direct repression of MYB by ZEB1 suppresses proliferation and epithelial gene expression during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells. |
Hugo, HJ; Pereira, L; Suryadinata, R; Drabsch, Y; Gonda, TJ; Gunasinghe, NP; Pinto, C; Soo, ET; van Denderen, BJ; Hill, P; Ramsay, RG; Sarcevic, B; Newgreen, DF; Thompson, EW
Breast cancer research : BCR 15 R113 2013
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes cell migration and is important in metastasis. Cellular proliferation is often downregulated during EMT, and the reverse transition (MET) in metastases appears to be required for restoration of proliferation in secondary tumors. We studied the interplay between EMT and proliferation control by MYB in breast cancer cells.MYB, ZEB1, and CDH1 expression levels were manipulated by lentiviral small-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown/overexpression, and verified with Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, and qRT-PCR. Proliferation was assessed with bromodeoxyuridine pulse labeling and flow cytometry, and sulforhodamine B assays. EMT was induced with epidermal growth factor for 9 days or by exposure to hypoxia (1% oxygen) for up to 5 days, and assessed with qRT-PCR, cell morphology, and colony morphology. Protein expression in human breast cancers was assessed with immunohistochemistry. ZEB1-MYB promoter binding and repression were determined with Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Assay and a luciferase reporter assay, respectively. Student paired t tests, Mann-Whitney, and repeated measures two-way ANOVA tests determined statistical significance (P less than 0.05).Parental PMC42-ET cells displayed higher expression of ZEB1 and lower expression of MYB than did the PMC42-LA epithelial variant. Knockdown of ZEB1 in PMC42-ET and MDA-MB-231 cells caused increased expression of MYB and a transition to a more epithelial phenotype, which in PMC42-ET cells was coupled with increased proliferation. Indeed, we observed an inverse relation between MYB and ZEB1 expression in two in vitro EMT cell models, in matched human breast tumors and lymph node metastases, and in human breast cancer cell lines. Knockdown of MYB in PMC42-LA cells (MYBsh-LA) led to morphologic changes and protein expression consistent with an EMT. ZEB1 expression was raised in MYBsh-LA cells and significantly repressed in MYB-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 cells, which also showed reduced random migration and a shift from mesenchymal to epithelial colony morphology in two dimensional monolayer cultures. Finally, we detected binding of ZEB1 to MYB promoter in PMC42-ET cells, and ZEB1 overexpression repressed MYB promoter activity.This work identifies ZEB1 as a transcriptional repressor of MYB and suggests a reciprocal MYB-ZEB1 repressive relation, providing a mechanism through which proliferation and the epithelial phenotype may be coordinately modulated in breast cancer cells.
|The inhibitory role of Mir-29 in growth of breast cancer cells. |
Wu, Z; Huang, X; Huang, X; Zou, Q; Guo, Y
Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR 32 98 2013
Mir-29 microRNA families are involved in regulation of various types of cancers. Although Mir-29 was shown to play an inhibitory role in tumorigenesis, the role of Mir-29 in breast cancer still remains obscure. In this study, we showed that Mir-29a is the dominant isoform in its family in mammary cells and expression of Mir-29a was down-regulated in different types of breast cancers. Furthermore, over-expression of Mir-29a resulted in significant slower growth of breast cancer cells and caused higher percentage of cells at G0/G1 phase. Consistent with this over-expression data, knockdown of Mir-29a in normal mammary cells lead to higher cell growth rate, and higher percentage of cells entering S phase. We further found that Mir-29a negatively regulated expression of B-Myb, which is a transcription factor associated with tumorigenesis. The protein levels of Cyclin A2 and D1 are consistent with the protein level of B-Myb. Taken together, our data suggests Mir-29a plays an important role in inhibiting growth of breast cancer cells and arresting cells at G0/G1 phase. Our data also suggests that Mir-29a may suppress tumor growth through down-regulating B-Myb.
|Activation of miR200 by c-Myb depends on ZEB1 expression and miR200 promoter methylation. |
Pieraccioli, M; Imbastari, F; Antonov, A; Melino, G; Raschellà, G
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 12 2309-20 2013
Tumor progression to metastasis is a complex, sequential process that requires proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, motility and invasion to colonize at distant sites. The acquisition of these features implies a phenotypic plasticity by tumor cells that must adapt to different conditions by modulating several signaling pathways (1) during the journey to the final site of metastasis. Several transcription factors and microRNA play a role in tumor progression, but less is known about the control of their expression during this process. Here, we demonstrate by ectopic expression and gene silencing that the proto-oncogene c-Myb activates the expression of the 5 members of miR200 family (miR200b, miR200a, miR429, miR200c and miR141) that are involved in the control of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis in many types of cancers. Transcriptional activation of miR200 by c-Myb occurs through binding to myb binding sites located in the promoter regions of miR200 genes on human chromosomes 1 and 12. Furthermore, when c-Myb and the transcriptional repressor ZEB1 are co-expressed, as at the onset EMT, the repression by ZEB1 prevails over the activation by c-Myb, and the expression of miR200 is inhibited. We also demonstrate that during EMT induced by TGF-β, the promoters of miR200 genes are methylated, and their transcription is repressed regardless of the presence of repressors such as ZEB1 and activators such as c-Myb. Finally, we find a correlation between the expression of c-Myb and that of four out of 5 miR200 in a data set of 207 breast cancer patients.
|Ebf1 and c-Myb repress rag transcription downstream of Stat5 during early B cell development. |
Timblin, GA; Schlissel, MS
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 191 4676-87 2013
The temporal control of RAG (Rag) expression in developing lymphocytes prevents DNA breaks during periods of proliferation that could threaten genomic integrity. In developing B cells, the IL-7R and precursor B cell Ag receptor (pre-BCR) synergize to induce proliferation and the repression of Rag at the protein and mRNA levels for a brief period following successful Ig H chain gene rearrangement. Whereas the mechanism of RAG2 protein downregulation is well defined, little is known about the pathways and transcription factors that mediate transcriptional repression of Rag. Using Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed B cells to model this stage of development, we identified early B cell factor 1 (Ebf1) as a strong repressor of Rag transcription. Short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of either Ebf1 or its downstream target c-Myb was sufficient to induce Rag transcription in these highly proliferative cells. Ebf1 and c-Myb antagonize Rag transcription by negatively regulating the binding of Foxo1 to the Rag locus. Ebf1 accomplishes this through both direct negative regulation of Foxo1 expression and direct positive regulation of Gfi1b expression. Ebf1 expression is driven by the IL-7R downstream effector Stat5, providing a link between the negative regulation of Rag transcription by IL-7 and a novel repressive pathway involving Ebf1 and c-Myb.
|Perturbation of fetal hematopoiesis in a mouse model of Down syndrome's transient myeloproliferative disorder. |
Birger, Y; Goldberg, L; Chlon, TM; Goldenson, B; Muler, I; Schiby, G; Jacob-Hirsch, J; Rechavi, G; Crispino, JD; Izraeli, S
Blood 122 988-98 2013
Children with Down syndrome develop a unique congenital clonal megakaryocytic proliferation disorder (transient myeloproliferative disorder [TMD]). It is caused by an expansion of fetal megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors (MEPs) triggered by trisomy of chromosome 21 and is further enhanced by the somatic acquisition of a mutation in GATA1. These mutations result in the expression of a short-isoform GATA1s lacking the N-terminal domain. To examine the hypothesis that the Hsa21 ETS transcription factor ERG cooperates with GATA1s in this process, we generated double-transgenic mice expressing hERG and Gata1s. We show that increased expression of ERG by itself is sufficient to induce expansion of MEPs in fetal livers. Gata1s expression synergizes with ERG in enhancing the expansion of fetal MEPs and megakaryocytic precursors, resulting in hepatic fibrosis, transient postnatal thrombocytosis, anemia, a gene expression profile that is similar to that of human TMD and progression to progenitor myeloid leukemia by 3 months of age. This ERG/Gata1s transgenic mouse model also uncovers an essential role for the N terminus of Gata1 in erythropoiesis and the antagonistic role of ERG in fetal erythroid differentiation and survival. The human relevance of this finding is underscored by the recent discovery of similar mutations in GATA1 in patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia.
|The TAL1 complex targets the FBXW7 tumor suppressor by activating miR-223 in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. |
Mansour, MR; Sanda, T; Lawton, LN; Li, X; Kreslavsky, T; Novina, CD; Brand, M; Gutierrez, A; Kelliher, MA; Jamieson, CH; von Boehmer, H; Young, RA; Look, AT
The Journal of experimental medicine 210 1545-57 2013
The oncogenic transcription factor TAL1/SCL is aberrantly expressed in 60% of cases of human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and initiates T-ALL in mouse models. By performing global microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling after depletion of TAL1, together with genome-wide analysis of TAL1 occupancy by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to massively parallel DNA sequencing, we identified the miRNA genes directly controlled by TAL1 and its regulatory partners HEB, E2A, LMO1/2, GATA3, and RUNX1. The most dynamically regulated miRNA was miR-223, which is bound at its promoter and up-regulated by the TAL1 complex. miR-223 expression mirrors TAL1 levels during thymic development, with high expression in early thymocytes and marked down-regulation after the double-negative-2 stage of maturation. We demonstrate that aberrant miR-223 up-regulation by TAL1 is important for optimal growth of TAL1-positive T-ALL cells and that sustained expression of miR-223 partially rescues T-ALL cells after TAL1 knockdown. Overexpression of miR-223 also leads to marked down-regulation of FBXW7 protein expression, whereas knockdown of TAL1 leads to up-regulation of FBXW7 protein levels, with a marked reduction of its substrates MYC, MYB, NOTCH1, and CYCLIN E. We conclude that TAL1-mediated up-regulation of miR-223 promotes the malignant phenotype in T-ALL through repression of the FBXW7 tumor suppressor.
|Glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 induces prostate cancer cell death through Hsc70-mediated suppression of AURKA and TPX2. |
Li, L; Yang, G; Ren, C; Tanimoto, R; Hirayama, T; Wang, J; Hawke, D; Kim, SM; Lee, JS; Goltsov, AA; Park, S; Ittmann, MM; Troncoso, P; Thompson, TC
Molecular oncology 7 484-96 2013
In this study we report that expression of glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 (GLIPR1) regulated numerous apoptotic, cell cycle, and spindle/centrosome assembly-related genes, including AURKA and TPX2, and induced apoptosis and/or mitotic catastrophe (MC) in prostate cancer (PCa) cells, including p53-mutated/deleted, androgen-insensitive metastatic PCa cells. Mechanistically, GLIPR1 interacts with heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70); this interaction is associated with SP1 and c-Myb destabilization and suppression of SP1- and c-Myb-mediated AURKA and TPX2 transcription. Inhibition of AURKA and TPX2 using siRNA mimicked enforced GLIPR1 expression in the induction of apoptosis and MC. Recombinant GLIPR1-ΔTM protein inhibited AURKA and TPX2 expression, induced apoptosis and MC, and suppressed orthotopic xenograft tumor growth. Our results define a novel GLIPR1-regulated signaling pathway that controls apoptosis and/or mitotic catastrophe in PCa cells and establishes the potential of this pathway for targeted therapies.
|c-Myb interacts with the glucocorticoid receptor and regulates its level in pre-B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. |
Sarvaiya, PJ; Schwartz, JR; Geng, CD; Vedeckis, WV
Molecular and cellular endocrinology 361 124-32 2012
Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones are used in the treatment of hematopoietic malignancies. When the GC binds to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein, c-Myb and GR are recruited at the Glucocorticoid Response Unit in the DNA. Here we demonstrate that c-Myb interacts with the GR and that decreasing c-Myb amounts reduces the levels of GR transcripts and protein in 697 pre-B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. Furthermore, the auto-upregulation of GR promoter 1C and promoter 1D is blunted at reduced c-Myb levels. Taken together, these data show that c-Myb is a direct, key regulator of the GR. Unexpectedly, the reduction in c-Myb levels increased the sensitivity of the cells to steroid-mediated apoptosis. This was because the reduction in c-Myb itself decreases cell viability, and the residual GR remained above the threshold needed to trigger apoptosis. These studies show the mutual importance of c-Myb and the GR in controlling survival of pre-B ALL cells.
|c-Myb regulates matrix metalloproteinases 1/9, and cathepsin D: implications for matrix-dependent breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis. |
Knopfová, L; Beneš, P; Pekarčíková, L; Hermanová, M; Masařík, M; Pernicová, Z; Souček, K; Smarda, J
Molecular cancer 11 15 2012
The c-Myb transcription factor is essential for the maintenance of stem-progenitor cells in bone marrow, colon epithelia, and neurogenic niches. c-Myb malfunction contributes to several types of malignancies including breast cancer. However, the function of c-Myb in the metastatic spread of breast tumors remains unexplored. In this study, we report a novel role of c-Myb in the control of specific proteases that regulate the matrix-dependent invasion of breast cancer cells.Ectopically expressed c-Myb enhanced migration and ability of human MDA-MB-231 and mouse 4T1 mammary cancer cells to invade Matrigel but not the collagen I matrix in vitro. c-Myb strongly increased the expression/activity of cathepsin D and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and significantly downregulated MMP1. The gene coding for cathepsin D was suggested as the c-Myb-responsive gene and downstream effector of the migration-promoting function of c-Myb. Finally, we demonstrated that c-Myb delayed the growth of mammary tumors in BALB/c mice and affected the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells in an organ-specific manner.This study identified c-Myb as a matrix-dependent regulator of invasive behavior of breast cancer cells.
|Integrated genome-wide chromatin occupancy and expression analyses identify key myeloid pro-differentiation transcription factors repressed by Myb. |
Zhao, L; Glazov, EA; Pattabiraman, DR; Al-Owaidi, F; Zhang, P; Brown, MA; Leo, PJ; Gonda, TJ
Nucleic acids research 39 4664-79 2011
To gain insight into the mechanisms by which the Myb transcription factor controls normal hematopoiesis and particularly, how it contributes to leukemogenesis, we mapped the genome-wide occupancy of Myb by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) in ERMYB myeloid progenitor cells. By integrating the genome occupancy data with whole genome expression profiling data, we identified a Myb-regulated transcriptional program. Gene signatures for leukemia stem cells, normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and myeloid development were overrepresented in 2368 Myb regulated genes. Of these, Myb bound directly near or within 793 genes. Myb directly activates some genes known critical in maintaining hematopoietic stem cells, such as Gfi1 and Cited2. Importantly, we also show that, despite being usually considered as a transactivator, Myb also functions to repress approximately half of its direct targets, including several key regulators of myeloid differentiation, such as Sfpi1 (also known as Pu.1), Runx1, Junb and Cebpb. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that interaction with p300, an established coactivator for Myb, is unexpectedly required for Myb-mediated transcriptional repression. We propose that the repression of the above mentioned key pro-differentiation factors may contribute essentially to Myb's ability to suppress differentiation and promote self-renewal, thus maintaining progenitor cells in an undifferentiated state and promoting leukemic transformation.
|TGFβ-induced c-Myb affects the expression of EMT-associated genes and promotes invasion of ER+ breast cancer cells. |
Vincenzo Cesi,Arianna Casciati,Fabiola Sesti,Barbara Tanno,Bruno Calabretta,Giuseppe Raschellà
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 10 2011
Advanced breast cancer cells acquire metastatic properties in response to TGFβ. We show here that the expression of c-Myb increases in TGFβ-treated ER (+) breast cancer cells by protein stabilization, transcription activation and release from miR200-dependent down-regulation. In particular, we mapped 2 sites for miR200b, miR200c and miR429 binding in the 3' UTR of the human c-myb gene. These microRNAs decreased the expression of c-Myb when transfected in MCF-7 cells. In addition, luciferase activity from a vector containing the 3' UTR of the c-myb gene was inhibited by miR200s through a binding-dependent mechanism. siRNA- and shRNA-mediated down-regulation was used to investigate the role of c-Myb for the effects induced by TGFβ in ER(+) breast cancer MCF-7 and ZR-75.1 cells. Transfection with c-Myb siRNAs blocked the increase of Slug (SNAI2) and Bcl-2 expression and reversed the decrease in E-cadherin expression induced by TGF-β treatment. Conversely, c-Myb down-regulation decreased invasion and anchorage-independent growth of breast cancer cells expressing a constitutively active TGFβ receptor I. Finally, apoptosis induced by etoposide increased in c-Myb-silenced TGFβ-treated ER(+) cell lines. In summary, exposure of ER(+) breast cancer cells to TGFβ induces an increase of c-Myb expression which is required for expression of EMT-associated markers, in vitro invasion and anchorage-independent growth. Furthermore, our findings suggest a potentially detrimental effect of TGFβ and c-Myb co-expression in breast cancer.
|c-Myb oncoprotein is an essential target of the dleu2 tumor suppressor microRNA cluster. |
Chung, EY; Dews, M; Cozma, D; Yu, D; Wentzel, EA; Chang, TC; Schelter, JM; Cleary, MA; Mendell, JT; Thomas-Tikhonenko, A
Cancer biology & therapy 7 1758-64 2008
The dleu2 tumor suppressor locus encodes two microRNAs, miR-15a and miR-16, which are thought to play an important role in B-cell neoplasms. However, relatively little is known about proteins that regulate or are regulated by this microRNA cluster. Here we demonstrate that the Pax5 oncoprotein downregulates the dleu2 gene and at the same time boosts expression of its own heterodimeric partner c-Myb. Interestingly, c-Myb upregulation occurs primarily at a post-transcriptional level, suggesting that it might be a target for microRNAs such as miR-15a/16. Indeed, miR-15a/16 have predicted binding sites in the c-Myb 3'-UTR and through them diminish protein output in luciferase sensor assays. Moreover, forced overexpression of miR-15a/16 reduces endogenous c-Myb levels and compromises Pax5 function. Conversely, restoration of c-Myb levels partly alleviates tumors suppressive effects of miR-15a/16, suggesting that c-Myb is a key downstream target of this microRNA cluster.
|Thrombopoietin regulates c-Myb expression by modulating micro RNA 150 expression. |
Charlene F Barroga,Hang Pham,Kenneth Kaushansky
Experimental hematology 36 2008
Mice harboring c-Myb hypomorphic mutations display enhanced thrombopoiesis because of increased numbers of megakaryocytes and their progenitors. Thrombopoietin induces these same effects, which lead us to hypothesize that the hormone acts through modulation of c-Myb expression, as c-Myb levels falls during thrombopoietin-induced megakaryocyte (MK) maturation. Micro RNAs (miRs) downregulate gene expression by binding to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of specific messenger RNAs (mRNAs); we noted that the 3'UTR of c-Myb contains four miR-150 binding sites.Full Text Article
|c-Maf interacts with c-Myb to down-regulate Bcl-2 expression and increase apoptosis in peripheral CD4 cells. |
Siying Peng,Saif Lalani,Jianmei W Leavenworth,I-Cheng Ho,Mary E Pauza
European journal of immunology 37 2007
The transcription factor c-Maf is critical for IL-4 production and the development of Th2 cells, which promote humoral immunity and protect against extracellular parasites. Yet, little else is known of c-Maf function in CD4 cells. Here, we identify a novel role for c-Maf in regulating susceptibility to apoptosis. Overexpression of c-Maf results in increased susceptibility of CD4 cells to apoptosis induced by multiple stimuli, including growth factor withdrawal, dexamethasone, irradiation, and TCR engagement. This effect is independent of Fas or p53; however, Bcl-2 expression is reduced in c-Maf Tg CD4 cells. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analyses demonstrate that c-Maf-c-Myb complex formation is enhanced among T cells from c-Maf Tg mice compared to non-Tg littermates following TCR engagement. Unlike non-Tg T cells, c-Myb binding to the Bcl-2 promoter is not detectable in c-Maf Tg T cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation. In reporter assays, Bcl-2 promoter activity is reduced by c-Maf in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, transgene-mediated Bcl-2 expression corrects the apoptosis defect observed among c-Maf Tg CD4 cells. These data suggest that c-Maf can interact with c-Myb to reduce Bcl-2 expression, thereby limiting CD4 cell survival following TCR engagement.
|cDNA array analysis of alterations in gene expression in the promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL-60, after apoptosis induction with etoposide. |
M Bjørling-Poulsen, O-G Issinger
Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death 8 377-88 2003
Alterations in gene expression during apoptosis in HL-60 cells were identified by a cDNA based array analysis. Apoptosis was induced in the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL-60, by incubation with 30 microM etoposide for 5 hours. Changes in gene expression occurring during apoptosis in these cells were detected using the ATLAS cDNA Expression Array technique. 40 genes were identified as differentially expressed in the apoptotic cells by at least a factor of two. 30 of these genes were down-regulated during apoptosis. Many of the down-regulated genes reflected decreased proliferative activity in the cells as well as decreased activity of survival pathways. Most of the genes, which were up-regulated during apoptosis, were genes involved in pathways leading to cell death and suppression of proliferation. Based on the up-regulations observed at the mRNA level, it is speculated that etoposide-induced apoptosis in the HL-60 cells proceeds via pathways involving factors such as TNFalpha, IGFBP3, SAPK1, AP-1 and GADD153/CHOP10. Four genes, which showed changes at the mRNA level, were also analyzed by Western blotting in order to confirm the observed differences at the protein level.
|Long-range effects of retroviral insertion on c-myb: overexpression may be obscured by silencing during tumor growth in vitro. |
L Hanlon, N I Barr, K Blyth, M Stewart, P Haviernik, L Wolff, K Weston, E R Cameron, J C Neil
Journal of virology 77 1059-68 2003
The c-myb oncogene is a frequent target for retroviral activation in hemopoietic tumors of avian and mammalian species. While insertions can target the gene directly, numerous clusters of retroviral insertion sites have been identified which map close to c-myb and outside the transcription unit in T-lymphomas (Ahi-1, fit-1, and Mis-2) and monocytic and myeloid leukemias (Mml1, Mml2, Mml3, and Epi-1). Previous analyses showed no consistent effect of these insertions on c-myb expression, raising the possibility that other nearby genes were the true targets. In contrast, our analysis of four cell lines established from lymphomas bearing insertions at fit-1 (fti-1) (feline leukemia virus) and Ahi-1 (Moloney murine leukemia virus) shows that these display higher expression levels of c-myb RNA and protein compared to a panel of phenotypically similar cell lines lacking such insertions. An interesting feature of the cell lines with long-range c-myb insertions was that each also carried an activated Myc allele. The potential for oncogenic synergy between Myb and Myc in T-cell lymphoma was confirmed in transgenic mice overexpressing alleles of both genes in the T-cell compartment, lending further credence to the case for c-myb as the major target for long-range activation. In contrast, mapping and analysis of c-myb neighboring genes (HBS1 and FLJ20069) showed that the expression of these genes did not correlate well with the presence of proviral insertions. A possible explanation for the paradoxical behavior of c-myb was provided by one of the murine T-lymphoma lines bearing an insertion at Ahi-1 (p/m16i) that reproducibly down-regulated c-myb RNA and protein to very low levels or undetectable levels on prolonged culture. Our observations implicate c-myb as a key target of upstream and downstream retroviral insertions. However, overexpression may become dispensable during outgrowth in vitro, and perhaps during tumor progression in vivo, providing a potential rationale for the previously observed discordance between retroviral insertion and c-myb expression levels.Full Text Article
|Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax represses c-Myb-dependent transcription through activation of the NF-kappaB pathway and modulation of coactivator usage |
Nicot, C., et al
Mol Cell Biol, 21:7391-402 (2001) 2001
|Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay||11585920|
|Delivery of c-myb antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to human neuroblastoma cells via disialoganglioside GD(2)-targeted immunoliposomes: antitumor effects. |
G Pagnan, D D Stuart, F Pastorino, L Raffaghello, P G Montaldo, T M Allen, B Calabretta, M Ponzoni
Journal of the National Cancer Institute 92 253-61 2000
BACKGROUND: Advanced-stage neuroblastoma resists conventional treatment; hence, novel therapeutic approaches are required. We evaluated the use of c-myb antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (asODNs) delivered to cells via targeted immunoliposomes to inhibit c-Myb protein expression and neuroblastoma cell proliferation in vitro. METHODS: Phosphorothioate asODNs and control sequences were encapsulated in cationic lipid, and the resulting particles were coated with neutral lipids to produce coated cationic liposomes (CCLs). Monoclonal antibodies directed against the disialoganglioside GD(2) were covalently coupled to the CCLs. (3)H-labeled liposomes were used to measure cellular binding, and cellular uptake of asODNs was evaluated by dot-blot analysis. Growth inhibition was quantified by counting trypan blue dye-stained cells. Expression of c-Myb protein was examined by western blot analysis. RESULTS: Our methods produced GD(2)-targeted liposomes that stably entrapped 80%-90% of added c-myb asODNs. These liposomes showed concentration-dependent binding to GD(2)-positive neuroblastoma cells that could be blocked by soluble anti-GD(2) monoclonal antibodies. GD(2)-targeted liposomes increased the uptake of asODNs by neuroblastoma cells by a factor of fourfold to 10-fold over that obtained with free asODNs. Neuroblastoma cell proliferation was inhibited to a greater extent by GD(2)-targeted liposomes containing c-myb asODNs than by nontargeted liposomes or free asODNs. GD(2)-targeted liposomes containing c-myb asODNs specifically reduced expression of c-Myb protein by neuroblastoma cells. Enhanced liposome binding and asODN uptake, as well as the antiproliferative effect, were not evident in GD(2)-negative cells. CONCLUSIONS: Encapsulation of asODNs into immunoliposomes appears to enhance their toxicity toward targeted cells while shielding nontargeted cells from antisense effects and may be efficacious for the delivery of drugs with broad therapeutic applications to tumor cells.
|Resistance to apoptosis in CTLL-2 cells constitutively expressing c-Myb is associated with induction of BCL-2 expression and Myb-dependent regulation of bcl-2 promoter activity |
Salomoni, P., et al
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94:3296-301 (1997) 1997
|Second generation hybrid polar compounds are potent inducers of transformed cell differentiation. |
V M Richon, Y Webb, R Merger, T Sheppard, B Jursic, L Ngo, F Civoli, R Breslow, R A Rifkind, P A Marks
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93 5705-8 1996
Hybrid polar compounds, of which hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) is the prototype, are potent inducers of differentiation of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells and a wide variety of other transformed cells. HMBA has been shown to induce differentiation of neoplastic cells in patients, but is not an adequate therapeutic agent because of dose-limiting toxicity. We report on a group of three potent second generation hybrid polar compounds, diethyl bis-(pentamethylene-N,N-dimethylcarboxamide) malonate (EMBA), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), and m-carboxycinnamic acid bis-hydroxamide (CBHA) with optimal concentrations for inducing MEL cells of 0.4 mM, 2 microM, and 4 microM, respectively, compared to 5 mM for HMBA. All three agents induce accumulation of underphosphorylated pRB; increased levels of p2l protein, a prolongation of the initial G1 phase of the cell cycle; and accumulation of hemoglobin. However, based upon their effective concentrations, the cross-resistance or sensitivity of an HMBA-resistant MEL cell variant, and differences in c-myb expression during induction, these differentiation-inducing hybrid polar compounds can be grouped into two subsets, HMBA/EMBA and SAHA/CBHA. This classification may prove of value in selecting and planning prospective preclinical and clinical studies toward the treatment of cancer by differentiation therapy.Full Text Article
|In vitro and in vivo reversal of multidrug resistance in a human leukemia-resistant cell line by mdr1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. |
C Cucco, B Calabretta
Cancer research 56 4332-7 1996
A major obstacle to successful cancer chemotherapy is the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) by tumor cells. Overexpression of the mdrl gene product P-glycoprotein (P-170) is characteristic of such cells. In this study, in vitro and in vivo reversion of MDR was attempted in a human leukemia cell line resistant to vincristine (HL-60/Vinc) using an 18-mer mdr1 antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide ([S]ODN) in combination with vincristine. As control of sequence specificity, both sense and scrambled [S]ODNs were used. The ability of these [S]ODNs to reverse MDR was studied in vitro and in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. In vitro treatment with antisense [S]ODNs restored vincristine sensitivity of HL-60/Vinc cells, whereas no changes in drug sensitivity were observed upon treatment with the sense or scrambled sequence. The in vitro effects correlated with inhibition of P-170 expression in HL-60/Vinc cells exposed to the mdr1 antisense [S]ODNs. In vivo reversal of MDR was obtained in SCID mice given injections of HL-60/Vinc cells and systemically treated with [S]ODNs plus vincristine, as indicated by a significantly prolonged survival of SCID mice that received the combination therapy of mdr1 antisense [S]ODNs + vincristine. Treatments with mdr1 antisense or scrambled [S]ODNs, vincristine, or scrambled [S]ODNs + vincristine had no effect on survival. These results suggest that the use of mdr1 antisense ODNs in combination with standard antineoplastic drugs might be useful in reversing MDR in vitro and in vivo.
|Characterization of alternate and truncated forms of murine c-myb proteins |
Ramsay, R G, et al
Oncogene Res, 4:259-69 (1989) 1989
|Nucleotide sequence of cDNA clones of the murine myb proto-oncogene |
Gonda, T J, et al
EMBO J, 4:2003-8 (1985) 1985